The Role of the Oligodendrocyte Lineage in Acute Brain Trauma.
Abstract An acute brain injury is commonly characterized by an extended cellular damage. The post-injury process of scar formation is largely determined by responses of various local glial cells and blood-derived immune cells. The role of astrocytes and microglia have been frequently reviewed in the traumatic sequelae. Here, we summarize the diverse contributions of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs) in acute injuries. OLs at the lesion site are highly sensitive to a damaging insult, provoked by Ca(2+) overload after hyperexcitation originating from increased levels of transmitters. At the les...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Scheller A, Bai X, Kirchhoff F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
The Role of Lipid Bodies in the Microglial Aging Process and Related Diseases.
Abstract Lipid bodies (LBs) have long been considered to be organelles merely for the storage of neutral lipids. However, recent studies have shown the significance of LBs in signal transduction, especially in glial cells, including microglia. Microglial cells are the resident mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system and have a close relationship with the aging process and neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence suggests that LBs accumulate and are remodeled during the aging process and the development of neuroinflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of LBs under these con...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hu X, Xu B, Ge W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Carnitine/Organic Cation Transporter OCTN1 Negatively Regulates Activation in Murine Cultured Microglial Cells.
Abstract Brain immune cells, i.e., microglia, play an important role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis, whereas chronic overactivation of microglia is involved in the development of various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the regulation of microglial activation may contribute to their treatment. The aim of the present study was to clarify the functional expression of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN1/SLC22A4, which recognizes the naturally occurring food-derived antioxidant ergothioneine (ERGO) as a substrate in vivo, in microglia and its role in regulation of microglial activation. Primary ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ishimoto T, Nakamichi N, Nishijima H, Masuo Y, Kato Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Metformin Accelerates Glycolytic Lactate Production in Cultured Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons.
Abstract Metformin is the most frequently used drug for the treatment of type-II diabetes. As metformin has been reported to cross the blood-brain barrier, brain cells will encounter this drug. To test whether metformin may affect the metabolism of neurons, we exposed cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons to metformin. Treatment with metformin caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in glycolytic lactate release from viable neurons as demonstrated by the three-to fivefold increase in extracellular lactate concentration determined after exposure to metformin. Half-maximal stimulation of lactate produc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blumrich EM, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Anticonvulsant Effect of Swertiamarin Against Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures in Adult Male Mice.
Abstract Epilepsy is one of the common and major neurological disorders, approximately a third of the individuals with epilepsy suffer from seizures and not able to successfully respond to available medications. Current study was designed to investigate whether Swertiamarin (Swe) had anticonvulsant activity in the pilocarpine (PILO)-treated mice. Thirty minutes prior to the PILO (280 mg/kg) injection, the mice were administrated with Swe (50, 150, and 450 mg/kg) and valproate sodium (VPA, 200 mg/kg) once. Seizures and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed, and then the mice were killed for Niss...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng XH, Zhang X, Wang J, Ma PS, Ma L, Niu Y, Sun T, Zhou R, Yu JQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
The Role of K(+)-Cl(-)-Cotransporter-2 in Neuropathic Pain.
Abstract The pain sensory system normally functions under a fine balance between excitation and inhibition. When this balance is perturbed for some reason, it leads to neuropathic pain. There is accumulating evidence that attributes this pain generation to specific dysfunctions of the inhibitory system in the spinal cord. One possible mechanism leading to the induction of these dysfunctions is the down-regulation of K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter-2 (KCC2) expression. In fact, various neuropathic pain models indicate a decrease of KCC2 expression in the spinal cord. The alteration of KCC2 expression affects GABAergic and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kitayama T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Regulation of Glioma Cells Migration by DYRK2.
In this study, we made an effort to explore the expression and function in human glioma. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to investigate the expression of DYRK2 protein in glioma tissues in 84 patients. Wound healing and transwell assay were carried out to determine the cell migration ability. We showed that the level of DYRK2 was significantly decreased in high-grade glioma tissues compared with low-grade tissues. In addition, the expression level of DYRK2 was positively correlated with glioma pathological grade and E-cadherin expression. Kaplane-Meier analysis revealed that low expression of ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shen Y, Zhang L, Wang D, Bao Y, Liu C, Xu Z, Huang W, Cheng C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
The protection of novel 2-arylethenylquinoline derivatives against impairment of associative learning memory induced by neural A β in C. elegans Alzheimer's disease model.
