The BTBR Mouse, Sociability, and Reduced Glutamate Release: A Role for Endogenous Dynorphin?
PMID: 28303500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fluegge K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Isoflurane Postconditioning Inhibits tPA-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Activation After Hypoxic Injury via Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway.
Abstract Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only recommended pharmacological treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA can induce intracerebral hemorrhage by blood-brain barrier breakdown through an increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Previously, we showed that isoflurane postconditioning reduced intracranial hemorrhage following tPA treatment after cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which isoflurane postconditioning reduces tPA-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in brain endothelial cells. Mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim SY, Cheon SY, Kim EJ, Lee JH, Kam EH, Kim JM, Park M, Koo BN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Ketimine Reductase: Reciprocal Control of Thyroid Binding Hormone and the Pipecolate Pathway in Brain.
PMID: 28303502 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hallen A, Cooper AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Calcineurin A by FK506 Suppresses Seizures and Reduces the Expression of GluN2B in Membrane Fraction.
Abstract FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, shows neuroprotective effects and has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Calcineurin A (CaNA), a catalytic subunit of calcineurin, mediates the dephosphorylation of various proteins. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (GluN) is closely related to epileptogenesis, and various phosphorylation sites of GluN2B, a regulatory subunit of the GluN complex, have different functions. Thus, we hypothesized that one of the potential anti-epileptic mechanisms of FK506 is mediated by its ability to promote the phosphorylation of GluN2B and reduce the expression of GluN2B in memb...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wen Y, Fu P, Wu K, Si K, Xie Y, Dan W, Zhan Y, Shi Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Acute GABA Treatment on the Functional Connectivity and Network Topology of Cortical Cultures.
Abstract γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter, acting on receptor channels to reduce neuronal excitability in matured neural systems. However, electrophysiological responses of whole neuronal ensembles to the exposure to GABA are still unclear. We used micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) to study the effects of the increasing amount of GABA on functional network of cortical neural cultures. Then the recorded data were analyzed by the cross-covariance analysis and graph theory. Results showed that after the GABA treatment, the activity parameters of firing rate, bursting rate, bursting duration a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han Y, Li H, Lang Y, Zhao Y, Sun H, Zhang P, Ma X, Han J, Wang Q, Zhou J, Wang C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Animal Models of Seizures and Epilepsy: Past, Present, and Future Role for the Discovery of Antiseizure Drugs.
r W Abstract The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients wi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Löscher W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Injury Impairs Neurogenesis and Induces Glial Reactivity in the Hippocampus.
Abstract The incorporation of newborn neurons with increased synaptic remodeling and activity-dependent plasticity in the dentate gyrus enhances hippocampal-dependent learning performances. Astrocytes and microglial cells are components of the neurogenic niche and regulate neurogenesis under normal and neurophatological conditions leading to functional consequences for learning and memory. Although cognitive impairments were reported in patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), only few studies have considered remote changes in brain structures which are not related with sensory and motor cortex. Thus, we examined ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jure I, Pietranera L, De Nicola AF, Labombarda F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NAAG Peptidase Inhibitors Act via mGluR3: Animal Models of Memory, Alzheimer's, and Ethanol Intoxication.
Abstract Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inactivates the peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) following synaptic release. Inhibitors of GCPII increase extracellular NAAG levels and are efficacious in animal models of clinical disorders via NAAG activation of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor. mGluR2 and mGluR3 knock-out (ko) mice were used to test the hypothesis that mGluR3 mediates the activity of GCPII inhibitors ZJ43 and 2-PMPA in animal models of memory and memory loss. Short- (1.5 h) and long- (24 h) term novel object recognition tests were used to assess memory. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olszewski RT, Janczura KJ, Bzdega T, Der EK, Venzor F, O'Rourke B, Hark TJ, Craddock KE, Balasubramanian S, Moussa C, Neale JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamine Addiction In Gliomas.
