Enhanced Autophagy Contributes to Protective Effects of GM1 Ganglioside Against A β1-42-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Deficits.
This study provides a novel insight into the protective role of GM1 against Aβ (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity via enhancing autophagy. PMID: 28497346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dai R, Zhang S, Duan W, Wei R, Chen H, Cai W, Yang L, Wang Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glycogen Shunt Activity and Glycolytic Supercompensation in Astrocytes May Be Distinctly Mediated via the Muscle Form of Glycogen Phosphorylase.
Abstract Glycogen is the main storage form of glucose in the brain. In contrast with previous beliefs, brain glycogen has recently been shown to play important roles in several brain functions. A fraction of metabolized glucose molecules are being shunted through glycogen before reentering the glycolytic pathway, a phenomenon known as the glycogen shunt. The significance of glycogen in astrocyte energetics is underlined by high activity of the glycogen shunt and the finding that inhibition of glycogen degradation, under some conditions leads to a disproportional increase in glycolytic activity, so-called glycolyti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jakobsen E, Bak LK, Walls AB, Reuschlein AK, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic TNF α Exposure Induces Robust Proliferation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, but not Schwann Cells.
In this study, we assessed the effects of long term exposure to TNFα on viability, proliferation, migration and TNFα receptor expression of cultured rat olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells (SCs). Although OECs and SCs transplanted into the CNS produce similar myelinating phenotypes, and might be expected to have similar therapeutic uses, we report that they have very different sensitivities to TNFα. OECs exhibited positive proliferative responses to TNFα over a much broader range of concentrations than SCs. Low TNFα concentrations increased proliferation and migration of both ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lankford KL, Arroyo EJ, Kocsis JD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exploration of the Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Some Alkaloids from Amaryllidaceae Family by Molecular Docking In Silico.
i CS, Giuliatti S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive condition, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen. Biochemically the disease is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, in addition to cholinergic dysfunction in the central nervous system. The role of the cholinergic neurotransmission in AD is the basis of the widely accepted cholinergic hypothesis. Some of the most relevant therapies for the treatment of the disease are based on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor activity; however, these therapies are not effective to stop the disease progression, bu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Castillo-Ordóñez WO, Tamarozzi ER, da Silva GM, Aristizabal-Pachón AF, Sakamoto-Hojo ET, Takahashi CS, Giuliatti S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

BDNF Contributes to Spinal Long-Term Potentiation and Mechanical Hypersensitivity Via Fyn-Mediated Phosphorylation of NMDA Receptor GluN2B Subunit at Tyrosine 1472 in Rats Following Spinal Nerve Ligation.
In this study, we first documented that Fyn kinase-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2B subunit at tyrosine 1472 (pGluN2B(Y1472)) was involved in BDNF-induced spinal LTP and pain hypersensitivity in intact rats. Second, we revealed a co-localization of Fyn and GluN2B-NMDA receptor in cultured dorsal horn neurons, implying that Fyn is a possible intermediate kinase linking BDNF/TrkB signaling with GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, we discovered that both SNL surgery and intrathecal active Fyn could induce an increased expression of dorsal horn pGluN2B(Y1472), as well as pain hypersensitivity in res...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li S, Cai J, Feng ZB, Jin ZR, Liu BH, Zhao HY, Jing HB, Wei TJ, Yang GN, Liu LY, Cui YJ, Xing GG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Genipin Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in BV2 Microglial Cells.
In conclusion, genipin inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway in BV2 microglia. PMID: 28497344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang J, Chen L, Liang Z, Li Y, Yuan F, Liu J, Tian Y, Hao Z, Zhou F, Liu X, Cao Y, Zheng Y, Li Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Retinol (Vitamin A) Increases α-Synuclein, β-Amyloid Peptide, Tau Phosphorylation and RAGE Content in Human SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cell Line.
