Effect of Acetyl-L-carnitine Used for Protection of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury on Acute Kidney Changes in Male and Female Rats.
Abstract Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common cause of brain injury in infants. Acute kidney injury frequently occurs after birth asphyxia and is associated with adverse outcome. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) after HI protects brain and improves outcome. Rat pups underwent carotid ligation and 75 min hypoxia on postnatal day 7 to determine effects of HI on kidney which is understudied in this model. HI + ALCAR pups were treated at 0, 4 and 24 h after HI. The organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2), transports ALCAR and functions to reabsorb carnitine and acylcarniti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang AG, Diamond M, Waddell J, McKenna MC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Characterization of Functional Primary Cilia in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.
Abstract Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new possibilities for biomedical research and clinical applications. Neurons differentiated from hiPSCs may be promising tools to develop novel treatment methods for various neurological diseases. However, the detailed process underlying functional maturation of hiPSC-derived neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze the developmental architecture of hiPSC-derived cortical neurons, iCell GlutaNeurons, focusing on the primary cilium, a single sensory organelle that protrudes from the surface of most growth-arrested vertebrate ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miki D, Kobayashi Y, Okada T, Miyamoto T, Takei N, Sekino Y, Koganezawa N, Shirao T, Saito Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Biomaterials and Magnetic Stem Cell Delivery in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury.
e; Š Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma, which often results in a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions, pain and spasticity. Despite extensive research, there is currently no available therapy that would restore the lost functions after SCI in human patients. Advanced treatments use regenerative medicine or its combination with various interdisciplinary approaches such as tissue engineering or biophysical methods. This review summarizes and critically discusses the research from specific interdisciplinary fields in SCI treatment such as the development of biomaterials as scaffold...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kubinová Š Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Provocative Question: Should Ketogenic Metabolic Therapy Become the Standard of Care for Glioblastoma?
Abstract No major advances have been made in improving overall survival for glioblastoma (GBM) in almost 100 years. The current standard of care (SOC) for GBM involves immediate surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. Corticosteroid (dexamethasone) is often prescribed to GBM patients to reduce tumor edema and inflammation. The SOC disrupts the glutamate-glutamine cycle thus increasing availability of glucose and glutamine in the tumor microenvironment. Glucose and glutamine are the prime fermentable fuels that underlie therapy resistance and drive GBM growth thr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Seyfried TN, Shelton L, Arismendi-Morillo G, Kalamian M, Elsakka A, Maroon J, Mukherjee P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Response to Stimulation in Neurons and Astrocytes.
B, Del Arco A, Satrústegui J Abstract The brain uses mainly glucose as fuel with an index of glucose to oxygen utilization close to 6, the maximal index if all glucose was completely oxidized. However, this high oxidative index, contrasts with the metabolic traits of the major cell types in the brain studied in culture, neurons and astrocytes, including the selective use of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) in neurons and the glycerol-phosphate shuttle in astrocytes. Metabolic interactions among these cell types may partly explain the high oxidative index of the brain. In vivo, neuronal activation results ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juaristi I, Contreras L, González-Sánchez P, Pérez-Liébana I, González-Moreno L, Pardo B, Del Arco A, Satrústegui J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Quercetin and Sodium Butyrate Synergistically Increase Apoptosis in Rat C6 and Human T98G Glioblastoma Cells Through Inhibition of Autophagy.
This study investigated the efficacy of quercetin (QCT) in combination with sodium butyrate (NaB) in enhancing apoptosis in rat C6 and human T98G glioblastoma cells though blockage of autophagy under nutrient-starvation. The most synergistic doses of the drugs were determined to be 25 µM QCT and 1 mM NaB in both cell lines. After QCT and QCT + NaB treatments, autophagy quantification with acridine orange staining showed a drastic decrease in protective autophagy in the cells under nutrient-starvation. Decrease in autophagy was correlated with decreases in expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B II. Co...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Taylor MA, Khathayer F, Ray SK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Dual Role of HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop-Induced Autophagy in the Survival and Apoptosis of the Primary Rat Hippocampal Neurons.
