Potential Mechanism of Neurite Outgrowth Enhanced by Electrical Stimulation: Involvement of MicroRNA-363-5p Targeting DCLK1 Expression in Rat.
In conclusion, our data has indicated that miR-363-5p is involved in ES-promoted neurite outgrowth by targeting DCLK1. These findings provide new insights into the roles of miRNAs in ES-enhanced neurite outgrowth and regeneration. PMID: 27900578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Quan X, Huang L, Yang Y, Ma T, Liu Z, Ge J, Huang J, Luo Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.
This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretre...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Park E, Chun HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant-Like Effect of Isorhynchophylline in Mice.
Abstract Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid, has been identified as the main active ingredient responsible for the biological activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Miq ex Havil. (Rubiaceae). Previous studies in our laboratory have revealed that IRN possesses potent neuroprotective effects in different models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are remained unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN. The antidepressant-like effects of IRN was determined by using animal models of depression including forced swimming and tail ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xian YF, Fan D, Ip SP, Mao QQ, Lin ZX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Enteric Neuron Cells with Rotenone Treatment and Prediction of Regulated Pathways.
In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes. The functional categorization revealed that the DEGs were involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and development, response to various stimuli, and regulation of neurogenesis. In addition, the pathway and network analysis showed that the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), Toll-like receptor, Wnt, and Ras signaling pathways were intensively inv...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guan Q, Wang X, Jiang Y, Zhao L, Nie Z, Jin L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

L-PGDS Mediates Vagus Nerve Stimulation-Induced Neuroprotection in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke by Suppressing the Apoptotic Response.
This study investigated the role of L-PGDS in cerebral I/R and whether this process was involved in the mechanism of VNS-mediated neuroprotection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with a lentiviral vector (LV) through intracerebroventricular injection, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and VNS treatment. The expression of L-PGDS in the peri-infarct cortex was examined. The localization of L-PGDS was determined using double immunofluorescence staining. Neurologic scores, infarct volume and neuronal apoptosis were evaluated at 24 h after reperfusion. The expression of apoptosis-related molecule...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang L, Ma J, Jin X, Jia G, Jiang Y, Li C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress Mediated Hippocampal Neuron Apoptosis Participated in Carbon Disulfide-Induced Rats Cognitive Dysfunction.
Abstract Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) exhibits central nervous systems toxicity. But the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by CS2, and eventually reveal the possible oxidative-related mechanism of hippocampus pathological changes in CS2 exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were administrated with CS2 at dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for consecutive 20 days, respectively. Cognitive performances were evaluated by Morris water maze tests. Thionin and immunohistochemical analysis were us...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang S, Irving G, Jiang L, Wang H, Li M, Wang X, Han W, Xu Y, Yang Y, Zeng T, Song F, Zhao X, Xie K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin Gallate Attenuates β-Amyloid Generation and Oxidative Stress Involvement of PPARγ in N2a/APP695 Cells.
In this study, we observed that EGCG attenuated Aβ generation in N2a/APP695 cells, such as the PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone, by suppressing the transcription and translation of BACE1 and that its effect was attenuated by the PPARγ inhibitor, GW9662. Intriguingly, EGCG significantly reinforced the activity of PPARγ by promoting its mRNA and protein expressions in N2a/APP695 cells. Moreover, EGCG also decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, caspase-3), reduced the activity of the anti-inflammatory agent NF-κB and inhibited the oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of ROS and M...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang ZX, Li YB, Zhao RP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Expression of IGFBP6 after Spinal Cord Injury: Implications for Neuronal Apoptosis.
In this study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of IGFBP6 expression in the spinal cord. Our results showed that IGFBP6 was upregulated significantly after SCI, which was paralleled with the levels of apoptotic proteins p53 and active caspase-3. Immunofluorescent labeling showed that IGFBP6 was co-localizated with active caspase-3 and p53 in neurons. To further investigate the function of IGFBP6, an apoptosis model was established in primary neuronal cells. When IGFBP6 was knocked down by specific short interfering RNA (siRNA), the protein levels of active caspase-3 an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang S, Liu Y, Wu C, Zhao W, Zhang J, Bao G, Xu G, Sun Y, Chen J, Cui Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Hepatic Encephalopathy: Cause, Effect or Association?