The protection of novel 2-arylethenylquinoline derivatives against impairment of associative learning memory induced by neural Aβ in C. elegans Alzheimer's disease model. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jul 01;: Authors: He Q, Huang G, Chen Y, Wang X, Huang Z, Chen Z Abstract Cerebral deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a fundamental feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), damages the neurocytes and impairs the cognition functions and associative learning memory of AD patients. A series of novel 2-arylethenylquinoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in our previous study, which inhibited ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: He Q, Huang G, Chen Y, Wang X, Huang Z, Chen Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Can Neurochemical Changes of Mood Disorders Explain the Increase Risk of Epilepsy or its Worse Seizure Control?
This article reviews some of the leading pathogenic mechanisms of depression with respect to potential proconvulsant properties that may provide explanations for these phenomena. PMID: 28667464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kanner AM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Peripheral Blood Monocyte Tolerance Alleviates Intraperitoneal Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Neuroinflammation in Rats Via Upregulating the CD200R Expression.
Abstract Neuroinflammation is an important pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The peripheral immune system could produce profound effects on central immunities. The peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) immune tolerance is the refractoriness of immune system to avoid overactive peripheral inflammation. The PBM are also actively involved in central immune activities. There is evidence implying the probable failure of immune tolerance and impairment of CD200/CD200R signaling in PD patients. Here we aimed to explore the effects of PBM tolerance in peripheral LPS-induced neuroinflammation as well as the specific role...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xia L, Xie X, Liu Y, Luo X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Increased Oxidative Parameters and Decreased Cytokine Levels in an Animal Model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative (DCFH oxidation, glutathione levels, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities) and inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10) parameters in the most widely accepted animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Prefrontal cortex, cortex (remaining regions), striatum and hippocampus of adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats were studied. SHR presented increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cortex, striatum and hippocampus. In SHR, glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased in the prefrontal cortex and hippo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Leffa DT, Bellaver B, de Oliveira C, de Macedo IC, de Freitas JS, Grevet EH, Caumo W, Rohde LA, Quincozes-Santos A, Torres ILS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Metformin Attenuates Neurological Deficit after Intracerebral Hemorrhage by Inhibiting Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Rats.
Abstract Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can lead to brain damage and even death, and there is lack of effective therapeutic methods for treating ICH. Although recent studies have focused on the administration of metformin in treating stroke, there is no literature to support whether it can be used to treat ICH. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of metformin on ICH and the underlying mechanisms of those effects. An ICH model was established in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, ICH group, and ICH+metformin group. The neurobeh...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qi B, Hu L, Zhu L, Shang L, Wang X, Liu N, Wen N, Hong Y, Fang D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Astrocytes Provide Metabolic Support for Neuronal Synaptic Function in Response to Extracellular K().
Abstract It is an honour to have this opportunity write an article in recognition of the immense contributions of Bruce Ransom to the field of glial research. For me (BAM) personally there are many highlights both as a colleague and a friend that come to mind when I reflect on the many years that I have known Bruce. My own entry into the glial field was inspired by the early work by Ransom and his lab showing the sensitivity of astrocytes to neuronal activity. During my PhD and postdoctoral research I read these early papers and was inspired to ask the question when I first set up my independent lab in 1983: what ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: MacVicar BA, Choi HB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Preface for the Steve White Honorary Issue of Neurochemical Research.
PMID: 28664401 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Klitgaard H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Reduced Proliferation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells in the Postnatal Brain of Dystonia Musculorum Mice.
Abstract Dystonia musculorum (dt) mice show sensory neurodegeneration and movement disorder, such as dystonia and cerebellar ataxia. The causative gene Dystonin (Dst) encodes a cytoskeleton linker protein. Although sensory neurodegeneration has been well studied, glial cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated cell proliferation in the CNS of Dst (Gt) homozygous mice using newly generated in situ hybridization (ISH) probes-Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) probes-both of which effectively detect proliferating cells. We found that Ki-67-positiv...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hossain MI, Horie M, Takebayashi H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
RAGE-Specific Inhibitor FPS-ZM1 Attenuates AGEs-Induced Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rat Primary Microglia.
