TNF α and IL-1β but not IL-18 Suppresses Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Directly at the Synapse.
TNFα and IL-1β but not IL-18 Suppresses Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Directly at the Synapse. Neurochem Res. 2018 Apr 04;: Authors: Prieto GA, Tong L, Smith ED, Cotman CW Abstract CNS inflammatory responses are linked to cognitive impairment in humans. Research in animal models supports this connection by showing that inflammatory cytokines suppress long-term potentiation (LTP), the best-known cellular correlate of memory. Cytokine-induced modulation of LTP has been previously studied in vivo or in brain slices, two experimental approaches containing multiple cell populations responsi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Prieto GA, Tong L, Smith ED, Cotman CW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dysfunctional γ-Secretase in Familial Alzheimer's Disease.
Dysfunctional γ-Secretase in Familial Alzheimer's Disease. Neurochem Res. 2018 Apr 04;: Authors: Wolfe MS Abstract Genetics strongly implicate the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Dominant missense mutation in the presenilins and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cause early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). As presenilin is the catalytic component of the γ-secretase protease complex that produces Aβ from APP, mutation of the enzyme or substrate that produce Aβ leads to FAD. However, the mechanism by which presenilin mutations...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wolfe MS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Distribution and Morphological Features of Microglia in the Developing Cerebral Cortex of Gyrencephalic Mammals.
Abstract Microglia have been attracting much attention because of their fundamental importance in both the mature brain and the developing brain. Though important roles of microglia in the developing cerebral cortex of mice have been uncovered, their distribution and roles in the developing cerebral cortex in gyrencephalic higher mammals have remained elusive. Here we examined the distribution and morphology of microglia in the developing cerebral cortex of gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. We found that a number of microglia were accumulated in the germinal zones (GZs), especially in the outer subventricular zone ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mizuguchi K, Horiike T, Matsumoto N, Ichikawa Y, Shinmyo Y, Kawasaki H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Changes in the Serum Urate Level Can Predict the Development of Parkinsonism in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Animal Model.
Abstract Epidemiological studies indicate that a higher plasma level of uric acid (UA) associates with the reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). To confirm the role of UA as a biomarker for PD, we evaluated changes in the serum UA level in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonism in rat. For this purpose, 6-OHDA was administered in the medial forebrain bundle by stereotaxic surgery. According to the apomorphine-induced rotational test, the increased intensity of behavioral symptoms as a function of time was associated with the further reduction of UA level. On the other hand, the level of UA inc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sarukhani MR, Haghdoost-Yazdi H, Khandan-Chelarci G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Glutamatergic Dysfunction and Impaired Energy Metabolism.
Abstract In the past couple of decades, major efforts were made to increase reliability of metabolic assessments by magnetic resonance methods. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been valuable for providing in vivo evidence and investigating biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia. Alterations of glutamate and glutamine levels in brains of schizophrenia patients relative to healthy subjects are generally interpreted as markers of glutamatergic dysfunction. However, only a small fraction of MRS-detectable glutamate is involved in neurotransmission. Here we review and discuss brain meta...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Duarte JMN, Xin L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Voluntary Exercise During Adolescence Mitigated Negative the Effects of Maternal Separation Stress on the Depressive-Like Behaviors of Adult Male Rats: Role of NMDA Receptors.
Abstract Evidence indicates that experiencing early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of mental disorders such as depression. Maternal separation stress (MS) is a valid animal model of ELS that caused to induce long-lasting effects on the brain and behaviors of animals. It hypothesized that adolescence is a critical stage in which the brain is still developing, and applying (non)pharmacological therapies in this period may attenuate the effects of ELS on the brain and behavior. Male rats were subjected to MS from postnatal day (PND) 2-14, and the stressed animals were then treated with (1) chr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Masrour FF, Peeri M, Azarbayjani MA, Hosseini MJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Nebulization of RNS60, a Physically-Modified Saline, Attenuates the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The Figure 3, 4, 5 legends have been misplaced. The updated legends along with the figures are corrected with this erratum. PMID: 29611013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mondal S, Rangasamy SB, Ghosh S, Watson RL, Pahan K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Promotes Nigrostriatal Dopamine Function by Modulating PTEN/AKT/mTOR Pathway in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on pathological symptoms and behavioral deficits in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model. The therapeutic effects of LBP were monitored with an Open field test, a Rotarod test and a Morris water maze test. We also investigated the mechanisms with qRT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. After a relatively short-term LBP treatment, the total distance and walking time of PD mice significantly increased. The staying duration on the rod of PD mice increased in the Rotarod test. LBP can ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang X, Pang L, Zhang Y, Xu J, Ding D, Yang T, Zhao Q, Wu F, Li F, Meng H, Yu D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1alpha Is Protein Kinase A-dependent in Primary Cortical Astrocytes Exposed to Severe Hypoxia.
