Adenosine A1-Receptors Modulate mTOR Signaling to Regulate White Matter Inflammatory Lesions Induced by Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.
In conclusion, A1ARs appears to reduce inflammation in white matter via the mTOR signaling pathway in the rUCCAO mice. Therefore, A1ARs may serve as a therapeutic target during the repair of white matter lesions under CCH. PMID: 27662851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng P, Zuo X, Ren Y, Bai S, Tang W, Chen X, Wang G, Wang H, Huang W, Xie P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ammonia Attenuates LPS-Induced Upregulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine mRNA in Co-Cultured Astrocytes and Microglia.
inger D Abstract Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with cerebral microglia activation. Ammonia, a major toxin of HE, activates microglia in vitro but does not trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis. In the present study we analysed effects of ammonia on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of microglia activation and cytokine mRNA as well as on cytokine secretion in mono-cultured microglia and co-cultured astrocytes and microglia. In mono-cultured microglia LPS (100 ng/ml, 18 h) strongly elevated mRNA levels of the microglia activation marker CD14 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karababa A, Groos-Sahr K, Albrecht U, Keitel V, Shafigullina A, Görg B, Häussinger D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Consequences of a Chronic Exposure of Cultured Brain Astrocytes to the Anti-Retroviral Drug Efavirenz and its Primary Metabolite 8-Hydroxy Efavirenz.
Abstract Efavirenz is a widely prescribed non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infections. To test for potential long-term consequences of efavirenz on brain cells, cultured primary astrocytes were incubated with this substance or with its primary metabolite 8-hydroxy efavirenz for up to 7 days. Both, efavirenz and 8-hydroxy efavirenz caused time- and concentration-dependent cell toxicity and stimulated in subtoxic concentrations the glycolytic flux (glucose consumption and lactate release) in astrocytes. As 8-hydroxy efavirenz was less toxic than efavirenz and stimulated gl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Arend C, Rother A, Stolte S, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intrathecal Injection of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Neuropathic Pain in Rats.
Abstract Neuropathic pain (NP) is a clinically incurable disease with miscellaneous causes, complicated mechanisms and available therapies show poor curative effect. Some recent studies have indicated that neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the occurrence and promotion of NP and anti-inflammatory therapy has the potential to relieve the pain. During the past decades, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with properties of multipotentiality, low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory activity have showed excellent therapeutic effects in cell therapy from animal models to clinical application, thus aroused great attenti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen C, Chen F, Yao C, Shu S, Feng J, Hu X, Hai Q, Yao S, Chen X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sensorimotor Intervention Recovers Noradrenaline Content in the Dentate Gyrus of Cortical Injured Rats.
Anguiano H, González-Piña R Abstract Nowadays, a consensus has been reached that designates the functional and structural reorganization of synapses as the primary mechanisms underlying the process of recovery from brain injury. We have reported that pontine noradrenaline (NA) is increased in animals after cortical ablation (CA). The aim of the present study was to explore the noradrenergic and morphological response after sensorimotor intervention (SMI) in rats injured in the motor cortex. We used male Wistar adult rats allocated in four conditions: sham-operated, injured by cortical ablation, sham-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ramos-Languren LE, García-Díaz G, González-Maciel A, Rosas-López LE, Bueno-Nava A, Avila-Luna A, Ramírez-Anguiano H, González-Piña R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.
The objective of this study was to assess whether Shh signaling is involved in OLG differentiation after neural stem cell commitment to the OLG lineage. To address these questions, we manipulated Shh signaling using cyclopamine, a potent inhibitor of Shh signaling activator Smoothened (Smo), alone or combined with the agonist SAG in OLG primary cultures and assessed expression of myelin-specific markers. We found that inactivation of Shh signaling caused a dose-dependent decrease in myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) in differentiating OLGs. Co-treatment of the cells with SAG reversed the i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang LC, Almazan G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astroglial Vesicular Trafficking in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract The neocortex represents one of the largest estates of the human brain. This structure comprises ~30-40 billions of neurones and even more of non-neuronal cells. Astrocytes, highly heterogeneous homoeostatic glial cells, are fundamental for housekeeping of the brain and contribute to information processing in neuronal networks. Gray matter astrocytes tightly enwrap synapses, contact blood vessels and, naturally, are also in contact with the extracellular space, where convection of fluid takes place. Thus astrocytes receive signals from several distinct extracellular domains and can get excited by numerous...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zorec R, Parpura V, Verkhratsky A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Computational Flux Balance Analysis Predicts that Stimulation of Energy Metabolism in Astrocytes and their Metabolic Interactions with Neurons Depend on Uptake of K(+) Rather than Glutamate.
