Upregulated Expression of TRIM32 Is Involved in Schwann Cell Differentiation, Migration and Neurite Outgrowth After Sciatic Nerve Crush.
Abstract Tripartite motif containing 32 (TRIM32), a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, plays an indispensable role in myoblast proliferation. It also regulates neuron and skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation. Although it is of great importance, we know little about the roles of TRIM32 during peripheral nervous system injury. Here, we examined the dynamic changes of TRIM32 in acute sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model. After crush, TRIM32 rapidly increased and reached the climax at 1 week but then gradually declined to the normal level at 4 weeks post-injury. Meanwhile, we observed similar chan...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Wu W, Yang H, Zhou Z, Zhu X, Sun C, Liu Y, Yu Z, Chen Y, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intrathecal Delivery of ssAAV9-DAO Extends Survival in SOD1(G93A) ALS Mice.
In conclusion, administering ssAAV9-DAO may be an effective complementary approach to gene therapy to extend lifespans in symptomatic ALS. PMID: 28025800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang W, Duan W, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu Y, Li Z, Hu H, Cui H, Cui C, Lin H, Li C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glucose and Intermediary Metabolism and Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions Following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rat.
en TS Abstract Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and the delayed injury cascade that follows involve excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. The susceptibility to excitotoxicity of the neonatal brain may be related to the capacity of astrocytes for glutamate uptake. Furthermore, the neonatal brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) may be of particular importance for limiting this kind of injury. Also, in the neonatal brain, neurons depend upon de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters via pyruvate carboxylase in astrocytes to increase neurotransmitter pools du...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brekke E, Berger HR, Widerøe M, Sonnewald U, Morken TS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate and Brain Glutaminases in Drug Addiction.
FJ, de Fonseca FR Abstract Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse. Although most of the interest has been centered in post-synaptic glutamate receptors, the presynaptic synthesis of glutamate through brain glutaminases may also contribute to imbalances in glutamate homeostasis, a key feature of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Márquez J, Campos-Sandoval JA, Peñalver A, Matés JM, Segura JA, Blanco E, Alonso FJ, de Fonseca FR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Upregulated TLR3 Promotes Neuropathic Pain by Regulating Autophagy in Rat With L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation Model.
Abstract Microglia, rapidly activated following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), accumulate within the spinal cord and adopt inflammation that contributes to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Microglia express functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play pivotal roles in regulating inflammatory processes. However, little is known about the role of TLR3 in regulating neuropathic pain after PNI. Here TLR3 expression and autophagy activation was assayed in dorsal root ganglions and in microglia following PNI by using realtime PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The role of TLR3/autophagy sig...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen W, Lu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Cell Metabolism and Mitochondrial Function During Adult Neurogenesis.
Abstract Brain is the major consumer of glucose in the human body, whose pattern of consumption changes through lifetime, decreasing during adolescence up to adulthood. This evidence leads to the hypothesis that, in cerebral developmental stages, glycolysis might be the driving force for the high-energy requirement. Furthermore, several studies claim that neurogenesis process is accompanied by a shift into mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Herein, we discuss recent work about cell metabolism during neuronal differentiation process, in particular the mitochondrial role in cellular bioenergy dynamics. PMID: 2...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Almeida AS, Vieira HL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pinocembrin Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells Exposed to Methylglyoxal: Role for the Erk1/2-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Pinocembrin (PB; 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) is found in propolis and exhibits antioxidant activity in several experimental models. The antioxidant capacity of PB is associated with the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway. The Nrf2/ARE axis mediates the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the catalytic (GCLC) and regulatory (GCLM) subunits of the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), γ-gluta...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Oliveira MR, Peres A, Ferreira GC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of (-)-Sesamin on Chronic Stress-Induced Anxiety Disorders in Mice.
