MicroRNAs and Regeneration in Animal Models of CNS Disorders.
Abstract microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with CNS repair after trauma and neuropathological conditions including stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. A number of specific miRNAs are implicated in regulating the development and propagation of CNS injury, as well as its subsequent regeneration. The review focuses on the functions of the miRNAs and their role in brain recovery following CNS damage. The article introduces a brief description of miRNA biogenesis and mechanisms of miRNA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roitbak T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spinal Orexin-2 Receptors are Involved in Modulation of the Lateral Hypothalamic Stimulation-Induced Analgesia.
In this study, we examined role of the spinal orexin-2 receptors in modulation of inflammatory pain in rat. Fifty-one adult male Wistar rats were implanted unilaterally with a guide cannula into the LH and intrathecal tubing in the lumbar space between L4 and L5. Chemical stimulation of LH by carbachol (250 nM/0.5 µL saline) induced remarkable analgesia during the two phases of formalin test and Intrathecal administration of different doses of TCS OX2 29 (10, 30 and 100 µM/ 0.5 µL DMSO) prior to LH stimulation, dose-dependently antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the LH-stimulati...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rezaee L, Salehi S, Alizadeh AM, Fazli-Tabaei S, Haghparast A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of microRNA-34a Suppresses Epileptiform Discharges Through Regulating Notch Signaling and Apoptosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.
Abstract Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures and some seizures can cause neuronal apoptosis, which is possible to make contributions to the epilepsy phenotype, impairments in cognitive function or even epileptogenesis. Moreover, many studies have indicated that microRNA-34a (miRNA-34a) is involved in apoptosis through regulating Notch signaling. However, whether miRNA-34a participates in neuronal apoptosis after seizures remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the expression of miRNA-34a and its effects on the epileptiform discharge in spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SR...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang J, Zheng Y, Cheng X, Xu F, Zhang P, Zhou X, Zhao H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Cdk5 in Kalirin7-Mediated Formation of Dendritic Spines.
This study was to explore the role of CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of Kal-7 in spine formation and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed expression of Kal-7T/D (mimicked phosphorylation), Kal-7T/A mutants (blocked phosphorylation) or wild-type (Wt) Kal-7 caused in a similar increase in spine density, while spine size of Wt Kal-7-expressing cortical neurons was bigger than that in Kal-7 T\A-expressing neurons, but smaller than that in Kal-7T/D-expressing neurons. The fluorescence intensity of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B (GluN2B) staining was stronger along the MAP2 positive dendrites of Kal-7T/D-expressing neurons t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li MX, Qiao H, Zhang M, Ma XM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intranasal Delivery of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Protects against Hippocampal Neuron Death in the Lithium-Pilocarpine Rat Model.
Abstract Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) block the release of a series of neurotransmitters, which are pivotal for neuron action. Intrahippocampal administration of BoNTs inhibits glutamate release, protects neurons against cell death, and attenuates epileptic seizures. Compared with intrahippocampal administration, intranasal delivery is less invasive and more practical for chronic drug administration. To assess whether intranasal administration is feasible, we examined the role of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in hippocampal neuronal injury after status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine. Our data showed Bo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang Z, Lian Y, Chen Y, Li S, Zhang H, Xie N, Zheng Y, Wu S, Wang Y, Cheng W, Zhang Q, Wang C, Shi Y, Xie N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: The Role of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition.
Abstract Brain and heart ischemia are among the leading causes of death and disability in both men and women, but there are significant sex differences in the incidence and severity of these diseases. Ca2+ dysregulation in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) is a well-recognized pathogenic mechanism leading to the death of affected cells. Excess intracellular Ca2+ causes mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ overload that can result in mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which can have severe consequences for mitochondrial function and trigger cell death. Recent findings indicate that estrogens and their r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fels JA, Manfredi G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Tribulusterine Containing Tribulus terrestris Extract Exhibited Neuroprotection Through Attenuating Stress Kinases Mediated Inflammatory Mechanism: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.