Abstract The methylated derivative of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is synthesized in different mammalian tissues including the brain. ADMA acts as an endogenous, nonselective, competitive inhibitor of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and may limit L-arginine supply from the plasma to the enzyme via reducing its transport by cationic amino acid transporters. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a relatively frequently diagnosed complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute or chronic liver failure, characterized by symptoms linked with impaired brain function leading to neurol...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Czarnecka A, Milewski K, Zielińska M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Distinct Expression of Various Angiogenesis Factors in Mice Brain After Whole-Brain Irradiation by X-ray.
Abstract Radiation-induced brain injury (RBI) is the most serious complication after radiotherapy. However, the etiology of RBI remains elusive. In order to evaluate the effect of X-rays on normal brain tissue, adult male BALB/C mice were subjected to whole-brain exposure with a single dose of 10 Gy or sham radiation. The structure and number of mice brain vessels were investigated 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180 days after irradiation by H&E staining and immune-fluorescence staining. Compared with sham control mice, in addition to morphological changes, a significant reduction of microvascular density was dete...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng Z, Huang H, Wu X, Wu M, He G, Guo J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

EGb-761 Attenuates the Anti-proliferative Activity of Fluoride via DDK1 in PC-12 Cells.
This study may provide a new method for protecting against the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by fluoride. PMID: 27885578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang CY, Chen R, Wang F, Ren C, Zhang P, Li Q, Li HH, Guo KT, Geng DQ, Liu CF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neonatal Repeated Exposure to Isoflurane not Sevoflurane in Mice Reversibly Impaired Spatial Cognition at Juvenile-Age.
Abstract Inhalation anesthetics facilitate surgical procedures in millions of children each year. However, animal studies demonstrate that exposure to the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause neuronal cell death in developing brains. The long-term cytotoxic effects of sevoflurane, the most popular pediatric anesthetic, have not been compared with isoflurane. Thus, this study was designed to compare the effects of equipotent doses of these two anesthetics on neonatal long-term neurotoxicity. Postnatal 7-day-old (P7) C57/BL male mice were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane or 2.2% sevoflurane 2 h a day for 3 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu J, Zhao Y, Yang J, Zhang X, Zhang W, Wang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sirtuins and Their Roles in Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders.
Abstract Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are unique histone deacetylases (HDACs) whose activity depends on NAD(+) levels and thus on the cellular metabolic status. SIRTs regulate energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. They orchestrate the stress response and damage repair. Through these functions sirtuins modulate the course of aging and affect neurodegenerative diseases. SIRTSs interact with multiple signaling proteins, transcription factors (TFs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) another class of NAD(+)-dependent post-translational protein modifiers. The cross-talk between SIRTs TFs and PARPs is a highly pr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jęśko H, Wencel P, Strosznajder RP, Strosznajder JB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Administration of Huperzia quadrifariata Extract, a Cholinesterase Inhibitory Alkaloid Mixture, has Neuroprotective Effects in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia.
Abstract Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an etiologic component of several neurologic pathologies associated to cognitive impairment. The mechanisms involved in HI-induced tissue damage start immediately after HI and extend for days. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and exerts a protector effect on tissue damage by modulating inflammation, and cholinesterase inhibitors have shown neuroprotective properties and their action are often attributed to inhibition of the immune response. The administration of Huperzia quadrifariata alkaloid extract (HqAE), with potent and sel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Odorcyk FK, Sanches EF, Nicola FC, Moraes J, Pettenuzzo LF, Kolling J, Siebert C, Longoni A, Konrath EL, Wyse A, Netto CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Matricellular Proteins in Disorders of the Central Nervous System.
Abstract Matricellular proteins (MCPs) are actively expressed non-structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix, which rapidly turnover and possess regulatory roles, as well as mediate cell-cell interactions. MCPs characteristically contain binding sites for other extracellular proteins, cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases, that provide structural support for surrounding cells. MCPs are present in most organs, including brain, and play a major role in cell-cell interactions and tissue repair. Among the MCPs found in brain include thrombospondin-1/2, secreted protein acidic and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jayakumar AR, Apeksha A, Norenberg MD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neural Signaling Metabolites May Modulate Energy Use in Hibernation.
