Exciting Times: New Advances Towards Understanding the Regulation and Roles of Kainate Receptors.
Abstract Kainate receptors (KARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that play fundamental roles in regulating neuronal excitability and network function in the brain. After being cloned in the 1990s, important progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms controlling the molecular and cellular properties of KARs, and the nature and extent of their regulation of wider neuronal activity. However, there have been significant recent advances towards understanding KAR trafficking through the secretory pathway, their precise synaptic positioning, and their roles in synaptic plasticity and disease. Here we provid...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Evans AJ, Gurung S, Henley JM, Nakamura Y, Wilkinson KA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mechanism of Protein Carbonylation in Glutathione-Depleted Rat Brain Slices.
This study was conducted to further our understanding about the link between lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in rat brain slices incubated with the glutathione (GSH)-depletor diethyl maleate. Using this in vitro system of oxidative stress, we found that there is a significant lag between the appearance of carbonylated proteins and GSH depletion, which seems to be due to the removal of oxidized species early on in the incubation by the mitochondrial Lon protease. Upon acute GSH depletion, protein carbonyls accumulated mostly in mitochondria and to a lesser degree in other subcellular fractions that also contain...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng J, Hu CL, Shanley KL, Bizzozero OA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Excessive Activation of NMDA Receptors Induced Neurodevelopmental Brain Damage and Cognitive Deficits in Rats Exposed to Intrauterine Hypoxia.
Abstract Intrauterine hypoxia is one of the most common stressors in fetuses, which can lead to abnormal brain development and permanent neurological deficits in adulthood. Neurological disorder excitotoxicity induced by hypoxia or ischemia may involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are known to participate in the maturation and plasticity of developmental neurons. Inhibition of NMDARs has been reported to improve neurological outcomes in traumatic brain injuries and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated if antenatal blockade of NMDARs induced by memantine could alleviate neurodevelopmental br...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li T, Luo Z, Liu Y, Wang M, Yu X, Cao C, Liao Z, Ding Y, Yue S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Scopolamine and Melatonin Cotreatment on Cognition, Neuronal Damage, and Neurogenesis in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus.
We examined effects of melatonin on cognitive deficits, neuronal damage, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and neuronal maturation in the mouse dentate gyrus after cotreatment of scopolamine (anticholinergic agent) and melatonin. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected for 2 and/or 4 weeks to 8-week-old mice. Scopolamine treatment induced significant cognitive deficits 2 and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, however, cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin significantly improved spatial learning and short-term memory impairments. Two and 4 weeks after s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen BH, Ahn JH, Park JH, Choi SY, Lee YL, Kang IJ, Hwang IK, Lee TK, Shin BN, Lee JC, Hong S, Jeon YH, Shin MC, Cho JH, Won MH, Lee YJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effect of miR-374a on Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Damage of PC12 Cells In Vitro via the GADD45 α/JNK Signaling Pathway.
Protective Effect of miR-374a on Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Damage of PC12 Cells In Vitro via the GADD45α/JNK Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017 Dec 15;: Authors: Gong W, Qie S, Huang P, Xi J Abstract To explore the effect of microRNA-374a (miR-374a) on chemical hypoxia-induced pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell damage by mediating growth arrest and the DNA damage-45 alpha (GADD45α)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. PC12 cells were divided into a Control group (no treatment), Model group (treated with CoCl2 for 24 h), negative control (NC) group (transfected with miR-374a n...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gong W, Qie S, Huang P, Xi J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Zinc Transporter Proteins.
Abstract Zinc, which is involved in the structure of all enzyme classes, is a micro nutrient element and necessary for growth and development. The ability of zinc to function without causing toxic effects is depends on the protection of its homeostasis. Zinc transporter proteins are responsible for keeping zinc at certain concentrations. Based on their predicted membrane topology, Zn transporters are divided into two major families, SLC39s/ZIPs and SLC30s/ZnTs, which transport Zn in opposite directions through cellular and intracellular membranes. ZIPs increases the zinc concentration in the cytosol. For this, the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baltaci AK, Yuce K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Protects Against Hippocampal Damage in Developing Rats with Seizures by Modulating Autophagy via the S6 Protein in a Time-Dependent Manner.
Abstract Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders. Recurrent seizures result in neuronal death, cognitive deficits and intellectual disabilities in children. Currently, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to play a neuroprotective role in nervous system disorders. However, the precise mechanisms through which rhEPO modulates epilepsy remain unknown. Based on results from numerous studies, we hypothesized that rhEPO protects against hippocampal damage in developing rats with seizures probably by modulating autophagy via the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) in a time-dependent manner. Fir...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Q, Han Y, Du J, Jin H, Zhang J, Niu M, Qin J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of DHA-Metabolizing Enzyme Alox15 is Regulated by Selective Histone Acetylation in Neuroblastoma Cells.