This study investigated the effects of (-)-sesamin on chronic electric footshock (EF) stress-induced anxiety disorders in mice. Mice were treated with (-)-sesamin (25 and 50 mg/kg) orally once a day for 21 days prior to exposure to EF stress (0.6 mA, 1 s every 5 s, 3 min). Mice treated with (-)-sesamin (25 and 50 mg/kg) exhibited less severe decreases in the number of open arm entries and time spent on open arms in the elevated plus-maze test and the distance traveled in the open field test following exposure to chronic EF stress. Similarly, mice treated with (-)-sesamin exhibited significantl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao TT, Shin KS, Park HJ, Yi BR, Lee KE, Lee MK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Downregulation of Oxytocin Receptor Decreases the Length of Projections Stimulated by Retinoic Acid in the U-87MG Cells.
Abstract Oxytocin is a neuropeptide widely expressed in the brain. Oxytocin plays a role in both proliferation and differentiation of various cells. Previous studies have suggested that oxytocin could affect the morphology of neuronal cells, therefore the objective of the present study was to test whether (1) oxytocin receptor stimulation/inhibition by specific ligands may change cell morphology and gene expression of selected cytoskeletal proteins (2) oxytocin receptor silencing/knockdown may decrease the length of cell projections (3) oxytocin receptor knockdown may affect human glioblastoma U-87MG cell survival...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lestanova Z, Puerta F, Alanazi M, Bacova Z, Kiss A, Castejon AM, Bakos J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Erythropoietin on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Hemolytic Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonatal Rats.
zek E Abstract Neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia might cause severe bilirubin neurotoxicity in especially hemolytic conditions. The study aimed to elucidate the potential neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) in hemolysis-induced hyperbilirubinemia. In newborn rats, hyperbilirubinemia secondary to hemolysis was induced by injecting with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ) and rats were injected with either vehicle or EPO. At 54th hour of the PHZ injection, rats were decapitated. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100-B and brain malondiald...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Memisoglu A, Kolgazi M, Yaman A, Bahadir E, Sirvanci S, Yeğen BÇ, Ozek E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Induction of G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Glioma Cells by Salinomycin Through Triggering ROS-Mediated DNA Damage In Vitro and In Vivo.
Abstract Chemotherapy has always been one of the most effective ways in combating human glioma. However, the high metastatic potential and resistance toward standard chemotherapy severely hindered the chemotherapy outcomes. Hence, searching effective chemotherapy drugs and clarifying its mechanism are of great significance. Salinomycin an antibiotic shows novel anticancer potential against several human tumors, including human glioma, but its mechanism against human glioma cells has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that salinomycin treatment time- and dose-dependently inhibited U251...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao SJ, Wang XJ, Wu QJ, Liu C, Li DW, Fu XT, Zhang HF, Shao LR, Sun JY, Sun BL, Zhai J, Fan CD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Echinacoside on Regulating the Stress-Active p38MAPK and NF- κB p52 Signals in the Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Neuroprotective Effects of Echinacoside on Regulating the Stress-Active p38MAPK and NF-κB p52 Signals in the Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 15; Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Xiang J, Cai M, Yu Z, Li X, Wu T, Cai D Abstract Herbal medicines have long been used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). To systematically analyze the anti-parkinsonian activity of echinacoside (ECH) in a neurotoxic model of PD and provide a future basis for basic and clinical investigations, male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into blank control, PD model and ECH-administration groups. ECH significant...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Xiang J, Cai M, Yu Z, Li X, Wu T, Cai D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

FTY720 Attenuates 6-OHDA-Associated Dopaminergic Degeneration in Cellular and Mouse Parkinsonian Models.
Abstract FTY720 (fingolimod) is the first oral drug approved for treating relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis. It is also protective in other neurological models including ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease and Rett syndrome. However, whether it might protect in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mouse model associated with the dopaminergic pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been explored. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in cell cultures and mice. Here we show that FTY720 protected against 6-OHDA cytotoxicity an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ren M, Han M, Wei X, Guo Y, Shi H, Zhang X, Perez RG, Lou H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Fucoxanthin via Inhibition of Akt/NF- κB and MAPKs/AP-1 Pathways and Activation of PKA/CREB Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated BV-2 Microglial Cells.
Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Fucoxanthin via Inhibition of Akt/NF-κB and MAPKs/AP-1 Pathways and Activation of PKA/CREB Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated BV-2 Microglial Cells. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 08; Authors: Zhao D, Kwon SH, Chun YS, Gu MY, Yang HO Abstract Microglia play a critical role in controlling the homeostasis of the brain, but over-activated microglia secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which induce neuronal cell death. Fucoxanthin (Fx), a marine carotenoid, has demonstrated a variety of beneficial health effects. Despite accumulating evidence supporting t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao D, Kwon SH, Chun YS, Gu MY, Yang HO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Characterization of Acutely Isolated Hippocampal and Cerebral Cortical Slices Using [U-(13)C]Glucose and [1,2-(13)C]Acetate as Substrates.
Abstract Brain slice preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs have served as important tools for studies of neurotransmission and metabolism. While hippocampal slices routinely have been used for electrophysiology studies, metabolic processes have mostly been studied in cerebral cortical slices. Few comparative characterization studies exist for acute hippocampal and cerebral cortical slices, hence, the aim of the current study was to characterize and compare glucose and acetate metabolism in these slice preparations in a newly established incubation design. Cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices prepared fr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McNair LF, Kornfelt R, Walls AB, Andersen JV, Aldana BI, Nissen JD, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Demyelination Occurred as the Secondary Damage Following Diffuse Axonal Loss in a Rat Model of Radiation Myelopathy.
Abstract The main purpose of the present study was to examine the time and dose-dependent course of demyelination in the rat radiation myelopathy model in the first 180 days after irradiation of the spinal cord. An irradiated cervical spinal cord rat model (C2-T2 segment) was generated using a (60)Co irradiator to deliver 50 Gy and 100 Gy, respectively. The behavioral dysfunction was observed by the forelimb paralysis scoring system. The histological damage in the irradiated spinal cord was examined by hematoxylin/eosin staining, luxol fast blue staining, immunohistochemical analysis, methylene blue...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei L, Zhou Y, Liu CJ, Zheng K, You H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Variable Doses of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Male Albino Mice Behavior.
Abstract Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days. Group D (control) orally rece...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zahra J, Iqbal S, Zahra K, Javed Z, Shad MA, Akbar A, Ashiq MN, Iqbal F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pentoxifylline Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possibly via Inhibiting TLR 4/NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
Pentoxifylline Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possibly via Inhibiting TLR 4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 08; Authors: Xia DY, Zhang HS, Wu LY, Zhang XS, Zhou ML, Hang CH Abstract Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) generally causes significant and lasting damage. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in several brain injury models, but the role of PTX with respect to EBI following SAH remains uncertain. The purpose ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xia DY, Zhang HS, Wu LY, Zhang XS, Zhou ML, Hang CH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Changes in the Bilateral Visual Cortex of the Monocular Blind Macaque: A Multi-Voxel Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study.
In conclusion, the difference of metabolic ratios can be detected by multi-voxel (1)H-MRS in the visual cortex between groups A and B, which was valuable for investigating the adaptive plasticity of monocular blind macaque. PMID: 27909856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu L, Tang Z, Feng X, Sun X, Qian W, Wang J, Jin L, Jiang J, Zhong Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Time Course, Behavioral Safety, and Protective Efficacy of Centrally Active Reversible Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in Cynomolgus Macaques.
Abstract Galantamine hydrobromide and (-)huperzine A, centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are potentially superior to the current standard, pyridostigmine bromide, as a pretreatment for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Galantamine, huperzine, and pyridostigmine were compared for time course of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in 12 cynomolgus macaques. Although both galantamine and huperzine shared a similar time course profile for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, huperzine was 88 times more potent than galantamine. The dose for 50% acetylcholinesterase inhibition...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hamilton LR, Schachter SC, Myers TM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroleptic Drugs and PACAP Differentially Affect the mRNA Expression of Genes Encoding PAC1/VPAC Type Receptors.
In conclusion, our findings suggest PACAP receptors may be involved in the mechanism of typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs. PMID: 27900577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jóźwiak-Bębenista M, Kowalczyk E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Potential Mechanism of Neurite Outgrowth Enhanced by Electrical Stimulation: Involvement of MicroRNA-363-5p Targeting DCLK1 Expression in Rat.