Abstract The hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) are two transcription factors that have been studied in the context of neuronal survival and neurodegeneration. HIF-1 upregulation and CREB activation have been observed not only in neurons but also in astrocytes under conditions of hypoxia. We hypothesized that activation of CREB regulate HIF-1α expression in the nucleus of cortical astrocytes under in vitro ischemic condition. To test the hypothesis, we determined the effects of inhibiting the CREB activation pathway on the expression of HIF-1&alpha...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ramamoorthy P, Xu G, Shi H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Swimming Exercise Ameliorates Low-Soybean-Oil Diet-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Enhancing BDNF-Mediated Synaptic Potentiation in Developing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
Abstract Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng M, Cong J, Wu Y, Xie J, Wang S, Zhao Y, Zang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cannabidiol Reverses Deficits in Hippocampal LTP in a Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Here we demonstrate for the first time that cannabidiol (CBD) acts to protect synaptic plasticity in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The non-psycho active component of Cannabis sativa, CBD has previously been shown to protect against the neurotoxic effects of beta amyloid peptide (Aβ) in cell culture and cognitive behavioural models of neurodegeneration. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity dependent increase in synaptic efficacy often used to study cellular mechanisms related to memory. Here we show that acute application of soluble oligomeric beta amyloid peptide (...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hughes B, Herron CE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Microglia Polarization and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chronic Social Defeat Stress Induced Depression Mouse.
Abstract Inflammation recently has been considered to be participated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the detailed mechanism of inflammation in depression has not been completely understood yet. In the present study, depression mice model was established by chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) method and confirmed by behavior examinations including forced swimming test and sucrose preference test. The decrease of spine density and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) in hippocampus further verified the depression model. Then, the microglia polarization state and endoplasmic retic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tang J, Yu W, Chen S, Gao Z, Xiao B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Kv1.3 Is Upregulated on Activated Astrocytes in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Abstract Kv1.3 is a voltage gated potassium channel that has been implicated in pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study we investigated temporal and cellular expression pattern of this channel in the lumbar part of spinal cords of animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of MS. EAE was actively induced in female Dark Agouti rats. Expression of Kv1.3 was analyzed at different time points of disease progression, at the onset, peak and end of EAE. We here show that Kv1.3 increased by several folds at the peak of EAE at both gene and protein level. Double immu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bozic I, Tesovic K, Laketa D, Adzic M, Jakovljevic M, Bjelobaba I, Savic D, Nedeljkovic N, Pekovic S, Lavrnja I Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of a Constitutively Active Human Insulin Receptor in Hippocampal Neurons Does Not Alter VGCC Currents.
Abstract Memory and cognitive decline are the product of numerous physiological changes within the aging brain. Multiple theories have focused on the oxidative, calcium, cholinergic, vascular, and inflammation hypotheses of brain aging, with recent evidence suggesting that reductions in insulin signaling may also contribute. Specifically, a reduction in insulin receptor density and mRNA levels has been implicated, however, overcoming these changes remains a challenge. While increasing insulin receptor occupation has been successful in offsetting cognitive decline, alternative molecular approaches should be conside...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frazier HN, Anderson KL, Maimaiti S, Ghoweri AO, Kraner SD, Popa GJ, Hampton KK, Mendenhall MD, Norris CM, Craven RJ, Thibault O Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of the Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptor Biased Agonists, F13714 and F15599, on Striatal Neurotransmitter Levels Following L-DOPA Administration in Hemi-Parkinsonian Rats.
This study adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the development of a potent 5-HT1A receptor agonist for treatment of peak-dose dyskinesia. PMID: 29572645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Newman-Tancredi A, Varney MA, McCreary AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockout of Amyloid β Protein Precursor (APP) Expression Alters Synaptogenesis, Neurite Branching and Axonal Morphology of Hippocampal Neurons.