This study can be concluded with the thesis that AQTT has neuroprotective effect through alternating neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and promoting neuron survival. Being that it produced better effect with pretreatment, exploring this with thrombolytic drugs will be beneficial. For the first time AQTT has been reported for this indication. PMID: 30863969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ranjithkumar R, Alhadidi Q, Shah ZA, Ramanathan M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase 1 Mediates the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain after Chronic Constriction Injury in Rats.
Abstract Neuropathic pain (NP) has complicated pathogenesis as it mainly involves a lesion or dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system and its clinical treatment remains challenging. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) model is a widely used neuropathic pain model and involved in mechanisms including both nerve inflammatory and injury. Cytokines and their receptors play essential roles in the occurrence and persistence of neuropathic pain, but the underlying mechanisms have not well been understood. Therefore, Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is chosen to explore the possible mechanisms of N...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yin D, Chen Y, Li Y, Lu R, Wang B, Zhu S, Fan B, Xu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Targeted Oligodendrocyte Apoptosis in Optic Nerve Leads to Persistent Demyelination.
Abstract The optic nerve represents one of the simplest regions of the CNS and has been useful in developing an understanding of glial development and myelination. While the visual system is frequently affected in demyelinating conditions, utilizing the optic nerve to model demyelination/remyelination studies has been difficult due to its accessibility, relatively small size, and dense nature that makes direct injections challenging. Taking advantage of the lack of oligodendrocytes and myelination in the mouse retina, we have developed a model in which the induction of apoptosis in mature oligodendrocytes allows f...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pajoohesh-Ganji A, Miller RH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of the Maternal Preoptic Area in Rats.
s É, Dobolyi A Abstract The behavior of female rats changes profoundly as they become mothers. The brain region that plays a central role in this regulation is the preoptic area, and lesions in this area eliminates maternal behaviors in rodents. The molecular background of the behavioral changes has not been established yet; therefore, in the present study, we applied proteomics to compare protein level changes associated with maternal care in the rat preoptic area. Using 2-dimensional fluorescence gel electrophoresis followed by identification of altered spots with mass spectrometry, 12 proteins were found...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Udvari EB, Völgyi K, Kékesi KA, Simon D, Hunyadi-Gulyás É, Dobolyi A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

An Updated View on the Molecular Pathomechanisms of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Light of Novel Crystallographic Evidence.
Abstract Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH, E3) deficiency is a rare (autosomal, recessive) genetic disorder generally presenting with an onset in the neonatal age and early death; the highest carrier rate has been found among Ashkenazi Jews. Acute clinical episodes usually involve severe metabolic decompensation and lactate acidosis that result in neurological, cardiological, and/or hepatological manifestations. Clinical severity is due to the fact that LADH is a common E3 subunit to the alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, alpha-ketoadipate, and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes, and is also a ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ambrus A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Human 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase and 2-Oxoadipate Dehydrogenase Both Generate Superoxide/H2O2 in a Side Reaction and Each Could Contribute to Oxidative Stress in Mitochondria.
Abstract According to recent findings, the human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (hOGDHc) could be an important source of the reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria and could contribute to mitochondrial abnormalities associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, and Parkinson's disease. The human 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (hE1a) is a novel protein, which is encoded by the DHTKD1 gene. Both missence and nonsense mutations were identified in the DHTKD1 that lead to alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-oxoadipic aciduria, a metabolic disorder with a wide var...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jordan F, Nemeria N, Gerfen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Actin Cytoskeleton in Myelinating Cells.
Abstract Myelinating cells of both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNSs) undergo dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization in order to differentiate and produce myelin. Myelinating oligodendrocytes in the CNS show a periodic actin pattern, demonstrating tight regulation of actin. Furthermore, recent data demonstrate that actin polymerization drives early cell differentiation and that actin depolymerization drives myelin wrapping. Dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in myelinating cells is seen in some disease states. This review highlights the cytoskeletal molecules that regulate differentiation of and ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brown TL, Macklin WB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Missing in Action: Dysfunctional RNA Metabolism in Oligodendroglial Cells as a Contributor to Neurodegenerative Diseases?