In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy was significantly increased in rat primary hippocampal neurons in response to treatment of HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop. Importantly, HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop-induced autophagy played a dual role in the cell survival and death. An increase in autophagy for a short period inhibited apoptosis of neurons, while persistent autophagy over an extended period of time played a detrimental role by augmenting the apoptotic cascade in rat primary hippocampal neurons. In addition, we found that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop induced autophagy via AMPK/mTOR-dependent and calpain/mTOR-independent pathways, and t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu S, Xing Y, Wang J, Pan R, Li G, Tang H, Chen G, Yan L, Guo L, Jiang M, Gong Z, Lin L, Dong J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulation of Neprilysin Activity and Cognitive Functions in Rats After Prenatal Hypoxia.
Abstract The amyloid-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP) is one of the therapeutic targets in prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As we have shown previously NEP expression in rat parietal cortex (Cx) and hippocampus (Hip) decreases with age and is also significantly reduced after prenatal hypoxia. Following the paradigms for enhancement of NEP expression and activity developed in cell culture, we analysed the efficacy of various compounds able to upregulate NEP using our model of prenatal hypoxia in rats. In addition to the previous data demonstrating that valproic acid can upregulate NEP expressi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhuravin IA, Dubrovskaya NM, Vasilev DS, Kozlova DI, Kochkina EG, Tumanova NL, Nalivaeva NN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Injury: Animal Models, Imaging Tools and the Treatment Strategies.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to irreversible neuro-degenerative changes with life-long consequences. While there is still no effective therapy available, the results of past research have led to improved quality of life for patients suffering from partial or permanent paralysis. In this review we focus on the need, importance and the scientific value of experimental animal models simulating SCI in humans. Furthermore, we highlight modern imaging tools determining the location and extent of spinal cord damage and their contribution to early diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment. Finally,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cizkova D, Murgoci AN, Cubinkova V, Humenik F, Mojzisova Z, Maloveska M, Cizek M, Fournier I, Salzet M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of MicroRNA-195 Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Targeting Patched1 and Inhibiting SHH Signaling Pathway Activation.
Abstract Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a type of chronic neuropathic pain that is caused by peripheral nerve lesions that result from various conditions, including the compression of vessels, tumors and viral infections. MicroRNAs (miRs) are increasingly recognized as potential regulators of neuropathic pain. Previous evidence has demonstrated that miR-195 is involved in neuropathic pain, but the mechanism remains unclear. To investigate the pathophysiological role of miR-195 and Shh signaling in TN, persistent facial pain was induced by infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-IoN), and facial pain resp...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang X, Wang H, Zhang T, He M, Liang H, Wang H, Xu L, Chen S, Xu M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Possible Molecular Mediators Involved and Mechanistic Insight into Fibromyalgia and Associated Co-morbidities.
Abstract Fibromyalgia is a chronic complex syndrome of non-articulate origin characterized by musculoskeletal pain, painful tender points, sleep problems and co-morbidities including depression, migraine. The etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is complex, variable and remains inconclusive. The etiological factors that have been defined include stress, genetic predisposition and environmental components. As per the reports of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) the prevalence of fibromyalgia varies from 2 to 22% among the general population with poor diagnostic features primarily pain. Fibromyalgia encompasses...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Singh L, Kaur A, Bhatti MS, Bhatti R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reduction of Dimensionality in Monte Carlo Simulation of Diffusion in Extracellular Space Surrounding Cubic Cells.
Abstract The real-time iontophoretic method has measured volume fraction and tortuosity of the interstitial component of extracellular space in many regions and under different conditions. To interpret these data computer models of the interstitial space (ISS) of the brain are constructed by representing cells as Basic Cellular Structures (BCS) surrounded by a layer of ISS and replicating this combination to make a 3D ensemble that approximates brain tissue with a specified volume fraction. Tortuosity in such models is measured by releasing molecules of zero size into the ISS and allowing them to execute random wa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nicholson C, Kamali-Zare P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lidocaine Attenuates Cognitive Impairment After Isoflurane Anesthesia by Reducing Mitochondrial Damage.