n M, Campos-Sandoval JA Abstract Cancer cells develop and succeed by shifting to different metabolic programs compared with their normal cell counterparts. One of the classical hallmarks of cancer cells is their higher glycolysis rate and lactate production even in the presence of abundant O2 (Warburg effect). Another common metabolic feature of cancer cells is a high rate of glutamine (Gln) consumption normally exceeding their biosynthetic and energetic needs. The term Gln addiction is now widely used to reflect the strong dependence shown by most cancer cells for this essential nitrogen substrate after metabolic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Márquez J, Alonso FJ, Matés JM, Segura JA, Martín-Rufián M, Campos-Sandoval JA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Anticonvulsant Screening Program of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH: History and Contributions to Clinical Care in the Twentieth Century and Beyond.
Abstract The anticonvulsant screening program (ASP) of the national institute of neurological disorders and stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health has made substantial contributions to the drug armamentarium of the clinical neurologist. This program, originally a part of the overall Drug Development Program of the Epilepsy Branch, has been fortunate to have talented leadership, both at NINDS in Maryland and at the major contract site, the University of Utah-over a remarkable period of more than 40 years. Future discoveries by the ASP (now renamed the Epilepsy Therapy Screening) can be expected to make addit...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Porter RJ, Kupferberg HJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Design and Comparative Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Profile, Carbonic-Anhydrate Inhibition and Teratogenicity of Novel Carbamate Derivatives of Branched Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids with 4-Aminobenzensulfonamide.
Abstract Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, with between 34 and 76 per 100,000 people developing epilepsy annually. Epilepsy therapy for the past 100(+) years is based on the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Despite the availability of more than twenty old and new AEDs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy are not seizure-free with the existing medications. In addition, the clinical use of the existing AEDs is restricted by their side-effects, including the teratogenicity associated with valproic acid that restricts its use in women of child-bearing age. Thus, there is an unmet clin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bibi D, Mawasi H, Nocentini A, Supuran CT, Wlodarczyk B, Finnell RH, Bialer M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Simultaneous Interference with HER1/EGFR and RAC1 Signaling Drives Cytostasis and Suppression of Survivin in Human Glioma Cells in Vitro.
In conclusion, we demonstrate that combined treatment of human glioma cell lines in vitro with erlotinib and NSC23766 markedly inhibits cell division, induces apoptosis independent of caspase-3 activation and induces autophagy concomitant with suppression of survivin. PMID: 28271323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karpel-Massler G, Westhoff MA, Kast RE, Dwucet A, Karpel-Massler S, Nonnenmacher L, Siegelin MD, Wirtz CR, Debatin KM, Halatsch ME Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

5-HT6 Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Against β-Amyloid-Peptide-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC-12 Cells.
5-HT6 Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Against β-Amyloid-Peptide-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC-12 Cells. Neurochem Res. 2017 Mar 07;: Authors: Bokare AM, Praveenkumar AK, Bhonde M, Nayak Y, Pal R, Goel R Abstract Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) induced neurotoxicity is considered as a hallmark of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study demonstrated the neuroprotective role of 5-HT6 receptors against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in PC-12 cells. The 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD-386088 and antagonist SB-399885 were used as pharmacological tools. The NMDA receptor antagonist, meman...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bokare AM, Praveenkumar AK, Bhonde M, Nayak Y, Pal R, Goel R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nebulization of RNS60, a Physically-Modified Saline, Attenuates the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.
Abstract Developing a new and effective therapeutic approach against multiple sclerosis (MS) is always an important area of research. RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60, administered through intraperitoneal injection, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Since the intravenous route is not preferred for treating a chronic condition, we tested if nebulization of RNS60 could attenuat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mondal S, Rangasamy SB, Ghosh S, Watson RL, Pahan K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Inhibitors: Structurally Modified Brilliant Yellow Analogs.