Abstract Brain activity involves essential functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. The importance of astrocytic functions to neuronal signaling is supported by many experiments reporting high rates of energy consumption and oxidative metabolism in these glial cells. In the brain, almost all energy is consumed by the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, which hydrolyzes 1 ATP to move 3 Na(+) outside and 2 K(+) inside the cells. Astrocytes are commonly thought to be primarily involved in transmitter glutamate cycling, a mechanism that however only accounts for few % of brain energy utilization. In order ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: DiNuzzo M, Giove F, Maraviglia B, Mangia S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Towards a Better Treatment Option for Parkinson's Disease: A Review of Adult Neurogenesis.
Abstract The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of midbrain. Given the fact that current treatment options are mostly symptomatic and based on increasing DA level in the nigrostriatal system, it is generally believed the most effective and long-lasting treatment for PD motor symptoms will be replacing SNc DA cells, either by endogenous repair (i.e. neurogenesis) or cell transplantation. While cell transplantation is hindered by failure of acquisition and maintenance of the DA phenotype by transplanted cells, hop...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Farzanehfar P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Disease-Toxicant Interactions in Parkinson's Disease Neuropathology.
Abstract Human disease commonly manifests as a result of complex genetic and environmental interactions. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), understanding how environmental exposures collude with genetic polymorphisms in the central nervous system to cause dysfunction is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. The intersection of genetics and the environment in disease etiology is particularly relevant in the context of their shared pathophysiological mechanisms. This review offers an integrated ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kwakye GF, McMinimy RA, Aschner M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Selol Against Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Cell Death and Oxidative Stress in PC12 Cells.
In conclusion, these results suggest that Selol effectively protected PC12 cells against SNP-induced oxidative damage and death by adjusting free radical levels and antioxidant system, and suppressing apoptosis. Selol could be successfully used in the treatments of diseases that involve oxidative stress and resulting apoptosis. PMID: 27590497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dominiak A, Wilkaniec A, Wroczyński P, Jęśko H, Adamczyk A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Possible Mechanisms Involved in Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Memory Deficits by Methyl Jasmonate in Mice.
Abstract This present study was carried out to investigate the likely mechanisms by which methyl jasmonate (MJ), 'an agent widely used in aromatherapy for neurological disorders, attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits in mice. Mice were given intraperitoneal administration of LPS (250 µg/kg) alone or in combination with MJ (10-40 mg/kg), donepezil, DP (1 mg/kg), or vehicle for 7 successive days. Thereafter, memory was assessed using object recognition test (ORT). Acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities were estimated in brain tissue homogenates. Brain levels of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Eduviere AT, Umukoro S, Adeoluwa OA, Omogbiya IA, Aluko OM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Apelin-13 Prevents the Delayed Neuropathy Induced by Tri-ortho-cresyl Phosphate Through Regulation the Autophagy Flux in Hens.
PMID: 27585755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou SH, Ouyang XP, Tian SW, Yin WL, Hu B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Antioxidant Effects of Thymoquinone in Activated BV-2 Murine Microglial Cells.
In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of TQ on LPS/IFNγ or H2O2-activated BV-2 microglia by assessing the levels of specific oxidative stress markers, the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes, as well as profiling 84 key genes related to oxidative stress via real-time reverse transcription (RT(2)) PCR array. Our results showed that in the LPS/IFNγ-activated microglia TQ significantly decreased the cellular production of both superoxide and nitric oxide fourfold (p 
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cobourne-Duval MK, Taka E, Mendonca P, Bauer D, Soliman KF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Thalidomide Promotes Morphine Efficacy and Prevents Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Rats with Diabetic Neuropathy.
