Mithramycin A Alleviates Cognitive Deficits and Reduces Neuropathology in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
In this study, we reported that Sp1 mRNA and protein expression were markedly increased in the brain of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, whereas chronic administration of mithramycin A (MTM), a selective Sp1 inhibitor, potently inhibited Sp1 activation in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice down to the levels of wild-type mice. Specifically, we found that MTM treatment resulted in a significant improvement of learning and memory deficits, a dramatic reduction in cerebral Aβ levels and plaque burden, a profound reduction in tau hyperphosphorylation, and a marked increase in synaptic marker in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. In addition, MTM ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei C, Zhang W, Zhou Q, Zhao C, Du Y, Yan Q, Li Z, Miao J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Blocking Sympathetic Nervous System Reverses Partially Stroke-Induced Immunosuppression but does not Aggravate Functional Outcome After Experimental Stroke in Rats.
This study suggests that pharmacological SNS inhibition dose not aggravate functional outcome after stroke. Stroke-induced immunosuppression may be involved in the SNS-β-arrestin2-NF-κB pathway. PMID: 27059792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng QW, Yang H, Yan FL, Wang H, Xing FL, Zuo L, Zhang HQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Tanshinone I Enhances Neurogenesis in the Mouse Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus via Increasing Wnt-3, Phosphorylated Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and β-Catenin Immunoreactivities.
In this study, we examined effects of TsI on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the mouse dentate gyrus (DG) using Ki-67, BrdU and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. Mice were treated with 1 and 2 mg/kg TsI for 28 days. In the 1 mg/kg TsI-treated-group, distribution patterns of BrdU, Ki-67 and DCX positive ((+)) cells in the SGZ were similar to those in the vehicle-treated-group. However, in the 2 mg/kg TsI-treated-group, double labeled BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells, which are mature neurons, as well as Ki-67(+), DCX(+) and BrdU(+) cells were significantly inc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen BH, Park JH, Cho JH, Kim IH, Lee JC, Lee TK, Ahn JH, Tae HJ, Shin BN, Kim JD, Kang IJ, Won MH, Lee YL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SIRT3 Acts as a Neuroprotective Agent in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson Cell Model.
Abstract SIRT3 is a member of Sirtuins family, which belongs to NAD(+) dependent class III histone deacetylases. Emerging evidence suggests that SIRT3 plays a pivotal role in regulating mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a main pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we have investigated the protective effect of SIRT3 for PD cell model. The rotenone-induced human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells damage was used as PD cell model. The lentiviral vectors were used to over-expression or knockdown SIRT3 expression. The cell viability was analyzed using MTT method. The apoptosis, reactive oxygen spe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang JY, Deng YN, Zhang M, Su H, Qu QM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Paeoniflorin Against MPP(+)-induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the protective mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF), a monoterpene glycoside extracted from Radix Paeoniae alba roots, on MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). Our work included examination of cell viability assessment, amounts of released lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activity, and expression profiling of two apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2 and Bax). It was shown that, PF functioned as an MPP(+) antagonist, being able to suppress apoptosis, dec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng M, Liu C, Fan Y, Shi D, Zhang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Natural Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana with Multifunctional Activities for the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.
en JK Abstract Natural xanthones have diversity pharmacological activities. Here, a series of xanthones isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana Linn, named α-Mangostin, 8-Deoxygartanin, Gartanin, Garciniafuran, Garcinone C, Garcinone D, and γ-Mangostin were investigated. Biological screening performed in vitro and in Escherichia coli cells indicated that most of the xanthones exhibited significant inhibition of self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and also β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, acted as potential antioxidants and biometal chelators. Among these...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang SN, Li Q, Jing MH, Alba E, Yang XH, Sabaté R, Han YF, Pi RB, Lan WJ, Yang XB, Chen JK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Vanillin Attenuated Behavioural Impairments, Neurochemical Deficts, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Against Rotenone Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a pleasant smelling organic aromatic compound, is widely used as a flavoring additive in food, beverage, cosmetic and drug industries. It is reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of vanillin against rotenone induced in in vitro model of PD. The present experiment was aimed to analyze the neuroprotective effect of vanillin on the motor and non-motor deficits, neurochemical variables, oxidative, anti-oxidative indices and the expression of apoptotic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dhanalakshmi C, Janakiraman U, Manivasagam T, Justin Thenmozhi A, Essa MM, Kalandar A, Khan MA, Guillemin GJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Modulation of NMDA Receptor Subunits Expression by Concanavalin A.