In conclusion, our data has indicated that miR-363-5p is involved in ES-promoted neurite outgrowth by targeting DCLK1. These findings provide new insights into the roles of miRNAs in ES-enhanced neurite outgrowth and regeneration. PMID: 27900578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Quan X, Huang L, Yang Y, Ma T, Liu Z, Ge J, Huang J, Luo Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.
This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretre...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Park E, Chun HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant-Like Effect of Isorhynchophylline in Mice.
Abstract Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid, has been identified as the main active ingredient responsible for the biological activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Miq ex Havil. (Rubiaceae). Previous studies in our laboratory have revealed that IRN possesses potent neuroprotective effects in different models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are remained unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN. The antidepressant-like effects of IRN was determined by using animal models of depression including forced swimming and tail ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xian YF, Fan D, Ip SP, Mao QQ, Lin ZX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Enteric Neuron Cells with Rotenone Treatment and Prediction of Regulated Pathways.
In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes. The functional categorization revealed that the DEGs were involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and development, response to various stimuli, and regulation of neurogenesis. In addition, the pathway and network analysis showed that the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), Toll-like receptor, Wnt, and Ras signaling pathways were intensively inv...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guan Q, Wang X, Jiang Y, Zhao L, Nie Z, Jin L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

L-PGDS Mediates Vagus Nerve Stimulation-Induced Neuroprotection in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke by Suppressing the Apoptotic Response.
This study investigated the role of L-PGDS in cerebral I/R and whether this process was involved in the mechanism of VNS-mediated neuroprotection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with a lentiviral vector (LV) through intracerebroventricular injection, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and VNS treatment. The expression of L-PGDS in the peri-infarct cortex was examined. The localization of L-PGDS was determined using double immunofluorescence staining. Neurologic scores, infarct volume and neuronal apoptosis were evaluated at 24 h after reperfusion. The expression of apoptosis-related molecule...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang L, Ma J, Jin X, Jia G, Jiang Y, Li C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress Mediated Hippocampal Neuron Apoptosis Participated in Carbon Disulfide-Induced Rats Cognitive Dysfunction.
Abstract Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) exhibits central nervous systems toxicity. But the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by CS2, and eventually reveal the possible oxidative-related mechanism of hippocampus pathological changes in CS2 exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were administrated with CS2 at dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for consecutive 20 days, respectively. Cognitive performances were evaluated by Morris water maze tests. Thionin and immunohistochemical analysis were us...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang S, Irving G, Jiang L, Wang H, Li M, Wang X, Han W, Xu Y, Yang Y, Zeng T, Song F, Zhao X, Xie K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin Gallate Attenuates β-Amyloid Generation and Oxidative Stress Involvement of PPARγ in N2a/APP695 Cells.
In this study, we observed that EGCG attenuated Aβ generation in N2a/APP695 cells, such as the PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone, by suppressing the transcription and translation of BACE1 and that its effect was attenuated by the PPARγ inhibitor, GW9662. Intriguingly, EGCG significantly reinforced the activity of PPARγ by promoting its mRNA and protein expressions in N2a/APP695 cells. Moreover, EGCG also decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, caspase-3), reduced the activity of the anti-inflammatory agent NF-κB and inhibited the oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of ROS and M...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang ZX, Li YB, Zhao RP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Expression of IGFBP6 after Spinal Cord Injury: Implications for Neuronal Apoptosis.
In this study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of IGFBP6 expression in the spinal cord. Our results showed that IGFBP6 was upregulated significantly after SCI, which was paralleled with the levels of apoptotic proteins p53 and active caspase-3. Immunofluorescent labeling showed that IGFBP6 was co-localizated with active caspase-3 and p53 in neurons. To further investigate the function of IGFBP6, an apoptosis model was established in primary neuronal cells. When IGFBP6 was knocked down by specific short interfering RNA (siRNA), the protein levels of active caspase-3 an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang S, Liu Y, Wu C, Zhao W, Zhang J, Bao G, Xu G, Sun Y, Chen J, Cui Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Hepatic Encephalopathy: Cause, Effect or Association?