Retinol (Vitamin A) Increases α-Synuclein, β-Amyloid Peptide, Tau Phosphorylation and RAGE Content in Human SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cell Line. Neurochem Res. 2017 May 11;: Authors: Kunzler A, Kolling EA, da Silva-Jr JD, Gasparotto J, de Bittencourt Pasquali MA, Moreira JCF, Gelain DP Abstract Retinoids (vitamin A and derivatives) are recognized as essential factors for central nervous system (CNS) development. Retinol (vitamin A) also was postulated to be a major antioxidant component of diet as it modulates reactive species (RS) production and oxidative stress in biological systems. Oxidative str...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kunzler A, Kolling EA, da Silva-Jr JD, Gasparotto J, de Bittencourt Pasquali MA, Moreira JCF, Gelain DP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

P2X7 Participates in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Secondary Brain Injury in Rats via MAPKs Signaling Pathways.
This study aimed to study the role of P2X7 in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) and the underlying mechanisms. An autologous blood injection was used to induce ICH model in Sprague-Dawley rats, and cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic ICH in vitro. siRNA interference and over-expression of P2X7, agonists and antagonists of P2X7, p38 MAPK and ERK were exploited. The protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining and Fluoro-Jade B were conducted ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wen Z, Mei B, Li H, Dou Y, Tian X, Shen M, Chen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of Cannabidiol in Animal Seizure Models by the Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP).
Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid component of marijuana that has no significant activity at cannabinoid receptors or psychoactive effects. There is considerable interest in CBD as a therapy for epilepsy. Almost a third of epilepsy patients are not adequately controlled by clinically available anti-seizure drugs (ASDs). Initial studies appear to demonstrate that CBD preparations may be a useful treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) funded Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) investigated CBD in a battery of seizure models using ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Klein BD, Jacobson CA, Metcalf CS, Smith MD, Wilcox KS, Hampson AJ, Kehne JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Unwanted Cell Migration in the Brain: Glioma Metastasis.
Abstract Cell migration is identified as a highly orchestrated process. It is a fundamental and essential phenomenon underlying tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response. Under dysregulation, it contributes to cancer metastasis. Brain is considered to be the most complex organ in human body containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring both physiological and pathological functions. Astrocytoma originates from astrocytes and its most malignant type is glioblastoma multiforme (WHO Grade IV astrocytoma), which is capable to infiltrate widely into the neighbor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qi XT, Zhan JS, Xiao LM, Li L, Xu HX, Fu ZB, Zhang YH, Zhang J, Jia XH, Ge G, Chai RC, Gao K, Yu ACH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sphingosine Toxicity in EAE and MS: Evidence for Ceramide Generation via Serine-Palmitoyltransferase Activation.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by massive neurodegeneration and profound axonal loss. Since myelin is enriched with sphingolipids and some of them display toxicity, biological function of sphingolipids in demyelination has been investigated in MS brain tissues. An elevation of sphingosine with a decrease in monoglycosylceramide and psychosine (myelin markers) was observed in MS white matter and plaque compared to normal brain tissue. This indicated that sphingosine toxicity might mediate oligodendrocyte degeneration. To explain the source of sphingosine accumulation, tot...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller LG, Young JA, Ray SK, Wang G, Purohit S, Banik NL, Dasgupta S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Microglia Endocytose Amyloid β Through the Binding of Transglutaminase 2 and Milk Fat Globule EGF Factor 8 Protein.
Microglia Endocytose Amyloid β Through the Binding of Transglutaminase 2 and Milk Fat Globule EGF Factor 8 Protein. Neurochem Res. 2017 May 03;: Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Abstract Activation of glial cells has been observed in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) is profusely observed as characteristic pathology in AD brain. In our previous study using microglial cell line BV-2, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) was found to be involved in phagocytosis (Kawabe et al., in Neuroimmunomodulation 22(4):243-24...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress Contributes to Status Epilepticus Associated Mortality.