Abstract The formation of myelin around axons by oligodendrocytes (OL) poses an enormous synthetic and energy challenge for the glial cell. Local translation of transcripts, including the mRNA for the essential myelin protein Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) at the site of myelin deposition has been recognised as an efficient mechanism to assure proper myelin sheath assembly. Oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) form synapses with neurons and may localise many additional mRNAs in a similar fashion to synapses between neurons. In some diseases in which demyelination occurs, an abundance of OPCs is present but there is...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hoch-Kraft P, Trotter J, Gonsior C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Iron is Responsible for Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Regulating Vasopressin Expression in the Mouse Paraventricular Nucleus.
Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules for maintaining homeostasis, particularly in the regulation of body-fluid balance in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. However, there has been little discussion regarding the source of ROS generation in this hypothalamic region. Because iron is the most abundant metal in the brain, we hypothesized that iron may act as a source of ROS, which regulate vasopressin (VP) expression. In the present study, we compared the amount of iron in the PVN to that in other forebrain regions of normal ICR mice, and examined the relationship amon...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hyeun JA, Kim JY, Kim CH, Kim JH, Lee EY, Seo JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Alleviated Behavioral Dysfunction and Bioenergetic Function in an Animal Model of Depression.
Abstract Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural compound, is involved in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC) and plays an important pattern in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Amelioration of ATP is related to abnormalities in cognitive function and psychiatric diseases. Previous studies have shown that depression is accompanied by the induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways and amelioration of antioxidant status. In a recent study, we investigated the beneficial effects of CoQ10 on behavioral dysfunction and CoQ10 level in the rat brain. Therefore, intracerebroventricular (ICV) infu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Andalib S, Mashhadi-Mousapour M, Bijani S, Hosseini MJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Moderate- and Low-Dose of Atorvastatin Alleviate Cognition Impairment Induced by High-Fat Diet via Sirt1 Activation.
This study aimed to identify a relationship between the use of Ator and cognition impairment induced by high-fat diet via Sirt1 activation. A total of 60 healthy male C57BL/6J mice were purchased and then divided into 6 groups, including normal diet group (control), a high-fat diet group (40%HFD, 40% energy from fat), a model group (60%HFD, 60% energy from fat), and model group treated with different doses of Ator (high-dose (80 mg), moderate-dose (40 mg), and low-dose (20 mg) groups). All interventions took place for 7 months. Metabolic phenotypes were characterized for body weight and analysis of seru...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu H, Yang J, Wang K, Niu T, Huang D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of 2-Ketobutyrate on Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation.
Abstract The reaction catalyzed by succinate-CoA ligase in the mitochondrial matrix yields a high-energy phosphate when operating towards hydrolysis of the thioester bond of succinyl-CoA, known as mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation (mSLP). The catabolism of several metabolites converge to succinyl-CoA but through different biochemical pathways. Among them, threonine, serine and methionine catabolize to succinyl-CoA through the common intermediate, 2-ketobutyrate. During the course of this pathway 2-ketobutyrate will become succinyl-CoA through propionyl-CoA catabolism, obligatorily passing through an AT...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bui D, Ravasz D, Chinopoulos C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Exercise Interventions on Kainate Induced Status Epilepticus and Associated Co-morbidities; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise before SE reduces behavioral seizures and oxidative stress with improvements in cognitive abilities. Post-SE exercise enhances learning and memory with neurogenesis in KA models. More extensive research on morphological and biochemical profiles is needed to explore underlying mechanisms. PMID: 30810979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Iqbal M, Ullah S, Zafar S, Nisar T, Liu JX, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Powering Amyloid Beta Degrading Enzymes: A Possible Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain is believed to play a central role in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Revisions to the amyloid cascade hypothesis now acknowledge the dynamic equilibrium in which Aβ exists and the importance of enzymes involved in the production and breakdown of Aβ in maintaining healthy Aβ levels. However, while a wealth of pharmacological and immunological therapies are being generated to inhibit the Aβ-producing enzymes, β-site APP cleavage enzyme 1 and γ-secretase, the therapeutic potential of stimulating A&...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sikanyika NL, Parkington HC, Smith AI, Kuruppu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exposure of Cultured Astrocytes to Menadione Triggers Rapid Radical Formation, Glutathione Oxidation and Mrp1-Mediated Export of Glutathione Disulfide.
