Activation of Brain Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase Contributes to Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by an Intracerebroventricular Injection of Streptozotocin in Mice.
Abstract There is a lack of information concerning the molecular events underlying the depressive-like effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in mice. The elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate depression in inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we reported that ICV-STZ activates IDO in the hippocampus of mice and culminates in depressive-like behaviors, as measured by the increased duration of immobility in the tail suspension test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. Th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Souza LC, Jesse CR, de Gomes MG, Del Fabbro L, Goes ATR, Donato F, Boeira SP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cathepsin C Aggravates Neuroinflammation Involved in Disturbances of Behaviour and Neurochemistry in Acute and Chronic Stress-Induced Murine Model of Depression.
We examined and compared the behavioural and proinflammatory cytokine alterations in serum and depression-targeted brain areas of Cat C differentially expressed mice in stress, as well as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) levels in brain. The results showed that Cat C overexpression (Cat C OE) promoted peripheral and central inflammatory response with significantly increased TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and resultant upregulation of IDO and downregulation of 5HT expression in brain, and thereby aggravated depression-like behaviours accessed by op...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Fan K, Liu Y, Liu G, Yang X, Ma J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MARCKS is Necessary for Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Maturation.
Abstract Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) development into myelinated oligodendrocytes demands vigorous membrane addition. Since myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) reportedly contributes to Ras-associated protein (Rab)-10-associated vesicle insertion into neuronal membranes, we investigated the role of MARCKS in OPC maturation. We found that either knockdown of MARCKS or interruption of its interaction with Rab10 would cause a decrease of the cell membrane area during OPC development. Enhanced MARCKS phosphorylation by Nogo66 or myelin debris treatment inhibited OPC maturation, while its de...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang ZH, Ma FF, Zhang H, Xu XH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Presenilin-1 Targeted Morpholino Induces Cognitive Deficits, Increased Brain A β1-42 and Decreased Synaptic Marker PSD-95 in Zebrafish Larvae.
Presenilin-1 Targeted Morpholino Induces Cognitive Deficits, Increased Brain Aβ1-42 and Decreased Synaptic Marker PSD-95 in Zebrafish Larvae. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jun 16;: Authors: Nery LR, Silva NE, Fonseca R, Vianna MRM Abstract Presenilins are transmembrane proteases required for the proteolytic cleavage of Notch and also act as the catalytic core of the γ-secretase complex, which is responsible for the final cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein into Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides of varying lengths. Presenilin-1 gene (psen1) mutations are the main cause of early-onset autosomal-d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nery LR, Silva NE, Fonseca R, Vianna MRM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

L-3-n-Butylphthalide Activates Akt/mTOR Signaling, Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Autophagy and Improves Cognitive Impairment in Mice with Repeated Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract L-3-n-Butylphthalide (L-NBP) exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia, but its potential benefits in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (RCIR) injury remain unknown. We investigated the effect of L-NBP on cognitive impairment induced by RCIR in mice. Male C57Bl/6 mice received sham surgery or bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (3 times, 20 min each) and were orally administered preoperative L-NBP (30 mg/kg/day, 7 days), postoperative L-NBP (30 or 60 mg/kg/day, 28 days) or postoperative vehicle (28 days). Learning and memory were assessed by the Morris ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu J, Huai Y, Meng N, Dong Y, Liu Z, Qi Q, Hu M, Fan M, Jin W, Lv P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Flow Cytometric Characterization of T Cell Subsets and Microglia After Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.
Abstract Although, there is growing awareness in the progressive neurodegeneration of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, changes of immune reactions remain equivocal at best. Thus, in a clinically relevant rat repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) model, some immunologic cells (T cell subsets, microglia) in the injured brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In the injured brain, CD3(+) T cells showed a bimodal increase during 42 days post-injury (dpi). CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells firstly increased and then decreased, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells had reversed tendency. CD8...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bai R, Gao H, Han Z, Huang S, Ge X, Chen F, Lei P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alleviation by GABAB Receptors of Neurotoxicity Mediated by Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Cultured Murine Cortical Neurons Exposed to N-Methyl-D-aspartate.