In this study, we hypothesized that lidocaine could attenuate isoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment by reducing mitochondrial damage. H4 human neuroglioma cells and 18-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to isoflurane or isoflurane plus lidocaine. Cognitive function was tested at 14 days after treatment by the Barnes Maze test in male Fischer 344 rats. Morphology was observed under electron microscope, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, electron transfer chain (ETC) enzyme activity, complex-I-IV activity, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry of annexin V-FITC binding, TUNEL assay, and We...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li J, Zhu X, Yang S, Xu H, Guo M, Yao Y, Huang Z, Lin D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In Vivo Phenotyping of Familial Parkinson's Disease with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Proof-of-Concept Study.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We have previously developed a disease-in-a-dish model for familial PD using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two patients carrying the p.A53T α-synuclein (αSyn) mutation. By directed differentiation, we generated a model that displays disease-relevant phenotypes, including protein aggregation, compromised neurite outgrowth, axonal neuropathology and synaptic defects. Here we investigated the in vivo phenotypes of iPSCs, derived from one patient, after transplantation in a lesion mouse model established b...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zygogianni O, Antoniou N, Kalomoiri M, Kouroupi G, Taoufik E, Matsas R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

AdipoRon Protects Against Secondary Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage via Alleviating Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Possible Involvement of AdipoR1-AMPK-PGC1 α Pathway.
This study first showed that activation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) by AdipoRon could attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction after ICH. In vivo, experimental ICH model was established by autologous blood injection in mice. AdipoRon was injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg). Immunofluorescence staining were performed to explicit the location of AdipoR1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1a (PGC1α). The PI staining was used to quantify neuronal survival. The expression of AdipoR1 and its downstream signaling molecules were detected by Wester...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu J, Zheng J, Lu J, Sun Z, Wang Z, Zhang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Primary Coenzyme Q deficiency Due to Novel ADCK3 Variants, Studies in Fibroblasts and Review of Literature.
Abstract Primary deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ubiquinone), is classified as a mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder with phenotypic variability. The clinical manifestation may involve one or multiple tissue with variable severity and presentation may range from infancy to late onset. ADCK3 gene mutations are responsible for the most frequent form of hereditary CoQ10 deficiency (Q10 deficiency-4 OMIM #612016) which is mainly associated with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia (ARCA2, SCAR9). Here we provide the clinical, biochemical and genetic investigation for unrelated three nuclear families prese...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shalata A, Edery M, Habib C, Genizi J, Mahroum M, Khalaily L, Assaf N, Segal I, Abed El Rahim H, Shapira H, Urian D, Tzur S, Douiev L, Saada A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Molecular Docking and Cognitive Impairment Attenuating Effect of Phenolic Compound Rich Fraction of Trianthema portulacastrum in Scopolamine Induced Alzheimer's Disease Like Condition.
Abstract Dementia is considered as the frequent cause of neurodegenerative mental disorder such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) amongst elderly people. Free radicals as well as cholinergic deficit neurons within nucleus basalis magnocellularis demonstrated to attribute with aggregation of β amyloid which further acts as an essential hallmark in AD. Various phenolic phytoconstituents exists in Trianthema portulastrum (TP) leaves have been reported as active against various neurological disorders. The current investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antiamnesic potential of butanol fraction of TP hydroethanolic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yadav E, Singh D, Debnath B, Rathee P, Yadav P, Verma A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mammalian STE20-like Kinase 1 Knockdown Attenuates TNF α-Mediated Neurodegenerative Disease by Repressing the JNK Pathway and Mitochondrial Stress.