Abstract Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a synthetic derivative of vitamin K that allows rapid redox cycling in cells and thereby generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). To test for the consequences of a treatment of brain astrocytes with menadione, we incubated primary astrocyte cultures with this compound. Incubation with menadione in concentrations of up to 30 µM did not affect cell viability. In contrast, exposure of astrocytes to 100 µM menadione caused a time-dependent impairment of cellular metabolism and cell functions as demonstrated by impaired glycolytic lactate product...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Steinmeier J, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Exhibits Anti-seizure Effects by Mediating the Netrin-G1-KATP Signaling Pathway in Epilepsy.
Abstract Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) has been reported to exert antiepileptic effects by upregulating KATP subunits (kir6.1 and kir6.2). We evaluated whether 2-DG exhibits anti-seizure effect by mediating the netrin-G1-KATP signaling pathway in epilepsy. In a mouse epilepsy model induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine, 2-DG intervention increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of kir6.1 and kir6.2, and these increases were significantly reversed after knocking down netrin-G...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long Y, Zhuang K, Ji Z, Han Y, Fei Y, Zheng W, Song Z, Yang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astroglial Mechanisms of Ketamine Action Include Reduced Mobility of Kir4.1-Carrying Vesicles.
Abstract The finding that ketamine, an anaesthetic, can elicit a rapid antidepressant effect at low doses that lasts for weeks in patients with depression is arguably a major achievement in psychiatry in the last decades. However, the mechanisms of action are unclear. The glutamatergic hypothesis of ketamine action posits that ketamine is a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist modulating downstream cytoplasmic events in neurons. In addition to targeting NMDARs in synaptic transmission, ketamine may modulate the function of astroglia, key homeostasis-providing cells in the central nervous system, also p...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stenovec M, Božić M, Pirnat S, Zorec R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Post Translational Modulation of β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking to the Cell Surface Alters Neuronal Iron Homeostasis.
Post Translational Modulation of β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking to the Cell Surface Alters Neuronal Iron Homeostasis. Neurochem Res. 2019 Feb 22;: Authors: Tsatsanis A, Dickens S, Kwok JCF, Wong BX, Duce JA Abstract Cell surface β-Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is known to have a functional role in iron homeostasis through stabilising the iron export protein ferroportin (FPN). Mechanistic evidence of this role has previously only been provided through transcriptional or translational depletion of total APP levels. However, numerous post-translational modifications of APP are report...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tsatsanis A, Dickens S, Kwok JCF, Wong BX, Duce JA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue in Honor of Graham L Collingridge.
e;r E Abstract PMID: 30796751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Molnár E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

β-Asarone Regulates ER Stress and Autophagy Via Inhibition of the PERK/CHOP/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats.
β-Asarone Regulates ER Stress and Autophagy Via Inhibition of the PERK/CHOP/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats. Neurochem Res. 2019 Feb 22;: Authors: Ning B, Zhang Q, Wang N, Deng M, Fang Y Abstract β-Asarone (1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-[(Z)-prop-1-enyl]benzene) is an essential component of Acorus tatarinowii Schott volatile oil. Previous research has observed that β-asarone effectively attenuated symptoms in parkinsonian rats and improved their performance, but the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Other research has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ning B, Zhang Q, Wang N, Deng M, Fang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Consequences of a Metabolic Glucose-Depletion on the Survival and the Metabolism of Cultured Rat Astrocytes.