Abstract Glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals is a pivotal step in glutamate synaptic transmission. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and, as such, the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) responsible for this uptake is involved in a variety of nervous system functions and various types of pathophysiology. As yet, no VGLUT-specific, membrane-permeable agents have been developed to affect neuronal function in intact neurons, although two potent VGLUTspecific inhibitors are known. These compounds contain diazo and highly charged sulfonic acid groups, rendering them membrane-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kehrl J, Althaus JC, Showalter HD, Rudzinski DM, Sutton MA, Ueda T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intranasal Administration of GDNF Protects Against Neural Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Through PI3K/Akt/GSK3 β Pathway.
This study was to determine the effect and mechanisms of GDNF on the apoptosis of neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced Parkinson's disease model of rats. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-240 g) were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). 6-OHDA was used to establish the PD rat model. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry was used to assess the neuron loss in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. TUNEL and western blot were used to identify the effects and mechanisms of GDNF in the rat model of PD. The numbers of TH-positive neurons in the 6-OHDA-injected lesioned substantia nigra (SN) decrease...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yue P, Gao L, Wang X, Ding X, Teng J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine Regulates 6-hydroxydopamine-Induced Microglial Polarization.
Abstract Microglia have undergone extensive characterization and have been shown to present distinct phenotypes, such as the M1 or M2 phenotypes, depending on their stimuli. As a highly specific neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) can be used to further our understanding of the immune response in Parkinson's disease (PD). Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a centrally selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, performs very well as an anti-anxiety medication, sedative and analgesic. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DEX on 6-OHDA-induced microglial polarization. Our results indicate that treatment with 6-O...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang P, Li Y, Han X, Xing Q, Zhao L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The NLRP3 Inflammasome is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease in Rats.
In this study, we investigated the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) 3 inflammasome, consisting of NLRP3, caspase-1 and cytokines of the IL-1 family, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats. Microinjection of different doses of caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK, 300 or 1200 ng/rat) was performed for seven consecutive days. Then, rotational behavior, the number of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 inflammasome component...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mao Z, Liu C, Ji S, Yang Q, Ye H, Han H, Xue Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Quantifying Filopodia in Cultured Astrocytes by an Algorithm.
uiche A Abstract Astrocytes in vivo extend thin processes termed peripheral astrocyte processes (PAPs), in particular around synapses where they can mediate glia-neuronal communication. The relation of PAPs to synapses is not based on coincidence, but it is not clear which stimuli and mechanisms lead to their formation and are active during process extension/ retraction in response to neuronal activity. Also, the molecular basis of the extremely fine PAP morphology (often 50 to 100 nm) is not understood. These open questions can be best investigated under in vitro conditions studying glial filopodia. We have ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Aumann G, Friedländer F, Thümmler M, Keil F, Brunkhorst R, Korf HW, Derouiche A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Up-regulation of GBP2 is Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Rat Brain Cortex Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
This study demonstrates that GBP2 is an important positive regulator of TBI and is a promising therapeutic target for brain injury. PMID: 28239766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miao Q, Ge M, Huang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Down-regulation of Pin1 in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Mouse Model.
Abstract Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tang L, Zhang Y, Chen G, Xiong Y, Wang X, Zhu B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 EP4 Receptor Activation Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Early Brain Injury Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.
This study was designed to research the effects of EP4 modulation on early brain injury (EBI) after experimental SAH in rats. We found that the administration of EP4 selective agonist AE1-329 significantly improved neurological dysfunction, blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and brain edema at 24 h after SAH. Furthermore, AE1-329 obviously reduced the number of activated microglia and the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased Ser1177 phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser1177 p-eNOS). Moreover, AE1-329 significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and active caspa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu J, Xu Z, Yan A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ethyl Pyruvate Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Endovascular Perforation Rabbit Model Possibly Via Anti-inflammation and Inhibition of JNK Signaling Pathway.
In conclusion, the present study supported that EP afforded neuroprotective effects possibly via reducing TNF-α expression and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Therefore, EP may be a potent therapeutic agent to attenuate EBI following SAH. PMID: 28236213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lv T, Miao YF, Jin YC, Yang SF, Wu H, Dai J, Zhang XH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expanded and Wild-type Ataxin-3 Modify the Redox Status of SH-SY5Y Cells Overexpressing α-Synuclein.