Abstract The processes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits expression were examined in cortical neurons and rat brain in order to investigate how the concanavalin A (Con A) modulates neuronal cells. Con A modulated the expression of NMDA receptor subunits in cultured cortical cells. Con A augmented the level of intracellular Ca(2+) by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA). We determined whether activation of AMPA receptors was involved in the regulation of NMDA receptor expression with Con A by blocking the desensitization of AMPA receptors. The results showed that AMPA recept...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jang S, Yu JY, Ahn JH, Oh S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Asymmetric Dimethylarginine-Induced Injury in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.
In conclusion, EGCG can protect against ADMA-induced HBMEC injury via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways, which are involved in the underlying mechanisms of HBMEC injury in cerebral infarction. PMID: 27038929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li J, Zhang Z, Lv L, Qiao H, Chen X, Zou C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differential Expression of Adenosine P1 Receptor ADORA1 and ADORA2A Associated with Glioma Development and Tumor-Associated Epilepsy.
This study assessed expression of adenosine P1 receptors, ADORA1 (adenosine A1 receptor) and ADORA2A (adenosine A2a receptor) and their association with glioma development and epilepsy in glioma patients. Expression of ADORA1/ADORA2A was assessed immunohistochemically in 65 surgically removed glioma tissue and 21 peri-tumor tissues and 8 cases of normal brain tissues obtained from hematoma patients with cerebral trauma. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR were also used to verify immunohistochemical data. Adenosine P1 receptor ADORA1 and ADORA2A proteins were localized in the cell membrane and cytoplasm and ADORA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang J, Chen MN, Du J, Liu H, He YJ, Li GL, Li SY, Liu WP, Long XY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Increases Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Sodium Currents Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons via Different Mechanisms.
In conclusion, our data demonstrated that SDF-1 may excite primary nociceptive sensory neurons by acting on the biophysical properties of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 currents but via different mechanisms. PMID: 27038931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qiu F, Li Y, Fu Q, Fan YY, Zhu C, Liu YH, Mi WD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression and Prognostic Significance of p53 in Glioma Patients: A Meta-analysis.
Abstract Glioma is a brain tumor deriving from the neoplastic glial cells or neuroglia. Due to its resistance to anticancer drugs and different disease progress of individuals, patients with high-grade glioma are difficult to completely cure, leading to a poor prognosis and low overall survival. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look for prognostic and diagnostic indicators that can predict glioma grades. P53 is one of the widely studied biomarkers in human glioma. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the significance of p53 expression in glioma grades and overall survival. We searched com...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin Y, Xiao W, Song T, Feng G, Dai Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Impaired Purinergic Regulation of the Glial (Müller) Cell Volume in the Retina of Transgenic Rats Expressing Defective Polycystin-2.
Impaired Purinergic Regulation of the Glial (Müller) Cell Volume in the Retina of Transgenic Rats Expressing Defective Polycystin-2. Neurochem Res. 2016 Apr 2; Authors: Vogler S, Pannicke T, Hollborn M, Kolibabka M, Wiedemann P, Reichenbach A, Hammes HP, Bringmann A Abstract Retinal glial (Müller) cells possess an endogenous purinergic signal transduction cascade which normally prevents cellular swelling in osmotic stress. The cascade can be activated by osmotic or glutamate receptor-dependent ATP release. We determined whether activation of this cascade is altered in Müller cells of tr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vogler S, Pannicke T, Hollborn M, Kolibabka M, Wiedemann P, Reichenbach A, Hammes HP, Bringmann A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sex-Dependent Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transport in Preadolescent Rats Exposed Prenatally and/or Postnatally to Methamphetamine.
