ALDH2 Protects Against Ischemic Stroke in Rats by Facilitating 4-HNE Clearance and AQP4 Down-Regulation.
In conclusion, increasing ALDH2 activity can improve brain edema, infarct volumes, and reduce neurological impairment in a rat IS model. The therapeutic benefits of ALDH2 are related to 4-HNE clearance and AQP4 down-regulation. PMID: 29767275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Y, Liu SL, Qi SH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

G βγ SNARE Interactions and Their Behavioral Effects.
Gβγ SNARE Interactions and Their Behavioral Effects. Neurochem Res. 2018 May 11;: Authors: Alford S, Hamm H, Rodriguez S, Zurawski Z Abstract Presynaptic terminals possess interlocking molecular mechanisms that control exocytosis. An example of such complexity is the modulation of release by presynaptic G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). GPCR ubiquity at synapses-GPCRs are present at every studied presynaptic terminal-underlies their critical importance in synaptic function. GPCRs mediate presynaptic modulation by mechanisms including via classical Gα effectors, but membrane-delimit...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alford S, Hamm H, Rodriguez S, Zurawski Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Chronic Amitriptyline on Zebrafish Behavior and Monoamine Neurochemistry.
Abstract Amitriptyline is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) inhibiting serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. The exact CNS action of TCAs remains poorly understood, necessitating new screening approaches and novel model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a promising tool for pharmacological research of antidepressants, including amitriptyline. Here, we examine the effects of chronic 2-week exposure to 10 and 50 μg/L amitriptyline on zebrafish behavior and monoamine neurotransmitters. Overall, the drug at 50 μg/L evoked pronounced anxiolytic-like effec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Meshalkina DA, Kysil EV, Antonova KA, Demin KA, Kolesnikova TO, Khatsko SL, Gainetdinov RR, Alekseeva PA, Kalueff AV Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Locomotor Treadmill Training Promotes Soleus Trophism by Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway in Paraplegic Rats.
This study investigated the effects of locomotor treadmill training on muscle trophism mediated by protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in paraplegic rats. Adult female Wistar rats underwent an incomplete thoracic SCI induced by compression using an aneurysm clip. After 7 days, injured animals started a 3-week locomotor treadmill training with body weight-support and manual step help. Soleus trophism was measured by muscle weight and transverse myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis were...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: do Espírito Santo CC, Secco DD, Meireles A, de Freitas GR, Bobinski F, Cunha MP, Rodrigues ALS, Swarowsky A, Santos ARS, Ilha J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Notch Signaling Regulates Microglial Activation and Inflammatory Reactions in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
This study aimed to investigate whether Notch signaling is involved in microglial activation and subsequent inflammation-related neuronal injury during the process of epileptogenesis in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. By using western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the expression of Notch signaling increased after status epilepticus and that a γ-secretase inhibitor could significantly inhibit the upregulation of Notch signaling, the activation of microglia, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Likewise, the neuronal apoptosis a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu L, Li Y, Yu M, Yang F, Tu M, Xu H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Acid Sensing Ion Channel 3 Aggravates Seizures by Regulating NMDAR Function.
Abstract The existing data about whether acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proconvulsant or anticonvulsant are controversial. Particularly, acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is the most sensitive to extracellular pH and has the characteristic ability to generate a biphasic current, but few studies have focused on the role of ASIC3 in seizure. Here we found ASIC3 expression was increased in the hippocampus of pilocarpine induced seizure rats, as well as in hippocampal neuronal cultures undergoing epileptiform discharge elicited by Mg2+-free media. Furthermore, ASIC3 blockade by the selective inhibitor APETx2 s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cao Q, Xiao ZM, Wang X, Weng C, Ding M, Zhu F, Lu ZN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-183-5p Alleviates Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain Through Inhibition of TREK-1.
In this study, we investigated the role of miR-183, a same cluster member of microRNA with miR-96, in neuropathic pain and its potential mechanisms. We found that the expression level of miR-183-5p in dorsal root ganglion was decreased with the development of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI). By contrast, the TREK-1, a K+ channel, was increased. Further investigation identified that intrathecal injection of miR-183-5p mimic efficiently ameliorated neuropathic pain and inhibited the expression of TREK-1, a predicted target gene of miR-183-5p. Luciferase assays confirmed the binding...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shi DN, Yuan YT, Ye D, Kang LM, Wen J, Chen HP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

BDNF Reduces eEF2 Phosphorylation and Enhances Novel Protein Synthesis in the Growth Cones of Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.