Abstract Brain astrocytes are considered to be highly glycolytic, but these cells also produce ATP via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. To investigate how a metabolic depletion of glucose will affect the metabolism of astrocytes, we applied glucose at an initial concentration of 2 mM to cultured primary astrocytes and monitored the cell viability and various metabolic parameters during an incubation for up to 2 weeks. Already within 2 days of incubation the cells had completely consumed the applied glucose and lactate had accumulated in the medium to a concentration of around 3 mM. Duri...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Arend C, Ehrke E, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astroglia in Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy.
Abstract Cellular pathophysiology of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains poorly characterised. Brain pathology in SAE, which is manifested by impaired perception, consciousness and cognition, results from multifactorial events, including high levels of systemic cytokines, microbial components and endotoxins, which all damage the brain barriers, instigate neuroinflammation and cause homeostatic failure. Astrocytes, being the principal homeostatic cells of the central nervous system contribute to the brain defence against infection. Forming multifunctional anatomical barriers, astroglial cells maintain br...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shulyatnikova T, Verkhratsky A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol Abrogates Hypoxia-Induced Up-Regulation of Exosomal Amyloid- β Partially by Inhibiting CD147.
In this study, we aimed to explore the role and mechanisms of RSV in hypoxia-induced upregulation of Aβ, especially exosomal Aβ. SH-SY5Y cells and HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with RSV and exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of SIRT1 or CD147 was modulated by transfection of specific siRNAs or plasmid. Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were determined by ELISA. Hypoxia increased the levels of both Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in the hippocampal lysates and serum-derived exosomes of mice. Hypoxia also increased both Aβ1-40 and A&bet...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie J, Li X, Zhou Y, Wu J, Tan Y, Ma X, Zhao Y, Liu X, Zhao Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NMDA Receptors in Astrocytes.
tal A Abstract Astrocytes support glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system through multiple mechanisms which include: (i) glutamate clearance and control over glutamate spillover due to operation of glutamate transporters; (ii) supply of obligatory glutamate precursor glutamine via operation of glutamate-glutamine shuttle; (iii) supply of L-serine, the indispensable precursor of positive NMDA receptors neuromodulator D-serine and (iv) through overall homoeostatic control of the synaptic cleft. Astroglial cells express an extended complement of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Verkhratsky A, Chvátal A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of α-Synuclein Monomers Administration in the Gigantocellular Reticular Nucleus on Neurotransmission in Mouse Model.
Effects of α-Synuclein Monomers Administration in the Gigantocellular Reticular Nucleus on Neurotransmission in Mouse Model. Neurochem Res. 2019 Feb 13;: Authors: Joniec-Maciejak I, Ciesielska A, Poniatowski ŁA, Wawer A, Sznejder-Pachołek A, Wojnar E, Maciejak P, Mirowska-Guzel D Abstract The aim of the study was to examine the Braak's hypothesis to explain the spreading and distribution of the neuropathological changes observed in the course of Parkinson's disease among ascending neuroanatomical regions. We investigated the neurotransmitter levels (monoamines and amino acid concentration) as ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joniec-Maciejak I, Ciesielska A, Poniatowski ŁA, Wawer A, Sznejder-Pachołek A, Wojnar E, Maciejak P, Mirowska-Guzel D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The VGVAPG Peptide Regulates the Production of Nitric Oxide Synthases and Reactive Oxygen Species in Mouse Astrocyte Cells In Vitro.
Abstract The products of elastin degradation, namely elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy individuals and in patients after ischemic stroke, and their number increases with age. Depending on their concentrations, both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) take part either in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury or in neurovascular protection after ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of VGVAPG peptide on ROS and NO production and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNos), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szychowski KA, Gmiński J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression Changes of NMDA and AMPA Receptor Subunits in the Hippocampus in rats with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin Coupled with Memory Impairment.
