Protective Effects of Fisetin Against 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis by Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.
In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of fisetin against 6-OHDA-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA-mediated cell toxicity was reduced in a fisetin concentration-dependent manner. 6-OHDA-mediated elevation of the expression of the oxidative stress-related genes such as hemeoxygenase-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1, NF-E2-related factor 2, and γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier was suppressed by fisetin. Fisetin also lowered the ratio of the proapoptotic Bax protein and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, fisetin e...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Watanabe R, Kurose T, Morishige Y, Fujimori K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Behavioral and Biochemical Effects of N-Acetylcysteine in Zebrafish Acutely Exposed to Ethanol.
Abstract Alcohol hangover refers to unpleasant symptoms experienced as a direct consequence of a binge drinking episode. The effects observed in this condition are related to the increase in alcohol metabolites and imbalance in oxidative status. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent and an antidote for paracetamol overdose. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that NAC is a multi-target drug acting through neuroprotective, antioxidant and neurotrophic mechanisms as well as a glutamate modulator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC in zebrafish acutely exposed to ethanol (EtOH)....
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mocelin R, Marcon M, D'ambros S, Herrmann AP, da Rosa Araujo AS, Piato A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Subtype Specification of Cerebral Cortical Neurons in Their Immature Stages.
Abstract The diversification of neuronal subtypes during corticogenesis is fundamental to the establishment of the complex cortical structure. Although subtype specification has been assumed to occur in neural progenitor cells, increasing evidence has begun to reveal the plasticity of subtype determination in immature neurons. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the regulation of subtype specification during later periods of neuronal differentiation, such as the post-mitotic and post-migratory stages. We also discuss thalamocortical axons as an extra-cortical cue that provides information on the subtype d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oishi K, Nakajima K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Honokiol on the Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels in Freshly Isolated Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.
Abstract Voltage-gated potassium (KV) currents, subdivided into rapidly inactivating A-type currents (I A) and slowly inactivating delayed rectifier currents (I K), play a fundamental role in modulating pain by controlling neuronal excitability. The effects of Honokiol (Hon), a natural biphenolic compound derived from Magnolia officinalis, on KV currents were investigated in freshly isolated mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results showed that Hon inhibited I A and I K in concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values for block of I A and I K were 30.5 and 25.7 &...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sheng A, Zhang Y, Li G, Zhang G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Propofol Prevents Oxidative Stress by Decreasing the Ischemic Accumulation of Succinate in Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract Oxidative stress caused by mitochondrial dysfunction during reperfusion is a key pathogenic mechanism in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has been proven to attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and reperfusion injury. The current study reveals that propofol decreases oxidative stress injury by preventing succinate accumulation in focal cerebral IR injury. We evaluated whether propofol could attenuate ischemic accumulation of succinate in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo. By isolating mitochondria from cortical tissue, we also examined the in vitr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu W, Gao D, Jin W, Liu S, Qi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Eclalbasaponin II Ameliorates the Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice.
Abstract Eclalbasaponin II derived from Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) has been reported to have anti-fibrotic, anti-bacterial and autophagic activities, but its effect on cognitive function has not been investigated. We studied the effect of eclalbasaponin II on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice using the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Eclalbasaponin II (10 or 20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. To identify the mechanism of the memory-ameli...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jung WY, Kim H, Jeon SJ, Park HJ, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH, Jang DS, Ryu JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Response of the GABAergic System to Axotomy of the Rat Facial Nerve.
In this study, we analyzed GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and GABAergic neurons at the protein level in the transected rat facial nucleus. Immunoblotting revealed that the GABAARα1 protein levels in the axotomized facial nucleus decreased significantly 5-14 days post-insult, and these levels remained low for 5 weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the GABAARα1-expressing cells were motoneurons. We next examined the specific components of GABAergic neurons, including glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1). Immunoblotting indicated that the protein le...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kikuchi R, Hamanoue M, Koshimoto M, Kohsaka S, Nakajima K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Special Issue Dedicated to Dr. Kazuhiro Ikenaka.