In this study, we elucidated epigenetic regulation of Alox15 via histone modifications in neuron-like cells. Treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate significantly increased Alox15 mRNA expression. Moreover, Alox15 expression was markedly upregulated by Class I HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 and depsipeptide. Co-treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells with the p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor C646 and TSA or sodium butyrate showed that p300 HAT inhibition modulated TSA or sodium butyrate-induced Alox15 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ho CF, Bon CP, Ng YK, Herr DR, Wu JS, Lin TN, Ong WY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hyper-response to Novelty Increases c-Fos Expression in the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex in a Rat Model of Schizophrenia.
na JC Abstract Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that may have a neurodevelopmental origin. For this reason, animal models based on neonatal insults or manipulations have been extensively used to demonstrate schizophrenia-related behaviors. Among those, the neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (nVHL) is largely used as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior as it mimics behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities often seen in schizophrenic patients including hyperlocomotion in a novel environment. To investigate the neuroanatomical basis of coding novelty in the nVHL rat, we assessed the behavioral l...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Monfil T, Vázquez Roque RA, Camacho-Abrego I, Tendilla-Beltran H, Ianniti T, Meneses-Morales I, Aguilar-Alonso P, Flores G, Morales-Medina JC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Fish and Grape Seed Oils as Core of Haloperidol-Loaded Nanocapsules on Oral Dyskinesia in Rats.
This study was carried out to compare oral dyskinesia induced by different formulations of haloperidol-loaded nanocapsules containing caprylic/capric triglycerides, fish oil or grape seed oil (GSO) as core, as well as free haloperidol. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules formulations were prepared, physicochemical characterized and administered (0.5 mg kg-1-ip) to rats for 28 days. Oral dyskinesia was evaluated acutely and subchronically and after that cell viability and free radical generation in cortex and substantia nigra. All formulations presented satisfactory physicochemical parameters. Acutely,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Benvegnú DM, Roversi K, Barcelos RCS, Trevizol F, Pase CS, Segat HJ, Dias VT, Savian AL, Piccoli BL, Piccolo J, Dutra-Filho CS, Emanuelli T, de Bona da Silva C, Beck RCR, Burger ME Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cell-Type-Specific Spatiotemporal Expression of Creatine Biosynthetic Enzyme S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase in Developing Mouse Brain.
Abstract Creatine is synthesized by S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT), and the creatine/phosphocreatine shuttle system mediated by creatine kinase (CK) is essential for storage and regeneration of high-energy phosphates in cells. Although the importance of this system in brain development is evidenced by the hereditary nature of creatine deficiency syndrome, the spatiotemporal cellular expression patterns of GAMT in developing brain remain unknown. Here we show that two waves of high GAMT expression occur in developing mouse brain. The first involves high expression in mitotic cells ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tachikawa M, Watanabe M, Fukaya M, Sakai K, Terasaki T, Hosoya KI Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Fisetin Against 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis by Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.
In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of fisetin against 6-OHDA-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA-mediated cell toxicity was reduced in a fisetin concentration-dependent manner. 6-OHDA-mediated elevation of the expression of the oxidative stress-related genes such as hemeoxygenase-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1, NF-E2-related factor 2, and γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier was suppressed by fisetin. Fisetin also lowered the ratio of the proapoptotic Bax protein and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, fisetin e...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Watanabe R, Kurose T, Morishige Y, Fujimori K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Behavioral and Biochemical Effects of N-Acetylcysteine in Zebrafish Acutely Exposed to Ethanol.
Abstract Alcohol hangover refers to unpleasant symptoms experienced as a direct consequence of a binge drinking episode. The effects observed in this condition are related to the increase in alcohol metabolites and imbalance in oxidative status. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent and an antidote for paracetamol overdose. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that NAC is a multi-target drug acting through neuroprotective, antioxidant and neurotrophic mechanisms as well as a glutamate modulator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC in zebrafish acutely exposed to ethanol (EtOH)....
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mocelin R, Marcon M, D'ambros S, Herrmann AP, da Rosa Araujo AS, Piato A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Subtype Specification of Cerebral Cortical Neurons in Their Immature Stages.
Abstract The diversification of neuronal subtypes during corticogenesis is fundamental to the establishment of the complex cortical structure. Although subtype specification has been assumed to occur in neural progenitor cells, increasing evidence has begun to reveal the plasticity of subtype determination in immature neurons. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the regulation of subtype specification during later periods of neuronal differentiation, such as the post-mitotic and post-migratory stages. We also discuss thalamocortical axons as an extra-cortical cue that provides information on the subtype d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oishi K, Nakajima K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Honokiol on the Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels in Freshly Isolated Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.