Expanded and Wild-type Ataxin-3 Modify the Redox Status of SH-SY5Y Cells Overexpressing α-Synuclein. Neurochem Res. 2017 Feb 25;: Authors: Noronha C, Perfeito R, Laço M, Wüllner U, Rego AC Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are considered to be distinct clinical entities, although they share the formation of proteinaceous aggregates and several neuropathological mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggest a possible interaction between proteins that have been classically associated to distinct neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, common molecular and cellular pathways might explain similar...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noronha C, Perfeito R, Laço M, Wüllner U, Rego AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.
Abstract Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun H, Wu H, Liu J, Wen J, Zhu Z, Li H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

β-Caryophyllene Pretreatment Alleviates Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.
β-Caryophyllene Pretreatment Alleviates Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017 Feb 24;: Authors: Zhang Q, An R, Tian X, Yang M, Li M, Lou J, Xu L, Dong Z Abstract β-Caryophyllene (BCP) has been reported to be protective against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory features. Recent study demonstrates that the BCP exhibits potential neuroprotection against I/R injury induced apoptosis, however, the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigate the underlying anti-apo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Q, An R, Tian X, Yang M, Li M, Lou J, Xu L, Dong Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Probing the Bi-directional Interaction Between Microglia and Gliomas in a Tumor Microenvironment on a Microdevice.
In conclusion, we have developed a potential quantitative method for in vitro study of glioma immunity and provided evidence for the duality of glioma-associated microglia. PMID: 28236212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gu R, Zhang X, Zhang G, Tao T, Yu H, Liu L, Dou Y, Li A, Qin J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.
Abstract The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentra...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shetty RA, Sadananda M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amphotericin B Increases Transglutaminase 2 Expression Associated with Upregulation of Endocytotic Activity in Mouse Microglial Cell Line BV-2.
Abstract Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic, is reported to cause the microglial activation to induce nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory cytokines expression, and change neurotrophic factors expression in cultured microglia (Motoyoshi et al. in Neurochem Int 52:1290-1296, 2008). On the other hand, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in connection to phagocytes with apoptotic cells. Engulfment of neurons by activated microglia is thought to cause neurodegenerative diseases but detail is unclear, and involvement of TG2 in phagocytosis has been reported in our previous study using lip...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) Provides Neuroprotection in the Mice Models After Traumatic Brain Injury via Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway.
In conclusion, NBP administration may increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuate brain injury in a TBI model, potentially via the mediation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID: 28214984 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Z, Wang H, Shi X, Li L, Zhou M, Ding H, Yang Y, Li X, Ding K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Alleviates the Epilepsy-Associated Impairments in Hippocampal LTP and Spatial Learning Through Rescue of Surface GluR2 Expression at Hippocampal CA1 Synapses.
In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment. Furthermore, we found that melatonin rescued the decreased surface levels of GluR2 in the CA1 region observed in epilepsy, which might be the underlying mechanism of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma Y, Sun X, Li J, Jia R, Yuan F, Wei D, Jiang W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.
Abstract In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal appl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Moshrefi-Ravasdjani B, Hammel EL, Kafitz KW, Rose CR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Severe Convulsions and Dysmyelination in Both Jimpy and Cx32/47 (-/-) Mice may Associate Astrocytic L-Channel Function with Myelination and Oligodendrocytic Connexins with Internodal Kv Channels.
Abstract The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K(+) concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chaban YH, Chen Y, Hertz E, Hertz L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of IGF-1 on TNF- α-Treated DRG Neurons by Modulating ATF3 and GAP-43 Expression via PI3K/Akt/S6K Signaling Pathway.
This study is helpful for interpretation of the association of IGF-1 with TNF-α and the neurobiological effects elicited by interaction of IGF-1 and TNF-α in neurological disorders. PMID: 28210955 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang L, Yue Y, Ouyang M, Liu H, Li Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mdivi-1 Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats, Possibly via Inhibition of Drp1-Activated Mitochondrial Fission and Oxidative Stress.