PMID: 29164432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baba H, Yoneda Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differential Response of Neural Cells to Trauma-Induced Swelling In Vitro.
Abstract Brain edema and the associated increase in intracranial pressure are major consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that accounts for most early deaths after TBI. We recently showed that acute severe trauma to cultured astrocytes results in cell swelling. We further examined whether trauma induces cell swelling in neurons and microglia. We found that severe trauma also caused cell swelling in cultured neurons, whereas no swelling was observed in microglia. While severe trauma caused cell swelling in both astrocytes and neurons, mild trauma to astrocytes, neurons, and microglia failed to cell swelling....
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jayakumar AR, Taherian M, Panickar KS, Shamaladevi N, Rodriguez ME, Price BG, Norenberg MD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg1 Decreases Oxidative Stress and Down-Regulates Akt/mTOR Signalling to Attenuate Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Senescence of Neural Stem Cells Induced by D-Galactose.
Abstract Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. The suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an increase of oxidative stress is closely related to cognitive impairment. Neural stem cells which persist in the adult vertebrate brain keep up the production of neurons over the lifespan. The balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants is important for function and surviving of neural stem cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most active components of Panax ginseng, and many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties. This research explored the effects...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen L, Yao H, Chen X, Wang Z, Xiang Y, Xia J, Liu Y, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Upregulation of Myelin Gene Expression by a Physically-Modified Saline via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Mediated Activation of CREB: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis.
Abstract An increase in central nervous system (CNS) remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we describe promyelinating property of RNS60. RNS60, but not normal saline (NS), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), stimulated the ex...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jana M, Ghosh S, Pahan K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Duloxetine Protects Human Neuroblastoma Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death Through Akt/Nrf-2/HO-1 Pathway.
Abstract The contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of depression has been described in numerous studies. Particularly, an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to neuronal cell death. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the antidepressant duloxetine against rotenone-induced oxidative stress. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with duloxetine (1-5 µM) for 24 h followed by a 24-h rotenone exposure (10 µM). The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Ak...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Engel DF, de Oliveira J, Lieberknecht V, Rodrigues ALS, de Bem AF, Gabilan NH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

GABA Uptake Inhibition Reduces In Vivo Extraction Fraction in the Ventral Tegmental Area of Long Evans Rats Measured by Quantitative Microdialysis Under Transient Conditions.
Abstract Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA. The purpose of this study w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zandy SL, Gonzales RA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

CB1 Receptors Mediated Inhibition of ATP-Induced [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Cultured Rat Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons.
Abstract Spinal cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and purinergic P2X receptors (P2XR) play a critical role in the process of pathological pain. Both CB1R and P2XR are expressed in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons. It is not clear whether CB1 receptor activation modulates the function of P2X receptor channels within dorsal horn. For this reason, we observed the effect of CP55940 (cannabinoid receptor agonist) on ATP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in cultured rat DH neurons. The changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-4/AM as a calcium fluor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long J, Lei X, Chen M, Yang S, Sun T, Zeng J, Yu D, Tian H, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Zinc Potentiates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Nitric Oxide Production in Cultured Primary Rat Astrocytes.
We examined the effect of extracellularly applied Zn(2+) on nitric oxide (NO) production in primary cultured rat astrocytes, which were experimentally activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Zn(2+), at a concentration up to 125 μM, augmented LPS-induced NO production without affecting cell viability. LPS induced expression of both mRNA and protein of inducible NO synthase; this expression was enhanced by 125 µM Zn(2+). Zn(2+) also increased LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Zn(2+) enhanced the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) at 1-6 h after...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Moriyama M, Fujitsuka S, Kawabe K, Takano K, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Sinomenine on the Morphine-Dependence and Related Neural Mechanisms in Mice.
In this study, we focus on the effects of sinomenine on morphine-dependent mice and its related neural mechanisms. Conditioned place preference (CPP) mouse model was established using morphine (9 mg/kg, s.c.), and their expression levels of TH and NR2B were observed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, their mu opioid receptor (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) contents were assessed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that high sinomenine dose (80 mg/kg) effectively attenuated the behavior of CPP mice and reversed increased expression levels of TH and NR2B induced ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fang M, Li J, Zhu D, Luo C, Li C, Zhu C, Fan M, Yung KK, Mo Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effect of Vinorine on Sciatic Nerve Injured Rat.
