Role of Insulin Resistance in the Alzheimer's Disease Progression.
Abstract Recent studies continue to find evidence linking Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Insulin resistance or dysfunction of insulin signaling is a universal feature of T2D, the main culprit for altered glucose metabolism and its interdependence on cell death pathways, forming the basis of linking T2D with AD as it may exacerbate Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation and devastates glucose transportation, energy metabolism, hippocampal framewor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nguyen TT, Ta QTH, Nguyen TTD, Le TT, Vo VG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Organophosphate Exposure on Neuronal Cell Coenzyme Q10 Status.
Abstract Organophosphate (OP) compounds are widely used as pesticides and herbicides and exposure to these compounds has been associated with both chronic and acute forms of neurological dysfunction including cognitive impairment, neurophysiological problems and cerebral ataxia with evidence of mitochondrial impairment being associated with this toxicity. In view of the potential mitochondrial impairment, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to commonly used OPs, dichlorvos, methyl-parathion (parathion) and chloropyrifos (CPF) on the cellular level of the mitochondrial electron transport c...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Turton N, Heaton RA, Ismail F, Roberts S, Nelder S, Phillips S, Hargreaves IP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

High Estrogen Level Modifies Postoperative Hyperalgesia via GPR30 and MMP-9 in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.
Abstract The cycling of sex hormones is one of the factors affecting pain in females, and the mechanisms are not fully understood. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) is the estrogen receptor known to be involved in mechanical hyperalgesia. Studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a critical component in peripheral/central nervous system hypersensitivity and neuroinflammation, both of which participate in hyperalgesia. Here, ovariectomized rats were treated with low or high dose estrogen replacement, and then plantar incisions were made. Subsequently, mechanical allodynia was...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang M, Liu Y, Wu H, Ma Z, Gu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Downregulation of Truncated TrkB Receptors Modulated by MicroRNA-185 Activates Full-Length TrkB Signaling and Suppresses the Epileptiform Discharges in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.
In this study, to regulate the expression of truncated TrkB receptor and full-length TrkB signaling, rno-miR-185-3p was transduced into the SREDs model. Then, the changes in the activity of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and in epileptiform discharges were investigated. Transduction of rno-miR-185-3p downregulated the expression of truncated TrkB and dramatically activated full-length TrkB signaling in the model. Next, we found that the activation of full-length TrkB signaling decreased the maximal Ca2+ current density in the model, delayed the steady-state activation and accelerated the inactivation of L-ty...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie W, Xiang L, Song Y, Tian X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Delphinidin on Pathophysiological Signs of Nucleus Basalis of Meynert Lesioned Rats as Animal Model of Alzheimer Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an advanced neurodegenerative disorder greatly accompanied by cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, inflammation, amyloid plaques deposition, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hyper-activation. Growing evidence suggests natural compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features improve pathophysiological signs of AD. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Delphinidin (25, 50 mg/kg) as an anthocyanidin on spatial memory impairment and AD hallmarks such as hippocampal AChE activity, amyloid plaques deposition, oxidative stress and expression of amy...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Heysieattalab S, Sadeghi L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutathione in Brain: Overview of Its Conformations, Functions, Biochemical Characteristics, Quantitation and Potential Therapeutic Role in Brain Disorders.
Abstract Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant found abundantly and synthesized intracellularly in the cytosol in a tightly regulated fashion. It has diverse physiological functions, including protection against reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species, antioxidant defense as well as maintenance of cellular thiol status. The human brain due to the high oxygen consumption is extremely susceptible to the generation of reactive oxygen species. GSH plays a paramount role in brain antioxidant defense, maintaining redox homeostasis. The depletion of brain GSH has also been observed from both autopsies as wel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dwivedi D, Megha K, Mishra R, Mandal PK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Thiol-Modifier Effects of Organoselenium Compounds and Their Cytoprotective Actions in Neuronal Cells.