Abstract Status epilepticus is a common manifestation of nerve agent toxicity and represents a serious medical emergency with high rates of mortality and neurologic injury in those that survive. The aim of the current study was to determine if targeting oxidative stress with the catalytic antioxidant, AEOL10150, would reduce pilocarpine-induced mortality and attenuate neuronal death and neuroinflammation. We found that treatment with AEOL10150 in conjunction with scopolamine and diazepam following pilocarpine-induced SE was able to significantly reduce mortality compared to treatment with just scopolamine and diaz...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pearson-Smith JN, Liang LP, Rowley SD, Day BJ, Patel M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Complexity of Stomach-Brain Interaction Induced by Molecular Hydrogen in Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.
Abstract Molecular hydrogen (H2), as a new medical gas, has protective effects in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous report, the neuroprotective effect of drinking water with saturated H2 (H2 water) in PD mice might be due to stomach-brain interaction via release of gastric hormone, ghrelin. In the present study, we assessed the effect of H2-induced ghrelin more precisely. To confirm the contribution of ghrelin in H2 water-drinking PD model mice, ghrelin-knock out (KO) mice were used. Despite the speculation, the effect of H2 water was still observed in ghrelin-KO PD model m...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoshii Y, Inoue T, Uemura Y, Iwasaki Y, Yada T, Nakabeppu Y, Noda M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Tea Intake Prevents Learning/Memory Defects and Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Adult Mice.
This study aimed to investigate the potential neurotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the preventive effects of saffron. Male Balb-c mice received AFB1 (0.6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 4 days), saffron infusion (90 mg styles/200 mL, ad libitum access for 2 weeks) or saffron infusion plus AFB1 (saffron treatment as previously plus 0.6 mg AFB1/kg/day intraperitoneally for the last 4 days). Control mice were intraperitoneally injected with DMSO:saline (1:1, v/v) during AFB1 treatment. Learning/memory was assessed by passive avoidance task. The activity of acetylcholinesterase [AChE, salt-(SS)/det...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Linardaki ZI, Lamari FN, Margarity M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preclinical Screening for Treatments for Infantile Spasms in the Multiple Hit Rat Model of Infantile Spasms: An Update.
e; SL Abstract Infantile spasms are the typical seizures of West syndrome, an infantile epileptic encephalopathy with poor outcomes. There is an increasing need to identify more effective and better tolerated treatments for infantile spasms. We have optimized the rat model of infantile spasms due to structural etiology, the multiple-hit rat model, for therapy discovery. Here, we test three compounds administered after spasms induction in the multiple hit model for efficacy and tolerability. Specifically, postnatal day 3 (PN3) male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by right intracerebral injections of doxorubicin an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Galanopoulou AS, Mowrey WB, Liu W, Li Q, Shandra O, Moshé SL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP).
Abstract For over 40 years, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health-funded Anticonvulsant Screening Program has provided a preclinical screening service for participants world-wide that helped identify/characterize new antiseizure compounds, a number of which advanced to the market for the treatment of epilepsy. The newly-renamed Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) has a refocused mission to identify novel agents which will help address the considerable remaining unmet medical needs in epilepsy. These include identifying antiseizure agents for treatment-resis...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kehne JH, Klein BD, Raeissi S, Sharma S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Leukocentric Theory of Neurological Disorder: A Manifesto.
Abstract Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fern R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Modulatory Effects of Perineuronal Oligodendrocytes on Neuronal Activity in the Rat Hippocampus.
Abstract Action potentials are fundamental to relaying information from region to region in the nervous system. Changes in action potential firing patterns in neural circuits influence how the brain processes information. In our previous study, we focused on interneuron/perineuronal astrocyte pairs in the hippocampal CA1 region and reported that direct depolarization of perineuronal astrocytes modulated the firing pattern of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of perineuronal oligodendrocytes, and examined their modulatory effects on interneuron...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamazaki Y, Hozumi Y, Kaneko K, Fujii S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Phase-Dependent Astroglial Alterations in Li-Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Young Rats.
ra DL Abstract Epilepsy prevalence is high in infancy and in the elderly population. Lithium-pilocarpine is widely used to induce experimental animal models of epilepsy, leading to similar neurochemical and morphological alterations to those observed in temporal lobe epilepsy. As astrocytes have been implicated in epileptic disorders, we hypothesized that specific astroglial changes accompany and contribute to epileptogenesis. Herein, we evaluated time-dependent astroglial alterations in the hippocampus of young (27-day-old) rats at 1, 14 and 56 days after Li-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), corre...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vizuete AFK, Hennemann MM, Gonçalves CA, de Oliveira DL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Abating Mercury Exposure in Young Children Should Include Thimerosal-Free Vaccines.