In this study, we examined the development of axons, dendrites and synapses in cultures of hippocampus neutrons derived from APP knockout (KO) mice. We report that loss of APP function reduces the branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, resulting in reduced synapse formation. Using a compartmentalised culture approach, we found reduced axonal outgrowth in cultured hippocampal neurons and we also identified abnormal growth characteristics of isolated hippocampal neuron axons. Although APP has previously been suggested to play an important role in promoting cell adhesion, we surprisingly found that APPKO hippocampal neuro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Southam KA, Stennard F, Pavez C, Small DH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ultrastructural Changes and Expression of PCNA and RPE65 in Sodium Iodate-Induced Acute Retinal Pigment Epithelium Degeneration Model.
Abstract Alteration in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) results in the visual dysfunction and blindness of retinal degenerative diseases. Injection of sodium iodate (NaIO3) generates degeneration of RPE. We analyzed the sequential ultrastructure and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and retina-specific RPE65 in NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration model. Adult male rats were injected 1% NaIO3 (50 mg/kg) and eyes were enucleated at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days post-injection (DPI), fixed, and processed for histological analysis. NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration was successfully established. At ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim HL, Nam SM, Chang BJ, Nahm SS, Lee JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Gualou Guizhi Granule Protects Against Oxidative Injury by Activating Nrf2/ARE Pathway in Rats and PC12 Cells.
The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Gualou Guizhi granule (GLGZG) against oxidative stress and explore the protective mechanism of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. In vivo, administration of GLGZG in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia significantly suppressed oxidative injury by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione level and decreasing reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. Western blot analysis showed that GLGZG induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and combined with real-time PCR results, which indicated that GLGZG up-regulated the Nrf2/ARE pathway. In ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Fan L, Li H, Wang X, Xu W, Chu K, Lin Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Scaling Synapses in the Presence of HIV.
Abstract A defining feature of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is the loss of excitatory synaptic connections. Synaptic changes that occur during exposure to HIV appear to result, in part, from a homeostatic scaling response. Here we discuss the mechanisms of these changes from the perspective that they might be part of a coping mechanism that reduces synapses to prevent excitotoxicity. In transgenic animals expressing the HIV proteins Tat or gp120, the loss of synaptic markers precedes changes in neuronal number. In vitro studies have shown that HIV-induced synapse loss and cell death are mediated b...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Green MV, Raybuck JD, Zhang X, Wu MM, Thayer SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Assessment of the Anticonvulsant Potency of Ursolic Acid in Seizure Threshold Tests in Mice.
Abstract Ursolic acid (UA) is a plant derived compound which is also a component of the standard human diet. It possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, i.e., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Moreover, influence of UA on central nervous system-related processes, i.e., pain, anxiety and depression, was proved in experimental studies. UA also revealed anticonvulsant properties in animal models of epilepsy and seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of UA on seizure thresholds in three acute s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nieoczym D, Socała K, Wlaź P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

2R,4R-APDC, a Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist, Reduced Neuronal Apoptosis by Upregulating MicroRNA-128 in a Rat Model After Seizures.
In conclusion, 2R,4R-APDC protected hippocampal cells from cell apoptosis after seizures, possibly by upregulating miR-128. PMID: 29497903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feng YB, Lin YT, Han YX, Pang YJ, Xu JJ, Xue Y, Yao H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chrysophanol Relieves Cognition Deficits and Neuronal Loss Through Inhibition of Inflammation in Diabetic Mice.
Abstract Patients with diabetes mellitus are easy to experience diabetic encephalopathy (DE) and other cognition dysfunction, whereas the neural alterations in developing this disease are unknown yet. Chrysophanol (CHR) is one of traditional Chinese medicine which was reported to show protective effects in cognition dysfunction and inflammatory in previously studies. In this current study, whether CHR protects learning and memory dysfunctions induced by diabetes disease or not and underlying mechanisms were studied. DE model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, i.p.) in ICR mice. CHR was administrated 3 days a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chu X, Zhou S, Sun R, Wang L, Xing C, Liang R, Kong Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Cornel Iridoid Glycoside in Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is the active ingredient extracted from Cornus officinalis. Our previous studies showed that CIG had protective effects on several brain injury models. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects and elucidate the mechanisms of CIG against traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI was induced in the right cerebral cortex of male adult rats. The neurological and cognitive functions were evaluated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and object recognition test (ORT), respectively. The level of serum S100β was measured by an ELISA method. Nissl staining was us...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma D, Wang N, Fan X, Zhang L, Luo Y, Huang R, Zhang L, Li Y, Zhao G, Li L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Muscarinic Receptor-Dependent Long Term Depression in the Perirhinal Cortex and Recognition Memory are Impaired in the rTg4510 Mouse Model of Tauopathy.