In conclusion, vinorine treatment accelerated the sciatic nerve regeneration, motor function recovery and sensation recovery after crush injury via regulation of NGF and ERK activity. These results suggested that vinorine is a promising agent for never injury therapy. PMID: 29119332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo D, Lu X, Xu X, Gou H, Wang Z, Cao Y, Luo X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The AMPA Receptor Subunit GluA1 is Required for CA1 Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation but is not Essential for Synaptic Transmission.
Abstract AMPA receptors mediate the majority of excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the mammalian brain and are heterotetramers composed of GluA1-4 subunits. Despite genetic studies, the roles of the subunits in synaptic transmission and plasticity remain controversial. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of cell-specific removal of GluA1 in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using virally-expressed GluA1 shRNA in organotypic slice culture. We show that this shRNA approach produces a rapid, efficient and selective loss of GluA1, and removed > 80% of surface GluA1 from synapses. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Terashima A, Suh YH, Isaac JTR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Adiponectin Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Cognitive Deficits by Rescuing PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 β Pathway.
Adiponectin Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Cognitive Deficits by Rescuing PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017 Nov 02;: Authors: Xu ZP, Gan GS, Liu YM, Xiao JS, Liu HX, Mei B, Zhang JJ Abstract Clinical studies have demonstrated that decreased adiponectin is associated with the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We focused on determining the neuroprotective effect offered by adiponectin against streptozotocin-induced brain damage in ICV-STZ rat model. We found that adiponectin supplements significantly restored the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu ZP, Gan GS, Liu YM, Xiao JS, Liu HX, Mei B, Zhang JJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of Heat Shock Proteins HSPA6 (Hsp70B') and HSPA1A (Hsp70-1) Sensitizes Differentiated Human Neuronal Cells to Cellular Stress.
Abstract Heat shock proteins are involved in cellular repair and protective mechanisms that counter characteristic features of neurodegenerative diseases such as protein misfolding and aggregation. The HSPA (Hsp70) multigene family includes the widely studied HSPA1A (Hsp70-1) and the little studied HSPA6 (Hsp70B') which is present in the human genome and not in mouse and rat. The effect of knockdown of HSPA6 and HSPA1A expression was examined in relation to the ability of differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells to tolerate thermal stress. Low dose co-application of celastrol and arimoclomol, which induces Hsps...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deane CAS, Brown IR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol Attenuates the Cytotoxicity Induced by Amyloid- β1-42 in PC12 Cells by Upregulating Heme Oxygenase-1 via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway.
Resveratrol Attenuates the Cytotoxicity Induced by Amyloid-β1-42 in PC12 Cells by Upregulating Heme Oxygenase-1 via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017 Oct 31;: Authors: Hui Y, Chengyong T, Cheng L, Haixia H, Yuanda Z, Weihua Y Abstract Oxidative stress and cytotoxic damage induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) have been considered pivotal in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may represent a target for treatment. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway elicits a survival signal to protect against multiple injuries, and the transcription factor nuclear factor ery...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hui Y, Chengyong T, Cheng L, Haixia H, Yuanda Z, Weihua Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Minocycline Directly Enhances the Self-Renewal of Adult Neural Precursor Cells.
In this study, we utilized a colony-forming neurosphere assay, in which neural stem cells (NSCs) clonally proliferate to form floating colonies, called neurospheres. We found that minocycline (at therapeutically relevant concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid) enhances the self-renewal capability of NSCs derived from the subependymal zone of adult mouse brain and facilitates their differentiation into oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these effects were independent of a suppression of microglial activation and were specifically observed with minocycline (among tetracycline derivatives). In addition, the size of the NSC populat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kuroda A, Fuchigami T, Fuke S, Koyama N, Ikenaka K, Hitoshi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Phylogenetically Conserved Sequences Around Myelin P0 Stop Codon are Essential for Translational Readthrough to Produce L-MPZ.