In this study, we have evaluated whether activation of GABAB receptor (GABABR), which is linked to membrane G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying K(+) ion channels (GIRKs), leads to protection of the NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in a manner relevant to mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cultured embryonic mouse cortical neurons. The cationic fluorescent dye 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine was used for determination of mitochondrial membrane potential. The PTP opener salicylic acid induced a fluorescence increase with a vitality decrease in a manner sensitive to the PTP inhibitor ciclosporin, while ciclosporin alone was e...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kinjo T, Ashida Y, Higashi H, Sugimura S, Washida M, Niihara H, Ogita K, Yoneda Y, Kuramoto N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Genomics-Guided Precise Anti-Epileptic Drug Development.
This article explores the promise of genomics guided drug development as an approach to complement the more traditional model. PMID: 28608234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Delanty N, Cavallleri G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ferulic Acid Supplementation for Management of Depression in Epilepsy.
Abstract Neuroinflammation driven altered neurochemical milieu have been reported to play a significant role in pathogenesis of comorbid depression in epilepsy. Most of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as levetiracetam, taigabine, topiramate have not been reported any significant effect in alleviating neuroinflammation, which may explain their ineffectiveness in ameliorating depression associated with epilepsy. The supplementation of antidepressants (ADs) attracts various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with AEDs and was considered unsafe in epilepsy. This scenario pushes us to search therapies...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Singh T, Kaur T, Goel RK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin Against Nicotine-Induced Neurotoxicity is Mediated by CREB-BDNF Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Nicotine abuse adversely affects brain and causes apoptotic neurodegeneration. Curcumin- a bright yellow chemical compound found in turmeric is associated with neuroprotective properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of CREB-BDNF signaling in mediating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Sixty adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 received 0.7 ml/rat normal saline, group 2 received 6 mg/kg nicotine. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated concurrently with nicotine (6 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Motaghinejad M, Motevalian M, Fatima S, Faraji F, Mozaffari S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exogenous Adipokine Peptide Resistin Protects Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice.
In this study, we investigated the protective effects of resistin on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that resistin (i.c.v.) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 45 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of resistin (10 µg/kg body weight) also had protective effects on infarct volume, indicating the crossing of resistin through the impaired BBB after ischemia injury. Resistin treatment reduced cleaved protein level of Poly(ADP-r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhu J, Wu D, Zhao C, Luo M, Hamdy RC, Chua BHL, Xu X, Miao Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

An L-Glutamine Transporter Isoform for Neurogenesis Facilitated by L-Theanine.
Abstract L-Theanine (=γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid ingredient in green tea with a structural analogy to L-glutamine (L-GLN) rather than L-glutamic acid (L-GLU), with regards to the absence of a free carboxylic acid moiety from the gamma carbon position. L-theanine markedly inhibits [(3)H]L-GLN uptake without affecting [(3)H]L-GLU uptake in cultured neurons and astroglia. In neural progenitor cells with sustained exposure to L-theanine, upregulation of the L-GLN transporter isoform Slc38a1 expression and promotion of both proliferation and neuronal commitment are seen along with marked acceleration ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoneda Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Determination of Brain-Regional Blood Perfusion and Endogenous cPKC γ Impact on Ischemic Vulnerability of Mice with Global Ischemia.
In this study, the bilateral ICAO (BICAO) model was applied in cPKCγ wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice to determine the cPKCγ impact on brain-regional ischemic vulnerability. The arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging results showed that 7 days BICAO-induced global ischemia could cause significant blood perfusion loss in prefrontal cortex (69.13%), striatum (61.69%), hypothalamus (67.36%), hippocampus (69.82%) and midbrain (40.53%) of WT mice, along with neurological deficits. Nissl staining and Western blot results indicated that hypothalamus and midbrain had more severe neural cell loss than prefrontal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu S, Dai Q, Hua R, Liu T, Han S, Li S, Li J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Gap Junction Elevates Glutamate Uptake in Cultured Astrocytes.
Abstract Glutamate uptake is a main function of astrocytes to keep extracellular glutamate levels low and protect neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. On the other hand, astrocyte networks formed by gap junctions, which are consisted with connexins and connecting neighboring cells, are reported to play a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis in the brain. In the present study, we examined the effects of gap junction inhibitors on the glutamate uptake activity in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. At first, we confirmed the effects of gap junction inhibitors, 1-octanol and carbenoxolone, on cell-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takano K, Ogawa M, Kawabe K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Forty Years of Sodium Channels: Structure, Function, Pharmacology, and Epilepsy.