In this study, we further investigated the effect of FPS-ZM1 on the AGEs/RAGE interaction and downstream elevation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in primary microglia cells. The results suggested that FPS-ZM1 significantly suppressed AGEs-induced RAGE overexpression, RAGE-dependent microglial activation, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), and the expression of downstream inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxid...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shen C, Ma Y, Zeng Z, Yin Q, Hong Y, Hou X, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Chronic Administration of S-Allylcysteine Activates Nrf2 Factor and Enhances the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Striatum, Frontal Cortex and Hippocampus.
acute;rdenas ME, Maldonado PD Abstract Oxidative stress plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The cellular defense mechanisms to deal with oxidative damage involve the activation of transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf2), which enhances the transcription of antioxidant and phase II enzyme genes. S-allylcysteine (SAC) is an antioxidant with neuroprotective properties, and the main organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract. The ability of SAC to activate the Nrf2 factor has been previously reported in hepatic cells; however this effect has not been studied in normal brain. In orde...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Franco-Enzástiga Ú, Santana-Martínez RA, Silva-Islas CA, Barrera-Oviedo D, Chánez-Cárdenas ME, Maldonado PD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Salt Appetite, and the Influence of Opioids.
Abstract Due to the biological importance of sodium and its relative scarcity within many natural environments, 'salt appetite' has evolved whereby dietary salt is highly sought after and palatable when tasted. In addition to peripheral responses, salt depletion is detected within the brain via circumventricular organs and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) neurons to increase salt appetite. Salt appetite is comprised of two main components. One component is the incentive salience or motivation for salt (i.e. how much salt is 'wanted'). Incentive salience is dynamic and largely depends on internal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith CM, Lawrence AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
A Lifetime's Adventure in Extracellular K(+) Regulation: The Scottish Connection.
Abstract In a career that has spanned 45 years and shows no signs of slowing down, Dr Bruce Ransom has devoted considerable time and energy to studying regulation of interstitial K(+). When Bruce commenced his studies in 1969 virtually nothing was known of the functions of glial cells, but Bruce's research contributed to the physiological assignation of function to mammalian astrocytes, namely interstitial K(+) buffering. The experiments that I describe in this review concern the response of the membrane potential (Em) of in vivo cat cortical astrocytes to changes in [K(+)]o, an experimental manoeuvre that was ach...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brown AM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Connexin Channels at the Glio-Vascular Interface: Gatekeepers of the Brain.
Abstract Neuronal survival, electrical signaling and synaptic activity require a well-balanced micro-environment in the central nervous system. This is achieved by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an endothelial barrier situated in the brain capillaries, that controls near-to-all passage in and out of the brain. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on signaling interactions with surrounding glial, neuronal and vascular cells, together forming the neuro-glio-vascular unit. Within this functional unit, connexin (Cx) channels are of utmost importance for intercellular communication between the different...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: De Bock M, Leybaert L, Giaume C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
2',3'-Dideoxycytidine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract DNA polymerase-β (DNA pol-β) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of a DNA polymerase-β inhibitor 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (DDC) in PD models. In the in vitro studies, primary cultured neurons were challenged with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)). The expression of DNA pol-β was assessed using western blot. The neuroprotective effect of DNA pol-β knockdown and DNA pol-β inhibitor DDC was determined using cell viability assay and caspase-3 activity assay. We found that MP...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Niu J, Xiong J, Hu D, Zeng F, Nie S, Mao S, Wang T, Zhang Z, Zhang Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Activation of Brain Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase Contributes to Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by an Intracerebroventricular Injection of Streptozotocin in Mice.