Abstract Myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ) is the main cell adhesion molecule in peripheral myelin, the sequence of which is evolutionarily highly conserved. Large myelin protein zero (L-MPZ) is a novel translational readthrough molecule in mammals in a physiological status and is encoded by the P0 mRNA with an extra domain. The sequence similarities in the L-MPZ-specific region are found in humans and frogs but not in fish P0 cDNA. Actual synthesis of L-MPZ has been detected in rat and mouse sciatic nerve but not yet evaluated in frogs and humans. The production mechanism and physiological functions of L-MPZ remain u...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamaguchi Y, Baba H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate Dehydrogenase, a Complex Enzyme at a Crucial Metabolic Branch Point.
Abstract In-vitro, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). GDH is found in all organisms, but in animals is allosterically regulated by a wide array of metabolites. For many years, it was not at all clear why animals required such complex control. Further, in both standard textbooks and some research publications, there has been some controversy as to the directionality of the reaction. Here we review recent work demonstrating that GDH operates mainly in the catabolic direction in-vivo and that the finely tuned network of allo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith HQ, Li C, Stanley CA, Smith TJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Decreased Neuron Number and Synaptic Plasticity in SIRT3-Knockout Mice with Poor Remote Memory.
Abstract The sirtuin family of proteins consists of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that are involved in the response to calorie restriction and various physiological phenomena, such as aging and cognition. One of these proteins, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), is localized in the mitochondria and protects the cell against oxidative or metabolic stress. Sirtuin protein deficiencies have been shown to accelerate neurodegeneration in neurotoxic conditions. The mechanisms underlying the involvement of SIRT3 in cognition remain unclear. Interestingly, SIRT1, another member of the sirtuin family, has been r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim H, Kim S, Choi JE, Han D, Koh SM, Kim HS, Kaang BK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: The Purine Salvage Pathway and the Restoration of Cerebral ATP: Implications for Brain Slice Physiology and Brain Injury.
PMID: 29067553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frenguelli BG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nrf2 Signaling Pathway Mediates the Antioxidative Effects of Taurine Against Corticosterone-Induced Cell Death in HUMAN SK-N-SH Cells.
Abstract Substantial evidence has shown that elevated circulating corticosteroids or chronic stress contributes to neuronal cell death, cognitive and mental disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Taurine is considered to protect neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the protective effects of taurine against corticosterone (CORT)-induced oxidative damage in SK-N-SH neuronal cells were investigated. The results showed that CORT significantly induced cell death, which was blocked by pretreatment with taurine...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun Q, Jia N, Yang J, Chen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Fascin-1 Contributes to Neuropathic Pain by Promoting Inflammation in Rat Spinal Cord.
Abstract Neuropathic pain is a complicated clinical syndrome caused by heterogeneous etiology. Despite the fact that the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, it is well accepted that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, has been proved to be involved in the processing of diverse biological events including cellular development, immunity, and tumor invasion etc. Recent studies have shown that Fascin-1 participates in antigen presentation and the regulation of pro-inflammatory agents. However, whether Fascin-1 is involved in neuropathic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang B, Fan B, Dai Q, Xu X, Jiang P, Zhu L, Dai H, Yao Z, Xu Z, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Amyloid Precursor Protein Through Synapsin Phosphorylation.
In this study, we investigated presynaptic changes in APP knockout (KO) mice. We demonstrate that both sucrose-induced neurotransmission and synaptic depletion in response to high frequency stimulation are significantly enhanced in APP KO compared to wild type littermates. In addition, the level of phosphorylated forms of synapsins, but not total synapsins, is elevated in the KO mice. Furthermore, we show that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels normalizes phosphorylated synapsins and slows down the high frequency induced synaptic depletion in APP KO mice. These results suggest a new mechanism by which APP regulates ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu A, Zhang Y, Han L, He G, Xie W, Zhou Z, Jia Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Delineation of the Role of Astroglial GABA Transporters in Seizure Control.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In Fig. 1 two chemical structures are incorrect, namely exo-THPO and N-methyl-exo-THPO. The hydroxyl group (-OH) in the isoxazole ring is missing. The corrected Fig. 1 is given below. PMID: 29043583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A, Madsen KK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal Acetylation may Improve Prenatal-Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behavior of Male Offspring Rats Through Regulating AMPARs Expression.