This study was aimed to investigate and compare the protective effects of two well known [(PhSe)2 and PhSeZnCl] and two newly developed (MRK Picolyl and MRK Ester) organoselenium compounds against oxidative challenge in cultured neuronal HT22 cells. The thiol peroxidase and oxidase activities were performed using the glutathione reductase (GR)-coupled assay. In order to evaluate protective effects of the organoselenium compounds against oxidative challenge in neuronal HT22 cells, experiments based on glutamate-induced oxytosis and SIN-1-mediated peroxynitrite generation were performed. The thiol peroxidase activities of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Galant LS, Rafique J, Braga AL, Braga FC, Saba S, Radi R, da Rocha JBT, Santi C, Monsalve M, Farina M, de Bem AF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Maternal Treadmill Exercise Reduces the Neurotoxicity of Prenatal Sevoflurane Exposure in Rats via Activation of p300 Histone Acetyltransferase.
Abstract Repeated or prolonged use of general anesthetics in pregnant women may disturb the neurodevelopment of infants. Compelling evidence indicates that maternal exercise during pregnancy has positive effects on the cognitive function of offspring. We previously confirmed the preventive potential of maternal treadmill training for cognitive deficits induced by in utero exposure to sevoflurane in rat pups. However, the underlying mechanism(s) needed further clarification. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal exercise on the epigenetic regulation of genes linked to brain p...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu Z, Zhang Y, Yang X, Zhao P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

LINC00668 Modulates SOCS5 Expression Through Competitively Sponging miR-518c-3p to Facilitate Glioma Cell Proliferation.
Abstract Glioma is a common invasive cancer with unfavorable prognosis in patients. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert significant functions in carcinogenesis of various cancers including glioma. Among them, long intergenic non-coding RNA 668 (LINC00668) was reported to function as oncogene in various cancers, but its molecular mechanism in glioma has not been thoroughly researched. Our current study aimed to investigate the role and molecular mechanism of LINC00668 in glioma cells. We initially found out that LINC00668 was up-regulated in glioma cells. Through a series of function assays, LINC00668 was verified...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Z, Wang J, Tong H, Wang X, Zhang D, Fan Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ethanol Stimulation of Microglia Release Increases ERK1/2-Dependent Neuronal cPLA2 Activity in Immature Cultured Cortical Preparations.
Abstract Ethanol consumption typically begins during adolescence and is associated with age-dependent responses and maladaptive neuronal consequences. Our previous work established the role of a putative signaling cascade involving cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), arachidonic acid (AA) and novel protein kinase C isoforms in adolescent hypnotic sensitivity. The current study aimed to further delineate this pathway by ascertaining the cellular specificity as well as the upstream activators of cPLA2 using an immature cultured cortical preparation. A threefold increase in cPLA2 was detected within 2 min of 1...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Santerre-Anderson JL, Werner DF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

TRPC6-Mediated Ca2+ Entry Essential for the Regulation of Nano-ZnO Induced Autophagy in SH-SY5Y Cells.
This study investigates the action of nano-ZnO on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that nano-ZnO (0-50 µg/mL) induced a significant decrease in cell survival rate in a dose-dependent manner, and increased LC3 puncta formation. However, the apoptosis was not affected by nano-ZnO, because the protein levels of cytochrome c, caspase-3, Bcl-xL, and BAX were not varied by the nano-ZnO treatment. Nano-ZnO increased Ca2+ entry and the expression of TRPC6.The results suggested that nano-ZnO increased [Ca2+] through the TRPC-dependent Ca2+ influx, since Ca2+ influx can be prevented by the TRPC inhibitor. Furthermore, cel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Z, Du Z, Li K, Han Y, Ren G, Yang Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Calpain-Inhibitors Protect Frataxin-Deficient Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons from Loss of Mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger, NCLX, and Apoptosis.
In this study, we have performed a time-course analysis of several parameters altered in a frataxin-deficient DRGs. These include decline of NCLX levels, calcium accumulation, mitochondrial depolarization, α-fodrin fragmentation and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, we have analysed the effect of the calpain inhibitors MDL28170 and Calpeptin on these parameters. We have observed that these inhibitors increase NCLX levels, protect sensory neurons from neurite degeneration and calcium accumulation, and restore mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, calpain 1 reduction alleviated neurodegeneration in frataxin-d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Britti E, Delaspre F, Tamarit J, Ros J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resolvin D1 Prevents the Impairment in the Retention Memory and Hippocampal Damage in Rats Fed a Corn Oil-Based High Fat Diet by Upregulation of Nrf2 and Downregulation and Inactivation of p66Shc.