We examined the striatal synaptosomal DATs (the activity and density of surface expressed DATs and total DAT expression) in preadolescent male and female Wistar rats (31-35-day old animals) exposed prenatally and/or postnatally to MA (daily 5 mg/kg, s.c. to mothers during pregnancy and lactation). To distinguish between specific and nonspecific effects of MA on DATs, we also evaluated the in vitro effects of lipophilic MA on the fluidity of striatal membranes isolated from preadolescent and young adult rats of both sexes. We observed similar changes in the DATs of preadolescent rats exposed prenatally or postnatally (...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sirova J, Kristofikova Z, Vrajova M, Fujakova-Lipski M, Ripova D, Klaschka J, Slamberova R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of 3',4'-Dihydroxyflavonol on Lipid Peroxidation in Rats with Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract The aim of present study was to determine the effect of 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF) on lipid peroxidation in experimental brain ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Present study was performed on the 34 male Wistar-albino rats, weigth 350-400 g. Experiment groups were designed as 1-Sham; 2-Ischemia-reperfusion; animal were anesthesized and carotid arteried were clemped for 20 min and reperfusion (7 days). 3-DiOHF + Ischemia-reperfusion; DiOHF was given to animals as 10 mg/kg by intraperitoneal. 4- Ischemia + DiOHF + Reperfusion; 5- Ischemia-reperfusion +...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Caliskan M, Mogulkoc R, Baltaci AK, Menevse E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amyloid Beta Peptides Affect Pregnenolone and Pregnenolone Sulfate Levels in PC-12 and SH-SY5Y Cells Depending on Cholesterol.
Abstract Increased amyloid beta (AB) peptide concentration is one of the initiating factors in the neurodegeneration process. It has been suggested that cholesterol induces the synthesis of AB peptide from amyloid precursor protein or facilitates the formation of amyloid plaque by lowering the aggregation threshold of the peptide. It is also shown that AB peptides may affect cholesterol metabolism and the synthesis of steroid hormones such as progesterone and estradiol. Pregnenolone (P) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) are the major steroids produced from cholesterol in neural tissue. In toxicity conditions, the effe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Calan OG, Akan P, Cataler A, Dogan C, Kocturk S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Liraglutide on Corneal Kindling Epilepsy Induced Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Mice.
Abstract GLP-1 play important role in neuroprotection and GLP-1 receptor deficit mice showed decreased seizure threshold and increased cognitive impairment. Therefore, study was premeditated to investigate the effect of liraglutide (GLP-1 analogue) on cornel kindling epilepsy induced co-morbidities in mice. Corneal kindling was induced by electrical stimulation (6 mA, 50 Hz, 3 s); twice daily for 13 days. Liraglutide (75 and 150 µg/kg) and phenytoin (20 mg/kg) were administered in corneal kindled groups. On day 14, elevated plus maze, passive shock avoidance paradigms were perfo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Koshal P, Kumar P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate Receptor Stimulation Up-Regulates Glutamate Uptake in Human Müller Glia Cells.
Glutamate Receptor Stimulation Up-Regulates Glutamate Uptake in Human Müller Glia Cells. Neurochem Res. 2016 Mar 26; Authors: López-Colomé AM, López E, Mendez-Flores OG, Ortega A Abstract Glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid in the vertebrate retina, is a well know activator of numerous signal transduction pathways, and has been critically involved in long-term synaptic changes acting through ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. However, recent findings underlining the importance of intensity and duration of glutamate stimuli for specific neuronal responses, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: López-Colomé AM, López E, Mendez-Flores OG, Ortega A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-508-5p Inhibits the Progression of Glioma by Targeting Glycoprotein Non-metastatic Melanoma B.
In conclusion, these results indicate that increased expression of miR-508-5p might be related to glioma progression, indicating a potential role of miR-508-5p for clinical therapy. PMID: 27003587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 22, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bao G, Wang N, Li R, Xu G, Liu P, He B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Modulatory Effects of Mild Carbon Monoxide Exposure in the Developing Mouse Cochlea.
In this study we tested the hypothesis that chronic very mild CO exposure at concentrations 25-ppm increases the expression of oxidative stress protecting enzymes within the cellular milieu of the developing inner ear (cochlea) of the normal CD-1 mouse. In addition we tested also the hypothesis that CO can decrease the pre-existing condition of oxidative stress in the mouse model for the human medical condition systemic lupus erythematosus by increasing two protective enzymes heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD-2). CD-1 and MRL/lpr mice were exposed to mild CO concentrations (25 ppm in air) from p...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lopez IA, Acuna D, Edmond J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor on Regeneration in Nerve Crush Injuries in Rats.