Abstract Opioid analgesics have less efficacy in diabetic neuropathy treatment, and tolerance often occurs after chronic usage. Given that thalidomide can potentiate the morphine efficacy in diabetic neuropathy treatment, we investigated the effects of intrathecal administrations of thalidomide on morphine tolerance during the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. We found that intrathecal administrations of thalidomide (25 mg/kg/ml) potentiated the analgesic effects of morphine on mechanical hyperalgesia and prevented the development of morphine tolerance. While this treatment regimen did not alter the protein l...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao J, Wang H, Song T, Yang Y, Gu K, Ma P, Zhang Z, Shen L, Liu J, Wang W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Nicotinic α6-Subunit Selective Antagonist bPiDI Reduces Alcohol Self-Administration in Alcohol-Preferring Rats.
The Nicotinic α6-Subunit Selective Antagonist bPiDI Reduces Alcohol Self-Administration in Alcohol-Preferring Rats. Neurochem Res. 2016 Aug 29; Authors: Srisontiyakul J, Kastman HE, Krstew EV, Govitrapong P, Lawrence AJ Abstract Cigarettes and alcohol are the most abused substances in the world and are commonly co-abused. Nicotine primarily acts in the brain on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), which are also a target for alcohol. The alpha6 subunit of nAChR is expressed almost exclusively in the brain reward system and may modulate the rewarding properties of alcohol and nicotine. Rece...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Srisontiyakul J, Kastman HE, Krstew EV, Govitrapong P, Lawrence AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

AKT/GSK3 β Signaling in Glioblastoma.
AKT/GSK3β Signaling in Glioblastoma. Neurochem Res. 2016 Aug 27; Authors: Majewska E, Szeliga M Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive of primary brain tumors. Despite the progress in understanding the biology of the pathogenesis of glioma made during the past decade, the clinical outcome of patients with GBM remains still poor. Deregulation of many signaling pathways involved in growth, survival, migration and resistance to treatment has been implicated in pathogenesis of GBM. One of these pathways is phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/rapamycin-sensitive mT...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Majewska E, Szeliga M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effective Mechanism for Synthesis of Neurotransmitter Glutamate and its Loading into Synaptic Vesicles.
Abstract Glutamate accumulation into synaptic vesicles is a pivotal step in glutamate transmission. This process is achieved by a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) coupled to v-type proton ATPase. Normal synaptic transmission, in particular during intensive neuronal firing, would demand rapid transmitter re-filling of emptied synaptic vesicles. We have previously shown that isolated synaptic vesicles are capable of synthesizing glutamate from α-ketoglutarate (not from glutamine) by vesicle-bound aspartate aminotransferase for immediate uptake, in addition to ATP required for uptake by vesicle-bound gly...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takeda K, Ueda T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Etomidate on GABAergic and Glutamatergic Transmission in Rat Thalamocortical Slices.
Abstract Although accumulative evidence indicates that the thalamocortical system is an important target for general anesthetics, the underlying mechanisms of anesthetic action on thalamocortical neurotransmission are not fully understood. The aim of the study is to explore the action of etomidate on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in rat thalamocortical slices by using whole cell patch-clamp recording. We found that etomidate mainly prolonged the decay time of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs), without changing the frequency. Furthermore, etomidate not only prolonged the dec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu B, Wang Y, Yang H, Yu T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Matrine in Mouse Model of Vincristine-Induced Neuropathic Pain.
Abstract Chemotherapy drugs such as vincristine (VCR) can cause neuropathic pain, and there is still lack of ideal strategy to treat it. The current study was designed to investigate effect of matrine (MT) on VCR-induced neuropathic pain in animal model. VCR (75 μg/kg, i.p. for 10 consecutive days) was administered to induce painful neuropathy model in mice. MT (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and pregabalin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered for 11 consecutive days. Various tests were performed to assess the degree of pain at different days (1, 6, 11, 16, and 21). Von Frey hair, hot plate, cold-plate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gong SS, Li YX, Zhang MT, Du J, Ma PS, Yao WX, Zhou R, Niu Y, Sun T, Yu JQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Gut-Brain Axis, BDNF, NMDA and CNS Disorders.
Abstract Gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota and the 'gut-brain axis' are proving to be increasingly relevant to early brain development and the emergence of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the influence of the GI tract on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its relationship with receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR), as these are believed to be involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. NMDAR may be associated with the development of schizophrenia and a range of other psychopathologies including neurodegenerative disorders, depression and dementias. An analysis of the routes...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Maqsood R, Stone TW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glucose, Lactate and Glutamine but not Glutamate Support Depolarization-Induced Increased Respiration in Isolated Nerve Terminals.