Mammalian STE20-like Kinase 1 Knockdown Attenuates TNFα-Mediated Neurodegenerative Disease by Repressing the JNK Pathway and Mitochondrial Stress. Neurochem Res. 2019 Apr 04;: Authors: Geng C, Wei J, Wu C Abstract Neuroinflammation has been acknowledged as a primary factor contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inflammation stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is not fully understood. The aim of our study was to explore the influence of mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) in neuroinflammation using TNFα and CATH.a cells i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Geng C, Wei J, Wu C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differentially Expressed miRNAs Influence Metabolic Processes in Pituitary Oncocytoma.
P, Patócs A, Butz H Abstract Spindle cell oncocytomas (SCO) of the pituitary are rare tumors accounting for 0.1-0.4% of all sellar tumors. Due to their rarity, little information is available regarding their pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate miRNA expression profile of pituitary oncocytomas. Total RNA was extracted from 9 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded pituitary samples (4 primary, 3 recurrent oncocytomas and 2 normal tissues). Next-generation sequencing was performed for miRNA profiling. Transcriptome data of additional 6 samples' were obtained from NBCI GEO database for gene expression reanalysi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Krokker L, Nyírő G, Reiniger L, Darvasi O, Szücs N, Czirják S, Tóth M, Igaz P, Patócs A, Butz H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The negative effect of magnetic nanoparticles with ascorbic acid on peritoneal macrophages.
In this study we investigated the effect of silica-coated nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3-SiO2) with or without modification by an ascorbic acid (γ-Fe2O3-SiO2-ASA), which is meant to act as an antioxidative agent on rat peritoneal macrophages. Both types of nanoparticles were phagocytosed by macrophages in large amounts as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Prusian blue staining, however they did not substantially affect the viability of exposed cells in monitored intervals. We further explored cytotoxic effects related to oxidative stress, which is frequently documented in cells exposed to nanoparticles....
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiráková K, Moskvin M, Machová Urdzíková L, Rössner P, Elzeinová F, Chudíčková M, Jirák D, Ziolkowska N, Horák D, Kubinová Š, Jendelová P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Affects Behaviour and Monoamine Levels in Mice.
In this study, mice were exposed to Fe2O3-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) by oral intubation daily for 30 days. It was observed that Fe2O3-NPs remarkably impair motor coordination and memory. In the treated brain regions, mitochondrial damage, depleted energy level and decreased ATPase (Mg2+, Ca2+ and Na+/K+) activities were observed. Disturbed ion homeostasis and axonal demyelination in the treated brain regions contributes to poor motor coordination. Increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and decreased expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) impairs vesicular exocytosis could result in insuffici...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Manickam V, Dhakshinamoorthy V, Perumal E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Vitronectin is Involved in the Morphological Transition of Neurites in Retinoic Acid-Induced Neurogenesis of Neuroblastoma Cell Line Neuro2a.
In this study, we investigated the roles of Vtn and its integrin receptors, during the transition of neurites from multipolar to bipolar morphology, accompanying the cell cycle exit in neural progenitor cells. We used mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a as a model of neural progenitor cells which can induce cell cycle exit and the morphological transition of neurites by retinoic acid (RA)-stimulation. Treatment with an antibody for Vtn suppressed the RA-induced cell cycle exit and multipolar-to-bipolar transition. Furthermore, immunostaining results showed that in the cells displaying multipolar morphology Vtn was partia...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sugahara M, Nakaoki Y, Yamaguchi A, Hashimoto K, Miyamoto Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II α Suppresses Oxidative Stress in Cerebral Ischemic Rats Through Targeting Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase.
Inhibition of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IIα Suppresses Oxidative Stress in Cerebral Ischemic Rats Through Targeting Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase. Neurochem Res. 2019 Mar 27;: Authors: Wei Y, Wang R, Teng J Abstract Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and oxidative stress plays a significant role in the ischemia stage and reperfusion stage. Previous studies have indicated that both calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) are involved in the oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei Y, Wang R, Teng J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Induces Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.