In conclusion, CO-HFD impairs memory function and induces hippocampal damage by reducing levels of RvD1 and activation of JNK/p53/p66Shc/NADPH oxidase, effects that are prevented by co-administration of RvD1. PMID: 32253649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mostafa DG, Satti HH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNA SNHG5 Knockdown Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Targeting the miR-154-5p/CXCL13 Axis.
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that SNHG5 knockdown alleviated neuropathic pain and inhibited the activation of astrocytes and microglia by targeting the miR-154-5p/CXCL13 axis, which might be a novel therapeutic target for neuropathic treatment clinically. PMID: 32248399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen M, Yang Y, Zhang W, Li X, Wu J, Zou X, Zeng X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pharmacological Characterization of a Betaine/GABA Transporter 1 (BGT1) Inhibitor Displaying an Unusual Biphasic Inhibition Profile and Anti-seizure Effects.
Abstract Focal epileptic seizures can in some patients be managed by inhibiting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake via the GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) using tiagabine (Gabitril®). Synergistic anti-seizure effects achieved by inhibition of both GAT1 and the betaine/GABA transporter (BGT1) by tiagabine and EF1502, compared to tiagabine alone, suggest BGT1 as a target in epilepsy. Yet, selective BGT1 inhibitors are needed for validation of this hypothesis. In that search, a series of BGT1 inhibitors typified by (1R,2S)-2-((4,4-bis(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)but-3-en-yl)(methyl)amino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (SBV2...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lie MEK, Kickinger S, Skovgaard-Petersen J, Ecker GF, Clausen RP, Schousboe A, White HS, Wellendorph P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Triglyceride is a Good Biomarker of Increased Injury Severity on a High Fat Diet Rat After Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract Injury severity is correlated with poor prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is not known whether triglycerides (TGs) or total cholesterol (TC) is good biomarker of increased injury of neuroinflammation and apoptosis in a high fat diet (HFD)-treated rat after TBI episodes. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a HFD for 8 weeks. The anesthetized male SD rats were divided into three sub-groups: sham-operated and TBI with 1.6 atm or with 2.4 atm fluid percussion injury (FPI). Cell infarction volume (triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kuo JR, Lim SW, Zheng HX, Ho CH, Chang CH, Chio CC, Wee HY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Peculiar Facets of Nitric Oxide as a Cellular Messenger: From Disease-Associated Signaling to the Regulation of Brain Bioenergetics and Neurovascular Coupling.
sa RM Abstract In this review, we address the regulatory and toxic role of ·NO along several pathways, from the gut to the brain. Initially, we address the role on ·NO in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration with emphasis on the possible contribution to Parkinson's disease via mechanisms that involve its interaction with a major dopamine metabolite, DOPAC. In parallel with initial discoveries of the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by ·NO, it became clear the potential for toxic ·NO-mediated mechanisms involving the production of more reactive species and the post-translat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Laranjinha J, Nunes C, Ledo A, Lourenço C, Rocha B, Barbosa RM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

D-Serine, the Shape-Shifting NMDA Receptor Co-agonist.
This article will review evidence in support of these scenarios and the artifacts that misled investigators of the true identity of D-serine. PMID: 32189130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Coyle JT, Balu D, Wolosker H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Refocusing the Brain: New Approaches in Neuroprotection Against Ischemic Injury.