This study is to determine the role and mechanism of hippocampal acetylation in prenatal stress (PS) induced depression-like behavior of male offspring rats. PS-induced depression rat model was established. Sucrose preference and forced swim test were used to observe the behavior changes of male offspring rats. Hippocampal acetylation was induced by Trichostatin A injection. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the changes of AMPARs in acetylated hippocampus. The behavioral tests proved that AMPA was involved in the PS-induced depression-like behavior in offspring rats. Hippocampal acetylation...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lu Y, Zhang J, Zhang L, Dang S, Su Q, Zhang H, Lin T, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Sun H, Zhu Z, Li H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Concanavalin A Induces Cortical Neuron Apoptosis by Causing ROS Accumulation and Tyrosine Kinase Activation.
Abstract The lectin, concanavalin A (Con A), is the most extensively investigated member of the lectin family of plant proteins, but its effects on cortical neurons and astrocytes are poorly understood. In cultured cortical neurons and astrocytes, Con A exhibited dose-dependent neurotoxicity, but this was not observed in astrocytes. Similarly, in the cortical areas of rat brains, intracranial administration of Con A caused neuronal but no astrocyte damage. Methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside, a competitor of Con A, blocked Con A-induced cell death, whereas AMPA/KA receptor antagonists showed partial blocking effects....
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jang S, Yayeh T, Leem YH, Park EM, Ito Y, Oh S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lewis X-Carrying Neoglycolipids Evoke Selective Apoptosis in Neural Stem Cells.
Abstract N-glycans carrying the Lewis X trisaccharide [Galβ1-4 (Fucα1-3) GlcNAc] are expressed by neural stem cells (NSCs) exclusively before differentiation, and they actively contribute to the maintenance of stemness of these cells. To address the functional roles of the Lewis X-mediated molecular interactions in NSCs, we created a series of synthetic neoglycolipids that contained a Lewis X-carrying glycan connected to an acyl chain through an amide bond. The neoglycolipids formed aqueous micelles displaying functional Lewis X glycotopes. Surprisingly, the neoglycolipid micelles evoked selective apopt...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yagi H, Yan G, Suzuki T, Tsuge S, Yamaguchi T, Kato K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Deep Sequencing Reveals the Significant Involvement of cAMP-Related Signaling Pathways Following Sciatic Nerve Crush.
Abstract Peripheral nerve injury and regeneration is a complex biological process jointly mediated by numerous factors. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modifies the cellular behaviors of neurons and Schwann cells, and thus may contribute to peripheral nerve regeneration. Despite the importance of cAMP, the temporal and spatial expressions of genes involved in cAMP-related signaling pathways during peripheral nerve regeneration remain unclear. In the current study, by using rat sciatic nerve crush model, we analyzed previously obtained RNA deep sequencing data, explored the significance of cAMP-mediated signa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu J, Wang S, Wu C, Yi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin and Swimming Exercise Protects Against Cognitive Decline: A Study on M1 Acetylcholine Receptors in Aging Male Rat Brain.
Abstract Decline in cognition is one of the earliest signs of normal brain aging. Several dietary and non-pharmacological approaches have been tested to slow down this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) either individually or in combination with swimming training on acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) and m1 acetylcholine receptor (m1AChR) on the extent of cognitive decline with aging. The experimental protocol included the oral administration of GSPE (400 mg/kg body weight) for 14 weeks to 4 (adult) and 18-month-old (middle-aged)...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abhijit S, Subramanyam MVV, Devi SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK Signaling Promote Different Aspects of Neuron Survival and Axonal Regrowth Following Rat Facial Nerve Axotomy.