Abstract Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, Gelatinase B), an extracellular-acting Zn2+-dependent endopeptidase, are involved in brain pathologies including ischemia, glioma, and epilepsy. Recent studies suggested that MMP-9 plays an important role in neuronal plasticity, specifically in learning and memory. To determine whether and how MMP-9 plays role in alcohol-related behaviors, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure for 4 weeks, following which we collected tissue samples from the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and amygdala at different ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yin L, Li F, Li J, Yang X, Xie X, Xue L, Li Y, Zhang C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Echinacoside Alleviates Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Neonatal Rat by Enhancing Antioxidant Capacity and Inhibiting Apoptosis.
This study aimed to investigate whether ECH provides neuroprotection against HIBD in neonatal rats. We subjected 120 seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats to cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and randomly divided into the following groups: sham group, HI group and ECH (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) post-administration group. After 48 h of HI, 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride, Hematoxylin-Eosin and Nissl staining were conducted to evaluate the extent of brain damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdeh...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei W, Lan XB, Liu N, Yang JM, Du J, Ma L, Zhang WJ, Niu JG, Sun T, Yu JQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PKM2 Involved in Neuronal Apoptosis on Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy in Neonatal Rats.
In this study, we have investigated the role of PKM2 in cortical neurons which suffered hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn rats. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed the protein expression of PKM2 peaking at 24 h after HIE. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that PKM2 was mainly located in the neurons of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, not in astrocytes or microglia. The increased level of active caspase-3 and the decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) were consistent with the PKM2 expression. TUNEL staining assay showed that PKM2 may participate in neuronal apoptosis in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu Q, Ge W, Chen Y, Kong X, Xian H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Potential Circadian Rhythms in Oligodendrocytes? Working Together Through Time.
Abstract Oligodendrocytes (OL) are the only myelinating cells of the central nervous system thus interferences, either environmental or genetic, with their maturation or function have devastating consequences. Albeit so far neglected, one of the less appreciated, nevertheless possible, regulators of OL maturation and function is the circadian cycle. Yet, disruptions in these rhythms are unfortunately becoming a common "disorder" in the today's world. The temporal patterning of behaviour and physiology is controlled by a circadian timing system based in the anterior hypothalamus. At the molecular level, c...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Colwell CS, Ghiani CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Succinylation Links Metabolism to Protein Functions.
Abstract Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important regulators of protein function, and integrate metabolism with physiological and pathological processes. Phosphorylation and acetylation are particularly well studied PTMs. A relatively recently discovered novel PTM is succinylation in which metabolically derived succinyl CoA modifies protein lysine groups. Succinylation causes a protein charge flip from positive to negative and a relatively large increase in mass compared to other PTMs. Hundreds of protein succinylation sites are present in proteins of multiple tissues and species, and the significance...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang Y, Gibson GE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Special Issue in Honour of Anthony J (Tony) Turner.
PMID: 30888576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nalivaeva NN, Hardy J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dynamics Impairment in Dexamethasone-Treated Neuronal Cells.
Abstract Dexamethasone is an approved steroid for clinical use to activate or suppress cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory enzymes and adhesion molecules. It enters the brain, by-passing the blood brain barrier, and acts through genomic mechanisms. High levels of dexamethasone are able to induce neuronal cell loss, reduce neurogenesis and cause neuronal dysfunction. The exact mechanisms of steroid, especially the dexamethasone contribute to neuronal damage remain unclear. Therefore, the present study explored the mitochondrial dynamics underlying dexamethasone-induced toxicity of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells....
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Suwanjang W, Wu KLH, Prachayasittikul S, Chetsawang B, Charngkaew K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Relationships Between Catecholamine Levels and Stress or Intelligence.
This study assessed stress, intelligence quotient (IQ), and catecholamine levels in 70 healthy subjects to elucidate associations between catecholamines and stress, and between catecholamines and IQ. Additionally, the associations of catecholamines with stress and IQ were analyzed according to hemispheric dominance using the Brain Preference Indicator (BPI). There were positive correlations between the NE/E ratio and the somatization of stress but negative correlations between the E/NE ratio and the somatization of stress among the total number of subjects. In the right-brain-dominant group, a high E/DA ratio was correlate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jung YH, Jang JH, Lee D, Choi Y, Choi SH, Kang DH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

ECS Dynamism and Its Influence on Neuronal Excitability and Seizures.