In conclusion, we found that 100 μg/kg administration of G-CSF promoted long-term functional recovery in a rat model of nerve crush injury. PMID: 26980007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song YS, Joe JH, Joo HW, Park IH, Shen GY, Kim KJ, Lee Y, Shin JH, Kim H, Kim KS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Altered Expression of Human Mitochondrial Branched Chain Aminotransferase in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Vascular Dementia.
Abstract Cytosolic and mitochondrial human branched chain aminotransferase (hBCATc and hBCATm, respectively) play an integral role in brain glutamate metabolism. Regional increased levels of hBCATc in the CA1 and CA4 region of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain together with increased levels of hBCATm in frontal and temporal cortex of AD brains, suggest a role for these proteins in glutamate excitotoxicity. Glutamate toxicity is a key pathogenic feature of several neurological disorders including epilepsy associated dementia, AD, vascular dementia (VaD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To further understand if the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ashby EL, Kierzkowska M, Hull J, Kehoe PG, Hutson SM, Conway ME Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Blocking B7-1/CD28 Pathway Diminished Long-Range Brain Damage by Regulating the Immune and Inflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Abstract Acute brain injuries can activate bidirectional crosstalk between the injured brain and the immune system. The immune system, particularly T lymphocytes and cytokines, has been implicated in the progression of brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Co-stimulatory molecules B7-1 (CD80)/B7-2 (CD86) binding cognate receptor provides a secondary signaling to T cell activation. The aim of our study was to explore the effects of anti-B7-1 antibody on the development and prognosis of cerebral hemorrhage and to investigate the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were inner canthus veniplex administere...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma L, Shen X, Gao Y, Wu Q, Ji M, Luo C, Zhang M, Wang T, Chen X, Tao L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase is Negatively Regulated Via Prion Protein.
Abstract Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycoprotein of the plasma membrane that plays pleiotropic functions by interacting with multiple signaling complexes at the cell surface. Recently, a number of studies have reported the involvement of PrP(C) in dopamine metabolism and signaling, including its interactions with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptors. However, the outcomes reported by independent studies are still debatable. Therefore in this study, we investigated the effects of PrP(C) on the TH expression during the differentiation of N2a cells with dibutyryl-cAMP, a well-known cAMP analog t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: da Luz MH, Glezer I, Xavier AM, da Silva MA, Pino JM, Zamith TP, Vieira TF, Antonio BB, Antunes HK, Martins VR, Lee KS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.
In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release. PMID: 26975318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Goutier W, Lowry JP, McCreary AC, O'Connor JJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.
one K PMID: 26961885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nsaibia MJ, Lapointe M, Mabrouk H, Douki W, Gaha L, Pérusse L, Bouchard C, Jrad BB, Cianflone K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

CX3CR1-Mediated Akt1 Activation Contributes to the Paclitaxel-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats.
This study suggested that CX3CR1/Akt1 signaling pathway may be a potential target for prevention and reversion of the painful peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel. PMID: 26961886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li D, Chen H, Luo XH, Sun Y, Xia W, Xiong YC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

(7R,8S)-Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglia by Inhibiting MAPK Signaling.
Abstract (7R,8S)-Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDA), a lignan isolated from the dried stems of Clematis armandii, has been found to exert potential anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of DDA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory response in murine BV2 microglia. Our results revealed that non-toxic concentrations (6.25-25 μM) of DDA markedly suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and release of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis fact...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu SY, Xu P, Luo XL, Hu JF, Liu XH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Endogenous CBS-H2S Pathway Contributes to the Development of CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain.
In this study, the relationship between endogenous CBS-H2S pathway in L4-6 spinal cord and neuropathic pain was explored. A total of 163 adult Kunming mice were used in this study. CBS expression and H2S formation in L4-6 spinal cord were detected in the development of neuropathic pain firstly. Then, effect of AOAA, an CBS inhibitor, on treatment of neuropathic pain by chronic construction injury surgery (CCI) was detected. Pain thresholds and activation of NF-κB(p65), ERK1/2 and CREB were measured as biomarks of neuropathic pain. Results showed that CCI surgery significantly upregulated protein expression of CBS and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gui Y, Li A, Qiu B, Chen F, Chen L, Liu D, Chen S, Zhou W, Zhou H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apelin-13 Protects PC12 Cells from Corticosterone-Induced Apoptosis Through PI3K and ERKs Activation.