CONCLUSIONS: (a) The indiscriminate use of pediatric-TCVs in less developed countries carries an unjustifiable and excessive EtHg exposure with an unnecessary risk of neurotoxicity to the developing brain; (b) measurable benefits (of Thimerosal-free) and measurable risks of tic disorders have been associated with the (Thimerosal-containing) type of vaccine; PMID: 28439753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dórea JG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Can Valproic Acid Regulate Neurogenesis from Nestin+ Cells in the Adult Midbrain?
Abstract Degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes the motor symptoms (e.g. tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability) of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is generally agreed that replacing these neurons will provide better motor symptom relief and fewer side effects than current pharmacotherapies. One potential approach to this is up-regulating endogenous DA neurogenesis in SNc. In the present study, we conducted bioinformatics analyses to identify signalling pathways that control expression of Pax6 and Msx1 genes, which have been identified as potentia...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Farzanehfar P, Horne MK, Aumann TD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Isolation of Astrocytes Displaying Myofibroblast Properties and Present in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.
;re A Abstract A wide heterogeneity of lesions can affect the central nervous system (CNS). In all situations where neurons are damaged, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a common reactive astrocytosis is present. Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) was used to sort astrocyte subpopulations. After SdFFF elution, cells, prepared from rat newborn cortex, were cultured and analyzed by immunocytofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and α-smooth muscle (SM) actin (a specific marker for myofibroblasts) expression. Cell contractile capacity was studied. Samples from patients with MS w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vedrenne N, Sarrazy V, Richard L, Bordeau N, Battu S, Billet F, Desmoulière A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Biomarkers of Epileptogenesis: The Focus on Glia and Cognitive Dysfunctions.
Abstract The need to find measures that reliably predict the onset of epilepsy after injurious events or how the patient will respond to anti-seizure drugs led to intensive pre-clinical and clinical research to discover non-invasive biomarkers that could increase the sensitivity of existing clinical indicators. The use of experimental models of epileptogenesis and of drug-resistance is instrumental to select the most promising approaches to explore such biomarkers in the pre-clinical setting for further clinical validation. The approaches most frequently used to find clinically useful biomarkers of epileptogenesis...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vezzani A, Pascente R, Ravizza T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Microglia Loss Contributes to the Development of Major Depression Induced by Different Types of Chronic Stresses.
Abstract Recently, the loss and dystrophy of hippocampal microglia induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) has been reported to mediate the development of major depression in mice whose microglial cells were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein-conjuncted-CX3C receptor type 1. However, whether this happens in endogenous microglia with no genetic intervention remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue in mice treated with different types of chronic stresses, including the CUS, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). Results showed that the cellular numbers, proce...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tong L, Gong Y, Wang P, Hu W, Wang J, Chen Z, Zhang W, Huang C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Connexin Hemichannels in Astrocytes: An Assessment of Controversies Regarding Their Functional Characteristics.
Abstract Astrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system are interconnected by gap junctions made from connexins of the subtypes Cx30 and Cx43. These proteins may exist as hemichannels in the plasma membrane in the absence of a 'docked' counterpart on the neighboring cell. A variety of stimuli are reported to open the hemichannels and thereby create a permeation pathway through the plasma membrane. Cx30 and Cx43 have, in their hemichannel configuration, been proposed to act as ion channels and membrane pathways for different molecules, such as fluorescent dyes, ATP, prostaglandins, and glutamate. Published stud...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nielsen BS, Hansen DB, Ransom BR, Nielsen MS, MacAulay N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during critical periods of development may induce transient or long-lasting neurodevelopmental deficits across cognitive, motor and behavioral domains. The developing nervous system may endure prolonged chronic exposure to AEDs during pregnancy (in utero) or during childhood, which can lead to neurodevelopmental defects such as congenital neural tube defects, lower IQ, language deficits, autism and ADHD. To date, valproate is the most widely recognized AED to significantly negatively affect neurodevelopment, and demonstrates ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kellogg M, Meador KJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

14-3-3 Isoforms Differentially Regulate NF κB Signaling in the Brain After Ischemia-Reperfusion.