Abstract Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in brain neurons. In the 1970s, much was known about the function of sodium channels from measurements of ionic currents using the voltage clamp method, but there was no information about the sodium channel molecules themselves. As a postdoctoral fellow and staff scientist at the National Institutes of Health, I developed neurotoxins as molecular probes of sodium channels in cultured neuroblastoma cells. During those years, Bruce Ransom and I crossed paths as members of the laboratories of Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Nelson and shared insights abo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Catterall WA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hydrogel Environment Supports Cell Culture Expansion of a Grade IV Astrocytoma.
Abstract Malignant astrocytomas are aggressive cancers of glial origin that can develop into invasive brain tumors. The disease has poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Astrocytoma cell lines of human origin are an important tool in the experimental pathway from bench to bedside because they afford a convenient intermediate system for in vitro analysis of brain cancer pathogenesis and treatment options. We undertook the current study to determine whether hydrogel culture methods could be adapted to support the growth of astrocytoma cell lines, thereby facilitating a system that may be biologically more similar...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jogalekar MP, Cooper LG, Serrano EE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Mitochondria in Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity: Involvement in Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation, and Pro-apoptosis-A Review.
Abstract Methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine-type psychostimulant, is associated with dopaminergic toxicity and has a high abuse potential. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that impaired mitochondria are critical in dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA. Mitochondria are important energy-producing organelles with dynamic nature. Evidence indicated that exposure to MA can disturb mitochondrial energetic metabolism by inhibiting the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fusion/fission, have recen...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shin EJ, Tran HQ, Nguyen PT, Jeong JH, Nah SY, Jang CG, Nabeshima T, Kim HC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Strengthening the Case for Epilepsy Drug Development: Bridging Experiences from the Alzheimer's Disease Field-An Opinion.
Abstract Given the sheer number of drugs (over 20!) available for treatment of seizures, epilepsy can be considered one of the most successful areas in pharmaceutical development and especially for neuroscience. However, despite the large number of drug treatment options available for managing patients with epilepsy, there remains considerable unmet need. For example, the overall impact on seizure control has not been substantial with approximately 30% of patients remaining refractory or their seizures not adequately controlled. Also there is need for epilepsy prevention and for certain sub-populations with severe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Twyman RE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preface for the Ursula Sonnewald Honorary Issue of Neurochemical Research.
PMID: 28560635 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Microglial Interferon Signaling and White Matter.
Abstract Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, are primary regulators of the neuroimmune response to injury. Type I interferons (IFNs), including the IFNαs and IFNβ, are key cytokines in the innate immune system. Their activity is implicated in the regulation of microglial function both during development and in response to neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegeneration. Data from numerous studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke suggest that type I IFNs can modulate the microglial phenotype, influence the overall neuroimmune milieu, regulate phagocytosis, and affect blood-brain barr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McDonough A, Lee RV, Weinstein JR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Advanced Parental Age Impaired Fear Conditioning and Hippocampal LTD in Adult Female Rat Offspring.
Abstract Advanced maternal or paternal age is associated with increased risks of cognitive and emotional disorders. Chronic stress is also a common experience in human life that causes psychiatric diseases. However, the synergistic effects of these two factors on offspring are rarely studied. In the present study, the offspring of both young (3-4 months) and old (12-14 months) rat parents were given CUMS for 21 days at the age of 4 weeks. The effects of advanced parental age and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on emotional and cognitive behaviors and the related cellular mechanisms were investigated by us...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luo L, Sun T, Guan X, Ni Y, Yang L, Zhao Q, Kong X, Chen Y, Zhang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

S-Nitrosylation Regulates Cell Survival and Death in the Central Nervous System.
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced from nitric oxide synthase, is an important cell signaling molecule that is crucial for many physiological functions such as neuronal death, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and vascular homeostasis. This diffusible gaseous compound functions as an effector or second messenger in many intercellular communications and/or cell signaling pathways. Protein S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification that involves the covalent attachment of an NO group to the thiol side chain of select cysteine residues on target proteins. This process is thought to be very i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Koriyama Y, Furukawa A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

BAG-1L Protects SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Against Hypoxia/Re-oxygenation Through Up-Regulating HSP70 and Activating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.