Abstract Despite an epidemic in obesity and metabolic syndrome limited means exist to effect adiposity or metabolic rate other than life style changes. Here we review evidence that neural signaling metabolites may modulate thermoregulatory pathways and offer novel means to fine tune energy use. We extend prior reviews on mechanisms that regulate thermogenesis and energy use in hibernation by focusing primarily on the neural signaling metabolites adenosine, AMP and glutamate. PMID: 27878659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Drew KL, Frare C, Rice SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Carnosine Attenuates Brain Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats.
This study investigates the effect of Carnosine on brain injury using the rat ICH model, which is established by type IV collagenase caudatum infusion. The results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of Carnosine (1000 mg/kg) significantly attenuates brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, oxidative stress, microglia activation and neuronal apoptosis of perihematoma at 72 h following ICH in rats models, as convinced by preventing the disruption of tight junction protein ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5, followed by the decrease of ROS, MDA, 3-NT, 8-OHDG level and the increase of GSH-Px and SOD act...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie RX, Li DW, Liu XC, Yang MF, Fang J, Sun BL, Zhang ZY, Yang XY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alternative Fuels in Epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Abstract This review summarises the recent findings on metabolic treatments for epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in honour of Professor Ursula Sonnewald. The metabolic impairments in rodent models of these disorders as well as affected patients are being discussed. In both epilepsy and ALS, there are defects in glucose uptake and reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycling, at least in part due to reduced amounts of C4 TCA cycle intermediates. In addition there are impairments in glycolysis in ALS. A reduction in glucose uptake can be addressed by providing the brain with alternative fuels, such as ke...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tefera TW, Tan KN, McDonald TS, Borges K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Excessive Extracellular Glutamate Accumulation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
Conclusions derived from measurements of activities/expression patterns of the GGC enzymes and transporter moieties find support in metabolic studies employing (13)C labeled Glu precursors. Glu reuptake by astrocytes is additionally impeded by unfavorable ion gradients resulting from ion and water dyshomeostasis, and extracellular Glu concentration is further increased by reduction of extracellular space due to edema and altered cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. Missing links in the scenario are discussed in concluding comments. PMID: 27873132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Albrecht J, Zielińska M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Altered Expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in Intractable Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Rats.
Abstract The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of te...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li R, Ma L, Huang H, Ou S, Yuan J, Xu T, Yu X, Liu X, Yang J, Chen Y, Peng X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Involvement of Spinal CCR5/PKC γ Signaling Pathway in the Maintenance of Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.
In this study, we attempted to investigate whether spinal CCR5 and its downstream PKCγ pathway is involved in the maintenance of CIBP. Inoculation of Walker 256 cells into the tibia could induce a marked mechanical allodynia with concomitant upregulation of spinal CCR5 and p-PKCγ expression from day 6 to day 15 after inoculation. Spinal CCR5 was prominently expressed in microglia, and mechanical allodynia was attenuated by intrathecal injection of DAPTA (a specific antagonist of CCR5) with downregulation of spinal CCR5 and p-PKCγ expression levels at day 15 in inoculated rats. Pre-intrathecal injection of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hang LH, Li SN, Dan X, Shu WW, Luo H, Shao DH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocytes in Migration.
Abstract Cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon that underlies tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, immune response, and cancer metastasis. Great progresses have been made in research methodologies, with cell migration identified as a highly orchestrated process. Brain is considered the most complex organ in the human body, containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring normal functions of the central nervous system. Astrocytes are mostly quiescent under normal physiological conditions in the adult brain but become migratory after injury. Under most known pathological...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhan JS, Gao K, Chai RC, Jia XH, Luo DP, Ge G, Jiang YW, Fung YW, Li L, Yu AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PRDM5 Expression and Essential Role After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rat.