Abstract There is a lack of information concerning the molecular events underlying the depressive-like effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in mice. The elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate depression in inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we reported that ICV-STZ activates IDO in the hippocampus of mice and culminates in depressive-like behaviors, as measured by the increased duration of immobility in the tail suspension test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. Th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Souza LC, Jesse CR, de Gomes MG, Del Fabbro L, Goes ATR, Donato F, Boeira SP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Cathepsin C Aggravates Neuroinflammation Involved in Disturbances of Behaviour and Neurochemistry in Acute and Chronic Stress-Induced Murine Model of Depression.
We examined and compared the behavioural and proinflammatory cytokine alterations in serum and depression-targeted brain areas of Cat C differentially expressed mice in stress, as well as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) levels in brain. The results showed that Cat C overexpression (Cat C OE) promoted peripheral and central inflammatory response with significantly increased TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and resultant upregulation of IDO and downregulation of 5HT expression in brain, and thereby aggravated depression-like behaviours accessed by op...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Fan K, Liu Y, Liu G, Yang X, Ma J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
MARCKS is Necessary for Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Maturation.
Abstract Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) development into myelinated oligodendrocytes demands vigorous membrane addition. Since myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) reportedly contributes to Ras-associated protein (Rab)-10-associated vesicle insertion into neuronal membranes, we investigated the role of MARCKS in OPC maturation. We found that either knockdown of MARCKS or interruption of its interaction with Rab10 would cause a decrease of the cell membrane area during OPC development. Enhanced MARCKS phosphorylation by Nogo66 or myelin debris treatment inhibited OPC maturation, while its de...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang ZH, Ma FF, Zhang H, Xu XH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Presenilin-1 Targeted Morpholino Induces Cognitive Deficits, Increased Brain A β1-42 and Decreased Synaptic Marker PSD-95 in Zebrafish Larvae.
Presenilin-1 Targeted Morpholino Induces Cognitive Deficits, Increased Brain Aβ1-42 and Decreased Synaptic Marker PSD-95 in Zebrafish Larvae. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jun 16;: Authors: Nery LR, Silva NE, Fonseca R, Vianna MRM Abstract Presenilins are transmembrane proteases required for the proteolytic cleavage of Notch and also act as the catalytic core of the γ-secretase complex, which is responsible for the final cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein into Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides of varying lengths. Presenilin-1 gene (psen1) mutations are the main cause of early-onset autosomal-d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nery LR, Silva NE, Fonseca R, Vianna MRM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
L-3-n-Butylphthalide Activates Akt/mTOR Signaling, Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Autophagy and Improves Cognitive Impairment in Mice with Repeated Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract L-3-n-Butylphthalide (L-NBP) exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia, but its potential benefits in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (RCIR) injury remain unknown. We investigated the effect of L-NBP on cognitive impairment induced by RCIR in mice. Male C57Bl/6 mice received sham surgery or bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (3 times, 20 min each) and were orally administered preoperative L-NBP (30 mg/kg/day, 7 days), postoperative L-NBP (30 or 60 mg/kg/day, 28 days) or postoperative vehicle (28 days). Learning and memory were assessed by the Morris ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu J, Huai Y, Meng N, Dong Y, Liu Z, Qi Q, Hu M, Fan M, Jin W, Lv P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Flow Cytometric Characterization of T Cell Subsets and Microglia After Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.
Abstract Although, there is growing awareness in the progressive neurodegeneration of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, changes of immune reactions remain equivocal at best. Thus, in a clinically relevant rat repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) model, some immunologic cells (T cell subsets, microglia) in the injured brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In the injured brain, CD3(+) T cells showed a bimodal increase during 42 days post-injury (dpi). CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells firstly increased and then decreased, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells had reversed tendency. CD8...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bai R, Gao H, Han Z, Huang S, Ge X, Chen F, Lei P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Alleviation by GABAB Receptors of Neurotoxicity Mediated by Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Cultured Murine Cortical Neurons Exposed to N-Methyl-D-aspartate.
In this study, we have evaluated whether activation of GABAB receptor (GABABR), which is linked to membrane G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying K(+) ion channels (GIRKs), leads to protection of the NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in a manner relevant to mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cultured embryonic mouse cortical neurons. The cationic fluorescent dye 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine was used for determination of mitochondrial membrane potential. The PTP opener salicylic acid induced a fluorescence increase with a vitality decrease in a manner sensitive to the PTP inhibitor ciclosporin, while ciclosporin alone was e...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kinjo T, Ashida Y, Higashi H, Sugimura S, Washida M, Niihara H, Ogita K, Yoneda Y, Kuramoto N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Genomics-Guided Precise Anti-Epileptic Drug Development.