Abstract BCL-2-associated athanogene-1(BAG-1) is a multifunctional and anti-apoptotic protein that was first identified as a binding partner of BCL-2. But the effects and mechanisms for BAG-1 against hypoxic damage is unclear up to now. Whether BAG-1 could protect the human brain against hypoxic damage through up-regulating 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) and PI3K/AKT pathway activation? In present study, we examined the changes of HSP70 and AKT and p-AKT protein level in SH-SY5Y cells with BAG-1L gene over-expression subjected to hypoxia/re-oxygenation injury. BAG-1L over-expression increased neuronal via...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Jia C, Li QS, Xie CY, Zhang N, Qu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Ultra-High Field Proton MR Spectroscopy in Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
z G PMID: 28523531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheong I, Marjańska M, Deelchand DK, Eberly LE, Walk D, Öz G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Progressive Pathological Changes in Neurochemical Profile of the Hippocampus and Early Changes in the Olfactory Bulbs of Tau Transgenic Mice (rTg4510).
In this study, we measured alterations in a number of key neurochemicals associated with tauopathy-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs of a transgenic mouse model of FTLD-tauopathy, line rTg4510, using in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 T. The rTg4510 line develops tauopathy at a young age (4-5 months), reaching a severe stage by 8-12 months of age. Longitudinal measurement of neurochemical concentrations in the hippocampus of mice from 5 to 12 months of age showed significant progressive changes with distinctive disease staging patterns including N-acetylaspartate, my...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim J, Choi IY, Duff KE, Lee P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Post-Translational Tubulin Modifications in Human Astrocyte Cultures.
In this study, we characterized post-translational specifications of tubulin in human astrocytes using the normal human astrocyte (NHA; Lonza) commercial cell line of fetal origin. Immunocytochemical techniques were implemented in conjunction with confocal microscopy to image class III β-tubulin (βIII-tubulin), acetylated tubulin, and polyglutamylated tubulin using fluorescent antibody probes. Fluorescent probe intensity differences and colocalization were quantitatively assessed with the 'EBImage' package for the statistical programming language R. Colocalization analysis revealed that, although both acetylated ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Knight VB, Serrano EE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Matairesinol Suppresses Neuroinflammation and Migration Associated with Src and ERK1/2-NF- κB Pathway in Activating BV2 Microglia.
Matairesinol Suppresses Neuroinflammation and Migration Associated with Src and ERK1/2-NF-κB Pathway in Activating BV2 Microglia. Neurochem Res. 2017 May 17;: Authors: Xu P, Huang MW, Xiao CX, Long F, Wang Y, Liu SY, Jia WW, Wu WJ, Yang D, Hu JF, Liu XH, Zhu YZ Abstract Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might be a potential strategy for neurodegeneration. Matairesinol, a dibenzylbutyrolactone plant lignan, presents in a wide variety of foodstuffs. It has been found to possess anti-angiogenic, anti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu P, Huang MW, Xiao CX, Long F, Wang Y, Liu SY, Jia WW, Wu WJ, Yang D, Hu JF, Liu XH, Zhu YZ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

14,15-EET Suppresses Neuronal Apoptosis in Ischemia-Reperfusion Through the Mitochondrial Pathway.
In this study, we observed that infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion injury was reduced in sEH gene knockout mice. In addition, Caspase 3 activation, cytochrome C release and AIF nuclear translocation were also inhibited. In this study, 14,15-EET pretreatment reduced neuronal apoptosis in the oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation group in vitro. The mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was also inhibited, as evidenced by AIF translocation from the mitochondria to nucleus and the reduction in the expressions of cleaved-caspase 3 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. 14,15-EET could reduce neuronal apoptosis through upregula...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Geng HX, Li RP, Li YG, Wang XQ, Zhang L, Deng JB, Wang L, Deng JX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Disease-Modifying Effects of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 in the GAERS Model of Absence Epilepsy.
Abstract Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency. The first study compared the effects of acute sc ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dezsi G, Sieg F, Thomas M, O'Brien TJ, van der Hart M, Jones NC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

L-Carnitine and Acetyl-L-carnitine Roles and Neuroprotection in Developing Brain.