Abstract Cognitive impairment in diabetes (CID) is a severe chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been hypothesized that diabetes can lead to cognitive dysfunction due to expression changes of excitatory neurotransmission mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR); however, the pathogenesis involved in this has not been fully understood, especially at early phase of DM. Here, we sought to determine the cognitive changes and aim to correlate this with the expression changes of NMDAR and AMPAR of glutamate signal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang XP, Ye P, Lv J, Zhou L, Qian ZY, Huang YJ, Mu ZH, Wang X, Liu XJ, Wan Q, Yang ZH, Wang F, Zou YY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Imbalance of Microglial TLR4/TREM2 in LPS-Treated APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice: A Potential Link Between Alzheimer's Disease and Systemic Inflammation.
In this study, intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into APP/PS1 transgenic AD model was used to mimic systemic inflammation in the development of AD. Initial results from the cortex showed that compared with wild-type mice, APP/PS1 mice exhibited elevated gene and protein expression levels of both TLR4 and TREM2 with different degree. Interestingly, after LPS treatment, TLR4 expression was persistently up-regulated, while TREM2 expression was significantly down-regulated in APP/PS1 mice, suggesting that the negative regulatory effect of TREM2 on inflammation might be suppressed by LPS-induced hyperactive ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou J, Yu W, Zhang M, Tian X, Li Y, Lü Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Modulating P1 Adenosine Receptors in Disease Progression of SOD1G93A Mutant Mice.
otenza RL Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressing neurodegenerative disease; to date, despite the intense research effort, only two therapeutic options, with very limited effects, are available. The purinergic system has been indicated as a possible new therapeutic target for ALS, but the results are often contradictory and generally confused. The present study was designed to determine whether P1 adenosine receptor ligands affected disease progression in a transgenic model of ALS. SOD1G93A mice were chronically treated, from presymptomatic stage, with a selective adenosine A2A receptor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Armida M, Matteucci A, Pèzzola A, Baqi Y, Müller CE, Popoli P, Potenza RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Thymoquinone in Acrylamide-Induced Peripheral Nervous System Toxicity Through MAPKinase and Apoptosis Pathways in Rat.
In this study, we assessed the probable protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa, against ACR-induced neurotoxicity. ACR (50 mg/kg, i.p., for 11 days) and TQ (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p., for 11 days) were administered to rats. On 12th day, gait score was examined and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were determined in sciatic nerve. Furthermore, western blotting was conducted. The exposure of rats to ACR caused severe gait disabilities. The MDA and GSH contents were increased and decreased, respectively. ACR decreased P-ERK/E...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tabeshpour J, Mehri S, Abnous K, Hosseinzadeh H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increase in Glutamatergic Terminals in the Striatum Following Dopamine Depletion in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Dopaminergic neuron degeneration is known to give rise to dendrite injury and spine loss of striatal neurons, however, changes of intrastriatal glutamatergic terminals and their synapses after 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-induced dopamine (DA)-depletion remains controversial. To confirm the effect of striatal DA-depletion on the morphology and protein levels of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal glutamatergic terminals and synapses, immunohistochemistry, immuno-electron microscope (EM), western blotting techniques were performed on Parkinson's disease rat models in this study. The experimental results of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng X, Huang Z, Zhu Y, Liu B, Chen Z, Chen T, Jia L, Li Y, Lei W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cytosolic HMGB1 Mediates Autophagy Activation in an Emulsified Isoflurane Anesthesia Cell Model.