Abstract The methylated derivative of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is synthesized in different mammalian tissues including the brain. ADMA acts as an endogenous, nonselective, competitive inhibitor of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and may limit L-arginine supply from the plasma to the enzyme via reducing its transport by cationic amino acid transporters. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a relatively frequently diagnosed complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute or chronic liver failure, characterized by symptoms linked with impaired brain function leading to neurol...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Czarnecka A, Milewski K, Zielińska M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Distinct Expression of Various Angiogenesis Factors in Mice Brain After Whole-Brain Irradiation by X-ray.
Abstract Radiation-induced brain injury (RBI) is the most serious complication after radiotherapy. However, the etiology of RBI remains elusive. In order to evaluate the effect of X-rays on normal brain tissue, adult male BALB/C mice were subjected to whole-brain exposure with a single dose of 10 Gy or sham radiation. The structure and number of mice brain vessels were investigated 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180 days after irradiation by H&E staining and immune-fluorescence staining. Compared with sham control mice, in addition to morphological changes, a significant reduction of microvascular density was dete...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng Z, Huang H, Wu X, Wu M, He G, Guo J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

EGb-761 Attenuates the Anti-proliferative Activity of Fluoride via DDK1 in PC-12 Cells.
This study may provide a new method for protecting against the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by fluoride. PMID: 27885578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang CY, Chen R, Wang F, Ren C, Zhang P, Li Q, Li HH, Guo KT, Geng DQ, Liu CF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neonatal Repeated Exposure to Isoflurane not Sevoflurane in Mice Reversibly Impaired Spatial Cognition at Juvenile-Age.
Abstract Inhalation anesthetics facilitate surgical procedures in millions of children each year. However, animal studies demonstrate that exposure to the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause neuronal cell death in developing brains. The long-term cytotoxic effects of sevoflurane, the most popular pediatric anesthetic, have not been compared with isoflurane. Thus, this study was designed to compare the effects of equipotent doses of these two anesthetics on neonatal long-term neurotoxicity. Postnatal 7-day-old (P7) C57/BL male mice were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane or 2.2% sevoflurane 2 h a day for 3 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu J, Zhao Y, Yang J, Zhang X, Zhang W, Wang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sirtuins and Their Roles in Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders.
Abstract Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are unique histone deacetylases (HDACs) whose activity depends on NAD(+) levels and thus on the cellular metabolic status. SIRTs regulate energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. They orchestrate the stress response and damage repair. Through these functions sirtuins modulate the course of aging and affect neurodegenerative diseases. SIRTSs interact with multiple signaling proteins, transcription factors (TFs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) another class of NAD(+)-dependent post-translational protein modifiers. The cross-talk between SIRTs TFs and PARPs is a highly pr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jęśko H, Wencel P, Strosznajder RP, Strosznajder JB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Administration of Huperzia quadrifariata Extract, a Cholinesterase Inhibitory Alkaloid Mixture, has Neuroprotective Effects in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia.
Abstract Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an etiologic component of several neurologic pathologies associated to cognitive impairment. The mechanisms involved in HI-induced tissue damage start immediately after HI and extend for days. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and exerts a protector effect on tissue damage by modulating inflammation, and cholinesterase inhibitors have shown neuroprotective properties and their action are often attributed to inhibition of the immune response. The administration of Huperzia quadrifariata alkaloid extract (HqAE), with potent and sel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Odorcyk FK, Sanches EF, Nicola FC, Moraes J, Pettenuzzo LF, Kolling J, Siebert C, Longoni A, Konrath EL, Wyse A, Netto CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Matricellular Proteins in Disorders of the Central Nervous System.
Abstract Matricellular proteins (MCPs) are actively expressed non-structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix, which rapidly turnover and possess regulatory roles, as well as mediate cell-cell interactions. MCPs characteristically contain binding sites for other extracellular proteins, cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases, that provide structural support for surrounding cells. MCPs are present in most organs, including brain, and play a major role in cell-cell interactions and tissue repair. Among the MCPs found in brain include thrombospondin-1/2, secreted protein acidic and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jayakumar AR, Apeksha A, Norenberg MD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neural Signaling Metabolites May Modulate Energy Use in Hibernation.