Abstract Synaptosomes prepared from various aged and gene modified experimental animals constitute a valuable model system to study pre-synaptic mechanisms. Synaptosomes were isolated from whole brain and the XFe96 extracellular flux analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience) was used to study mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic rate in presence of different substrates. Mitochondrial function was tested by sequentially exposure of the synaptosomes to the ATP synthase inhibitor, oligomycin, the uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone) and the electron transport chain inhibitors rotenone and a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 22, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hohnholt MC, Andersen VH, Bak LK, Waagepetersen HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Acetate Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production Through an Anti-Oxidative Mechanism in Cultured Primary Rat Astrocytes.
Abstract The biomolecule acetate can be utilized for energy production, lipid synthesis, and several metabolic processes. Acetate supplementation reduces neuroglial activation in a model of neuroinflammation induced by intraventricular injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of acetate on glial cells, we examined the effect of acetate on nitric oxide (NO) production, which was experimentally activated by LPS, in cultured primary rat astrocytes. Acetate attenuated the LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, although cell viability wa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Moriyama M, Kurebayashi R, Kawabe K, Takano K, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reduced Glutamate Release in Adult BTBR Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities, as well as by restricted and repetitive behaviors. The BTBR T (+) Itpr3 (tf) (BTBR) mice have emerged as a well characterized and widely used mouse model of a range of ASD-like phenotype, showing deficiencies in social behaviors and unusual ultrasonic vocalizations as well as increased repetitive self-grooming. However, the inherited neurobiological changes that lead to ASD-like behaviors in these mice are incompletely known and still under active investigation. The aim of this st...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei H, Ma Y, Ding C, Jin G, Liu J, Chang Q, Hu F, Yu L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anti-neuroinflammatory Effect of Emodin in LPS-Stimulated Microglia: Involvement of AMPK/Nrf2 Activation.
This study examined whether emodin can activate AMPK/Nrf2 signaling and induce the expression of genes targeted by this pathway. In addition, the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of emodin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia were examined. In microglia, the emodin treatment increased the levels of LKB1, CaMKII, and AMPK phosphorylation. Emodin increased the translocation and transactivity of Nrf2 and enhanced the levels of HO-1 and NQO1. In addition, the emodin-mediated expression of HO-1 and NQO1 was attenuated completely by an AMPK inhibitor (compound C). Moreover, emodin decreased dramatically the LPS-indu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Park SY, Jin ML, Ko MJ, Park G, Choi YW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Upregulation of PLZF is Associated with Neuronal Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation.
In this study, we performed a neuroinflammatory model by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventricle injection in adult rats and detected increased expression of PLZF in the brain cortex. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that PLZF was significantly increased in neurons 3 day after LPS injection, but not in astrocytes and microglia. Moreover, there was a concomitant upregulation of active caspase-3, cyclin D1, and CDK4 in vivo and vitro studies. In addition, the expression of these proteins in cortical primary neurons was inhibited after knocking down PLZF by siRNA. Collectively, all these results suggested that the u...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: He M, Liu Y, Shen J, Duan C, Lu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Curcumin Monoglucoside Shows Improved Bioavailability and Mitigates Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity in Cell and Drosophila Models of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Curcumin (CUR), a dietary polyphenol has diverse pharmacologic effects, but is limited by poor bioavailability. This is probably due to decreased solubility, cellular uptake and stability. In order to enhance its solubility and bioavailability, we synthesized the CUR bioconjugate curcumin monoglucoside (CMG) and tested its bioavailability, neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic propensity against rotenone (ROT) induced toxicity in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells and Drosophila models. Our results elucidate that CMG showed improved bioavailability than CUR in N27 cells. Pre-treatment with CMG protected against...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pandareesh MD, Shrivash MK, Naveen Kumar HN, Misra K, Srinivas Bharath MM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Induces Neural Stem Cell Apoptosis Through Activating p38 MAPK Pathway.