In this study, we have examined novel object recognition and PRh LTD in rTg4510 mice, which transgenically overexpress tauP301L. We found that 8-9 month old rTg4510 mice had significant deficits in long- but not short-term novel object recognition memory. Furthermore, we also established that PRh slices prepared from rTg4510 mice, unlike those prepared from wildtype littermates, could not support a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent form of LTD, induced by a 5 Hz stimulation protocol. In contrast, bath application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol induced a form of chemical LTD in both WT and rTg4510 slices...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Scullion SE, Barker GRI, Warburton EC, Randall AD, Brown JT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of miR-219 Alleviates Arsenic-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments and Synaptic Damage Through Up-regulating CaMKII in the Hippocampus.
In this study, we observed that subchronic arsenic exposure induced impairment of learning and memory and significantly up-regulated miRNA-219 (miR-219) expression in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, the expression of CaMKII, an experimentally validated target of miR-219, was decreased in the mice exposed to arsenic. Suppression of miR-219 by adeno-associated viral (AAV)-delivered anti-miR-219 prevented the arsenic-induced impairment of learning and memory and relieved the pathological changes in the synaptic structure of the hippocampus. Furthermore, we observed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2 (NR2) and the memory-rel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang D, Wang X, Liu X, Jiang L, Yang G, Shi X, Zhang C, Piao F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

AMPA-Type Glutamate Receptor Conductance Changes and Plasticity: Still a Lot of Noise.
Abstract Twenty years ago, we reported from the Collingridge Lab that a single-channel conductance increase through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) could mediate one form of plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus (Benke et al., Nature 395:793-797, 1998). Revealed through peak-scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis (PS-NSFA, also known as noise analysis), this component of LTP could be exclusively mediated by direct increases in channel conductance or by increases in the number of high conductance ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Benke T, Traynelis SF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Axon Initial Segment Structural Plasticity is Involved in Seizure Susceptibility in a Rat Model of Cortical Dysplasia.
Abstract Cortical dysplasia is the most common etiology of intractable epilepsy. Both excitability changes in cortical neurons and neural network reconstitution play a role in cortical dysplasia epileptogenesis. Recent research shows that the axon initial segment, a subcompartment of the neuron important to the shaping of action potentials, adjusts its position in response to changes in input, which contributes to neuronal excitability and local circuit balance. It is unknown whether axon initial segment plasticity occurs in neurons involved in seizure susceptibility in cortical dysplasia. Here, we developed a &qu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yue ZW, Wang YL, Xiao B, Feng L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-322 Cluster Promotes Tau Phosphorylation via Targeting Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.
Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial regulator to support synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival, its significant decrease is a pathophysiological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and accounts for poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with the translation of target mRNAs and control a variety of physiological and pathological processes. MiR-322 is the rodent homologue of human miR-424, it is involved in the modulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic activities in diverse tissues and organs. However, the roles and potential mechanisms of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Liu Z, Pei Y, Yang W, Xie C, Long S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Curcumin Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in TNF- α induced Astrocytes Through AMPK Pathway.
Curcumin Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in TNF-α induced Astrocytes Through AMPK Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2018 Feb 19;: Authors: Qin X, Qiao H, Wu S, Cheng J, Wan Q, Liu R Abstract Curcumin, a phenolic pigment, plays an inhibitory role in astrocytes activation, a key step for neuropathic pain (NP). The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism behind the therapeutic effect of Curcumin on NP in vitro. Specifically, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Curcumin on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced astrocyte migration. We also studied the effects ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qin X, Qiao H, Wu S, Cheng J, Wan Q, Liu R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Yulangsan Polysaccharide on the Reinstatement of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Sprague-Dawley Rats.
In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of YLSP on the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. A CPP procedure was employed to assess the behavior of rats, and indicators of serum and four brain regions (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) were determined to explore its underlying mechanism. YLSP inhibited priming morphine-induced reinstatement of CPP in a dose-dependent manner. YLSP markedly reduced nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase levels in the brain. Moreover, YLSP significantly decreased the dopamine and norepinephrin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen C, Nong Z, Liang X, Meng M, Xuan F, Xie Q, He J, Huang R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Rifampicin Prevents SH-SY5Y Cells from Rotenone-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 β/CREB Signaling Pathway.