In this study, we performed immunocytochemistry together with atomic force microscopy to investigate the localization of ribosomal proteins in the growth cones of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The immunoreactivity of ribosomal protein P0/1/2 and S6, and novel protein synthesis were observed in the central, sterically bulky region of growth cones. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduced the eEF2 phosphorylation, indicating its activation, and enhanced protein synthesis within 30 min. The effects of BDNF were completely inhibited by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Thes...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hoshi O, Sugizaki A, Cho Y, Takei N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metformin Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating Autophagy via the mTOR Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we determined that motor function, assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor assessment scale, was significantly higher in rats treated with metformin following injury. Nissl staining revealed that metformin also increased the number of surviving neurons in the spinal cord lesion. Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis revealed that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6 kinase (P70S6K) decreased, while the expression of autophagy markers increased and apoptosis markers declined in animals treated with metformin following SCI. Taken together, these findings suggest that me...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo Y, Wang F, Li H, Liang H, Li Y, Gao Z, He X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Peripheral Versus Central Antinociception of a Novel Opioid Agonist: Acute Inflammatory Pain in Rats.
ba P, Schäfer M, Fürst S, Al-Khrasani M Abstract Opioid analgesics devoid of central side effects are unmet medical need in the treatment of acute pain (e.g. post-operative pain). Recently, we have reported on 14-O-methylmorphine-6-O-sulfate (14-O-MeM6SU), a novel opioid agonist of high efficacy producing peripheral antinociception in subchronic inflammatory pain in certain doses. The present study focused on the antinociceptive effect of 14-O-MeM6SU compared to morphine in formalin test of an early/acute (Phase I) and late/tonic (Phase II) pain phases. Subcutaneous 14-O-MeM6SU (253-1012 nmol/kg) an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Balogh M, Zádori ZS, Lázár B, Karádi D, László S, Mousa SA, Hosztafi S, Zádor F, Riba P, Schäfer M, Fürst S, Al-Khrasani M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sufentanil Alleviates Intrathecal Lidocaine Induced Prolonged Sensory and Motor Impairments but not the Spinal Histological Injury in Rats.
Abstract Spinal anesthesia has evolved into a safe and widely accepted method of anesthesia. Synergy between opioids and local anesthetics further increases the quality of analgesia and decreases the dose requirement of both local anesthetics and opioids. However, over the last decades compelling evidence suggested that lidocaine could be more neurotoxic than other commonly used local anesthetics. Whether opioids can modify the local anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the effect of sufentanil on the neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal lidocaine in a rat model. Our data ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Z, Chen Y, Wang E, Wu L, Wang R, Song Z, Weng Y, Sun Z, Guo Q, Li Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Obituary : Leif Hertz 1930-2018.
Authors: PMID: 29700723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Notoginsenoside R1 via Regulation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR/JNK Pathway in Neonatal Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.
In this study, oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in primary cortical neurons and unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery (CCL) in 7-day-old postnatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats followed by exposure to a hypoxic environment were used to mimic an HIBD episode. We assessed the efficacy of NGR1 by measuring neuronal damage with MTT assay and assessed brain injury by TTC staining and brain water content detection 24-48 h after OGD/HIE. Simultaneously, we measured the long-term neurophysiological effects using the beam walking test (5 weeks after HI) and Morris water maze test 5-6 weeks after HI. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tu L, Wang Y, Chen D, Xiang P, Shen J, Li Y, Wang S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Up-Regulation of Cdc37 Contributes to Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration After Sciatic Nerve Crush.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the way Cdc37 contributed to SC proliferation is likely via activating kinase signaling pathways of Raf-ERK and PI3K/AKT, and CDC37 was also involved in SC migration after SNC. PMID: 29687307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Wang S, Ding D, Yu Z, Sun W, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exposure to Far Infrared Ray Protects Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization in Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Knockout Mice via Attenuating Mitochondrial Burdens and Dopamine D1 Receptor Activation.