This study aimed to investigate the signaling pathways responsible for TNF-α-induced apoptosis in NSCs. TNF-α treatment impairs cell viability and increases apoptosis of NSCs in concentration- and time-dependent manners. This is embodied in an increase in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Additionally, TNF-α remarkably increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in NSCs. p38 MAPK regulates apoptosis, acting as an apoptotic signal due to TNF-α exposure. TNF-α-induced apoptosis was significantly allevia...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 16, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen NN, Wei F, Wang L, Cui S, Wan Y, Liu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Fuzhisan Ameliorates the Memory Deficits in Aged SAMP8 Mice via Decreasing A β Production and Tau Hyperphosphorylation of the Hippocampus.
Fuzhisan Ameliorates the Memory Deficits in Aged SAMP8 Mice via Decreasing Aβ Production and Tau Hyperphosphorylation of the Hippocampus. Neurochem Res. 2016 Aug 12; Authors: Zhang ZX, Zhao RP, Wang DS, Li YB Abstract The pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include extracellular neuritic plaques containing β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, a cleaved fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP) via β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is inc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang ZX, Zhao RP, Wang DS, Li YB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.
Abstract Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO m...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long A, Park JH, Klimova N, Fowler C, Loane DJ, Kristian T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Baicalein Attenuates Neurological Deficits and Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in a Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that baicalein has protective effects against several diseases, which including ischemic stroke. The effect of baicalein on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and its related mechanisms are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which baicalein may influence the BBB in a rat model of ICH. The rat model of ICH was induced by intravenous injection of collagenase IV into the brain. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation, vehicle, and baicalein group. Each group was then divided into subgroups, in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen M, Lai L, Li X, Zhang X, He X, Liu W, Li R, Ke X, Fu C, Huang Z, Duan C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reciprocal Control of Thyroid Binding and the Pipecolate Pathway in the Brain.
Abstract Thyroid hormones have long been known to play an essential role in brain growth and development, with cytoplasmic thyroid hormone binding proteins (THBPs) playing a critical role in thyroid hormone bioavailability. A major mammalian THBP is μ-crystallin (CRYM), which was originally characterized by its ability to strongly bind thyroid hormones in an NADPH-dependent fashion. However, in 2011 it was discovered that CRYM is also an enzyme, namely ketimine reductase (KR), which catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of -C=N- (imine) double bonds of a number of cyclic ketimine substrates including sulfur...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hallen A, Cooper AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms Associated with Activation of Intracellular Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor, mGluR5.
Abstract The group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, is found on the cell surface as well as on intracellular membranes where it can mediate both overlapping and unique signaling effects. Previously we have shown that glutamate activates intracellular mGluR5 by entry through sodium-dependent transporters and/or cystine glutamate exchangers. Calibrated antibody labelling suggests that the glutamate concentration within neurons is quite high (~10 mM) raising the question as to whether intracellular mGluR5 is maximally activated at all times or whether a different ligand might be responsible for recepto...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jong YI, O'Malley KL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Upregulation of PSMB4 is Associated with the Necroptosis after Spinal Cord Injury.
In this study, we established an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats to investigate the potential role of PSMB4 during the pathological process of SCI. We found PSMB4 expression was significantly up-regulated 3 days after injury by western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Double immunofluorescent staining indicated obvious changes of PSMB4 expression occurred in neurons. Significant up-regulation of PSMB4 expression was observed in Rip3 positive neurons at 3 days after SCI, which indicated that PSMB4 might play a vital role in the regulation of Rip3. Overexpress and knockdown PSMB4 could intervene ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu C, Chen J, Liu Y, Zhang J, Ding W, Wang S, Bao G, Xu G, Sun Y, Wang L, Chen L, Gu H, Cui B, Cui Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective, Neurotrophic and Anti-oxidative Role of Bacopa monnieri on CUS Induced Model of Depression in Rat.
Abstract Major depression is a life threatening neuropsychiatric disorder that produces mental illness and major cause of morbidity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant potential of Bacopa monnieri extract (BME) on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced behavioral depression in rats. Behavioral tests were carried out for investigation of antidepressant like effects of BME, and potential mechanism was assessed by determining neurotrophin level and hippocampal neurogenesis. Depressive-like behavior was assessed by shuttle-box escape test, forced swim test...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kumar S, Mondal AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Solute Carriers in the Blood-Brain Barier: Safety in Abundance.