Abstract Seizure activity is governed by changes in normal neuronal physiology that lead to a state of neuronal hyperexcitability and synchrony. There is a growing body of research and evidence suggesting that alterations in the volume fraction (α) of the brain's extracellular space (ECS) have the ability to prolong or even initiate seizures. These ictogenic effects likely occur due to the ECS volume being critically important in determining both the concentration of neuroactive substances contained within it, such as ions and neurotransmitters, and the effect of electric field-mediated interactions between ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Colbourn R, Naik A, Hrabetova S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MicroRNAs and Regeneration in Animal Models of CNS Disorders.
Abstract microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with CNS repair after trauma and neuropathological conditions including stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. A number of specific miRNAs are implicated in regulating the development and propagation of CNS injury, as well as its subsequent regeneration. The review focuses on the functions of the miRNAs and their role in brain recovery following CNS damage. The article introduces a brief description of miRNA biogenesis and mechanisms of miRNA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roitbak T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spinal Orexin-2 Receptors are Involved in Modulation of the Lateral Hypothalamic Stimulation-Induced Analgesia.
In this study, we examined role of the spinal orexin-2 receptors in modulation of inflammatory pain in rat. Fifty-one adult male Wistar rats were implanted unilaterally with a guide cannula into the LH and intrathecal tubing in the lumbar space between L4 and L5. Chemical stimulation of LH by carbachol (250 nM/0.5 µL saline) induced remarkable analgesia during the two phases of formalin test and Intrathecal administration of different doses of TCS OX2 29 (10, 30 and 100 µM/ 0.5 µL DMSO) prior to LH stimulation, dose-dependently antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the LH-stimulati...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rezaee L, Salehi S, Alizadeh AM, Fazli-Tabaei S, Haghparast A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of microRNA-34a Suppresses Epileptiform Discharges Through Regulating Notch Signaling and Apoptosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.
Abstract Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures and some seizures can cause neuronal apoptosis, which is possible to make contributions to the epilepsy phenotype, impairments in cognitive function or even epileptogenesis. Moreover, many studies have indicated that microRNA-34a (miRNA-34a) is involved in apoptosis through regulating Notch signaling. However, whether miRNA-34a participates in neuronal apoptosis after seizures remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the expression of miRNA-34a and its effects on the epileptiform discharge in spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SR...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang J, Zheng Y, Cheng X, Xu F, Zhang P, Zhou X, Zhao H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Cdk5 in Kalirin7-Mediated Formation of Dendritic Spines.
This study was to explore the role of CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of Kal-7 in spine formation and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed expression of Kal-7T/D (mimicked phosphorylation), Kal-7T/A mutants (blocked phosphorylation) or wild-type (Wt) Kal-7 caused in a similar increase in spine density, while spine size of Wt Kal-7-expressing cortical neurons was bigger than that in Kal-7 T\A-expressing neurons, but smaller than that in Kal-7T/D-expressing neurons. The fluorescence intensity of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B (GluN2B) staining was stronger along the MAP2 positive dendrites of Kal-7T/D-expressing neurons t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li MX, Qiao H, Zhang M, Ma XM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intranasal Delivery of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Protects against Hippocampal Neuron Death in the Lithium-Pilocarpine Rat Model.
Abstract Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) block the release of a series of neurotransmitters, which are pivotal for neuron action. Intrahippocampal administration of BoNTs inhibits glutamate release, protects neurons against cell death, and attenuates epileptic seizures. Compared with intrahippocampal administration, intranasal delivery is less invasive and more practical for chronic drug administration. To assess whether intranasal administration is feasible, we examined the role of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in hippocampal neuronal injury after status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine. Our data showed Bo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang Z, Lian Y, Chen Y, Li S, Zhang H, Xie N, Zheng Y, Wu S, Wang Y, Cheng W, Zhang Q, Wang C, Shi Y, Xie N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: The Role of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition.