Abstract Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1. The SAH model was induced by standard intravascular perforation and a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu P, Li Y, Zhu S, Wang C, Dai J, Zhang G, Zheng B, Xu S, Wang L, Zhang T, Zhou P, Zhang JH, Shi H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Forced Treadmill Exercise Prevents Spatial Memory Deficits in Aged Rats Probably Through the Activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the Hippocampus.
Abstract Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vanzella C, Sanches EF, Odorcyk FK, Nicola F, Kolling J, Longoni A, Dos Santos TM, Wyse AT, Netto CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Does Global Astrocytic Calcium Signaling Participate in Awake Brain State Transitions and Neuronal Circuit Function?
Abstract We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release of the neuromodulators, noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Astrocytes have emerged as a new player participating in the regulation of brain activity, and have recently been implicated in brain state shifts. Astrocytes display global Ca(2+) signaling in response to activation of the noradrenergic system, but whether astrocytic C...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kjaerby C, Rasmussen R, Andersen M, Nedergaard M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Steve White: A Hero for Patients with Epilepsy.
PMID: 28197853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Axelrod S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Complex I Activity is Conditioned by Supercomplex I-III2-IV Assembly in Brain Cells: Relevance for Parkinson's Disease.
os JP Abstract The assembly of complex I (CI) with complexes III (CIII) and IV (CIV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to configure I-III- or I-III-IV-containing supercomplexes (SCs) regulates mitochondrial energy efficiency and reactive oxygen species (mROS) production. However, whether the occurrence of SCs impacts on CI specific activity remains unknown to our knowledge. To investigate this issue, here we determined CI activity in primary neurons and astrocytes, cultured under identical antioxidants-free medium, from two mouse strains (C57Bl/6 and CBA) and Wistar rat, i.e. three rodent species with o...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lopez-Fabuel I, Resch-Beusher M, Carabias-Carrasco M, Almeida A, Bolaños JP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Delineation of the Role of Astroglial GABA Transporters in Seizure Control.
Abstract Studies of GABA transport in neurons and astrocytes have provided evidence that termination of GABA as neurotransmitter is brought about primarily by active transport into the presynaptic, GABAergic nerve endings. There is, however, a considerable transport capacity in the astrocytes surrounding the synaptic terminals, a transport which may limit the availability of transmitter GABA leading to a higher probability of seizure activity governed by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Based on this it was hypothesized that selective inhibition of astrocytic GABA transport might prevent...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A, Madsen KK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Rotenone-Induced Mitochondrial Fission.
The objectives of this study were to identify the effects of rotenone, a drug known to mimic the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, on mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, this study explored the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in murine neuronal HT22 cells. Our results demonstrate that rotenone elevates protein expression of mitochondrial fission markers, Drp1 and Fis1, and causes an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation as evidenced through mitochondrial staining and morphological analysis. Water-soluble CoQ10 prevented mitochondrial dynamic imbalance...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li HN, Zimmerman M, Milledge GZ, Hou XL, Cheng J, Wang ZH, Li PA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Histaminergic H1 and H2 Receptors Mediate the Effects of Propofol on the Noradrenalin-Inhibited Neurons in Rat Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus.
Abstract The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. We found that the firing rate of noradrenalin-inhibited neurons wer...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Zhang Y, Qian K, Zhang L, Yu T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurotrophic Effect of Asiatic acid, a Triterpene of Centella asiatica Against Chronic 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-Tetrahydropyridine Hydrochloride/Probenecid Mouse Model of Parkinson's disease: The Role of MAPK, PI3K-Akt-GSK3 β and mTOR Signalling Pathways.