Abstract PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ) domain proteins (PRDM) are a subfamily of the kruppel-like zinc finger gene products that modulate cellular processes such as differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. PRDM5 is a recently identified family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor and behaves as a putative tumor suppressor in different types of cancer. However, the expression and function of PRDM5 in spinal cord injury (SCI) are still unknown. In the present study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of PRDM5 expression in the spinal cord. We found that...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu J, Wu W, Hao J, Yu M, Liu J, Chen X, Qian R, Zhang F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Top 5 Neurotransmitters from a Clinical Neurologist's Perspective.
Abstract Neurologists are proficient in neuroanatomy and -physiology but their understanding of neurochemistry tends to be mediocre. As a rule, we do not think in biochemical pathways and complex metabolic interactions but rather associate a few neurotransmitters with well-known brain diseases or drugs that we routinely prescribe. Most of us can hardly come up with more than a handful of relevant neurochemicals. From our point of view the most important neurotransmitters are, in alphabetical order, acetylcholine (associated with Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis), dopamine (Parkinson's disease), glutamate ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kondziella D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Organ Distribution of (13)N Following Intravenous Injection of [(13)N]Ammonia into Portacaval-Shunted Rats.
The objective of the present study was to determine the distribution of label following intravenous administration of [(13)N]ammonia among 14 organs in portacaval-shunted rats at 12 weeks after shunt construction. At an early time point (12 s) following administration of [(13)N]ammonia the relative concentration of label was highest in lung with lower, but still appreciable relative concentrations in kidney and heart. Clearance of (13)N from blood and kidney tended to be slower in portacaval-shunted rats versus normal rats during the 2-10 min interval after the injection. At later times post injection, brain and ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cruz NF, Dienel GA, Patrick PA, Cooper AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Pretreatment Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction Through Activation of ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF Pathway in Anesthetized Mice.
Abstract Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has protective effects on heart and brain against ischemia injury through mobilizing endogenous adaptive mechanisms. However, whether CIHH prevents against cognitive impairment was not elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CIHH treatment on ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: Control, Sham, CIHH (simulating 5000 m high-altitude for 28 days, 6 h per day), IR (three 16-min occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries interrupted by two 10-min...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang J, Zhang S, Ma H, Yang S, Liu Z, Wu X, Wang S, Zhang Y, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

β-Hydroxybutyrate in the Brain: One Molecule, Multiple Mechanisms.
β-Hydroxybutyrate in the Brain: One Molecule, Multiple Mechanisms. Neurochem Res. 2016 Nov 8; Authors: Achanta LB, Rae CD Abstract β-Hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), a ketone body, is oxidised as a brain fuel. Although its contribution to energy metabolism in the healthy brain is minimal, it is an interesting metabolite which is not only oxidised but also has other direct and collateral effects which make it a molecule of interest for therapeutic purposes. In brain βOHB can be produced in astrocytes from oxidation of fatty acids or catabolism of amino acids and is metabolised in the mitocho...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Achanta LB, Rae CD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Let-7f Regulates the Hypoxic Response in Cerebral Ischemia by Targeting NDRG3.
In this study, we preliminarily explored the change in the expression of the NDRG3 protein which indicated that NDRG3 protein is an oxygen-regulated protein in neurons in rat cerebral ischemia in vivo and in vitro. We further identified let-7f as an upstream regulator of NDRG3 by the lentiviral transfection of rat cortical neurons and the dual luciferase analysis of human genes. In addition, a dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed that when the expression of let-7f was elevated, the expression of NDRG3 mRNA was accordingly reduced in rat cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results identify a new reg...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao Y, Wang W, Jing L, Wang Y, Li M, Hou X, Wang J, Peng T, Teng J, Jia Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sex Difference in Oxidative Stress Parameters in Spinal Cord of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Relation to Neurological Deficit.
Abstract The study examined (a) whether there is sex difference in spinal cord and plasma oxidative stress profiles in Dark Agouti rats immunised for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal experimental model of multiple sclerosis, and (b) whether there is correlation between the oxidative stress in spinal cord and neurological deficit. Regardless of rat sex, with the disease development xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased in spinal cord, whereas glutathione levels decreased. This was accompanied by the rise in spinal cord malon...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 3, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dimitrijević M, Kotur-Stevuljević J, Stojić-Vukanić Z, Vujnović I, Pilipović I, Nacka-Aleksić M, Leposavić G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.