Abstract Evidence indicates that stress conditions might lead to drug dependence. Recently, we have demonstrated that exposure to far infrared ray (FIR) attenuates acute restraint stress via induction of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) gene. We investigated whether FIR affects methamphetamine (MA)-induced behavioral sensitization and whether FIR-mediated pharmacological activity requires interaction between dopamine receptor and GPx-1 gene. We observed that MA treatment significantly increased GPx-1 expression in the striatum of wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, exposure to FIR potentiated MA-induced increase i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mai HN, Sharma N, Shin EJ, Nguyen BT, Jeong JH, Jang CG, Cho EH, Nah SY, Kim NH, Nabeshima T, Kim HC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Histone Deacetylase 2 Inhibitor CAY10683 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide Induced Neuroinflammation Through Attenuating TLR4/NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
Histone Deacetylase 2 Inhibitor CAY10683 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide Induced Neuroinflammation Through Attenuating TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Jiao FZ, Wang Y, Zhang HY, Zhang WB, Wang LW, Gong ZJ Abstract Neuroinflammation involves in the progression of many central nervous system diseases. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors modulated inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia. While, the mechanism is still unclear. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of HDAC2 inhibitor C...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiao FZ, Wang Y, Zhang HY, Zhang WB, Wang LW, Gong ZJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Gallic Acid Protects 6-OHDA Induced Neurotoxicity by Attenuating Oxidative Stress in Human Dopaminergic Cell Line.
In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid on 6-OHDA induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that 6-OHDA induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by pre-treatment with gallic acid. The percentage of live cells (90%) was high in the pre-treatment of gallic acid when compared with 6-OHDA alone treated cell line. Moreover, gallic acid was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated levels of intracellular ROS and apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA. Gallic acid also lowered...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chandrasekhar Y, Phani Kumar G, Ramya EM, Anilakumar KR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of Neurotransmitter Alterations in Four Distinct Brain Regions After Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation (REMSD) Induced Mania-Like Behaviour in Swiss Albino Mice.
Abstract A number of neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in contributing to the pathology of mood disorders, including those of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) alters most of the neurotransmitters, which may have adverse behavioural changes and other health consequences like mania and other psychiatric disorders. The exact role of REMSD altered neurotransmitter levels and the manner in which emerging consequences lead to mania-like behaviour is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to verify the levels of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Siddique SA, Tamilselvan T, Vishnupriya M, Balamurugan E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Picroside II Attenuates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats by Inhibiting Spinal Reactive Astrocyte-Mediated Neuroinflammation Through the NF- κB Pathway.
Picroside II Attenuates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats by Inhibiting Spinal Reactive Astrocyte-Mediated Neuroinflammation Through the NF-κB Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2018 Apr 18;: Authors: Nong X, Lan Y Abstract Reactive astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammatory responses in the spinal dorsal horn have been reported to play a pivotal role in pathological pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) enhances the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which is involved in neuropathic pain (NP). Picroside II (PII), a major active component of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, has been investigat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nong X, Lan Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In the Telencephalon, GluN2C NMDA Receptor Subunit mRNA is Predominately Expressed in Glial Cells and GluN2D mRNA in Interneurons.
Abstract N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are widely distributed in the brain with high concentrations in the telencephalon where they modulate synaptic plasticity, working memory, and other functions. While the actions of the predominate GluN2 NMDAR subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B are relatively well understood, the function of GluN2C and GluN2D subunits in the telencephalon is largely unknown. To better understand the possible role of GluN2C subunits, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) together with multiple cell markers to define the distribution and type of cells expressing GluN2C mRNA. Using...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A Alsaad H, W DeKorver N, Mao Z, M Dravid S, Arikkath J, T Monaghan D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Xueshuantong Injection (Lyophilized) Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by the Activation of Nrf2-VEGF Pathway.
In conclusion, administered XST for 7 days after stroke could significantly improve functional recovery and promote angiogenesis, that might be related to Nrf2 signaling pathway. These findings could provide scientific evidence for the use of XST in cerebral ischemic diseases and provide theoretical support for further studies. PMID: 29633164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo H, Adah D, James PB, Liu Q, Li G, Ahmadu P, Chai L, Wang S, Liu Y, Hu L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

TNF α and IL-1β but not IL-18 Suppresses Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Directly at the Synapse.