This article explores the promise of genomics guided drug development as an approach to complement the more traditional model. PMID: 28608234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Delanty N, Cavallleri G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Ferulic Acid Supplementation for Management of Depression in Epilepsy.
Abstract Neuroinflammation driven altered neurochemical milieu have been reported to play a significant role in pathogenesis of comorbid depression in epilepsy. Most of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as levetiracetam, taigabine, topiramate have not been reported any significant effect in alleviating neuroinflammation, which may explain their ineffectiveness in ameliorating depression associated with epilepsy. The supplementation of antidepressants (ADs) attracts various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with AEDs and was considered unsafe in epilepsy. This scenario pushes us to search therapies...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Singh T, Kaur T, Goel RK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
The Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin Against Nicotine-Induced Neurotoxicity is Mediated by CREB-BDNF Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Nicotine abuse adversely affects brain and causes apoptotic neurodegeneration. Curcumin- a bright yellow chemical compound found in turmeric is associated with neuroprotective properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of CREB-BDNF signaling in mediating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Sixty adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 received 0.7 ml/rat normal saline, group 2 received 6 mg/kg nicotine. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated concurrently with nicotine (6 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Motaghinejad M, Motevalian M, Fatima S, Faraji F, Mozaffari S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Exogenous Adipokine Peptide Resistin Protects Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice.
In this study, we investigated the protective effects of resistin on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that resistin (i.c.v.) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 45 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of resistin (10 µg/kg body weight) also had protective effects on infarct volume, indicating the crossing of resistin through the impaired BBB after ischemia injury. Resistin treatment reduced cleaved protein level of Poly(ADP-r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhu J, Wu D, Zhao C, Luo M, Hamdy RC, Chua BHL, Xu X, Miao Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
An L-Glutamine Transporter Isoform for Neurogenesis Facilitated by L-Theanine.
Abstract L-Theanine (=γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid ingredient in green tea with a structural analogy to L-glutamine (L-GLN) rather than L-glutamic acid (L-GLU), with regards to the absence of a free carboxylic acid moiety from the gamma carbon position. L-theanine markedly inhibits [(3)H]L-GLN uptake without affecting [(3)H]L-GLU uptake in cultured neurons and astroglia. In neural progenitor cells with sustained exposure to L-theanine, upregulation of the L-GLN transporter isoform Slc38a1 expression and promotion of both proliferation and neuronal commitment are seen along with marked acceleration ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoneda Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Determination of Brain-Regional Blood Perfusion and Endogenous cPKC γ Impact on Ischemic Vulnerability of Mice with Global Ischemia.
In this study, the bilateral ICAO (BICAO) model was applied in cPKCγ wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice to determine the cPKCγ impact on brain-regional ischemic vulnerability. The arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging results showed that 7 days BICAO-induced global ischemia could cause significant blood perfusion loss in prefrontal cortex (69.13%), striatum (61.69%), hypothalamus (67.36%), hippocampus (69.82%) and midbrain (40.53%) of WT mice, along with neurological deficits. Nissl staining and Western blot results indicated that hypothalamus and midbrain had more severe neural cell loss than prefrontal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu S, Dai Q, Hua R, Liu T, Han S, Li S, Li J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Inhibition of Gap Junction Elevates Glutamate Uptake in Cultured Astrocytes.
Abstract Glutamate uptake is a main function of astrocytes to keep extracellular glutamate levels low and protect neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. On the other hand, astrocyte networks formed by gap junctions, which are consisted with connexins and connecting neighboring cells, are reported to play a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis in the brain. In the present study, we examined the effects of gap junction inhibitors on the glutamate uptake activity in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. At first, we confirmed the effects of gap junction inhibitors, 1-octanol and carbenoxolone, on cell-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takano K, Ogawa M, Kawabe K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Forty Years of Sodium Channels: Structure, Function, Pharmacology, and Epilepsy.