Abstract Despite an epidemic in obesity and metabolic syndrome limited means exist to effect adiposity or metabolic rate other than life style changes. Here we review evidence that neural signaling metabolites may modulate thermoregulatory pathways and offer novel means to fine tune energy use. We extend prior reviews on mechanisms that regulate thermogenesis and energy use in hibernation by focusing primarily on the neural signaling metabolites adenosine, AMP and glutamate. PMID: 27878659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Drew KL, Frare C, Rice SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Carnosine Attenuates Brain Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats.
This study investigates the effect of Carnosine on brain injury using the rat ICH model, which is established by type IV collagenase caudatum infusion. The results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of Carnosine (1000 mg/kg) significantly attenuates brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, oxidative stress, microglia activation and neuronal apoptosis of perihematoma at 72 h following ICH in rats models, as convinced by preventing the disruption of tight junction protein ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5, followed by the decrease of ROS, MDA, 3-NT, 8-OHDG level and the increase of GSH-Px and SOD act...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie RX, Li DW, Liu XC, Yang MF, Fang J, Sun BL, Zhang ZY, Yang XY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alternative Fuels in Epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Abstract This review summarises the recent findings on metabolic treatments for epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in honour of Professor Ursula Sonnewald. The metabolic impairments in rodent models of these disorders as well as affected patients are being discussed. In both epilepsy and ALS, there are defects in glucose uptake and reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycling, at least in part due to reduced amounts of C4 TCA cycle intermediates. In addition there are impairments in glycolysis in ALS. A reduction in glucose uptake can be addressed by providing the brain with alternative fuels, such as ke...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tefera TW, Tan KN, McDonald TS, Borges K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Excessive Extracellular Glutamate Accumulation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
Conclusions derived from measurements of activities/expression patterns of the GGC enzymes and transporter moieties find support in metabolic studies employing (13)C labeled Glu precursors. Glu reuptake by astrocytes is additionally impeded by unfavorable ion gradients resulting from ion and water dyshomeostasis, and extracellular Glu concentration is further increased by reduction of extracellular space due to edema and altered cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. Missing links in the scenario are discussed in concluding comments. PMID: 27873132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Albrecht J, Zielińska M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Altered Expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in Intractable Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Rats.
Abstract The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of te...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li R, Ma L, Huang H, Ou S, Yuan J, Xu T, Yu X, Liu X, Yang J, Chen Y, Peng X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Involvement of Spinal CCR5/PKC γ Signaling Pathway in the Maintenance of Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.
In this study, we attempted to investigate whether spinal CCR5 and its downstream PKCγ pathway is involved in the maintenance of CIBP. Inoculation of Walker 256 cells into the tibia could induce a marked mechanical allodynia with concomitant upregulation of spinal CCR5 and p-PKCγ expression from day 6 to day 15 after inoculation. Spinal CCR5 was prominently expressed in microglia, and mechanical allodynia was attenuated by intrathecal injection of DAPTA (a specific antagonist of CCR5) with downregulation of spinal CCR5 and p-PKCγ expression levels at day 15 in inoculated rats. Pre-intrathecal injection of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hang LH, Li SN, Dan X, Shu WW, Luo H, Shao DH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocytes in Migration.
Abstract Cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon that underlies tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, immune response, and cancer metastasis. Great progresses have been made in research methodologies, with cell migration identified as a highly orchestrated process. Brain is considered the most complex organ in the human body, containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring normal functions of the central nervous system. Astrocytes are mostly quiescent under normal physiological conditions in the adult brain but become migratory after injury. Under most known pathological...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhan JS, Gao K, Chai RC, Jia XH, Luo DP, Ge G, Jiang YW, Fung YW, Li L, Yu AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PRDM5 Expression and Essential Role After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rat.
Abstract PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ) domain proteins (PRDM) are a subfamily of the kruppel-like zinc finger gene products that modulate cellular processes such as differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. PRDM5 is a recently identified family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor and behaves as a putative tumor suppressor in different types of cancer. However, the expression and function of PRDM5 in spinal cord injury (SCI) are still unknown. In the present study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of PRDM5 expression in the spinal cord. We found that...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu J, Wu W, Hao J, Yu M, Liu J, Chen X, Qian R, Zhang F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Top 5 Neurotransmitters from a Clinical Neurologist's Perspective.