TNFα and IL-1β but not IL-18 Suppresses Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Directly at the Synapse. Neurochem Res. 2018 Apr 04;: Authors: Prieto GA, Tong L, Smith ED, Cotman CW Abstract CNS inflammatory responses are linked to cognitive impairment in humans. Research in animal models supports this connection by showing that inflammatory cytokines suppress long-term potentiation (LTP), the best-known cellular correlate of memory. Cytokine-induced modulation of LTP has been previously studied in vivo or in brain slices, two experimental approaches containing multiple cell populations responsi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Prieto GA, Tong L, Smith ED, Cotman CW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dysfunctional γ-Secretase in Familial Alzheimer's Disease.
Dysfunctional γ-Secretase in Familial Alzheimer's Disease. Neurochem Res. 2018 Apr 04;: Authors: Wolfe MS Abstract Genetics strongly implicate the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Dominant missense mutation in the presenilins and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cause early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). As presenilin is the catalytic component of the γ-secretase protease complex that produces Aβ from APP, mutation of the enzyme or substrate that produce Aβ leads to FAD. However, the mechanism by which presenilin mutations...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wolfe MS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Distribution and Morphological Features of Microglia in the Developing Cerebral Cortex of Gyrencephalic Mammals.
Abstract Microglia have been attracting much attention because of their fundamental importance in both the mature brain and the developing brain. Though important roles of microglia in the developing cerebral cortex of mice have been uncovered, their distribution and roles in the developing cerebral cortex in gyrencephalic higher mammals have remained elusive. Here we examined the distribution and morphology of microglia in the developing cerebral cortex of gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. We found that a number of microglia were accumulated in the germinal zones (GZs), especially in the outer subventricular zone ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mizuguchi K, Horiike T, Matsumoto N, Ichikawa Y, Shinmyo Y, Kawasaki H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Changes in the Serum Urate Level Can Predict the Development of Parkinsonism in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Animal Model.
Abstract Epidemiological studies indicate that a higher plasma level of uric acid (UA) associates with the reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). To confirm the role of UA as a biomarker for PD, we evaluated changes in the serum UA level in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonism in rat. For this purpose, 6-OHDA was administered in the medial forebrain bundle by stereotaxic surgery. According to the apomorphine-induced rotational test, the increased intensity of behavioral symptoms as a function of time was associated with the further reduction of UA level. On the other hand, the level of UA inc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sarukhani MR, Haghdoost-Yazdi H, Khandan-Chelarci G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Glutamatergic Dysfunction and Impaired Energy Metabolism.
Abstract In the past couple of decades, major efforts were made to increase reliability of metabolic assessments by magnetic resonance methods. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been valuable for providing in vivo evidence and investigating biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia. Alterations of glutamate and glutamine levels in brains of schizophrenia patients relative to healthy subjects are generally interpreted as markers of glutamatergic dysfunction. However, only a small fraction of MRS-detectable glutamate is involved in neurotransmission. Here we review and discuss brain meta...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Duarte JMN, Xin L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Voluntary Exercise During Adolescence Mitigated Negative the Effects of Maternal Separation Stress on the Depressive-Like Behaviors of Adult Male Rats: Role of NMDA Receptors.
Abstract Evidence indicates that experiencing early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of mental disorders such as depression. Maternal separation stress (MS) is a valid animal model of ELS that caused to induce long-lasting effects on the brain and behaviors of animals. It hypothesized that adolescence is a critical stage in which the brain is still developing, and applying (non)pharmacological therapies in this period may attenuate the effects of ELS on the brain and behavior. Male rats were subjected to MS from postnatal day (PND) 2-14, and the stressed animals were then treated with (1) chr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Masrour FF, Peeri M, Azarbayjani MA, Hosseini MJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Nebulization of RNS60, a Physically-Modified Saline, Attenuates the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The Figure 3, 4, 5 legends have been misplaced. The updated legends along with the figures are corrected with this erratum. PMID: 29611013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mondal S, Rangasamy SB, Ghosh S, Watson RL, Pahan K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Promotes Nigrostriatal Dopamine Function by Modulating PTEN/AKT/mTOR Pathway in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on pathological symptoms and behavioral deficits in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model. The therapeutic effects of LBP were monitored with an Open field test, a Rotarod test and a Morris water maze test. We also investigated the mechanisms with qRT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. After a relatively short-term LBP treatment, the total distance and walking time of PD mice significantly increased. The staying duration on the rod of PD mice increased in the Rotarod test. LBP can ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang X, Pang L, Zhang Y, Xu J, Ding D, Yang T, Zhao Q, Wu F, Li F, Meng H, Yu D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1alpha Is Protein Kinase A-dependent in Primary Cortical Astrocytes Exposed to Severe Hypoxia.