Abstract Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in brain neurons. In the 1970s, much was known about the function of sodium channels from measurements of ionic currents using the voltage clamp method, but there was no information about the sodium channel molecules themselves. As a postdoctoral fellow and staff scientist at the National Institutes of Health, I developed neurotoxins as molecular probes of sodium channels in cultured neuroblastoma cells. During those years, Bruce Ransom and I crossed paths as members of the laboratories of Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Nelson and shared insights abo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Catterall WA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Hydrogel Environment Supports Cell Culture Expansion of a Grade IV Astrocytoma.
Abstract Malignant astrocytomas are aggressive cancers of glial origin that can develop into invasive brain tumors. The disease has poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Astrocytoma cell lines of human origin are an important tool in the experimental pathway from bench to bedside because they afford a convenient intermediate system for in vitro analysis of brain cancer pathogenesis and treatment options. We undertook the current study to determine whether hydrogel culture methods could be adapted to support the growth of astrocytoma cell lines, thereby facilitating a system that may be biologically more similar...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jogalekar MP, Cooper LG, Serrano EE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Role of Mitochondria in Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity: Involvement in Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation, and Pro-apoptosis-A Review.
Abstract Methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine-type psychostimulant, is associated with dopaminergic toxicity and has a high abuse potential. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that impaired mitochondria are critical in dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA. Mitochondria are important energy-producing organelles with dynamic nature. Evidence indicated that exposure to MA can disturb mitochondrial energetic metabolism by inhibiting the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fusion/fission, have recen...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shin EJ, Tran HQ, Nguyen PT, Jeong JH, Nah SY, Jang CG, Nabeshima T, Kim HC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Strengthening the Case for Epilepsy Drug Development: Bridging Experiences from the Alzheimer's Disease Field-An Opinion.
Abstract Given the sheer number of drugs (over 20!) available for treatment of seizures, epilepsy can be considered one of the most successful areas in pharmaceutical development and especially for neuroscience. However, despite the large number of drug treatment options available for managing patients with epilepsy, there remains considerable unmet need. For example, the overall impact on seizure control has not been substantial with approximately 30% of patients remaining refractory or their seizures not adequately controlled. Also there is need for epilepsy prevention and for certain sub-populations with severe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Twyman RE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Preface for the Ursula Sonnewald Honorary Issue of Neurochemical Research.
PMID: 28560635 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Microglial Interferon Signaling and White Matter.
Abstract Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, are primary regulators of the neuroimmune response to injury. Type I interferons (IFNs), including the IFNαs and IFNβ, are key cytokines in the innate immune system. Their activity is implicated in the regulation of microglial function both during development and in response to neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegeneration. Data from numerous studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke suggest that type I IFNs can modulate the microglial phenotype, influence the overall neuroimmune milieu, regulate phagocytosis, and affect blood-brain barr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McDonough A, Lee RV, Weinstein JR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Advanced Parental Age Impaired Fear Conditioning and Hippocampal LTD in Adult Female Rat Offspring.
Abstract Advanced maternal or paternal age is associated with increased risks of cognitive and emotional disorders. Chronic stress is also a common experience in human life that causes psychiatric diseases. However, the synergistic effects of these two factors on offspring are rarely studied. In the present study, the offspring of both young (3-4 months) and old (12-14 months) rat parents were given CUMS for 21 days at the age of 4 weeks. The effects of advanced parental age and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on emotional and cognitive behaviors and the related cellular mechanisms were investigated by us...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luo L, Sun T, Guan X, Ni Y, Yang L, Zhao Q, Kong X, Chen Y, Zhang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
S-Nitrosylation Regulates Cell Survival and Death in the Central Nervous System.
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced from nitric oxide synthase, is an important cell signaling molecule that is crucial for many physiological functions such as neuronal death, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and vascular homeostasis. This diffusible gaseous compound functions as an effector or second messenger in many intercellular communications and/or cell signaling pathways. Protein S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification that involves the covalent attachment of an NO group to the thiol side chain of select cysteine residues on target proteins. This process is thought to be very i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Koriyama Y, Furukawa A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
BAG-1L Protects SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Against Hypoxia/Re-oxygenation Through Up-Regulating HSP70 and Activating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.