Abstract Blood-brain barrier formed by brain capillary endothelial cells, being in contact with astrocytes endfeet and pericytes, separates extracellular fluid from plasma. Supply of necessary nutrients and removal of certain metabolites takes place due to the activity of transporting proteins from ABC (ATP binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) superfamilies. This review is focused on the SLC families involved in transport though the blood-brain barrier of energetic substrates (glucose, monocarboxylates, creatine), amino acids, neurotransmitters and their precursors, as well as organic ions. Members of SLC1, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nałęcz KA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Abnormal Expression of FBXL20 in Refractory Epilepsy Patients and a Pilocarpine-Induced Rat Model.
Abstract E3 ubiquitin ligases are important protein-modifying enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 20 (FBXL20), an E3 ubiquitin ligase widely expressed in the central nervous system, plays an important role in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 1 (RIM1), which is an important factor in the release of synaptic vesicles. FBXL20 has been associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases; thus, we hypothesized that FBXL20 is involved in the development of epilepsy. Herein, we used immunof...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu P, Wen Y, Xiong Y, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Xie Y, Shi Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Search for New Screening Models of Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy: Is Induction of Acute Seizures in Epileptic Rodents a Suitable Approach?
r W Abstract Epilepsy, a prevalent neurological disease characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), is often refractory to treatment with anti-seizure drugs (ASDs), so that more effective ASDs are urgently needed. For this purpose, it would be important to develop, validate, and implement new animal models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy into drug discovery. Several chronic animal models with difficult-to-treat SRS do exist; however, most of these models are not suited for drug screening, because drug testing on SRS necessitates laborious video-EEG seizure monitoring. More recently, it was proposed that, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Löscher W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Red Nucleus Interleukin-6 Participates in the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spared Nerve Injury.
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that the red nucleus (RN) is involved in the regulation of neuropathic pain and plays both facilitated and inhibitory roles through different cytokines. Here, we aim to investigate the expression changes and roles of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine, as well as its receptor (IL-6R) in the RN of rats with neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury (SNI). Immunohistochemistry indicated that IL-6 and IL-6R were weakly expressed in the RN of normal rats, and were mainly co-localized with neurons and oligodendrocytes. Following SNI, the expression levels of I...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 3, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ding CP, Xue YS, Yu J, Guo YJ, Zeng XY, Wang JY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Uptake and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in C6 Glioma Cells.
Abstract Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are frequently used for many technical applications, but are also known for their cell toxic potential. In order to investigate a potential use of CuO-NPs as a therapeutic drug for glioma treatment, we have investigated the consequences of an application of CuO-NPs on the cellular copper content and cell viability of C6 glioma cells. CuO-NPs were synthesized by a wet-chemical method and were coated with dimercaptosuccinic acid and bovine serum albumin to improve colloidal stability in physiological media. Application of these protein-coated nanoparticles (pCuO-NPs) to ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 3, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joshi A, Rastedt W, Faber K, Schultz AG, Bulcke F, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Cognitive Impairment Induced by D-Galactose in Mice.
In conclusion, the protective effect of HBO against D-gal-induced cognitive impairment was mainly due to its ability to reduce oxidative damage, suppress inflammatory responses, and regulate aging-related gene expression. PMID: 27485714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 3, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen X, Li Y, Chen W, Nong Z, Huang J, Chen C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Non-cytotoxic Concentration of Cisplatin Decreases Neuroplasticity-Related Proteins and Neurite Outgrowth Without Affecting the Expression of NGF in PC12 Cells.
Abstract Cisplatin is the most effective and neurotoxic platinum chemotherapeutic agent. It induces a peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal axonal degeneration that might progress to degeneration of cell bodies and apoptosis. Most symptoms occur nearby distal axonal branches and axonal degeneration might induce peripheral neuropathy regardless neuronal apoptosis. The toxic mechanism of cisplatin has been mainly associated with DNA damage, but cisplatin might also affect neurite outgrowth. Nevertheless, the neurotoxic mechanism of cisplatin remains unclear. We investigated the early effects of cisplatin on ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ferreira RS, Dos Santos NA, Martins NM, Fernandes LS, Dos Santos AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apigenin Reduces Proteasome Inhibition-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis by Suppressing the Cell Death Process.