Abstract The hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) are two transcription factors that have been studied in the context of neuronal survival and neurodegeneration. HIF-1 upregulation and CREB activation have been observed not only in neurons but also in astrocytes under conditions of hypoxia. We hypothesized that activation of CREB regulate HIF-1α expression in the nucleus of cortical astrocytes under in vitro ischemic condition. To test the hypothesis, we determined the effects of inhibiting the CREB activation pathway on the expression of HIF-1&alpha...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ramamoorthy P, Xu G, Shi H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Swimming Exercise Ameliorates Low-Soybean-Oil Diet-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Enhancing BDNF-Mediated Synaptic Potentiation in Developing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
Abstract Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng M, Cong J, Wu Y, Xie J, Wang S, Zhao Y, Zang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cannabidiol Reverses Deficits in Hippocampal LTP in a Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Here we demonstrate for the first time that cannabidiol (CBD) acts to protect synaptic plasticity in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The non-psycho active component of Cannabis sativa, CBD has previously been shown to protect against the neurotoxic effects of beta amyloid peptide (Aβ) in cell culture and cognitive behavioural models of neurodegeneration. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity dependent increase in synaptic efficacy often used to study cellular mechanisms related to memory. Here we show that acute application of soluble oligomeric beta amyloid peptide (...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hughes B, Herron CE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Microglia Polarization and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chronic Social Defeat Stress Induced Depression Mouse.
Abstract Inflammation recently has been considered to be participated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the detailed mechanism of inflammation in depression has not been completely understood yet. In the present study, depression mice model was established by chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) method and confirmed by behavior examinations including forced swimming test and sucrose preference test. The decrease of spine density and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) in hippocampus further verified the depression model. Then, the microglia polarization state and endoplasmic retic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tang J, Yu W, Chen S, Gao Z, Xiao B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Kv1.3 Is Upregulated on Activated Astrocytes in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Abstract Kv1.3 is a voltage gated potassium channel that has been implicated in pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study we investigated temporal and cellular expression pattern of this channel in the lumbar part of spinal cords of animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of MS. EAE was actively induced in female Dark Agouti rats. Expression of Kv1.3 was analyzed at different time points of disease progression, at the onset, peak and end of EAE. We here show that Kv1.3 increased by several folds at the peak of EAE at both gene and protein level. Double immu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bozic I, Tesovic K, Laketa D, Adzic M, Jakovljevic M, Bjelobaba I, Savic D, Nedeljkovic N, Pekovic S, Lavrnja I Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of a Constitutively Active Human Insulin Receptor in Hippocampal Neurons Does Not Alter VGCC Currents.
Abstract Memory and cognitive decline are the product of numerous physiological changes within the aging brain. Multiple theories have focused on the oxidative, calcium, cholinergic, vascular, and inflammation hypotheses of brain aging, with recent evidence suggesting that reductions in insulin signaling may also contribute. Specifically, a reduction in insulin receptor density and mRNA levels has been implicated, however, overcoming these changes remains a challenge. While increasing insulin receptor occupation has been successful in offsetting cognitive decline, alternative molecular approaches should be conside...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frazier HN, Anderson KL, Maimaiti S, Ghoweri AO, Kraner SD, Popa GJ, Hampton KK, Mendenhall MD, Norris CM, Craven RJ, Thibault O Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of the Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptor Biased Agonists, F13714 and F15599, on Striatal Neurotransmitter Levels Following L-DOPA Administration in Hemi-Parkinsonian Rats.
This study adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the development of a potent 5-HT1A receptor agonist for treatment of peak-dose dyskinesia. PMID: 29572645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Newman-Tancredi A, Varney MA, McCreary AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockout of Amyloid β Protein Precursor (APP) Expression Alters Synaptogenesis, Neurite Branching and Axonal Morphology of Hippocampal Neurons.