Abstract L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury. There is compelling evidence from preclinical ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ferreira GC, McKenna MC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Targeting Enolase in Reducing Secondary Damage in Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.
This study measured NSE expression levels and key inflammatory mediators after acute SCI and investigated the role of ENOblock, a novel small molecule inhibitor of enolase, in a male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat SCI model. Serum NSE levels as well as cytokines/chemokines and metabolic factors were evaluated in injured animals following treatment with vehicle alone or ENOblock using Discovery assay. Spinal cord samples were also analyzed for NSE and MMPs 2 and 9 as well as glial markers by Western blotting. The results indicated a significant decrease in serum inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and NSE, alterations of metabolic f...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Haque A, Capone M, Matzelle D, Cox A, Banik NL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide on Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Mice.
Abstract Increasing evidence demonstrates inflammation contributes to neuronal death following cerebral ischemia. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) has been reported to prevent scopolamine-induced cognitive and memory deficits. We recently indicated that LBP exerts neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice via attenuating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of LBP against the behavioral dysfunction induced by focal cerebral ischemia injury in mice. Following 7 successive days of pretreatment with LBP (10, 20 and 40...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao P, Zhou R, Zhu XY, Liu G, Zhao YP, Ma PS, Wu W, Niu Y, Sun T, Li YX, Yu JQ, Qian ZM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preclinical Comparison of Mechanistically Different Antiseizure, Antinociceptive, and/or Antidepressant Drugs in a Battery of Rodent Models of Nociceptive and Neuropathic Pain.
This study highlights the importance evaluating novel targets in a variety of pain phenotypes. PMID: 28508174 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith MD, Woodhead JH, Handy LJ, Pruess TH, Vanegas F, Grussendorf E, Grussendorf J, White K, Bulaj KK, Krumin RK, Hunt M, Wilcox KS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Enhanced Autophagy Contributes to Protective Effects of GM1 Ganglioside Against A β1-42-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Deficits.
This study provides a novel insight into the protective role of GM1 against Aβ (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity via enhancing autophagy. PMID: 28497346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dai R, Zhang S, Duan W, Wei R, Chen H, Cai W, Yang L, Wang Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glycogen Shunt Activity and Glycolytic Supercompensation in Astrocytes May Be Distinctly Mediated via the Muscle Form of Glycogen Phosphorylase.
Abstract Glycogen is the main storage form of glucose in the brain. In contrast with previous beliefs, brain glycogen has recently been shown to play important roles in several brain functions. A fraction of metabolized glucose molecules are being shunted through glycogen before reentering the glycolytic pathway, a phenomenon known as the glycogen shunt. The significance of glycogen in astrocyte energetics is underlined by high activity of the glycogen shunt and the finding that inhibition of glycogen degradation, under some conditions leads to a disproportional increase in glycolytic activity, so-called glycolyti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jakobsen E, Bak LK, Walls AB, Reuschlein AK, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic TNF α Exposure Induces Robust Proliferation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, but not Schwann Cells.
In this study, we assessed the effects of long term exposure to TNFα on viability, proliferation, migration and TNFα receptor expression of cultured rat olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells (SCs). Although OECs and SCs transplanted into the CNS produce similar myelinating phenotypes, and might be expected to have similar therapeutic uses, we report that they have very different sensitivities to TNFα. OECs exhibited positive proliferative responses to TNFα over a much broader range of concentrations than SCs. Low TNFα concentrations increased proliferation and migration of both ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lankford KL, Arroyo EJ, Kocsis JD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exploration of the Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Some Alkaloids from Amaryllidaceae Family by Molecular Docking In Silico.
i CS, Giuliatti S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive condition, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen. Biochemically the disease is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, in addition to cholinergic dysfunction in the central nervous system. The role of the cholinergic neurotransmission in AD is the basis of the widely accepted cholinergic hypothesis. Some of the most relevant therapies for the treatment of the disease are based on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor activity; however, these therapies are not effective to stop the disease progression, bu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Castillo-Ordóñez WO, Tamarozzi ER, da Silva GM, Aristizabal-Pachón AF, Sakamoto-Hojo ET, Takahashi CS, Giuliatti S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

BDNF Contributes to Spinal Long-Term Potentiation and Mechanical Hypersensitivity Via Fyn-Mediated Phosphorylation of NMDA Receptor GluN2B Subunit at Tyrosine 1472 in Rats Following Spinal Nerve Ligation.