Abstract The ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways play important role in neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relative importance and degree of functional overlap of the two pathways are still debated due to lack of in-vivo data. We used rats which underwent a facial nerve axotomy, and examined subsequent ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling activity by quantifying phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. We also assessed the survival rate of facial neurons, number of regenerated axons, and the length of axonal regrowth in axotomized animals treated with an inhibitor of ERK/M...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang H, Liu H, Yan R, Hu M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Potentiate 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Stimulation and Glucose Uptake Triggered by Thapsigargin-Induced Store-Operated Ca(2+) Entry in Human Neuroblastoma Cells.
Abstract The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of the cellular energy metabolism and may induce either cell survival or death. We previously reported that in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) activate AMPK by triggering store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). However, whether mAChRs may control AMPK activity by regulating additional mechanisms beyond SOCE remains to be investigated. In the present study we examined the effects of mAChRs on AMPK when SOCE was induced by the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olianas MC, Dedoni S, Onali P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Temporal Changes in Transcription Factor Expression Associated with the Differentiation State of Cerebellar Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells During Development.
Abstract During central nervous development, multi-potent neural stem/progenitor cells located in the ventricular/subventricular zones are temporally regulated to mostly produce neurons during early developmental stages and to produce glia during later developmental stages. After birth, the rodent cerebellum undergoes further dramatic development. It is also known that neural stem/progenitor cells are present in the white matter (WM) of the postnatal cerebellum until around P10, although the fate of these cells has yet to be determined. In the present study, it was revealed that primary neurospheres generated from...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Naruse M, Shibasaki K, Ishizaki Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Unconventional Myosin ID is Involved in Remyelination After Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination.
Abstract Myelin, which is a multilamellar structure that sheathes the axon, is essential for normal neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes (OLs), which wrap their plasma membrane around axons. The dynamic membrane trafficking system, which relies on motor proteins, is required for myelin formation and maintenance. Previously, we reported that myosin ID (Myo1d) is distributed in rat CNS myelin and is especially enriched in the outer and inner cytoplasm-containing loops. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment highlighted the involvement of Myo1d in th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamazaki R, Baba H, Yamaguchi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Origin of Oligodendrocytes in the Vertebrate Optic Nerve: A Review.
Abstract One of the unsolved problems in the research field of oligodendrocyte (OL) development has been the site(s) of origin of optic nerve OLs and its precursor cells (OPCs). It is generally accepted that OLs in the optic nerve are derived from the brain, and thus optic nerve OLs are immigrant cells. We previously demonstrated the brain origin of optic nerve OPCs in chick embryos. However, the site of optic nerve OPC origin has not been examined experimentally in developing rodents for the past two decades. We have recently reported that optic nerve OPCs in mice arise in the preoptic area by E12.5 and gradually...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ono K, Hirahara Y, Gotoh H, Nomura T, Takebayashi H, Yamada H, Ikenaka K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Peroxynitrite-Induced Tyrosine Nitration Contributes to Matrix Metalloprotease-3 Activation: Relevance to Hyperglycemic Ischemic Brain Injury and Tissue Plasminogen Activator.
Abstract Matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP3) activation mediates the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced hemorrhagic transformation after stroke. Hyperglycemia (HG) further exacerbates this outcome. We have recently shown that HG increases MMP3 activity in the brain after stroke. However, the combined HG-tPA effect on MMP3 activation, and the mechanisms through which MMP3 is activated were not previously reported. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that tPA and HG increases MMP3 activity in the brain after stroke through peroxynitrite induced tyrosine nitration. Normoglycemic and mildly hyperglycemic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hafez S, Abdelsaid M, Fagan SC, Ergul A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Nerve Growth Factor Ameliorate Diabetic Cystopathy in Rats.
Abstract Diabetic cystopathy is a common complication of voiding disorders in diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy and bladder remodeling underlie the lack of efficacy of pharmacological and surgical treatments. Previous studies have shown that decreased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) are closely associated with disease progression. Besides, application of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) is also considered a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. In our study, we determine the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of hUC-MSCs which transfected with NGF geen in ameli...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: WenBo W, Fei Z, YiHeng D, Wei W, TingMang Y, WenHao Z, QianRu L, HaiTao L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differential Molecular Targets for Neuroprotective Effect of Chlorogenic Acid and its Related Compounds Against Glutamate Induced Excitotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Cortical Neurons.