Abstract Impairment of proteasomal function has been shown to be implicated in neuronal cell degeneration. The compounds which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities appear to provide a neuroprotective effect. Flavone apigenin is known to exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, the effect of apigenin on the proteasome inhibition-induced neuronal apoptosis has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the effect of apigenin on the proteasome inhibition-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death using differentiated PC12 cells and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Apigenin attenuated t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim A, Nam YJ, Lee MS, Shin YK, Sohn DS, Lee CS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurotoxicity of Ammonia.
Abstract Abnormal liver function has dramatic effects on brain functions. Hyperammonemia interferes profoundly with brain metabolism, astrocyte volume regulation, and in particular mitochondrial functions. Gene expression in the brain and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission circuits are also affected. Experiments with a number of pertinent animal models have revealed several potential mechanisms which could underlie the pathological phenomena occurring in hepatic encephalopathy. PMID: 27465396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oja SS, Saransaari P, Korpi ER Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MARK2 Rescues Nogo-66-Induced Inhibition of Neurite Outgrowth via Regulating Microtubule-Associated Proteins in Neurons In Vitro.
In conclusion, the intracellular PKB/MARK2/MAPs/α-tubulin pathway appears to be essential for neurite elongation in neurons in vitro. These results suggest a critical role for MARK2 in overcoming Nogo-66-induced inhibition of axon outgrowth in neurons. Pharmacological activators of MARK2 may be applicable to promote successful axonal outgrowth following many types of CNS injuries. PMID: 27465397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zuo YC, Xiong NX, Shen JY, Yu H, Huang YZ, Zhao HY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Tetramethylpyrazine Nitrone Improves Neurobehavioral Functions and Confers Neuroprotection on Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury.
In conclusion, TBN improves neurobehavioral functions and protects neurons against TBI. This protective effect may be achieved by anti-neuronal apoptosis, alleviating oxidative stress damage and up-regulating Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression. PMID: 27452038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang G, Zhang F, Zhang T, Gu J, Li C, Sun Y, Yu P, Zhang Z, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Melatonin Administration Reduced Oxidative Damage and Cellular Senescence in the Hippocampus of a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.
z-Cué C, Rueda N Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin administration improves spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in the adult Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, a model of Down syndrome (DS). This functional benefit of melatonin was accompanied by protection from cholinergic neurodegeneration and the attenuation of several hippocampal neuromorphological alterations in TS mice. Because oxidative stress contributes to the progression of cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in DS, this study evaluates the antioxidant effects of melatonin in the brains of TS mice. Melat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Parisotto EB, Vidal V, García-Cerro S, Lantigua S, Wilhelm Filho D, Sanchez-Barceló EJ, Martínez-Cué C, Rueda N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Immunochemical Localization of GABAA Receptor Subunits in the Freshwater Polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).
We examined the occurrence and distribution of GABAA receptor subunits in Hydra tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against different GABAA receptor subunits were used in Hydra membrane preparations. Unique protein bands, inhibited by the specific peptide, appeared at 35, 60, ∼50 and ∼52 kDa in membranes incubated with α3, β1, γ3 or δ antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical screening of whole mount Hydra preparations revealed diffuse immunoreactivity to α3, β1 or γ3 antibodies in tentacles, hypostome, and upper part of the gastric region; i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Concas A, Imperatore R, Santoru F, Locci A, Porcu P, Cristino L, Pierobon P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Up-Regulation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Involves in Neuronal Apoptosis After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats.
In conclusion, we speculated that IRF3 might exert pro-apoptotic function in neurons after ICH. PMID: 27447882 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 22, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tao X, Xie L, Duan C, Dai S, Ren J, Yan Y, Shen J, Lu H, Ge J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Paeoniflorin on 6-OHDA-Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main active component extracted from the roots of Paeonialactiflora, a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). The degeneration of dopaminergic (DA-) neurons in PD may be caused by pathological activation of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Thus, we designed a series of experiments to evaluate the therapeutic effects of PF and to test whether its effects are related to its inhibitory effect on ASIC1a. We found that systemic administration of PF or ASICs blockers (psalmotoxin-1 and amiloride) improve...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 22, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gu XS, Wang F, Zhang CY, Mao CJ, Yang J, Yang YP, Liu S, Hu LF, Liu CF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research