14-3-3 Isoforms Differentially Regulate NFκB Signaling in the Brain After Ischemia-Reperfusion. Neurochem Res. 2017 Apr 19;: Authors: Zhou XY, Hu DX, Chen RQ, Chen XQ, Dong WL, Yi CL Abstract Mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms exist predominantly in the brain and are heavily involved in neurological diseases. However, the isoform-specific role of 14-3-3 proteins in the brain remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the role of 14-3-3 isoforms in rat brains after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. 14-3-3β, η, γ and ζ but not ε or τ were select...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou XY, Hu DX, Chen RQ, Chen XQ, Dong WL, Yi CL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Aggressive Crosstalk Between Fatty Acids and Inflammation in Macrophages and Their Influence on Metabolic Homeostasis.
Abstract From the immunological point of view, macrophages are required to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Recently, there has been an increased focus on the influence of macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue on the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in healthy conditions because dysregulated metabolic homeostasis causes metabolic syndrome. This review notes several types of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators in metabolic homeostasis. M1 macrophage polarization mediates inflammation, whereas M2 macrophage polarization mediates anti-inflammation. Fatty acids and their related factors mediate both infl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nishiyama K, Fujimoto Y, Takeuchi T, Azuma YT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neutrophil Infiltration and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Lacunar Infarction.
Abstract We use the modified pial vessel disruption rat model to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cavitation as it plays a role in lacunar infarction. Here we discuss the similarities between the genesis of pulmonary cavitation in various animal models and lacunar infarction in the cerebral cortex of rats. Both pathological processes involve the creation of a cavity surrounded by fibroblasts or reactive astrocytes. A crucial step in both, the lung and the cerebral cortex, appears to be the migration of neutrophils across the endothelial barrier into the parenchyma. In the lung and cerebral cortex...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Walz W, Cayabyab FS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Inhibits Neural Cell Apoptosis and Promotes Locomotor Recovery via Activation of the Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathway After Spinal Cord Injury.
In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin exhibited neuroprotective effects on neuronal apoptosis and supported functional recovery in a rat SCI model by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that melatonin administration after SCI significantly upregulated the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 phosphorylation (p-LRP-6), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) and β-catenin protein in the spinal cord. Melatonin enhanced motor neuronal survival in the spinal cord ventral horn and improved the locomotor functions of rats after SCI. Melatonin administration after SCI ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shen Z, Zhou Z, Gao S, Guo Y, Gao K, Wang H, Dang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Rosuvastatin Attenuates High-Salt and Cholesterol Diet Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment via Preventing Nuclear Factor KappaB Pathway.
Abstract Recent attention is focused on the impact of diet on health and mental well-being. High-salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD) is known to be associated with neuroinflammation which is the predominant factor for neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective potential of rosuvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor against HSCD induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Our results demonstrated that HSCD-induced cognitive impairment as determined by Morris water maze (MWM) task. HSCD also activated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) signaling pat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Husain I, Akhtar M, Vohora D, Abdin MZ, Islamuddin M, Akhtar MJ, Najmi AK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Brain Metabolism.
Abstract This review aims to provide a historical reference of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and provide a link between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) metabolism of BCAAs. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu, Ile, and Val) are unlike most other essential amino acids (AA), being transaminated initially in extrahepatic tissues, and requiring interorgan or intertissue shuttling for complete catabolism. Within the periphery, BCAAs are essential AAs and are required for protein synthesis, and are key nitrogen donors in the form of Glu, Gln, and Ala. Leucine is an activator of the mammalian (...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sperringer JE, Addington A, Hutson SM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Modulation of Tonic GABA Currents by Anion Channel and Connexin Hemichannel Antagonists.