This study aims to investigate whether rifampicin protects rotenone-lesioned SH-SY5Y cells via regulating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/CREB pathway. Rotenone-treated SH-SY5Y cells were used as the cell model to investigate the neuroprotective effects of rifampicin. Cell viability and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells were determined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of Akt, p-Akt, GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β, CREB and p-CREB were measured by Western blot. Our results showed that the cell viability and level of phospho-CREB significantly decreased in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to rotenone when compared to the contr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu X, Liang Y, Jing X, Lin D, Chen Y, Zhou T, Peng S, Zheng D, Zeng Z, Lei M, Huang K, Tao E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Human Neural Stem Cells with GDNF Site-Specific Integration at AAVS1 by Using AAV Vectors Retained Their Stemness.
Abstract The neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and to migrate to pathologically altered regions of the central nervous system. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could protect dopamine neurons and rescue motor neurons in vivo, which has been proposed as a promising candidate for the treatments of degenerative neurological diseases. In order to combine the advantages of neurotrophic factors and stem cells in clinical therapy, we established the modified hNSCs that has site-specific integration of GDNF gene by using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors. The hNSCs were c...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Liu X, Zhang Y, Luan Z, Yang Y, Wang Z, Zhang C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Geniposide Increases Unfolded Protein Response-Mediating HRD1 Expression to Accelerate APP Degradation in Primary Cortical Neurons.
In this study, we investigated the role of geniposide in the activation of UPR induced by high glucose in primary cortical neurons. We found that high glucose induced a significant activation of UPR, and geniposide enhanced the effect of high glucose on the phosphorylation of IRE1α, the most conserved UPR signaling branch. We observed that geniposide induced the expression of HRD1, an ubiquitin-ligase E3 in a time dependent manner, and amplified the expression of HRD1 induced by high glucose in primary cortical neurons. Suppression of IRE1α activity with STF-083010, an inhibitor of IRE1 phosphorylation, prevent...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cui H, Deng M, Zhang Y, Yin F, Liu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Paeoniflorin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells via Suppression Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.
Paeoniflorin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells via Suppression Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. Neurochem Res. 2018 Feb 08;: Authors: Wang Z, Liu Z, Yu G, Nie X, Jia W, Liu RE, Xu R Abstract Paeoniflorin (PF) is a polyphenolic compound derived from Radix Paeoniae Alba thathas anti-cancer activities in a variety of human malignancies including glioblastoma. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized as losing cell polarity, plays an essential role in tu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Z, Liu Z, Yu G, Nie X, Jia W, Liu RE, Xu R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Impact of Coffee and Cacao Purine Metabolites on Neuroplasticity and Neurodegenerative Disease.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that regular consumption of coffee, tea and dark chocolate (cacao) can promote brain health and may reduce the risk of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the complex array of phytochemicals in coffee and cacao beans and tea leaves has hindered a clear understanding of the component(s) that affect neuronal plasticity and resilience. One class of phytochemicals present in relatively high amounts in coffee, tea and cacao are methylxanthines. Among such methylxanthines, caffeine has been the most widely studied and has clear effects on neuronal network activity, pro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Camandola S, Plick N, Mattson MP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Involvement of Ventral Periaqueductal Gray Dopaminergic Neurons in Propofol Anesthesia.
Abstract It has been reported that central dopaminergic system is implicated in the mechanism underlying general anesthesia. Whether dopamine (DA) neurons in midbrain ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) are involved in general anesthesia and how general anesthetics affect these neurons remain sparsely documented. To determine the role of vPAG DA neurons in propofol-induced anesthesia, we performed microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into vPAG to damage DA neurons and investigated the alteration in somatosensory electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as the induction and recovery time of propofol anesthesia. S...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li J, Yu T, Shi F, Zhang Y, Duan Z, Fu B, Zhang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Phenolic and Carboxylic Acids on Oxidative Stress-Induced Toxicity in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.