In this study, we first documented that Fyn kinase-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2B subunit at tyrosine 1472 (pGluN2B(Y1472)) was involved in BDNF-induced spinal LTP and pain hypersensitivity in intact rats. Second, we revealed a co-localization of Fyn and GluN2B-NMDA receptor in cultured dorsal horn neurons, implying that Fyn is a possible intermediate kinase linking BDNF/TrkB signaling with GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, we discovered that both SNL surgery and intrathecal active Fyn could induce an increased expression of dorsal horn pGluN2B(Y1472), as well as pain hypersensitivity in res...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li S, Cai J, Feng ZB, Jin ZR, Liu BH, Zhao HY, Jing HB, Wei TJ, Yang GN, Liu LY, Cui YJ, Xing GG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Genipin Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in BV2 Microglial Cells.
In conclusion, genipin inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway in BV2 microglia. PMID: 28497344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang J, Chen L, Liang Z, Li Y, Yuan F, Liu J, Tian Y, Hao Z, Zhou F, Liu X, Cao Y, Zheng Y, Li Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Retinol (Vitamin A) Increases α-Synuclein, β-Amyloid Peptide, Tau Phosphorylation and RAGE Content in Human SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cell Line.
Retinol (Vitamin A) Increases α-Synuclein, β-Amyloid Peptide, Tau Phosphorylation and RAGE Content in Human SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cell Line. Neurochem Res. 2017 May 11;: Authors: Kunzler A, Kolling EA, da Silva-Jr JD, Gasparotto J, de Bittencourt Pasquali MA, Moreira JCF, Gelain DP Abstract Retinoids (vitamin A and derivatives) are recognized as essential factors for central nervous system (CNS) development. Retinol (vitamin A) also was postulated to be a major antioxidant component of diet as it modulates reactive species (RS) production and oxidative stress in biological systems. Oxidative str...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kunzler A, Kolling EA, da Silva-Jr JD, Gasparotto J, de Bittencourt Pasquali MA, Moreira JCF, Gelain DP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

P2X7 Participates in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Secondary Brain Injury in Rats via MAPKs Signaling Pathways.
This study aimed to study the role of P2X7 in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) and the underlying mechanisms. An autologous blood injection was used to induce ICH model in Sprague-Dawley rats, and cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic ICH in vitro. siRNA interference and over-expression of P2X7, agonists and antagonists of P2X7, p38 MAPK and ERK were exploited. The protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining and Fluoro-Jade B were conducted ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wen Z, Mei B, Li H, Dou Y, Tian X, Shen M, Chen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of Cannabidiol in Animal Seizure Models by the Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP).
Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid component of marijuana that has no significant activity at cannabinoid receptors or psychoactive effects. There is considerable interest in CBD as a therapy for epilepsy. Almost a third of epilepsy patients are not adequately controlled by clinically available anti-seizure drugs (ASDs). Initial studies appear to demonstrate that CBD preparations may be a useful treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) funded Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) investigated CBD in a battery of seizure models using ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Klein BD, Jacobson CA, Metcalf CS, Smith MD, Wilcox KS, Hampson AJ, Kehne JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Unwanted Cell Migration in the Brain: Glioma Metastasis.
Abstract Cell migration is identified as a highly orchestrated process. It is a fundamental and essential phenomenon underlying tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response. Under dysregulation, it contributes to cancer metastasis. Brain is considered to be the most complex organ in human body containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring both physiological and pathological functions. Astrocytoma originates from astrocytes and its most malignant type is glioblastoma multiforme (WHO Grade IV astrocytoma), which is capable to infiltrate widely into the neighbor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qi XT, Zhan JS, Xiao LM, Li L, Xu HX, Fu ZB, Zhang YH, Zhang J, Jia XH, Ge G, Chai RC, Gao K, Yu ACH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sphingosine Toxicity in EAE and MS: Evidence for Ceramide Generation via Serine-Palmitoyltransferase Activation.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by massive neurodegeneration and profound axonal loss. Since myelin is enriched with sphingolipids and some of them display toxicity, biological function of sphingolipids in demyelination has been investigated in MS brain tissues. An elevation of sphingosine with a decrease in monoglycosylceramide and psychosine (myelin markers) was observed in MS white matter and plaque compared to normal brain tissue. This indicated that sphingosine toxicity might mediate oligodendrocyte degeneration. To explain the source of sphingosine accumulation, tot...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller LG, Young JA, Ray SK, Wang G, Purohit S, Banik NL, Dasgupta S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Microglia Endocytose Amyloid β Through the Binding of Transglutaminase 2 and Milk Fat Globule EGF Factor 8 Protein.