Abstract A new era for neuroprotective strategies is emerging in ischemia/reperfusion. This has forced to review the studies existing to date based in neuroprotection against oxidative stress, which have undoubtedly contributed to clarify the brain endogenous mechanisms, as well as to identify possible therapeutic targets or biomarkers in stroke and other neurological diseases. The efficacy of exogenous administration of neuroprotective compounds has been shown in different studies so far. However, something must be missing to get these treatments successfully applied in the clinical environment. Here, the mechani...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rodriguez C, Agulla J, Delgado-Esteban M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ceftriaxone Attenuated Anxiety-Like Behavior and Enhanced Brain Glutamate Transport in Zebrafish Subjected to Alcohol Withdrawal.
Abstract Chronic and/or excessive consumption of alcohol followed by reduced consumption or abstention can result in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. A number of behavioral changes and neurological damage result from ethanol (EtOH) withdrawal. Ceftriaxone (Cef) modulates the activity of excitatory amino acid transporters by increasing their gene expression. Zebrafish are commonly used to study alcohol exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Cef (100 µM) on behavior patterns, glutamate transport activity, and oxidative stress in zebrafish brains subjected to EtOH (0.3% v/v) withdrawal. Th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Agostini JF, Costa NLF, Bernardo HT, Baldin SL, Mendes NV, de Pieri Pickler K, Manenti MC, Rico EP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pramipexole Reduces zif-268 mRNA Expression in Brain Structures involved in the Generation of Harmaline-Induced Tremor.
Abstract Essential tremor is one of the most common neurological disorders, however, it is not sufficiently controlled with currently available pharmacotherapy. Our recent study has shown that pramipexole, a drug efficient in inhibiting parkinsonian tremor, reduced the harmaline-induced tremor in rats, generally accepted to be a model of essential tremor. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain targets for the tremorolytic effect of pramipexole by determination of the early activity-dependent gene zif-268 mRNA expression. Tremor in rats was induced by harmaline administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kosmowska B, Ossowska K, Wardas J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Transplantation of IFN- γ Primed hUCMSCs Significantly Improved Outcomes of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in a Mouse Model.
In this study, EAE mouse model was established by MOG35-55 immunization method. Outcomes of the EAE mice in terms of body weight and clinical symptoms were analyzed. Electromyography (EMG) was performed to evaluate nerve conduction. ELISA was applied to quantify inflammatory cytokine levels in serum. Our results showed that IFN-γ could up-regulate protein expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenease 1 (IDO1), an important molecule released by MSCs to exert their immune suppressive activity (p 
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou X, Liu X, Liu L, Han C, Xie Z, Liu X, Xu Y, Li F, Bi J, Zheng C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Novel Role of PPAR Alpha in the Brain: Promising Target in Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders.
er JB Abstract Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) belongs to the family of ligand-regulated nuclear receptors (PPARs). These receptors after heterodimerization with retinoid X receptor (RXR) bind in promotor of target genes to PPAR response elements (PPREs) and act as a potent transcription factors. PPAR-α and other receptors from this family, such as PPAR-β/δ and PPAR-γ are expressed in the brain and other organs and play a significant role in oxidative stress, energy homeostasis, mitochondrial fatty acids metabolism and inflammation. PPAR-α takes part in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wójtowicz S, Strosznajder AK, Jeżyna M, Strosznajder JB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pannexin-1 Channel Regulates ATP Release in Epilepsy.
Abstract With the deepening of research on epilepsy in recent decades, great progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. However, the clinical outcome remains unsatisfactory due to the confounding symptoms and complications, as well as complex intrinsic pathogenesis. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of epilepsy should be able to hinder the progress of the disease and improve the therapeutic effectiveness. Since the discovery of pannexin (Panx), unremitting efforts on the study of this gap junction protein family member have revealed its role in participating in the expression of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shan Y, Ni Y, Gao Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Bexarotene Improve Depression-Like Behaviour in Mice by Protecting Against Neuro-inflammation and Synaptic Damage.
In this study, we investigated effect of Bex on depression-like behaviour in mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or corticosterone (CORT). Our results showed that treatment with Bex for 15 days significantly improved LPS-induced depression-like behaviour in social interaction test and CORT-induced depression-like behaviour in forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. We found that the Bex treatment depressed the increase in the number of activated microglia and astrocytes in the frontal cortex, and the increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-injected m...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yuan C, Dai C, Li Z, Zheng L, Zhao M, Dong S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NDRG4 Alleviates A β1-40 Induction of SH-SY5Y Cell Injury via Activation of BDNF-Inducing Signalling Pathways.