In this study, we examined the development of axons, dendrites and synapses in cultures of hippocampus neutrons derived from APP knockout (KO) mice. We report that loss of APP function reduces the branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, resulting in reduced synapse formation. Using a compartmentalised culture approach, we found reduced axonal outgrowth in cultured hippocampal neurons and we also identified abnormal growth characteristics of isolated hippocampal neuron axons. Although APP has previously been suggested to play an important role in promoting cell adhesion, we surprisingly found that APPKO hippocampal neuro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Southam KA, Stennard F, Pavez C, Small DH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ultrastructural Changes and Expression of PCNA and RPE65 in Sodium Iodate-Induced Acute Retinal Pigment Epithelium Degeneration Model.
Abstract Alteration in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) results in the visual dysfunction and blindness of retinal degenerative diseases. Injection of sodium iodate (NaIO3) generates degeneration of RPE. We analyzed the sequential ultrastructure and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and retina-specific RPE65 in NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration model. Adult male rats were injected 1% NaIO3 (50 mg/kg) and eyes were enucleated at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days post-injection (DPI), fixed, and processed for histological analysis. NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration was successfully established. At ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim HL, Nam SM, Chang BJ, Nahm SS, Lee JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Gualou Guizhi Granule Protects Against Oxidative Injury by Activating Nrf2/ARE Pathway in Rats and PC12 Cells.
The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Gualou Guizhi granule (GLGZG) against oxidative stress and explore the protective mechanism of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. In vivo, administration of GLGZG in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia significantly suppressed oxidative injury by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione level and decreasing reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. Western blot analysis showed that GLGZG induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and combined with real-time PCR results, which indicated that GLGZG up-regulated the Nrf2/ARE pathway. In ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Fan L, Li H, Wang X, Xu W, Chu K, Lin Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Scaling Synapses in the Presence of HIV.
Abstract A defining feature of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is the loss of excitatory synaptic connections. Synaptic changes that occur during exposure to HIV appear to result, in part, from a homeostatic scaling response. Here we discuss the mechanisms of these changes from the perspective that they might be part of a coping mechanism that reduces synapses to prevent excitotoxicity. In transgenic animals expressing the HIV proteins Tat or gp120, the loss of synaptic markers precedes changes in neuronal number. In vitro studies have shown that HIV-induced synapse loss and cell death are mediated b...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Green MV, Raybuck JD, Zhang X, Wu MM, Thayer SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Assessment of the Anticonvulsant Potency of Ursolic Acid in Seizure Threshold Tests in Mice.
Abstract Ursolic acid (UA) is a plant derived compound which is also a component of the standard human diet. It possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, i.e., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Moreover, influence of UA on central nervous system-related processes, i.e., pain, anxiety and depression, was proved in experimental studies. UA also revealed anticonvulsant properties in animal models of epilepsy and seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of UA on seizure thresholds in three acute s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nieoczym D, Socała K, Wlaź P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

2R,4R-APDC, a Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist, Reduced Neuronal Apoptosis by Upregulating MicroRNA-128 in a Rat Model After Seizures.
In conclusion, 2R,4R-APDC protected hippocampal cells from cell apoptosis after seizures, possibly by upregulating miR-128. PMID: 29497903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feng YB, Lin YT, Han YX, Pang YJ, Xu JJ, Xue Y, Yao H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chrysophanol Relieves Cognition Deficits and Neuronal Loss Through Inhibition of Inflammation in Diabetic Mice.
Abstract Patients with diabetes mellitus are easy to experience diabetic encephalopathy (DE) and other cognition dysfunction, whereas the neural alterations in developing this disease are unknown yet. Chrysophanol (CHR) is one of traditional Chinese medicine which was reported to show protective effects in cognition dysfunction and inflammatory in previously studies. In this current study, whether CHR protects learning and memory dysfunctions induced by diabetes disease or not and underlying mechanisms were studied. DE model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, i.p.) in ICR mice. CHR was administrated 3 days a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chu X, Zhou S, Sun R, Wang L, Xing C, Liang R, Kong Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Cornel Iridoid Glycoside in Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is the active ingredient extracted from Cornus officinalis. Our previous studies showed that CIG had protective effects on several brain injury models. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects and elucidate the mechanisms of CIG against traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI was induced in the right cerebral cortex of male adult rats. The neurological and cognitive functions were evaluated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and object recognition test (ORT), respectively. The level of serum S100β was measured by an ELISA method. Nissl staining was us...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma D, Wang N, Fan X, Zhang L, Luo Y, Huang R, Zhang L, Li Y, Zhao G, Li L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Muscarinic Receptor-Dependent Long Term Depression in the Perirhinal Cortex and Recognition Memory are Impaired in the rTg4510 Mouse Model of Tauopathy.