Microglia Endocytose Amyloid β Through the Binding of Transglutaminase 2 and Milk Fat Globule EGF Factor 8 Protein. Neurochem Res. 2017 May 03;: Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Abstract Activation of glial cells has been observed in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) is profusely observed as characteristic pathology in AD brain. In our previous study using microglial cell line BV-2, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) was found to be involved in phagocytosis (Kawabe et al., in Neuroimmunomodulation 22(4):243-24...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress Contributes to Status Epilepticus Associated Mortality.
Abstract Status epilepticus is a common manifestation of nerve agent toxicity and represents a serious medical emergency with high rates of mortality and neurologic injury in those that survive. The aim of the current study was to determine if targeting oxidative stress with the catalytic antioxidant, AEOL10150, would reduce pilocarpine-induced mortality and attenuate neuronal death and neuroinflammation. We found that treatment with AEOL10150 in conjunction with scopolamine and diazepam following pilocarpine-induced SE was able to significantly reduce mortality compared to treatment with just scopolamine and diaz...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pearson-Smith JN, Liang LP, Rowley SD, Day BJ, Patel M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Complexity of Stomach-Brain Interaction Induced by Molecular Hydrogen in Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.
Abstract Molecular hydrogen (H2), as a new medical gas, has protective effects in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous report, the neuroprotective effect of drinking water with saturated H2 (H2 water) in PD mice might be due to stomach-brain interaction via release of gastric hormone, ghrelin. In the present study, we assessed the effect of H2-induced ghrelin more precisely. To confirm the contribution of ghrelin in H2 water-drinking PD model mice, ghrelin-knock out (KO) mice were used. Despite the speculation, the effect of H2 water was still observed in ghrelin-KO PD model m...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoshii Y, Inoue T, Uemura Y, Iwasaki Y, Yada T, Nakabeppu Y, Noda M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Tea Intake Prevents Learning/Memory Defects and Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Adult Mice.
This study aimed to investigate the potential neurotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the preventive effects of saffron. Male Balb-c mice received AFB1 (0.6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 4 days), saffron infusion (90 mg styles/200 mL, ad libitum access for 2 weeks) or saffron infusion plus AFB1 (saffron treatment as previously plus 0.6 mg AFB1/kg/day intraperitoneally for the last 4 days). Control mice were intraperitoneally injected with DMSO:saline (1:1, v/v) during AFB1 treatment. Learning/memory was assessed by passive avoidance task. The activity of acetylcholinesterase [AChE, salt-(SS)/det...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Linardaki ZI, Lamari FN, Margarity M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preclinical Screening for Treatments for Infantile Spasms in the Multiple Hit Rat Model of Infantile Spasms: An Update.
e; SL Abstract Infantile spasms are the typical seizures of West syndrome, an infantile epileptic encephalopathy with poor outcomes. There is an increasing need to identify more effective and better tolerated treatments for infantile spasms. We have optimized the rat model of infantile spasms due to structural etiology, the multiple-hit rat model, for therapy discovery. Here, we test three compounds administered after spasms induction in the multiple hit model for efficacy and tolerability. Specifically, postnatal day 3 (PN3) male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by right intracerebral injections of doxorubicin an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Galanopoulou AS, Mowrey WB, Liu W, Li Q, Shandra O, Moshé SL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP).
Abstract For over 40 years, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health-funded Anticonvulsant Screening Program has provided a preclinical screening service for participants world-wide that helped identify/characterize new antiseizure compounds, a number of which advanced to the market for the treatment of epilepsy. The newly-renamed Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) has a refocused mission to identify novel agents which will help address the considerable remaining unmet medical needs in epilepsy. These include identifying antiseizure agents for treatment-resis...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kehne JH, Klein BD, Raeissi S, Sharma S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research