Abstract Inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Previous studies have indicated that this cognitive decline is associated with neuroinflammation mediated by high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 is released from cells and acts as a damage-associated molecule in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effect of intracellular HMGB1 during emulsified isoflurane (EI) exposure is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of autophagy on neuroprotection, evaluate variation of HMGB1, and determine its role in autophagic flux after EI expo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu RZ, Li T, Zhao GQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cortical Spreading Depolarization (CSD) Recorded from Intact Skin, from Surface of Dura Mater or Cortex: Comparison with Intracortical Recordings in the Neocortex of Adult Rats.
r F Abstract In cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats single waves of spreading depolarization (CSD) were elicited by needle prick. CSD-related changes of DC (direct current) potentials were either recorded from the intact skin or together with concomitant changes of potassium concentration with K+-selective microelectrodes simultaneously at the surface of the dura mater or of the cortex ([K+]s) and in the extracellular space at a cortical depth of 1200 µm. At the intact skin CSD-related DC-shifts had amplitudes of less than 1 mV and had only in a minority of cases the typical CSD-like shape. In the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lehmenkühler A, Richter F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SSeCKS promoted lipopolysaccharide-sensitized astrocytes migration via increasing β-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I activity.
In this study we aim to investigate the role of SSeCKS and β-1,4-GalT-I in the migration of astrocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays have demonstrated that SSeCKS and β-1,4-GalT-I were significantly enhanced in LPS-treated astrocytes and their interactions may occur in the Trans-Golgi Network. Lectin blot showed that the knockdown of β-1,4-GalT-I could inhibit the β-1,4-galactosylation of glycoproteins including integrin β1 with and without LPS, and that SSeCKS knockdown inhibits the β-1,4-galactosylation of glycoprote...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei H, Xu L, Li C, Liu L, Ng DM, Haleem M, Jiang L, Sun N, Ling Q, Ma S, Zhang L, Wang Q, Tao T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine Promotes SH-SY5Y Cell Resistance Against Impairment of Iron Overload by Inhibiting NF- κB Pathways.
In conclusion, Dex exerted anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis effects on FeCl2-treated SH-SY5Y cells, possibly by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID: 30694428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hu XB, Xi ZY, Liu LQ, Kang K, Li WH, Shen YX, Kang F, Li J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anticonvulsant Activity of Pterostilbene in Zebrafish and Mouse Acute Seizure Tests.
In conclusion, our present findings demonstrate for the first time the anticonvulsant potential of PTE. The aforementioned results suggest that it might be employed in epilepsy treatment, however, further precise studies are required to verify its activity in other experimental seizure and epilepsy models and its precise mechanism of action should be determined. PMID: 30689162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nieoczym D, Socała K, Gawel K, Esguerra CV, Wyska E, Wlaź P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

3-Mercapto-5H-1,2,4-Triazino[5,6-b]Indole-5-Acetic Acid (Cemtirestat) Alleviates Symptoms of Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rats: A Role of Aldose Reductase.
Abstract Peripheral neuropathy is the most prevalent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Good glycemic control can delay the appearance of neuropathic symptoms in diabetic patients but it is not sufficient to prevent or cure the disease. Therefore therapeutic approaches should focus on attenuation of pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the nerve injury. Considering the role of polyol pathway in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of a novel efficient and selective aldose reductase inhibitor, 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid (cemtirestat), on symptoms of di...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Soltesova Prnova M, Svik K, Bezek S, Kovacikova L, Karasu C, Stefek M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resistin-Inhibited Neural Stem Cell-Derived Astrocyte Differentiation Contributes to Permeability Destruction of the Blood-Brain Barrier.
Abstract Neuroinflammation is an important part of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Inflammatory factors destroy the balance of the microenvironment, which results in changes in neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation behaviour. However, the mechanism underlying inflammatory factor-induced NSC behavioural changes is not clear. Resistin is a proinflammatory and adipogenic factor and is involved in several human pathology processes. The neural stem cell microenvironment changes when the concentration of resistin ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiaoying L, Li T, Yu S, Jiusheng J, Jilin Z, Jiayi W, Dongxin L, Wengang F, Xinyue Z, Hao Y, Yuhua C, Deshu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Administration of Cadmium for 2, 3 and 4 Months Causes a Loss of Recognition Memory, Promotes Neuronal Hypotrophy and Apoptosis in the Hippocampus of Rats.