Abstract An increase in oxidative stress is a key factor responsible for neurotoxicity induction and cell death leading to neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Plant phenolics exert diverse bioactivities i.e., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Herein, phenolic compounds, namely protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) constituents of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. including vanillic acid (VA) and trans-ferulic acid (FA) found in Spilanthes acmella Murr., were explored for anti-neurodegenerative properties using an in vitro model of oxidative stress-induced neurob...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gay NH, Phopin K, Suwanjang W, Songtawee N, Ruankham W, Wongchitrat P, Prachayasittikul S, Prachayasittikul V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Gastrodin Suppresses Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures Progression by Modulating Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of GAS pretreatment on PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish larvae and investigated the underlying mechanism related to its anti-oxidative defense. We found for the first time that GAS significantly decreased seizure-like behavior and extended the latency period to the onset of seizures. In addition, after exposure to GAS, anti-oxidative activity was observed in PTZ-induced seizures by measurement of antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress-related genes expression. The overall results indicate that GAS attenuates PTZ-induced seizures in a concentration-dependent manner and m...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin M, He Q, Zhang S, Cui Y, Han L, Liu K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amentoflavone Ameliorates A β1-42-Induced Memory Deficits and Oxidative Stress in Cellular and Rat Model.
This study aimed to investigate whether amentoflavone (AF), a biflavonoid compound, could exert neuroprotective activities against AD. The AD model was established by the intracranial injection of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in rat models. The effect of AF on cognitive function was examined using the Morris water maze test. Cell survival and apoptosis in the hippocampal region in an animal model were detected using Nissl staining and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferased UTP nick-end labeling assay, respectively. The levels of oxidant enzymes were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Signaling molecule expression...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen C, Li B, Cheng G, Yang X, Zhao N, Shi R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Analgesic Effect of Methane Rich Saline in a Rat Model of Chronic Inflammatory Pain.
Abstract How oxidative stress contributes to neuro-inflammation and chronic pain is documented, and methane is reported to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the nervous system via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We studied whether methane in the form of methane rich saline (MS) has analgesic effects in a monoarthritis (MA) rat model of chronic inflammatory pain. Single and repeated injections of MS (i.p.) reduced MA-induced mechanical allodynia and multiple methane treatments blocked activation of glial cells, decreased IL-1β and TNF-α production and MMP-2 activity, and upregu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou SZ, Zhou YL, Ji F, Li HL, Lv H, Zhang Y, Xu H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Naringenin Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects in Paraquat-Treated SH-SY5Y Cells Through a Mechanism Associated with the Nrf2/HO-1 Axis.
CR Abstract Naringenin (NGN; 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one; C15H12O5), a flavanone, is found in citrus fruits and has been viewed as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. NGN is a potent inducer of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulates the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme exhibiting both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The complete mechanism by which NGN exerts anti-inflammatory actions is not completely understood yet. Therefore, we investigated here whether NGN would be able to reduce the inflammation induced by paraq...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Oliveira MR, Andrade CMB, Fürstenau CR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lithium Inhibits GSK3 β Activity via Two Different Signaling Pathways in Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury.
In this study, we discovered that lithium inhibits GSK3β activity through two different signaling pathways in spinal cord neurons. In the acute phase, lithium inhibited GSK3β activity by stimulating phosphorylation of AKT; in the chronic phase, we first discovered that lithium additionally upregulated the expression of Na+, K+-ATPase α1 (NKA α1), which had an inhibitory effect on GSK3β activity by inducing the expression of glucocorticoid inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). SGK1 is well known as a regulator of the GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, the suppressed activity of GSK3β...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li B, Ren J, Yang L, Li X, Sun G, Xia M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Estrogen Receptors Are Involved in the Neuroprotective Effect of Silibinin in A β1-42-Treated Rats.
In this study, we investigated the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in silibinin's neuroprotective effect on Aβ1-42-injected rats. Results of Morris water maze and novel object-recognition tests demonstrated that silibinin significantly attenuated Aβ1-42-induced memory impairment. Silibinin attenuated ERs and PI3K-Akt pathways, as well as modulated mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus of Aβ1-42-injected rats. Taken together, silibinin is a potential candidate in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 29397533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song X, Liu B, Cui L, Zhou B, Liu L, Liu W, Yao G, Xia M, Hayashi T, Hattori S, Ushiki-Kaku Y, Tashiro SI, Ikejima T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Methylphenidate Alters Tonic and Phasic Glutamate Signaling in the Frontal Cortex of a Freely-Moving Rat Model of ADHD.