Abstract The present study has been designed to explore the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway targets of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its main hydrolysates, caffeic (CA) and quinic acid in the protective effect against glutamate-excitotoxicity. For this purpose 8-DIV cortical neurons in primary culture were exposed to 50 μM L-glutamic acid plus 10 µM glycine, with or without 10-100 μM tested compounds. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid via their antioxidant properties inhibited cell death induced by glutamate in dose depended manner. However, quinic acid slightly protects neurons a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rebai O, Belkhir M, Sanchez-Gomez MV, Matute C, Fattouch S, Amri M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Genomics-Guided Precise Anti-Epileptic Drug Development.
PMID: 28936619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Delanty N, Cavalleri G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Necrostatin-1 Mitigates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress After Spinal Cord Injury.
Abstract Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) has been shown to inhibit necroptosis and convey a significant protective effect after spinal cord injury (SCI). This small molecule inhibitor may reduce tissue damage and restore neurological function by lessening mitochondrial injury after SCI and preserving energy homeostasis. However, the effects of Nec-1 on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-an important pathological consequence of SCI-are still not clear. The present study investigates the relationship between necroptosis and ERS in a rat model of SCI. Electron microscopy was employed to observe ultra-structural changes in the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang S, Wu J, Zeng YZ, Wu SS, Deng GR, Chen ZD, Lin B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Yokukansan Reduces Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination in the Corpus Callosum Through Anti-inflammatory Effects on Microglia.
In this study, female C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% cuprizone (bis-cyclohexanone oxaldihydrazone) to induce demyelination in the corpus callosum. We investigated whether or not yokukansan reduces cuprizone-induced demyelination using immunohistochemical analyses. Furthermore, we examined the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of yokukansan on LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, a murine microglial cell line. Luxol fast blue staining and immunostaining for myelin basic protein demonstrated that yokukansan reduces demyelination of the corpora callosa of cuprizone-fed mice. In addition, yokukansan significantly decreased...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nomura T, Bando Y, You H, Tanaka T, Yoshida S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Betaine in the Brain: Characterization of Betaine Uptake, its Influence on Other Osmolytes and its Potential Role in Neuroprotection from Osmotic Stress.
Abstract Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specificall...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Knight LS, Piibe Q, Lambie I, Perkins C, Yancey PH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oligodendrocyte-Neuron Interactions: Impact on Myelination and Brain Function.
Abstract In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understan...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shimizu T, Osanai Y, Ikenaka K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Stress Causes Sex-Specific and Structure-Specific Alterations in Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Activity in Rat Brain.
This study aimed to investigate the CRS effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, as well as mitochondrial potential and mass in cell body and synapses using hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male and female rats. Rats were divided into non-stressed (control) and stressed group (CRS during 40 days). Results showed that CRS increased complex I-III activity in hippocampus. We also observed an interaction between CRS and sex in the striatal complex II activity, since CRS induced a reduction in complex II activity in males, while in females this activity was increased. Also an interaction was observed between...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Souza Mota C, Weis SN, Almeida RF, Dalmaz C, Guma FTC, Pettenuzzo LF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Re Protects Trimethyltin-Induced Neurotoxicity via Activation of IL-6-Mediated Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling in Mice.
Abstract Ginseng (Panax ginseng), an herbal medicine, has been used to prevent neurodegenerative disorders. Ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, or Rg1) were obtained from Korean mountain cultivated ginseng. The anticonvulsant activity of ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg/day × 3) against trimethyltin (TMT) insult was the most pronounced out of ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, and Rg1). Re itself did not significantly alter tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-ϒ (IFN-ϒ), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, however, it significantly increases the interleukin-6 (IL-6) ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tu TT, Sharma N, Shin EJ, Tran HQ, Lee YJ, Jeong JH, Jeong JH, Nah SY, Tran HP, Byun JK, Ko SK, Kim HC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research