Abstract Brain and heart ischemia are among the leading causes of death and disability in both men and women, but there are significant sex differences in the incidence and severity of these diseases. Ca2+ dysregulation in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) is a well-recognized pathogenic mechanism leading to the death of affected cells. Excess intracellular Ca2+ causes mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ overload that can result in mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which can have severe consequences for mitochondrial function and trigger cell death. Recent findings indicate that estrogens and their r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fels JA, Manfredi G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Tribulusterine Containing Tribulus terrestris Extract Exhibited Neuroprotection Through Attenuating Stress Kinases Mediated Inflammatory Mechanism: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.
This study can be concluded with the thesis that AQTT has neuroprotective effect through alternating neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and promoting neuron survival. Being that it produced better effect with pretreatment, exploring this with thrombolytic drugs will be beneficial. For the first time AQTT has been reported for this indication. PMID: 30863969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ranjithkumar R, Alhadidi Q, Shah ZA, Ramanathan M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase 1 Mediates the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain after Chronic Constriction Injury in Rats.
Abstract Neuropathic pain (NP) has complicated pathogenesis as it mainly involves a lesion or dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system and its clinical treatment remains challenging. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) model is a widely used neuropathic pain model and involved in mechanisms including both nerve inflammatory and injury. Cytokines and their receptors play essential roles in the occurrence and persistence of neuropathic pain, but the underlying mechanisms have not well been understood. Therefore, Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is chosen to explore the possible mechanisms of N...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yin D, Chen Y, Li Y, Lu R, Wang B, Zhu S, Fan B, Xu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Targeted Oligodendrocyte Apoptosis in Optic Nerve Leads to Persistent Demyelination.
Abstract The optic nerve represents one of the simplest regions of the CNS and has been useful in developing an understanding of glial development and myelination. While the visual system is frequently affected in demyelinating conditions, utilizing the optic nerve to model demyelination/remyelination studies has been difficult due to its accessibility, relatively small size, and dense nature that makes direct injections challenging. Taking advantage of the lack of oligodendrocytes and myelination in the mouse retina, we have developed a model in which the induction of apoptosis in mature oligodendrocytes allows f...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pajoohesh-Ganji A, Miller RH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of the Maternal Preoptic Area in Rats.
s É, Dobolyi A Abstract The behavior of female rats changes profoundly as they become mothers. The brain region that plays a central role in this regulation is the preoptic area, and lesions in this area eliminates maternal behaviors in rodents. The molecular background of the behavioral changes has not been established yet; therefore, in the present study, we applied proteomics to compare protein level changes associated with maternal care in the rat preoptic area. Using 2-dimensional fluorescence gel electrophoresis followed by identification of altered spots with mass spectrometry, 12 proteins were found...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Udvari EB, Völgyi K, Kékesi KA, Simon D, Hunyadi-Gulyás É, Dobolyi A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

An Updated View on the Molecular Pathomechanisms of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Light of Novel Crystallographic Evidence.
Abstract Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH, E3) deficiency is a rare (autosomal, recessive) genetic disorder generally presenting with an onset in the neonatal age and early death; the highest carrier rate has been found among Ashkenazi Jews. Acute clinical episodes usually involve severe metabolic decompensation and lactate acidosis that result in neurological, cardiological, and/or hepatological manifestations. Clinical severity is due to the fact that LADH is a common E3 subunit to the alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, alpha-ketoadipate, and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes, and is also a ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ambrus A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Human 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase and 2-Oxoadipate Dehydrogenase Both Generate Superoxide/H2O2 in a Side Reaction and Each Could Contribute to Oxidative Stress in Mitochondria.
Abstract According to recent findings, the human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (hOGDHc) could be an important source of the reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria and could contribute to mitochondrial abnormalities associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, and Parkinson's disease. The human 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (hE1a) is a novel protein, which is encoded by the DHTKD1 gene. Both missence and nonsense mutations were identified in the DHTKD1 that lead to alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-oxoadipic aciduria, a metabolic disorder with a wide var...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jordan F, Nemeria N, Gerfen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Actin Cytoskeleton in Myelinating Cells.