Abstract There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bavithra S, Selvakumar K, Sundareswaran L, Arunakaran J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Improved Proliferative Capacity of NP-Like Cells Derived from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Neuronal Transdifferentiation by Small Molecules.
ano G Abstract Neural progenitors (NP), found in fetal and adult brain, differentiate into neurons potentially able to be used in cell replacement therapies. This approach however, raises technical and ethical problems which limit their potential therapeutic use. Alternately, NPs can be obtained by transdifferentiation of non-neural somatic cells evading these difficulties. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are suggested to transdifferentiate into NP-like cells, which however, have a low proliferation capacity. The present study demonstrates the requisite of cell adhesion for proliferation and sur...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Aguilera-Castrejon A, Pasantes-Morales H, Montesinos JJ, Cortés-Medina LV, Castro-Manrreza ME, Mayani H, Ramos-Mandujano G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nuclear Lipids in the Nervous System: What they do in Health and Disease.
Abstract In the last 20 years it has been widely demonstrated that cell nucleus contains neutral and polar lipids localized in nuclear membranes, nucleoli, nuclear matrix and chromatin. Nuclear lipids may show specific organization forming nuclear lipid microdomains and have both structural and functional roles. Depending on their localization, nuclear lipids play different roles such as the regulation of nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix fluidity but they also can act as platforms for vitamin and hormone function, for active chromatin anchoring, and for the regulation of gene expression, DNA duplication and tra...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Garcia-Gil M, Albi E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Thymoquinone Against Convulsant Activity Induced by Lithium-Pilocarpine in a model of Status Epilepticus.
This study explored the protective effects of TQ in SE and used a lithium-pilocarpine model of SE to investigate the underlying mechanism, which was related to inflammation mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with the SE group, and the incidence of SE was significantly reduced. The seizure severity score measured on the Racine scale was significantly decreased in the TQ group compared with the SE group. Moreover, the results of the behavioral tests suggested that TQ may also have a protective effect on learning and memory functions...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shao Y, Feng Y, Xie Y, Luo Q, Chen L, Li B, Chen Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nigella sativa Oil Reduces Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)-Like Behavior in Haloperidol-Treated Rats.
In this study, we investigate whether Nigella sativa-oil (NS) (black cumin seeds)-a traditional medicine used for the seizure treatment in eastern country-may reduce the haloperidol (HAL)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)-like behavior in rats. After combine treatment with HAL (1 mg/kg) on NS (0.2 ml/rat), rats displayed a significant decreased EPS-like behavior including movement disorders and oral dyskinesia as compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that NS reduced astrogliosis in caudate and accumbens nuclei. These results suggest that NS may consider as an adjunct to antipsychotics t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Malik T, Hasan S, Pervez S, Fatima T, Haleem DJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Treadmill Exercise Promotes Neurogenesis in Ischemic Rat Brains via Caveolin-1/VEGF Signaling Pathways.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of treadmill exercise to promote neurogenesis after MCAO and whether caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways are involved. After MCAO, rats were subjected to a program of treadmill exercise. Daidzein (a specific inhibitor of caveolin-1 protein expression, 0.4 mg/kg) was used to confirm the effect of caveolin-1/VEGF signaling on exercise-mediated neurogenesis. We found that the total protein expression of both caveolin-1 and VEGF was increased by exercise and consistent with the improved neurological recovery, decreased infarct volumes and increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao Y, Pang Q, Liu M, Pan J, Xiang B, Huang T, Tu F, Liu C, Chen X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

ConBr, A Lectin Purified from the Seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, Protects Against Ischemia in Organotypic Culture of Rat Hippocampus: Potential Implication of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.
In conclusion, ConBr provides OHCs neuroprotection against OGD. The mechanism was not fully addressed but it may involve modulation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by ConBr. PMID: 27747481 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rieger DK, Navarro E, Buendia I, Parada E, González-Lafuente L, Leon R, Costa AP, Heinrich IA, Nascimento KS, Cavada BS, Lopez MG, Egea J, Leal RB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Expression and Prognostic Significance of p53 in Glioma Patients: A Meta-analysis.