Abstract It is widely accepted that environmental stress is a risk factor for mental disorders. Glucocorticoid hormones play a vital role in the regulation of physiological response to stress. High concentrations of corticosterone can induce cellular damage in PC12 cells, which possess typical neuronal features. Apelin and its receptor APJ are widely distributed in the central nervous system including limbic structures involved in stress responses. Previous studies have suggested that apelin has a neuroprotective function. However, the effect of apelin on corticosterone-induced neuronal damage remains to be elucid...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zou Y, Wang B, Fu W, Zhou S, Nie Y, Tian S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of the RVM in Descending Pain Regulation Originating from the Cerebrospinal Fluid-Contacting Nucleus.
Abstract Evidence has suggested that cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) is correlated with the development and recurrence of pain. A recent research showed that the CSF-contacting nucleus acts as a component of the descending 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and plays a role in descending pain inhibition. However, limited studies are conducted to investigate the relationship between the CSF-contacting nucleus and pain. In present study, we explored the effect of CSF-contacting nucleus on nociceptive behaviors in both normal and neuropathic rats via targeted ablation of the CSF-contact...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fei Y, Wang X, Chen S, Zhou Q, Zhang C, Li Y, Sun L, Zhang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Silibinin on Learning and Memory Impairment in LPS-Treated Rats via ROS-BDNF-TrkB Pathway.
In conclusion, silibinin ameliorated the impairment of learning and memory of LPS-injection rats, possibly due to the activation of ROS-BDNF-TrkB pathway in the hippocampus as well as the suppression of inflammatory response. This study gives an insight on the beneficial consequences of ROS in central nervous system. Silibinin might be a potential candidate drug for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 26961891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song X, Zhou B, Zhang P, Lei D, Wang Y, Yao G, Hayashi T, Xia M, Tashiro SI, Onodera S, Ikejima T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Special Issue in Honour of Philip M Beart.
PMID: 26951562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lawrence AJ, Gundlach AL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Time-Dependent Increase of Chitinase1 in APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice.
; Y Abstract It is reported that chitinase1 increases in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the alteration of chitinase1 in the progress of AD is still unclear. Thus, we designed the present study to detect chitinase1 level in different stages of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. Experimental models were APP/PS1 double transgenic mice with 4, 12 and 22 months. Cognitive function was detected by Morris water maze test in APP/PS1 mice as well as controls. ELISA and the quantitative RT-PCR were used to detect chitinase1 level in different groups. The study displayed that expression of chitinase1 gradually increase...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao Q, Shi R, Yang W, Zou Y, Du Y, Zhang M, Yu W, Lü Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reaching Out to Send a Message: Proteins Associated with Neurite Outgrowth and Neurotransmission are Altered with Age in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.
Abstract Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with diminished neurotransmission as well as neuronal structure and function. However, several traits seemingly evolved to avert or delay age-related deterioration in the brain of the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (NMR). The NMR remarkably also exhibits negligible senescence, maintaining an extended healthspan for ~75 % of its life span. Using a proteomic approach, statistically significant changes with age in expression and/or phosphorylation levels of proteins associated with neurite outgrow...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Triplett JC, Swomley AM, Kirk J, Grimes KM, Lewis KN, Orr ME, Rodriguez KA, Cai J, Klein JB, Buffenstein R, Butterfield DA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Looking Inside the Matrix: Perineuronal Nets in Plasticity, Maladaptive Plasticity and Neurological Disorders.
Abstract The integrity of the central nervous system (CNS) matrix is crucial for its proper function. Loss of the lattice-like structure compromise synaptic stability and can lead to the disruption of the excitatory/inhibitory balance, astrocytosis, maladaptive plasticity and neuronal death. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) provide synaptic integration and control the functional wiring between neurons. These nets are significantly modified during CNS disorders, such as neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular and inflammatory diseases. The breakdown or the modification of PNNs could be due to t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: De Luca C, Papa M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Phosphorylation in Rat Brain and Adrenal Gland.