Abstract Anion channels and connexin hemichannels are permeable to amino acid neurotransmitters. It is hypothesized that these conductive pathways release GABA, thereby influencing ambient GABA levels and tonic GABAergic inhibition. To investigate this, we measured the effects of anion channel/hemichannel antagonists on tonic GABA currents of rat hippocampal neurons. In contrast to predictions, blockade of anion channels and hemichannels with NPPB potentiated tonic GABA currents of neurons in culture and acute hippocampal slices. In contrast, the anion channel/hemichannel antagonist carbenoxolone (CBX) inhibited t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ransom CB, Ye Z, Spain WJ, Richerson GB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Translocation of PKC βII to Mitochondria as an Important Mediator of a Protective Signaling Mechanism in an Ischemia-Resistant Region of the Hippocampus.
Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Translocation of PKCβII to Mitochondria as an Important Mediator of a Protective Signaling Mechanism in an Ischemia-Resistant Region of the Hippocampus. Neurochem Res. 2017 Apr 12;: Authors: Krupska O, Sarnowska A, Fedorczyk B, Gewartowska M, Misicka A, Zablocka B, Beresewicz M Abstract Emerging reports indicate that activated PKC isoforms that translocate to the mitochondria are pro- or anti-apoptotic to mitochondrial function. Here, we concentrate on the role of PKCβ translocated to mitochondria in relation to the fate of neurons following cerebral ischemia. As...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Krupska O, Sarnowska A, Fedorczyk B, Gewartowska M, Misicka A, Zablocka B, Beresewicz M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis After Status Epilepticus Identifies UCHL1 as Protective Against Hippocampal Injury.
Abstract Brief, non-harmful seizures (preconditioning) can temporarily protect the brain against prolonged, otherwise injurious seizures. Following focal-onset status epilepticus (SE) in preconditioned (tolerance) and sham-preconditioned (injury) mice, we screened for protein changes using a proteomic approach and identified several putative candidates of epileptic tolerance. Among SE-induced changes to both proteomic screens, proteins clustered in key regulatory pathways, including protein trafficking and cytoskeletal regulation. Downregulation of one such protein, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Reynolds JP, Jimenez-Mateos EM, Cao L, Bian F, Alves M, Miller-Delaney SF, Zhou A, Henshall DC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Decrease A β Deposition and Improve Memory in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.
In conclusion, our data suggest that hAM-MSCs may be a new and effective therapy for the treatment of AD. PMID: 28397068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng XY, Wan QQ, Zheng CY, Zhou HL, Dong XY, Deng QS, Yao H, Fu Q, Gao M, Yan ZJ, Wang SS, You Y, Lv J, Wang XY, Chen KE, Zhang MY, Xu RX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

LiCl Treatment Induces Programmed Cell Death of Schwannoma Cells through AKT- and MTOR-Mediated Necroptosis.
In this study, we found that lithium chloride (LiCl) significantly inhibits the proliferation of both RT4 cells and human NF2-associated primary schwannoma cells by inhibiting the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. LiCl-induced cell death exhibits ultrastructural features of necrosis and is reversed by the RIPK1-specific inhibitor necrostatin-1 in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that LiCl induces the necroptosis type of cell death. Moreover, LiCl treatment induces ROS generation and activates the AKT/mTOR pathway, which is reversed by necrostatin-1 treatment. Based on our results, LiCl treatment may induce the p...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Zhang Q, Wang B, Li P, Liu P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ketone Bodies as Anti-Seizure Agents.
Abstract There is growing evidence that ketone bodies (KB)-derived from fatty acid oxidation and produced during fasting or consumption of high-fat diets-can exert broad neuroprotective effects. With respect to epilepsy, KB (such as β-hydroxybutyrate or BHB, acetoacetate and acetone) have been shown to block acutely induced and spontaneous recurrent seizures in various animal models. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of KB have not been fully elucidated, recent experimental studies have invoked ketone-mediated effects on both inhibitory (e.g., GABAergic, purinergic and ATP-sensitive ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Simeone TA, Simeone KA, Rho JM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Taurine Promotes the Cartilaginous Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vitro.