Neurotrophic Effect of Asiatic acid, a Triterpene of Centella asiatica Against Chronic 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-Tetrahydropyridine Hydrochloride/Probenecid Mouse Model of Parkinson's disease: The Role of MAPK, PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and mTOR Signalling Pathways. Neurochem Res. 2017 Feb 08;: Authors: Nataraj J, Manivasagam T, Justin Thenmozhi A, Essa MM Abstract Regulation of various signalling (Ras-MAPK, PI3K and AKT) pathways by augmented activity of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) could prevent or halt the progress of dopaminergic loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). Various in vitro and in vivo experimen...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nataraj J, Manivasagam T, Justin Thenmozhi A, Essa MM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Interactions of Mitochondria/Metabolism and Calcium Regulation in Alzheimer's Disease: A Calcinist Point of View.
Abstract Decades of research suggest that alterations in calcium are central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Highly reproducible changes in calcium dynamics occur in cells from patients with both genetic and non-genetic forms of AD relative to controls. The most robust change is an exaggerated release of calcium from internal stores. Detailed analysis of these changes in animal and cell models of the AD-causing presenilin mutations reveal robust changes in ryanodine receptors, inositol tris-phosphate receptors, calcium leak channels and store activated calcium entry. Similar anomalies in calciu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gibson GE, Thakkar A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

HMGB1-TLR4 Axis Plays a Regulatory Role in the Pathogenesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Immature Rat Model and Children via the p38MAPK Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we first measured the dynamic expression patterns of HMGB1 and TLR4 in the hippocampi of a rat model and in children with MTLE, as well as the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. In addition, HMGB1 was added to mimic the process of inflammatory response in neurons. Neuronal somatic size and dendritic length were measured by immunohistochemistry and digital imaging. The results showed that the expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 as well as the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were higher in the three stages of MTLE development in the rat model and in the children with MTLE. HMGB1 increased the levels of TNF-&a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang W, Li J, Shang Y, Zhao L, Wang M, Shi J, Li S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lens Biology is a Dimension of Neurobiology.
Abstract There is a second cell type in your body that expresses scores of the most intensively studied genes in neuroscience and exclusively shares critical interdependent modes of molecular regulation that include a network first described as responsible for the basic bifurcation of neuronal from non-neuronal gene expression in vertebrates. Neurons and lens cells are among the most ancient animal cell types, yet neurons have an exclusive status also attributed to roles underlying sensation, movement, and cognition. However, this status is challenged by cells in the lens of the eye. The extent and detail of inter...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frederikse P, Kasinathan C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

An Overview of the Mechanisms of Abnormal GABAergic Interneuronal Cortical Migration Associated with Prenatal Ethanol Exposure.
Abstract GABAergic Interneuronal migration constitutes an essential process during corticogenesis. Derived from progenitor cells located in the proliferative zones of the ventral telencephalon, newly generated GABAergic Interneuron migrate to their cortical destinations. Cortical dysfunction associated with defects in neuronal migration results in severe developmental consequences. There is growing evidence linking prenatal ethanol exposure to abnormal GABAergic interneuronal migration and subsequent cortical dysfunction. Investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms behind disrupted GABAergic interneuronal migr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shenoda BB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reversal of TRESK Downregulation Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Activation of Gliocytes in the Spinal Cord.
In conclusion, TRESK contributes to the pathogenesis of NP by upregulation of synaptic transmission and activation of gliocytes. PMID: 28160200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou J, Chen H, Yang C, Zhong J, He W, Xiong Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apobec1 Promotes Neurotoxicity-Induced Dedifferentiation of M üller Glial Cells.
This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dedifferentiation and proliferation of Müller cells in the mammalian retina. PMID: 28150227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao J, Li X, Chen L, Han X, Zhao W, Li L, Chen JG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Quercetin Improves Neurobehavioral Performance Through Restoration of Brain Antioxidant Status and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Manganese-Treated Rats.
Abstract The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin by assessing the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats sub-chronically treated with manganese alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was monitored using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment whereas the brain regions namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical analyses. Results indicated that co-treatment with quercetin significantly (p 
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Adedara IA, Ego VC, Subair TI, Oyediran O, Farombi EO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research