Abstract Glutamate dysfunction has been implicated in a number of substance of abuse studies, including cocaine and methamphetamine. Moreover, in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has been discovered that when the initiation of stimulant treatment occurs during adolescence, there is an increased risk of developing a substance use disorder later in life. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) serves as a phenotype for ADHD and studies have found increased cocaine self-administration in adult SHRs when treated with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) during adolescence. For this reason, we wanted...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller EM, Quintero JE, Pomerleau F, Huettl P, Gerhardt GA, Glaser PEA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Leptin, Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors in Hypothalamic POMC-Neurons of Normal and Obese Rodents.
Abstract The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are involved in the control of food intake and metabolic processes. It is assumed that, in addition to leptin, the activity of these neurons is regulated by serotonin and dopamine, but only subtype 2C serotonin receptors (5-HT2CR) was identified earlier on the POMC-neurons. The aim of this work was a comparative study of the localization and number of leptin receptors (LepR), types 1 and 2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R), 5-HT1BR and 5-HT2CR on the POMC-neurons and the expression of the genes encoding them in the AR...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Romanova IV, Derkach KV, Mikhrina AL, Sukhov IB, Mikhailova EV, Shpakov AO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Rolipram Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possibly via Regulating the SIRT1/NF- κB Pathway.
In conclusion, these data suggested that rolipram exerts neuroprotective effects against EBI after SAH via suppressing neuroinflammation and reducing neuronal loss. The neuroprotective effects of rolipram were associated with regulating the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway. Rolipram could be a novel and promising therapeutic agent for SAH treatment. PMID: 29397536 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peng Y, Jin J, Fan L, Xu H, He P, Li J, Chen T, Ruan W, Chen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PDGF Modulates Synaptic Excitability and Short-Latency Afferent Inhibition in Multiple Sclerosis.
ori F Abstract Maintenance of synaptic plasticity reserve is crucial to contrast clinical deterioration in MS and PDGF plays a key role in this phenomenon. Indeed, higher cerebrospinal fluid PDGF concentration correlates with improved clinical recovery after a relapse, and the amplitude of LTP-like cortical plasticity in relapsing-remitting MS patients. However, LTP-like cortical plasticity varies depending on the individual level of inhibitory cortical circuits. Aim of this study was to explore whether PDGF-CSF concentration correlates with inhibitory cortical circuits explored by means of transcranial magnetic s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mango D, Nisticò R, Furlan R, Finardi A, Centonze D, Mori F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Luteolin Could Improve Cognitive Dysfunction by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation.
Abstract Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in cognition deficit following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Luteolin, a natural flavonoid found in many plants, is known for a variety of pharmacological activities, such as its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, urate, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. To assess whether luteolin could prevent CCH-induced cognitive dysfunction, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative-stress effects, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, enzyme activity assays, behavioral methods, immunohistochemistry, and electrophysiology ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao ZH, Yao XL, Zhang Y, Zhang SF, Hu JC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alterations of Hippocampal Myelin Sheath and Axon Sprouting by Status Convulsion and Regulating Lingo-1 Expression with RNA Interference in Immature and Adult Rats.
Abstract Seizure-induced brain damage is age-dependent, as evidenced by the different alterations of neural physiopathology in developing and mature brains. However, little is known about the age-dependent characteristics of myelinated fiber injury induced by seizures. Considering the critical functions of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in myelination and Lingo-1 signaling in regulating OPCs' differentiation, the present study aimed to explore the effects of Lingo-1 on myelin and axon in immature and adult rats after status convulsion (SC) induced by lithium-pilocarpine, and the differences between immatu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song XJ, Han W, He R, Li TY, Xie LL, Cheng L, Chen HS, Jiang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced  Striatal Nitrosative Stress and Impaired Social Recognition Memory Are Not Magnified by Paraquat Coexposure.
In this study, we investigated the effects of alternate intraperitoneal injections of LPS on BBB permeability, social recognition memory and biochemical parameters in the striatum 24 h and 60 days after treatments. In addition, we investigated whether the exposure to a moderate neurotoxic dose of the herbicide paraquat could potentiate LPS-induced neurotoxicity. LPS administration caused a transient disruption of BBB integrity, evidenced by increased levels of exogenously administered sodium fluorescein in the striatum. Also, LPS exposure caused delayed impairment in social recognition memory (evaluated at day 38...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gonçalves C, Dos Santos DB, Portilho SS, Lopes MW, Ghizoni H, de Souza V, Mack JM, Naime AA, Dafre AL, de Souza Brocardo P, Prediger RD, Farina M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research