NDRG4 Alleviates Aβ1-40 Induction of SH-SY5Y Cell Injury via Activation of BDNF-Inducing Signalling Pathways. Neurochem Res. 2020 Mar 12;: Authors: Kang T, Qu Q, Xie Z, Cao B Abstract We explored the functions and mechanisms of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) in an amyloid beta 1-40 induced Alzheimer's disease cell model. The levels of total and phosphorylated Tau protein were significantly up-regulated and cell activity was decreased with increasing Aβ1-40 treatment in SH-SY5Y cells. The expression of NDRG4 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased that induced by A&bet...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kang T, Qu Q, Xie Z, Cao B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Additive Effect of Resveratrol on Astrocyte Swelling Post-exposure to Ammonia, Ischemia and Trauma In Vitro.
Abstract Swelling of astrocytes represents a major component of the brain edema associated with many neurological conditions, including acute hepatic encephalopathy (AHE), traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ischemia. It has previously been reported that exposure of cultured astrocytes to ammonia (a factor strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of AHE), oxygen/glucose deprivation, or to direct mechanical trauma results in an increase in cell swelling. Since dietary polyphenols have been shown to exert a protective effect against cell injury, we examined whether resveratrol (RSV, 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, a s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Taherian M, Norenberg MD, Panickar KS, Shamaladevi N, Ahmad A, Rahman P, Jayakumar AR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Low Level of Expression of C-Terminally Truncated Human FUS Causes Extensive Changes in the Spinal Cord Transcriptome of Asymptomatic Transgenic Mice.
Abstract A number of mutations in a gene encoding RNA-binding protein FUS have been linked to the development of a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis known as FUS-ALS. C-terminal truncations of FUS by either nonsense or frameshift mutations lead to the development of FUS-ALS with a particularly early onset and fast progression. However, even in patients bearing these highly pathogenic mutations the function of motor neurons is not noticeably compromised for at least a couple of decades, suggesting that until cytoplasmic levels of FUS lacking its C-terminal nuclear localisation signal reaches a critical...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lysikova EA, Funikov S, Rezvykh AP, Chaprov KD, Kukharsky MS, Ustyugov A, Deykin AV, Flyamer IM, Boyle S, Bachurin SO, Ninkina N, Buchman VL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Research Progress on Alzheimer's Disease and Resveratrol.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common irreversible neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid-β plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and changes in tau phosphorylation, is accompanied by memory loss and symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. Increases in disease incidence due to the ageing of the population have placed a great burden on society. To date, the mechanism of AD and the identities of adequate drugs for AD prevention and treatment have eluded the medical community. It has been confirmed that phytochemicals have certain neuroprotective effects against AD. For example, some progress has been m...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yan Y, Yang H, Xie Y, Ding Y, Kong D, Yu H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In Situ Regulated Dopamine Transporter Trafficking: There's No Place Like Home.
Abstract Dopamine (DA) is critical for motivation, reward, movement initiation, and learning. Mechanisms that control DA signaling have a profound impact on these important behaviors, and additionally play a role in DA-related neuropathologies. The presynaptic SLC6 DA transporter (DAT) limits extracellular DA levels by clearing released DA, and is potently inhibited by addictive and therapeutic psychostimulants. Decades of evidence support that the DAT is subject to acute regulation by a number of signaling pathways, and that endocytic trafficking strongly regulates DAT availability and function. DAT trafficking s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fagan RR, Kearney PJ, Melikian HE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Fluid Brain Glycolysis: Limits, Speed, Location, Moonlighting, and the Fates of Glycogen and Lactate.