In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine (0, 1, 5 and 10 mM) on the proliferation and chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs by analyzing cell proliferation, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and expression of cartilage specific mRNA. The results show though taurine did not affected the proliferation of hUC-MSCs, 5 mM of taurine is sufficient to enhanced the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and up-regulate cartilage specific mRNA expression, namely collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9. Taurine also inhibits chondrocyte dedifferentiation by reducing expression of collagen type I mRNA. Taken together, our study r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao X, Huang H, Li Z, Liu X, Fan W, Wang X, Sun X, Zhu J, Zhou H, Wei H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Transglutaminases Derived from Astrocytes Accelerate Amyloid β Aggregation.
Transglutaminases Derived from Astrocytes Accelerate Amyloid β Aggregation. Neurochem Res. 2017 Apr 09;: Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Abstract Activation of astrocytes has been observed in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Transglutaminase (TG) is a crosslinking enzyme and contributes to cell adhesion, cytoskeleton construct, extracellular matrix formation, and so on. One of the isozymes, tissue-type TG (TG2) is reported to be activated in AD. Moreover, amyloid β1-42 (Aβ), which is aggregated and the aggregation is detected as characte...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preclinical Analgesic and Safety Evaluation of the GalR2-preferring Analog, NAX 810-2.
Abstract The potential clinical utility of galanin peptidic analogs has been hindered by poor metabolic stability, lack of brain penetration, and hyperglycemia. In addition to possessing potent anticonvulsant efficacy, galanin analogs are analgesic in various assays. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the lead galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2)-preferring analog, NAX 810-2, in various pain assays, as well as determine any potential for insulin inhibition, growth hormone stimulation, and cognitive impairment. NAX 810-2 was evaluated in mouse (carrageenan, formalin, tail flick, plantar incision) and rat pain ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Metcalf CS, Smith MD, Klein BD, McDougle DR, Zhang L, Bulaj G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Liraglutide Improves Water Maze Learning and Memory Performance While Reduces Hyperphosphorylation of Tau and Neurofilaments in APP/PS1/Tau Triple Transgenic Mice.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore how liraglutide affects AD-like pathology and cognitive function in APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic (3 × Tg) Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice. Male 3 × Tg mice and C57BL/6 J mice were treated for 8 weeks with liraglutide (300 μg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) or saline. Levels of phosphorylated tau, neurofilaments (NFs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in brain tissues were assessed with western blots. Fluoro-Jade-B labeling were applied to detect pathological c...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen S, Sun J, Zhao G, Guo A, Chen Y, Fu R, Deng Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Contribution of Necroptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract Over the past decades, cell apoptosis has been significantly reputed as an accidental, redundant and alternative manner of cell demise which partakes in homeostasis in the development of extensive diseases. Nevertheless, necroptosis, another novel manner of cell death through a caspase-independent way, especially in neurodegenerative diseases remains ambiguous. The cognition of this form of cell demise is helpful to understand other forms of morphological resemblance of necrosis. Additionally, the concrete signal mechanism in the regulation of necroptosis is beneficial to the diagnosis and treatment of ne...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shao L, Yu S, Ji W, Li H, Gao Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Post-natal Deletion of Neuronal cAMP Responsive-Element Binding (CREB)-1 Promotes Pro-inflammatory Changes in the Mouse Hippocampus.
Abstract By taking advantage of a "floxed" conditional CREB mutant mouse (CREB1loxP/loxP), in which postnatal deletion of the Creb gene in the forebrain is driven by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α gene (Camk2a) promoter (BCKO mice), we here show that selective disruption of CREB function in adult forebrain neurons results, in adult mice, in morphological alterations at the hippocampal level, including hippocampal shrinkage, reduced somal volume of neurons, microgliosis and mild reactive astrocytosis, mainly involving the CA1 subfield. The huge increase of microglial cells show...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Marchese E, Di Maria V, Samengo D, Pani G, Michetti F, Geloso MC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The p38/CYLD Pathway is Involved in Necroptosis Induced by Oxygen-glucose Deprivation Combined with ZVAD in Primary Cortical Neurons.