PMID: 27743285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin Y, Xiao W, Song T, Feng G, Dai Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Gastrodin Reduces the Severity of Status Epilepticus in the Rat Pilocarpine Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Inhibiting Nav1.6 Sodium Currents.
Abstract Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most refractory types of adult epilepsy, and treatment options remain unsatisfactory. Gastrodin (GAS), a phenolic glucoside used in Chinese herbal medicine and derived from Gastrodia elata Blume, has been shown to have remarkable anticonvulsant effects on various models of epilepsy in vivo. However, the mechanisms of GAS as an anticonvulsant drug remain to be established. By utilizing a combination of behavioral surveys, immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings, the present study characterized the anticonvulsant effect of GAS in a pilocarpine-induce...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shao H, Yang Y, Qi AP, Hong P, Zhu GX, Cao XY, Ji WG, Zhu ZR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Increases the Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Maintaining Antioxidant Enzyme Levels.
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the ability of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) to improve the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) against ischemic damage in the spinal cord. Animals were divided into four groups: the control group, vehicle (PEP-1 peptide and artificial cerebrospinal fluid)-treated group, Ad-MSC alone group, and Ad-MSC-treated group with PEP-1-SOD1. The abdominal aorta of the rabbit was occluded for 30 min in the subrenal region to induce ischemic damage, and immediately after reperfusion, artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Ad-MSCs ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoo DY, Kim DW, Chung JY, Jung HY, Kim JW, Yoon YS, Hwang IK, Choi JH, Choi GM, Choi SY, Moon SM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Targeting of Heat Shock Protein HSPA6 (HSP70B') to the Periphery of Nuclear Speckles is Disrupted by a Transcription Inhibitor Following Thermal Stress in Human Neuronal Cells.
Abstract Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a set of highly conserved proteins involved in cellular repair and protective mechanisms. The intracellular localization of inducible members of the HSPA (HSP70) family can be used as an index to identify stress-sensitive sites in differentiated human neuronal cells. Following thermal stress, the little studied HSPA6 (HSP70B') was targeted to the periphery of nuclear speckles (perispeckles) that are sites of transcription factories. Triptolide, a fast-acting transcription inhibitor, knocked down levels of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II, RPB1, during the time-frame wh...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Becirovic L, Brown IR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ursolic Acid Ameliorates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice by Activating the Nrf2 Pathway.
Abstract Previous studies have indicated oxidative stress and inflammatory injury as significant contributors to the secondary damage associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ursolic acid (UA) has been demonstrated to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on cerebral ischemia by activating the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the effects of UA on TBI remain unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential roles of UA in the activation of the Nrf2 pathway using an experimental TBI model and the underlying mechanism. Wild-type (WT) and Nrf2((-/-)) mice...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ding H, Wang H, Zhu L, Wei W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Osthole Protects Bone Marrow-Derived Neural Stem Cells from Oxidative Damage through PI3K/Akt-1 Pathway.
Abstract In recent years, neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has been widely explored as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. NSCs are special cells that have some capacity for self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into multiple cell types. However, the inflammatory environment of diseased tissue is not conducive to the survival of transplanted cells. Osthole (Ost) is a principal bioactive component of Fructus Cnidii, Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and other traditional Chinese medicines. Ost has a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and neuropro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yan YH, Li SH, Li HY, Lin Y, Yang JX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increased Expression of Caspase-12 After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
This study sought to investigate the changes of caspase-12 expressions in both in vitro and in vivo SAH models. Western blot analysis found significantly increased protein expressions of both pro- and active forms of caspase-12 after SAH. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays confirmed elevated caspase-12 level after SAH in vivo. Further, double immunofluorescence staining revealed obvious caspase-12 over-expression in both cortical neurons and astrocytes. Moreover, immunofluorescent co-staining in vivo demonstrated that neural cells with high immunoreactivity of caspase-12 also expressed caspase-3, an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 7, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li H, Yu JS, Zhang HS, Yang YQ, Huang LT, Zhang DD, Hang CH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Role of Ca(2+) Imbalance in the Induction of Acute Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity in Cultured Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells Challenged with Tetrabromobisphenol A.