In this study, we have examined novel object recognition and PRh LTD in rTg4510 mice, which transgenically overexpress tauP301L. We found that 8-9 month old rTg4510 mice had significant deficits in long- but not short-term novel object recognition memory. Furthermore, we also established that PRh slices prepared from rTg4510 mice, unlike those prepared from wildtype littermates, could not support a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent form of LTD, induced by a 5 Hz stimulation protocol. In contrast, bath application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol induced a form of chemical LTD in both WT and rTg4510 slices...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Scullion SE, Barker GRI, Warburton EC, Randall AD, Brown JT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of miR-219 Alleviates Arsenic-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments and Synaptic Damage Through Up-regulating CaMKII in the Hippocampus.
In this study, we observed that subchronic arsenic exposure induced impairment of learning and memory and significantly up-regulated miRNA-219 (miR-219) expression in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, the expression of CaMKII, an experimentally validated target of miR-219, was decreased in the mice exposed to arsenic. Suppression of miR-219 by adeno-associated viral (AAV)-delivered anti-miR-219 prevented the arsenic-induced impairment of learning and memory and relieved the pathological changes in the synaptic structure of the hippocampus. Furthermore, we observed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2 (NR2) and the memory-rel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang D, Wang X, Liu X, Jiang L, Yang G, Shi X, Zhang C, Piao F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

AMPA-Type Glutamate Receptor Conductance Changes and Plasticity: Still a Lot of Noise.
Abstract Twenty years ago, we reported from the Collingridge Lab that a single-channel conductance increase through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) could mediate one form of plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus (Benke et al., Nature 395:793-797, 1998). Revealed through peak-scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis (PS-NSFA, also known as noise analysis), this component of LTP could be exclusively mediated by direct increases in channel conductance or by increases in the number of high conductance ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Benke T, Traynelis SF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Axon Initial Segment Structural Plasticity is Involved in Seizure Susceptibility in a Rat Model of Cortical Dysplasia.
Abstract Cortical dysplasia is the most common etiology of intractable epilepsy. Both excitability changes in cortical neurons and neural network reconstitution play a role in cortical dysplasia epileptogenesis. Recent research shows that the axon initial segment, a subcompartment of the neuron important to the shaping of action potentials, adjusts its position in response to changes in input, which contributes to neuronal excitability and local circuit balance. It is unknown whether axon initial segment plasticity occurs in neurons involved in seizure susceptibility in cortical dysplasia. Here, we developed a &qu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yue ZW, Wang YL, Xiao B, Feng L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-322 Cluster Promotes Tau Phosphorylation via Targeting Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.
Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial regulator to support synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival, its significant decrease is a pathophysiological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and accounts for poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with the translation of target mRNAs and control a variety of physiological and pathological processes. MiR-322 is the rodent homologue of human miR-424, it is involved in the modulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic activities in diverse tissues and organs. However, the roles and potential mechanisms of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Liu Z, Pei Y, Yang W, Xie C, Long S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Curcumin Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in TNF- α induced Astrocytes Through AMPK Pathway.
Curcumin Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in TNF-α induced Astrocytes Through AMPK Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2018 Feb 19;: Authors: Qin X, Qiao H, Wu S, Cheng J, Wan Q, Liu R Abstract Curcumin, a phenolic pigment, plays an inhibitory role in astrocytes activation, a key step for neuropathic pain (NP). The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism behind the therapeutic effect of Curcumin on NP in vitro. Specifically, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Curcumin on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced astrocyte migration. We also studied the effects ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qin X, Qiao H, Wu S, Cheng J, Wan Q, Liu R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research