s G, Diaz A Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal and classified as a carcinogen whose exposure could affect the function of the central nervous system. There are studies that suggest that Cd promotes neurodegeneration in different regions of the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. It is proposed that its mechanism of toxicity maybe by an oxidative stress pathway, which modifies neuronal morphology and causes the death of neurons and consequently affecting cognitive tasks. However, this mechanism is not yet clear. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Cd administration on recognition memory f...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pulido G, Treviño S, Brambila E, Vazquez-Roque R, Moreno-Rodriguez A, Peña Rosas U, Moran-Perales JL, Handal Silva A, Guevara J, Flores G, Diaz A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Aucubin Alleviates Seizures Activity in Li-Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Mice: Involvement of Inhibition of Neuroinflammation and Regulation of Neurotransmission.
In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that AU can exert anti-seizure effects by attenuating gliosis and regulating neurotransmission. The results suggest that AU may be developed as a drug candidate for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID: 30666488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen S, Zeng X, Zong W, Wang X, Chen L, Zhou L, Li C, Huang Q, Huang X, Zeng G, Hu K, Ouyang DS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inflammation in Traumatic Brain Injury: Roles for Toxic A1 Astrocytes and Microglial-Astrocytic Crosstalk.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury triggers neuroinflammation that may contribute to progressive neurodegeneration. We investigated patterns of recruitment of astrocytes and microglia to inflammation after brain trauma by firstly characterising expression profiles over time of marker genes following TBI, and secondly by monitoring glial morphologies reflecting inflammatory responses in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (i.e. the lateral fluid percussion injury). Gene expression profiles revealed early elevation of expression of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein relative to microglial marker allogr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Clark DPQ, Perreau VM, Shultz SR, Brady RD, Lei E, Dixit S, Taylor JM, Beart PM, Boon WC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Mating and the Male Sex Peptide on Group Behaviour of Post-mated Female Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Sleep is a highly conserved state in animals, but its regulation and physiological function is poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for studying sleep regulation and has been used to investigate how sex and social interactions can influence wake-sleep profiles. Previously we have shown that copulation has a profound effect on day time activity and quiescence (siesta sleep) of individual post-mated females. Here we have the studied the effect of mating and the transfer of the 36 amino acid sex peptide in the seminal fluid on the behavior of mated female Drosophila populations, w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Isaac RE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Motor and Cognitive Function Recovery of MCAO Mice Through the Caveolin-1/VEGF Signaling Pathway in Ischemic Penumbra.
In this study, we attempted to determine an additional mechanism of treadmill exercise-mediated motor and cognitive functional recovery through the caveolin-1/VEGF pathway associated with BDNF in the ischemic penumbra of MCAO mice. We found that mice exposed to treadmill exercise after the MCAO operation showed a significant up-regulation in expression of caveolin-1, VEGF, BDNF, synapsin I and CYFIP1 proteins, numbers of cells positive for BrdU/CD34, BDNF, BrdU/NeuN, BrdU/Synapsin I and CYFIP1 expression were increased, which support the reduction in neurological deficit and infarction volume, as well as improved synaptic ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen Z, Hu Q, Xie Q, Wu S, Pang Q, Liu M, Zhao Y, Tu F, Liu C, Chen X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Multi-targeted Effect of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide on Brain Bioenergetic Metabolism.
Abstract Dysfunctions in NAD+ metabolism are associated with neurodegenerative diseases, acute brain injury, diabetes, and aging. Loss of NAD+ levels results in impairment of mitochondria function, which leads to failure of essential metabolic processes. Strategies to replenish depleted NAD+ pools can offer significant improvements of pathologic states. NAD+ levels are maintained by two opposing enzymatic reactions, one is the consumption of NAD+ while the other is the re-synthesis of NAD+. Inhibition of NAD+ degrading enzymes, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) and ectoenzyme CD38, following brain ischemic insu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Klimova N, Kristian T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research