via S Abstract Glycolysis is the core of intermediate metabolism, an ancient pathway discovered in the heydays of classic biochemistry. A hundred years later, it remains a matter of active research, clinical interest and is not devoid of controversy. This review examines topical aspects of glycolysis in the brain, a tissue characterized by an extreme dependence on glucose. The limits of glycolysis are reviewed in terms of flux control by glucose transporters, intercellular lactate shuttling and activity-dependent glycolysis in astrocytes and neurons. What is the site of glycogen mobilization and aerobic glycolysis...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barros LF, San Martín A, Ruminot I, Sandoval PY, Baeza-Lehnert F, Arce-Molina R, Rauseo D, Contreras-Baeza Y, Galaz A, Valdivia S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Conditional Knockout of GLT-1 in Neurons Leads to Alterations in Aspartate Homeostasis and Synaptic Mitochondrial Metabolism in Striatum and Hippocampus.
Abstract Expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in neurons has been shown to be important for synaptic mitochondrial function in the cerebral cortex. Here we determined whether neuronal GLT-1 plays a similar role in the hippocampus and striatum, using conditional GLT-1 knockout mice in which GLT-1 was inactivated in neurons by expression of synapsin-Cre (synGLT-1 KO). Ex vivo 13C-labelling using [1,2-13C]acetate, representing astrocytic metabolism, yielded increased [4,5-13C]glutamate levels, suggesting increased astrocyte-neuron glutamine transfer, in the striatum but not in the hippocampus of the synGLT-1...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McNair LF, Andersen JV, Nissen JD, Sun Y, Fischer KD, Hodgson NW, Du M, Aoki CJ, Waagepetersen HS, Rosenberg PA, Aldana BI Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Attenuation of Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Microglial Activation and Neuronal Death Mediated by the Blockade of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 In Vivo.
In this study, collagenase-induced ICH mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of the mGluR5 antagonist-, MTEP, or vehicle 2 h after injury. We found that acute ICH upregulated mGluR5 and microglial activation. mGluR5 was highly localized in reactive microglia in the peri-hematomal cortex and striatum on days 3 and 7 post-ICH. The MTEP-mediated pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 in vivo resulted in the substantial attenuation of acute microglial activation and IL-6, and TNF-α release. We also showed that the blockade of mGluR5 markedly reduced cell apoptosis, and neurodegeneration and markedly elevate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rahman MS, Yang J, Luan Y, Qiu Z, Zhang J, Lu H, Chen X, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Assessment of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) toxicity in cultured neural cells and subsequent treatment with poly-arginine peptide R18D.
Abstract Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in ischaemic stroke has been associated with neurotoxicity, blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption and intra-cerebral hemorrhage. To examine rtPA cellular toxicity we investigated the effects of rtPA on cell viability in neuronal, astrocyte and brain endothelial cell (bEnd.3) cultures with and without prior exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In addition, the neuroprotective peptide poly-arginine-18 (R18D; 18-mer of D-arginine) was examined for its ability to reduce rtPA toxicity. Studies demonstrated that a 4- or 24-h expos...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kenna JE, Anderton RS, Knuckey NW, Meloni BP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Complex I Controls Mitochondrial and Plasma Membrane Potentials in Nerve Terminals.
We examined the effects of inhibition of mitochondrial ETC complexes I, II/III, III and IV activities by titrations of respective inhibitors on Δψm in synaptosomal mitochondria. Small perturbations in the activity of complex I, brought about by low concentrations of rotenone (1-50 nM), caused depolarisation of Δψm. Small decreases in complex I activity caused an immediate and partial Δψm depolarisation, whereas inhibition of complex II/III activity by more than 70% with antimycin A was required to affect Δψm. A similarly high threshold of inhibition was found when complex III wa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kilbride SM, Telford JE, Davey GP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Monoaminergic and Kynurenergic Characterization of Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum.
Abstract Exploring the neurochemical continuum between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with respect to monoamines and kynurenines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, may be useful to identify possible new research/therapeutic targets. Hence, we analysed monoamines and kynurenines in CSF and serum derived from patients with FTD (n = 39), ALS (n = 23), FTD-ALS (n = 4) and age-matched control subjects (n = 26), using reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) with electrochemical detection (EC...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Janssens J, Vermeiren Y, van Faassen M, van der Ley C, Kema IP, De Deyn PP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Treadmill Exercise Attenuates A β-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Enhances Mitophagy Activity in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.
Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Aβ-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Enhances Mitophagy Activity in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice. Neurochem Res. 2020 Mar 03;: Authors: Zhao N, Yan QW, Xia J, Zhang XL, Li BX, Yin LY, Xu B Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which may be related to mitophagy failure. Previous reports suggest that treadmill exercise protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between mitophagy and mitochondrial adaptation caused by treadmill exercise in AD. The current study aimed to...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao N, Yan QW, Xia J, Zhang XL, Li BX, Yin LY, Xu B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Combination of Omega 3 and Coenzyme Q10 Exerts Neuroprotective Potential Against Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Alzheimer's-Like Disease in Rats.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that progressively disrupts neurocognitive function, which has neither cure nor effective treatment. Hypercholesterolemia might be involved in brain alterations that could evolve into AD. The present study aims to evaluate the potential of omega-3, Co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q10), as well as their combination in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia-initiated AD-like disease. We adapted a hypercholesterolemic (HC) rat model, a model of oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration, to study AD-like pathology. Hypercholesterolemia resulted in increased lipid pe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ibrahim Fouad G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-1202 Exerts Neuroprotective Effects on OGD/R Induced Inflammation in HM Cell by Negatively Regulating Rab1a Involved in TLR4/NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
MiR-1202 Exerts Neuroprotective Effects on OGD/R Induced Inflammation in HM Cell by Negatively Regulating Rab1a Involved in TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2020 Mar 02;: Authors: Song S, Pan Y, Li H, Zhen H Abstract Recent studies have shown that the level of miR-1202 in peripheral blood is closely related to brain activity and cognitive function in patients with depression, and it is involved in glioma pathological progress. However, the correlation between miR-1202 and neuroinflammation has not been reported. The expressions of miR-1202 and small GTP-ase Rab1a at mRNA level were d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song S, Pan Y, Li H, Zhen H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MSCs-Derived Exosomes Attenuate Acute Brain Injury and Inhibit Microglial Inflammation by Reversing CysLT2R-ERK1/2 Mediated Microglia M1 Polarization.
This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and furtherly investigate the potential mechanism of MSC-exos on acute cerebral ischemia. MSC-exos were isolated by ultracentrifugation, characterized by transmission electron microscopy and FACS. Rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) surgery were administered MSC-exos through the tail vein. In vitro, microglia exposed to oxygen- and glucose-deprivation (OGD) and leukotrienes were used to study the protective mechanism of exosomes against ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation. The intake of exosomes into microglia was visu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao Y, Gan Y, Xu G, Yin G, Liu D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Capsaicin Exerts Anti-convulsant and Neuroprotective Effects in Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contains an error in the Y axis units in Fig. 1b, c (the symbol µ is not clear: µmol/g.tissue). This has been corrected by publishing this erratum. PMID: 32100166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abdel-Salam OME, Sleem AA, Sayed MAEBM, Youness ER, Shaffie N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Combination of Lutein and Zeaxanthin, and DHA Regulated Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Oxidation in H2O2-Stressed Retinal Cells.
Abstract Photochemical and oxidative damages in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are key events in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and carotenoids are rich in retinal cells, and under oxidative stress leads to oxidation and release lipid mediators. We evaluated the impact of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on RPE cells under oxidative stress. ARPE-19 cells were exposed to H2O2 after pre-treatment with lutein, zeaxanthin, DHA, lutein + zeaxanthin or lutein + zeaxanthin with DHA....
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Leung HH, Galano JM, Crauste C, Durand T, Lee JC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Hitchhiker's Guide to Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking in Neurodegeneration.
Abstract The widespread nature of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking defects and protein accumulation suggests distinct yet overlapping mechanisms in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Detailed understanding of the cellular pathways involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport and its dysregulation are essential for elucidating neurodegenerative pathogenesis and pinpointing potential areas for therapeutic intervention. The transport of cargos from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is generally regulated by the structure and function of the nuclear pore as well as the karyopherin α/β, importin, exportin, and mRNA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Moore S, Rabichow BE, Sattler R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Synergic Effects of Berberine  and Curcumin on Improving Cognitive Function in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.