In this study we investigated the effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation in the adrenal gland, C1 cell group, locus coeruleus (LC) and midbrain dopaminergic cell groups that are thought to play a role in response to hypoglycaemia and compared the effects of different concentrations of insulin in rats. Insulin (1 and 10 U/kg) treatment caused similar reductions in blood glucose concentration (from 7.5-9 to 2-3 mmol/L); however, plasma adrenaline concentration was increased 20-30 fold in response to 10 U/kg insulin and only 14 fold following 1 U/kg....
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Senthilkumaran M, Johnson ME, Bobrovskaya L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate and ATP at the Interface Between Signaling and Metabolism in Astroglia: Examples from Pathology.
We present the fabric of this process in (patho)physiology through the discussion of synthesis and metabolism of ATP and glutamate in astrocytes as well as by providing a general description of astroglial receptors for these molecules along with the downstream signaling pathways that may be activated. It is astroglial receptors for these dual-acting molecules that could hold a key for medical intervention in pathological conditions. We focus on two examples disclosing the role of activation of astroglial ATP and glutamate receptors in pathology of two kinds of brain tissue, gray matter and white matter, respectively. Inter...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Parpura V, Fisher ES, Lechleiter JD, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen HS, Brunet S, Baltan S, Verkhratsky A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Endogenous TGFβ1 Plays a Crucial Role in Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury Associated with Smad3 Signal in Rats.
Erratum to: Endogenous TGFβ1 Plays a Crucial Role in Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury Associated with Smad3 Signal in Rats. Neurochem Res. 2016 Feb 25; Authors: Wang XY, Ba YC, Xiong LL, Li XL, Zou Y, Zhu YC, Zhou XF, Wang TH, Wang F, Tian HL, Li JT PMID: 26915105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang XY, Ba YC, Xiong LL, Li XL, Zou Y, Zhu YC, Zhou XF, Wang TH, Wang F, Tian HL, Li JT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.
tos A Abstract Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Souza DG, Bellaver B, Hansel G, Arús BA, Bellaver G, Longoni A, Kolling J, Wyse AT, Souza DO, Quincozes-Santos A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of High Glucose on Cell Viability and Differentiation in Primary Cultured Schwann Cells: Potential Role of ERK Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia is considered to be the major factor in the development and progression of DPN. Because of the contribution of Schwann cells (SCs) to the pathology of DPN, we investigated the effects of high glucose on cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in primary cultured SCs. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Hoechst staining showed that high glucose inhibited SCs proliferation and increased apoptosis ratio in time and concentration dependent manner. Western blot and real-time quantitat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu D, Liang X, Zhang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Trimethyltin Modulates Reelin Expression and Endogenous Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Developing Rats.
ino V Abstract Reelin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and essential for the proper radial migration of cortical neurons during development and for the integration and positioning of dentate granular cell progenitors; its expression is down-regulated as brain maturation is completed. Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant which causes selective neuronal death mainly localised in the CA1-CA3/hilus hippocampal regions. In the present study we analysed the expression of reelin and the modulation of endogenous neurogenesis in the postnatal rat hippocampus ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Toesca A, Geloso MC, Mongiovì AM, Furno A, Schiattarella A, Michetti F, Corvino V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A2B5+/GFAP+ Cells of Rat Spinal Cord Share a Similar Lipid Profile with Progenitor Cells: A Comparative Lipidomic Study.
auml; R Abstract The central nervous system (CNS) harbors multiple glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing cell types. In addition to the most abundant cell type of the CNS, the astrocytes, various stem cells and progenitor cells also contain GFAP+ populations. Here, in order to distinguish between two types of GFAP expressing cells with or without the expression of the A2B5 antigens, we performed lipidomic analyses on A2B5+/GFAP+ and A2B5-/GFAP+ cells from rat spinal cord. First, A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors were exposed to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to induce th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Itokazu Y, Tajima N, Kerosuo L, Somerharju P, Sariola H, Yu RK, Käkelä R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Short-Term Differentiation of Glioblastoma Stem Cells Induces Hypoxia Tolerance.
Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain cancer. In spite of surgical removal, radiation and chemotherapy, this cancer recurs within short time and median survival after diagnosis is less than a year. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) left in the brain after surgery is thought to explain the inevitable recurrence of the tumor. Although hypoxia is a prime factor contributing to treatment resistance in many cancers, its effect on GSC has been little studied. Especially how differentiation influences the tolerance to acute hypoxia in GSCs is not well explored. We cultured GSCs from three patient biop...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Skjellegrind HK, Fayzullin A, Johnsen EO, Eide L, Langmoen IA, Moe MC, Vik-Mo EO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Letter from Abel Lajtha on Occasion of the 40th Anniversary of Neurochemical Research.
PMID: 26907602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lajtha A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effects of Justicidin A on Amyloid Beta25-35-Induced Neuronal Cell Death Through Inhibition of Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Induction of Autophagy in SH-SY5Y Cells.
In this study, we investigated the action of justicidin A on amyloid beta (Aβ)25-35-induced neuronal cell death via inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of tau and induction of autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with justicidin A significantly elevated cell viability in cells treated with Aβ25-35. Western blot data demonstrated that justicidin A inhibited the Aβ25-35-induced up-regulation the levels of hyperphosphorylation of tau in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, treatment with justicidin A significantly induced autophagy as measured by the increasing LC3 II/I ratio, an important autophagy marker. These...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gu MY, Kim J, Yang HO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Proof-of Concept that an Acute Trophic Factors Intervention After Spinal Cord Injury Provides an Adequate Niche for Neuroprotection, Recruitment of Nestin-Expressing Progenitors and Regeneration.
In this study, we examined the effects of TSC1 (a combination of insulin-like growth factor 1 and transferrin) 4 and 8 h after SCI at the thoracic segment level (T12) in nestin-GFP transgenic mice. TSC1 treatment for 4 and 8 h increased the number of nestin-expressing cells around the lesion site and prevented Wallerian degeneration. Treatment with TSC1 for 4 h significantly increased heat shock protein (HSP)-32 and HSP-70 expression 1 and 2 mm from lesion site (both, caudal and rostral). Conversely, the number of HSP-32 positive cells decreased after an 8-h TSC1 treatment, although it was still hi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Krityakiarana W, Zhao PM, Nguyen K, Gomez-Pinilla F, Kotchabhakdi N, de Vellis J, Espinosa-Jeffrey A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Salicylate-Induced Hearing Loss Trigger Structural Synaptic Modifications in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus of Rats via Medial Olivocochlear (MOC) Feedback Circuit.
Abstract Lesion-induced cochlear damage can result in synaptic outgrowth in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Tinnitus may be associated with the synaptic outgrowth and hyperactivity in the VCN. However, it remains unclear how hearing loss triggers structural synaptic modifications in the VCN of rats subjected to salicylate-induced tinnitus. To address this issue, we evaluated tinnitus-like behavior in rats after salicylate treatment and compared the amplitude of the distortion product evoked otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) between control and treated rats. Moreover, we observe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fang L, Fu Y, Zhang TY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Kinetics and Molecular Docking Study of an Anti-diabetic Drug Glimepiride as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor: Implication for Alzheimer's Disease-Diabetes Dual Therapy.
Abstract At the present time, treatment of two most common degenerative disorders of elderly population i.e., Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major concern worldwide. As there are several evidences that proved strong linkages between these two disorders, the idea of using dual therapeutic agent for both the diseases might be considered as a good initiative. Earlier reports have revealed that oral anti-diabetic drugs such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists (thiazolidinediones) when used in T2DM patients suffering from AD showed improved mem...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rizvi SM, Shaikh S, Naaz D, Shakil S, Ahmad A, Haneef M, Abuzenadah AM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic (3-Weeks) Treatment of Estrogen (17β-Estradiol) Enhances Working and Reference Memory in Ovariectomized Rats: Role of Acetylcholine.
In this study, we aimed to examine 17β-estradiol treatment on working and reference memory in ovariectomized rats. We also examined the changes in the acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain areas associated with learning and memory. The study was performed on Sprague-Dawley type 3-month-old female rats. The rats were divided into four groups as control, ovariectomy (OVX), and OVX and estrogen treatment (10 µg/day i.p. 17β-estradiol) groups for 3 (OVX + E3) and 21 days OVX + E21). The rats were trained on eight arm radial maze task with eight arms baited to assess spatial memor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Uzum G, Bahcekapili N, Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc R, Ziylan YZ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research