Abstract Recently, necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis, has been widely studied. It has previously been shown that knockout of lysine 63 deubiquitinase CYLD significantly inhibits necroptosis in other cell lines, and serum response factor (SRF) could regulate CYLD gene expression through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). In the following study, we show oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) combined with a caspase inhibitor, ZVAD (OGD/ZVAD), induced CYLD protein expression in a time-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence studies showed that CYLD was localized strongly to the nucleus and weakly to the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feng T, Chen W, Zhang C, Xiang J, Ding H, Wu L, Geng D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oxabicycloheptene Sulfonate Protects Against β-Amyloid-induced Toxicity by Activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK Signaling Pathways Via GPER1 in C6 Cells.
Oxabicycloheptene Sulfonate Protects Against β-Amyloid-induced Toxicity by Activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK Signaling Pathways Via GPER1 in C6 Cells. Neurochem Res. 2017 Apr 04;: Authors: Deng LJ, Cheng C, Wu J, Wang CH, Zhou HB, Huang J Abstract Oxabicycloheptene sulfonate (OBHS) is a novel bicyclic core selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with estrogen receptor (ER) antagonistic-activity and anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known about protective action of OBHS on neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, OBHS demonstrated a remarkably protective effect against amy...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng LJ, Cheng C, Wu J, Wang CH, Zhou HB, Huang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ultra-High Field Proton MR Spectroscopy in Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
In this study, we measured neurochemical profiles using single-voxel (1)H-MRS at 7 T (T) and glutathione (GSH) levels using edited MRS at 3 T in 19 subjects with ALS who had relatively high functional status [ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) mean ± SD = 39.8 ± 5.6] and 17 healthy controls. We observed significantly lower total N-acetylaspartate over mIns (tNAA/mIns) ratio in the motor cortex and pons of subjects with ALS versus healthy controls. No group differences were detected in GSH at 3 and 7 T. In subjects with ALS, the levels of tNA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheong I, Marjańska M, Deelchand DK, Eberly LE, Walk D, Öz G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inactivation of the Tuberomammillary Nucleus by GABAA Receptor Agonist Promotes Slow Wave Sleep in Freely Moving Rats and Histamine-Treated Rats.
In this study, alterations of sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectral density were investigated following muscimol, a GABAA-receptor agonist, microinjected bilaterally into the TMN in freely moving rats and HA pretreated rats, respectively. Muscimol dosed at 0.25 and 0.50 μg/side into the TMN during dark period dose-dependently increased slow wave sleep (SWS) accompanied by an increase in cortical EEG delta (0.5-4 Hz) and spindle (8.2-12 Hz) activities. In the meanwhile, wakefulness and EEG beta (12.2-30 Hz) activity were decreased significantly, while paradoxical sleep and EEG theta (4.2-8...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie JF, Fan K, Wang C, Xie P, Hou M, Xin L, Cui GF, Wang LX, Shao YF, Hou YP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Protect Oligodendrocytes from Acute Ischemia in the Mouse Optic Nerve.
Abstract Studies by Bruce Ransom and colleagues have made a major contribution to show that white matter is susceptible to ischemia/hypoxia. White matter contains axons and the glia that support them, notably myelinating oligodendrocytes, which are highly vulnerable to ischemic-hypoxic damage. Previous studies have shown that metabotropic GluRs (mGluRs) are cytoprotective for oligodendrocyte precursor cells and immature oligodendrocytes, but their potential role in adult white matter was unresolved. Here, we report that group 1 mGluR1/5 and group 2 mGluR3 subunits are expressed in optic nerves from mice aged postn...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Butt AM, Vanzulli I, Papanikolaou M, De La Rocha IC, Hawkins VE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research