This study sheds light on a new strategy for exploring new phytotherapies for AD and also emphasizes that more research should focus on the synergic effects of herbal drugs in the future. PMID: 32080784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lin L, Li C, Zhang D, Yuan M, Chen CH, Li M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preface for the Vittorio Gallo Honorary Issue of Neurochemical Research.
PMID: 32076908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

An Effective NADPH Oxidase 2 Inhibitor Provides Neuroprotection and Improves Functional Outcomes in Animal Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a leading cause of death and disability all over the world. Pharmacological suppression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2) can inhibit oxidative stress which is implicated in the pathology of TBI. GSK2795039 was reported to target NOX2 to inhibit [Formula: see text] and ROS production. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of GSK2795039 on NOX2 activity and neurological deficits in a TBI mouse model. TBI mouse model was established by a weight-drop to mouse skull. GSK2795039 at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administrat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang M, Luo L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dynamic Changes in miR-126 Expression in the Hippocampus and Penumbra Following Experimental Transient Global and Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion.
This study investigated how miR-126 changes with reperfusion time in different brain tissues after global cerebral ischemia and focal cerebral ischemia and examined the underlying mechanism miR-126 involving VEGFA, SPRED1, and Raf-1 after I-R. The results indicated decreases in the levels of miR-126-3p and miR-126-5p expression in mice and gerbils after I-R, consistent with the results after oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) in PC12 cells. Glial cells were activated as neuronal damage gradually increased after I-R. Inhibition of miR-126-3p exacerbated the OGD/R-induced cell death and reduced cell viabi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao ZH, Wang L, Gan P, He J, Yan BC, Ding LD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of PGC-1 α on the Blood Brain Barrier After Acute Kidney Injury.
This study was designed to investigate the role of PGC-1α in BBB injury after AKI and its related mechanisms. Mice received recombinant adenovirus encoding murine PGC-1α (100 μl, 1.0 × 109PFU/ml) or vehicle 5 days before renal I/R or sham operation. Twenty-four hours after the operation, brain, kidney and serum samples were collected for assessments. We found that mice suffering from renal I/R injury showed decreased PGC-1α levels in both the kidney and BBB. PGC-1α transfection resulted in increased PGC-1α level and mitochondrial transcripts in BBB at 24 h afte...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pan H, Li J, Zhou Q, Zhu F, He S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

LncRNA UCA1 Suppresses the Inflammation Via Modulating miR-203-Mediated Regulation of MEF2C/NF- κB Signaling Pathway in Epilepsy.
LncRNA UCA1 Suppresses the Inflammation Via Modulating miR-203-Mediated Regulation of MEF2C/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Epilepsy. Neurochem Res. 2020 Feb 13;: Authors: Yu Q, Zhao MW, Yang P Abstract Although many advances have been made in the pathogenesis of epilepsy recently, the pathological mechanisms of epilepsy are still largely unknown. Exploring the pathological mechanisms and developing novel therapeutic strategies for epilepsy are urgently needed. A SD rat model of epilepsy was established with lithium chloride-pilocarpine. Astrocytes were isolated, cultured from 8 to 12 week rats ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu Q, Zhao MW, Yang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Integrin CD11b Deficiency Aggravates Retinal Microglial Activation and RGCs Degeneration After Acute Optic Nerve Injury.
Abstract Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the process of a variety of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) degenerative diseases including traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). Retinal microglial activation is believed as a harbinger of TON, and robust microglial activation can aggravate trauma-induced RGCs degeneration, which ultimately leads to RGCs loss. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-triggered inflammation is of great importance in retinal inflammatory response after optic nerve injury. CD11b on macrophage and brain microglia can inhibit TLR4-triggered inflammation. However, the functional role of CD11b in retinal mi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cai XF, Lin S, Geng Z, Luo LL, Liu YJ, Zhang Z, Liu WY, Chen X, Li X, Yan J, Ye J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research