Abstract Myelinating cells of both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNSs) undergo dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization in order to differentiate and produce myelin. Myelinating oligodendrocytes in the CNS show a periodic actin pattern, demonstrating tight regulation of actin. Furthermore, recent data demonstrate that actin polymerization drives early cell differentiation and that actin depolymerization drives myelin wrapping. Dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in myelinating cells is seen in some disease states. This review highlights the cytoskeletal molecules that regulate differentiation of and ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brown TL, Macklin WB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Missing in Action: Dysfunctional RNA Metabolism in Oligodendroglial Cells as a Contributor to Neurodegenerative Diseases?
Abstract The formation of myelin around axons by oligodendrocytes (OL) poses an enormous synthetic and energy challenge for the glial cell. Local translation of transcripts, including the mRNA for the essential myelin protein Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) at the site of myelin deposition has been recognised as an efficient mechanism to assure proper myelin sheath assembly. Oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) form synapses with neurons and may localise many additional mRNAs in a similar fashion to synapses between neurons. In some diseases in which demyelination occurs, an abundance of OPCs is present but there is...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hoch-Kraft P, Trotter J, Gonsior C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Iron is Responsible for Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Regulating Vasopressin Expression in the Mouse Paraventricular Nucleus.
Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules for maintaining homeostasis, particularly in the regulation of body-fluid balance in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. However, there has been little discussion regarding the source of ROS generation in this hypothalamic region. Because iron is the most abundant metal in the brain, we hypothesized that iron may act as a source of ROS, which regulate vasopressin (VP) expression. In the present study, we compared the amount of iron in the PVN to that in other forebrain regions of normal ICR mice, and examined the relationship amon...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hyeun JA, Kim JY, Kim CH, Kim JH, Lee EY, Seo JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Alleviated Behavioral Dysfunction and Bioenergetic Function in an Animal Model of Depression.
Abstract Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural compound, is involved in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC) and plays an important pattern in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Amelioration of ATP is related to abnormalities in cognitive function and psychiatric diseases. Previous studies have shown that depression is accompanied by the induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways and amelioration of antioxidant status. In a recent study, we investigated the beneficial effects of CoQ10 on behavioral dysfunction and CoQ10 level in the rat brain. Therefore, intracerebroventricular (ICV) infu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Andalib S, Mashhadi-Mousapour M, Bijani S, Hosseini MJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Moderate- and Low-Dose of Atorvastatin Alleviate Cognition Impairment Induced by High-Fat Diet via Sirt1 Activation.
This study aimed to identify a relationship between the use of Ator and cognition impairment induced by high-fat diet via Sirt1 activation. A total of 60 healthy male C57BL/6J mice were purchased and then divided into 6 groups, including normal diet group (control), a high-fat diet group (40%HFD, 40% energy from fat), a model group (60%HFD, 60% energy from fat), and model group treated with different doses of Ator (high-dose (80 mg), moderate-dose (40 mg), and low-dose (20 mg) groups). All interventions took place for 7 months. Metabolic phenotypes were characterized for body weight and analysis of seru...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu H, Yang J, Wang K, Niu T, Huang D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of 2-Ketobutyrate on Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation.
Abstract The reaction catalyzed by succinate-CoA ligase in the mitochondrial matrix yields a high-energy phosphate when operating towards hydrolysis of the thioester bond of succinyl-CoA, known as mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation (mSLP). The catabolism of several metabolites converge to succinyl-CoA but through different biochemical pathways. Among them, threonine, serine and methionine catabolize to succinyl-CoA through the common intermediate, 2-ketobutyrate. During the course of this pathway 2-ketobutyrate will become succinyl-CoA through propionyl-CoA catabolism, obligatorily passing through an AT...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bui D, Ravasz D, Chinopoulos C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research