Abstract Using primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) we examined the role of calcium transients induced by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in triggering oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. CGC were exposed for 30 min to 10 or 25 µM TBBPA. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in the potential of mitochondria (∆Ψm) were measured fluorometrically during the exposure. The intracellular glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity were determined after the incubation; cell viability was evaluated 24 h late...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 7, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zieminska E, Lenart J, Diamandakis D, Lazarewicz JW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alterations in Cerebral Cortical Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism Precedes Amyloid Plaques in the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alterations in brain energy metabolism have been suggested to be of fundamental importance for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, specific changes in brain energetics in the early stages of AD are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate cerebral energy metabolism in the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mouse prior to amyloid plaque formation. Acutely isolated cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of 3-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9 and wild-type control mice were incubated in media containing [U-(13)C]glucose, [1,2-(13)C]acetate or [U-(13)C]glutamine, and tissue extracts were analyzed by ma...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Andersen JV, Christensen SK, Aldana BI, Nissen JD, Tanila H, Waagepetersen HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increased Expression of Slit2 and its Robo Receptors During Astroglial Scar Formation After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.
The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes and cellular localization of Slit2 and its receptors, Robo1, Robo2, and Robo4, in a rat transient focal ischemia model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We used double- and triple-immunolabeling to determine the cell-specific changes in Slit2 and its receptors during a 10-week post-ischemia period. The expression profiles of Slit2 and the Robo receptors shared overlapping expression patterns in sham-operated and ischemic striatum. Constitutive expression of Slit2 and Robo receptors was observed in striatal neurons with weak intensity, whereas in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin X, Shin YJ, Riew TR, Choi JH, Lee MY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Theaflavins Against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells.
In this study, we aimed to clarify whether theaflavins protect PC12 cells from oxidative stress damage induced by H2O2. A cell model of PC12 cells undergoing oxidative stress was created by exposing cells to 200 μM H2O2 in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of theaflavins (5, 10, and 20 μM). Cell viability was monitored using the MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining, showing that 10 μM theaflavins enhanced cell survival following 200 μM H2O2 induced toxicity and increased cell viability by approximately 40 %. Additionally, we measured levels of intracellular reactive ox...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Cai S, Li J, Xiong L, Tian L, Liu J, Huang J, Liu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Z-Guggulsterone Improves the Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairments Through Enhancement of the BDNF Signal in C57BL/6J Mice.
Abstract Memory impairment is a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, and its suppression could be beneficial to improve the quality of life of those patients. Z-guggulsterone, a compound extracted from the resin of plant Commiphora whighitii, exhibits numerous pharmacological effects in clinical practice, such as treatment of inflammation, arthritis, obesity and lipid metabolism disorders. However, the role and possible mechanism of Z-guggulsterone on brain-associated memory impairments are largely unknown. This issue was addressed in the present study in a memory impairment model induced b...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen Z, Huang C, Ding W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Saturation Binding of Nicotine to Synthetic Neuromelanin Demonstrated by Fluorescence Spectroscopy.
Abstract Neuromelanin (NM) has long been considered as an aging pigment, perhaps an unavoidable and undesirable byproduct of dopaminergic neural transmission. However, NM is carefully packaged into double membrane-bound structures within cells of the substantia nigra and other neural tissues, suggesting a beneficial function to maintaining these stores. It is well established that NM is able to concentrate toxic xenobiotics within pigmented cells due to its unique chemical environment. In doing so, such agents may confer susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD) as illustrated by model PD-inducing neurotoxins suc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Haining RL, Jones TM, Hernandez A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MEKK1 Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
In this study, we identified a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MEKK1, may be involved in neuronal apoptosis in the processes of ICH through the activation of JNKs. From the results of western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, we obtained a significant up-regulation of MEKK1 in neurons adjacent to the hematoma following ICH. Increasing MEKK1 level was found to be accompanied with the up-regulation of p-JNK 3, p53, and c-jun. Besides, MEKK1 co-localized well with p-JNK in neurons, indicating its potential role in neuronal apoptosis. What's more, our in vitro study, using MEKK1 siRNA interference in PC12 cells, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lu H, Ning X, Tao X, Ren J, Song X, Tao W, Zhu L, Han L, Tao T, Yang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research