Abstract BCL-2-associated athanogene-1(BAG-1) is a multifunctional and anti-apoptotic protein that was first identified as a binding partner of BCL-2. But the effects and mechanisms for BAG-1 against hypoxic damage is unclear up to now. Whether BAG-1 could protect the human brain against hypoxic damage through up-regulating 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) and PI3K/AKT pathway activation? In present study, we examined the changes of HSP70 and AKT and p-AKT protein level in SH-SY5Y cells with BAG-1L gene over-expression subjected to hypoxia/re-oxygenation injury. BAG-1L over-expression increased neuronal via...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Jia C, Li QS, Xie CY, Zhang N, Qu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Erratum to: Ultra-High Field Proton MR Spectroscopy in Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
z G PMID: 28523531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheong I, Marjańska M, Deelchand DK, Eberly LE, Walk D, Öz G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Progressive Pathological Changes in Neurochemical Profile of the Hippocampus and Early Changes in the Olfactory Bulbs of Tau Transgenic Mice (rTg4510).
In this study, we measured alterations in a number of key neurochemicals associated with tauopathy-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs of a transgenic mouse model of FTLD-tauopathy, line rTg4510, using in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 T. The rTg4510 line develops tauopathy at a young age (4-5 months), reaching a severe stage by 8-12 months of age. Longitudinal measurement of neurochemical concentrations in the hippocampus of mice from 5 to 12 months of age showed significant progressive changes with distinctive disease staging patterns including N-acetylaspartate, my...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim J, Choi IY, Duff KE, Lee P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Post-Translational Tubulin Modifications in Human Astrocyte Cultures.
In this study, we characterized post-translational specifications of tubulin in human astrocytes using the normal human astrocyte (NHA; Lonza) commercial cell line of fetal origin. Immunocytochemical techniques were implemented in conjunction with confocal microscopy to image class III β-tubulin (βIII-tubulin), acetylated tubulin, and polyglutamylated tubulin using fluorescent antibody probes. Fluorescent probe intensity differences and colocalization were quantitatively assessed with the 'EBImage' package for the statistical programming language R. Colocalization analysis revealed that, although both acetylated ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Knight VB, Serrano EE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Matairesinol Suppresses Neuroinflammation and Migration Associated with Src and ERK1/2-NF- κB Pathway in Activating BV2 Microglia.
Matairesinol Suppresses Neuroinflammation and Migration Associated with Src and ERK1/2-NF-κB Pathway in Activating BV2 Microglia. Neurochem Res. 2017 May 17;: Authors: Xu P, Huang MW, Xiao CX, Long F, Wang Y, Liu SY, Jia WW, Wu WJ, Yang D, Hu JF, Liu XH, Zhu YZ Abstract Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might be a potential strategy for neurodegeneration. Matairesinol, a dibenzylbutyrolactone plant lignan, presents in a wide variety of foodstuffs. It has been found to possess anti-angiogenic, anti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu P, Huang MW, Xiao CX, Long F, Wang Y, Liu SY, Jia WW, Wu WJ, Yang D, Hu JF, Liu XH, Zhu YZ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
14,15-EET Suppresses Neuronal Apoptosis in Ischemia-Reperfusion Through the Mitochondrial Pathway.
In this study, we observed that infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion injury was reduced in sEH gene knockout mice. In addition, Caspase 3 activation, cytochrome C release and AIF nuclear translocation were also inhibited. In this study, 14,15-EET pretreatment reduced neuronal apoptosis in the oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation group in vitro. The mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was also inhibited, as evidenced by AIF translocation from the mitochondria to nucleus and the reduction in the expressions of cleaved-caspase 3 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. 14,15-EET could reduce neuronal apoptosis through upregula...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Geng HX, Li RP, Li YG, Wang XQ, Zhang L, Deng JB, Wang L, Deng JX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Disease-Modifying Effects of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 in the GAERS Model of Absence Epilepsy.
Abstract Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency. The first study compared the effects of acute sc ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dezsi G, Sieg F, Thomas M, O'Brien TJ, van der Hart M, Jones NC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research