Abstract Neurologists are proficient in neuroanatomy and -physiology but their understanding of neurochemistry tends to be mediocre. As a rule, we do not think in biochemical pathways and complex metabolic interactions but rather associate a few neurotransmitters with well-known brain diseases or drugs that we routinely prescribe. Most of us can hardly come up with more than a handful of relevant neurochemicals. From our point of view the most important neurotransmitters are, in alphabetical order, acetylcholine (associated with Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis), dopamine (Parkinson's disease), glutamate ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kondziella D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Organ Distribution of (13)N Following Intravenous Injection of [(13)N]Ammonia into Portacaval-Shunted Rats.
The objective of the present study was to determine the distribution of label following intravenous administration of [(13)N]ammonia among 14 organs in portacaval-shunted rats at 12 weeks after shunt construction. At an early time point (12 s) following administration of [(13)N]ammonia the relative concentration of label was highest in lung with lower, but still appreciable relative concentrations in kidney and heart. Clearance of (13)N from blood and kidney tended to be slower in portacaval-shunted rats versus normal rats during the 2-10 min interval after the injection. At later times post injection, brain and ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cruz NF, Dienel GA, Patrick PA, Cooper AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Pretreatment Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction Through Activation of ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF Pathway in Anesthetized Mice.
Abstract Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has protective effects on heart and brain against ischemia injury through mobilizing endogenous adaptive mechanisms. However, whether CIHH prevents against cognitive impairment was not elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CIHH treatment on ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: Control, Sham, CIHH (simulating 5000 m high-altitude for 28 days, 6 h per day), IR (three 16-min occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries interrupted by two 10-min...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang J, Zhang S, Ma H, Yang S, Liu Z, Wu X, Wang S, Zhang Y, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

β-Hydroxybutyrate in the Brain: One Molecule, Multiple Mechanisms.
β-Hydroxybutyrate in the Brain: One Molecule, Multiple Mechanisms. Neurochem Res. 2016 Nov 8; Authors: Achanta LB, Rae CD Abstract β-Hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), a ketone body, is oxidised as a brain fuel. Although its contribution to energy metabolism in the healthy brain is minimal, it is an interesting metabolite which is not only oxidised but also has other direct and collateral effects which make it a molecule of interest for therapeutic purposes. In brain βOHB can be produced in astrocytes from oxidation of fatty acids or catabolism of amino acids and is metabolised in the mitocho...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Achanta LB, Rae CD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Let-7f Regulates the Hypoxic Response in Cerebral Ischemia by Targeting NDRG3.
In this study, we preliminarily explored the change in the expression of the NDRG3 protein which indicated that NDRG3 protein is an oxygen-regulated protein in neurons in rat cerebral ischemia in vivo and in vitro. We further identified let-7f as an upstream regulator of NDRG3 by the lentiviral transfection of rat cortical neurons and the dual luciferase analysis of human genes. In addition, a dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed that when the expression of let-7f was elevated, the expression of NDRG3 mRNA was accordingly reduced in rat cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results identify a new reg...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao Y, Wang W, Jing L, Wang Y, Li M, Hou X, Wang J, Peng T, Teng J, Jia Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sex Difference in Oxidative Stress Parameters in Spinal Cord of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Relation to Neurological Deficit.
Abstract The study examined (a) whether there is sex difference in spinal cord and plasma oxidative stress profiles in Dark Agouti rats immunised for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal experimental model of multiple sclerosis, and (b) whether there is correlation between the oxidative stress in spinal cord and neurological deficit. Regardless of rat sex, with the disease development xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased in spinal cord, whereas glutathione levels decreased. This was accompanied by the rise in spinal cord malon...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 3, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dimitrijević M, Kotur-Stevuljević J, Stojić-Vukanić Z, Vujnović I, Pilipović I, Nacka-Aleksić M, Leposavić G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research