Abstract Voltage-gated potassium (KV) currents, subdivided into rapidly inactivating A-type currents (I A) and slowly inactivating delayed rectifier currents (I K), play a fundamental role in modulating pain by controlling neuronal excitability. The effects of Honokiol (Hon), a natural biphenolic compound derived from Magnolia officinalis, on KV currents were investigated in freshly isolated mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results showed that Hon inhibited I A and I K in concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values for block of I A and I K were 30.5 and 25.7 &...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sheng A, Zhang Y, Li G, Zhang G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Propofol Prevents Oxidative Stress by Decreasing the Ischemic Accumulation of Succinate in Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract Oxidative stress caused by mitochondrial dysfunction during reperfusion is a key pathogenic mechanism in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has been proven to attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and reperfusion injury. The current study reveals that propofol decreases oxidative stress injury by preventing succinate accumulation in focal cerebral IR injury. We evaluated whether propofol could attenuate ischemic accumulation of succinate in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo. By isolating mitochondria from cortical tissue, we also examined the in vitr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu W, Gao D, Jin W, Liu S, Qi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Eclalbasaponin II Ameliorates the Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice.
Abstract Eclalbasaponin II derived from Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) has been reported to have anti-fibrotic, anti-bacterial and autophagic activities, but its effect on cognitive function has not been investigated. We studied the effect of eclalbasaponin II on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice using the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Eclalbasaponin II (10 or 20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. To identify the mechanism of the memory-ameli...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jung WY, Kim H, Jeon SJ, Park HJ, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH, Jang DS, Ryu JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Response of the GABAergic System to Axotomy of the Rat Facial Nerve.
In this study, we analyzed GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and GABAergic neurons at the protein level in the transected rat facial nucleus. Immunoblotting revealed that the GABAARα1 protein levels in the axotomized facial nucleus decreased significantly 5-14 days post-insult, and these levels remained low for 5 weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the GABAARα1-expressing cells were motoneurons. We next examined the specific components of GABAergic neurons, including glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1). Immunoblotting indicated that the protein le...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kikuchi R, Hamanoue M, Koshimoto M, Kohsaka S, Nakajima K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Special Issue Dedicated to Dr. Kazuhiro Ikenaka.
PMID: 29164432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baba H, Yoneda Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differential Response of Neural Cells to Trauma-Induced Swelling In Vitro.
Abstract Brain edema and the associated increase in intracranial pressure are major consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that accounts for most early deaths after TBI. We recently showed that acute severe trauma to cultured astrocytes results in cell swelling. We further examined whether trauma induces cell swelling in neurons and microglia. We found that severe trauma also caused cell swelling in cultured neurons, whereas no swelling was observed in microglia. While severe trauma caused cell swelling in both astrocytes and neurons, mild trauma to astrocytes, neurons, and microglia failed to cell swelling....
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jayakumar AR, Taherian M, Panickar KS, Shamaladevi N, Rodriguez ME, Price BG, Norenberg MD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg1 Decreases Oxidative Stress and Down-Regulates Akt/mTOR Signalling to Attenuate Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Senescence of Neural Stem Cells Induced by D-Galactose.
Abstract Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. The suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an increase of oxidative stress is closely related to cognitive impairment. Neural stem cells which persist in the adult vertebrate brain keep up the production of neurons over the lifespan. The balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants is important for function and surviving of neural stem cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most active components of Panax ginseng, and many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties. This research explored the effects...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen L, Yao H, Chen X, Wang Z, Xiang Y, Xia J, Liu Y, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Upregulation of Myelin Gene Expression by a Physically-Modified Saline via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Mediated Activation of CREB: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis.
Abstract An increase in central nervous system (CNS) remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we describe promyelinating property of RNS60. RNS60, but not normal saline (NS), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), stimulated the ex...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jana M, Ghosh S, Pahan K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Duloxetine Protects Human Neuroblastoma Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death Through Akt/Nrf-2/HO-1 Pathway.
Abstract The contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of depression has been described in numerous studies. Particularly, an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to neuronal cell death. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the antidepressant duloxetine against rotenone-induced oxidative stress. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with duloxetine (1-5 µM) for 24 h followed by a 24-h rotenone exposure (10 µM). The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Ak...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Engel DF, de Oliveira J, Lieberknecht V, Rodrigues ALS, de Bem AF, Gabilan NH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

GABA Uptake Inhibition Reduces In Vivo Extraction Fraction in the Ventral Tegmental Area of Long Evans Rats Measured by Quantitative Microdialysis Under Transient Conditions.
Abstract Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA. The purpose of this study w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zandy SL, Gonzales RA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

CB1 Receptors Mediated Inhibition of ATP-Induced [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Cultured Rat Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons.
Abstract Spinal cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and purinergic P2X receptors (P2XR) play a critical role in the process of pathological pain. Both CB1R and P2XR are expressed in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons. It is not clear whether CB1 receptor activation modulates the function of P2X receptor channels within dorsal horn. For this reason, we observed the effect of CP55940 (cannabinoid receptor agonist) on ATP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in cultured rat DH neurons. The changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-4/AM as a calcium fluor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long J, Lei X, Chen M, Yang S, Sun T, Zeng J, Yu D, Tian H, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Zinc Potentiates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Nitric Oxide Production in Cultured Primary Rat Astrocytes.
We examined the effect of extracellularly applied Zn(2+) on nitric oxide (NO) production in primary cultured rat astrocytes, which were experimentally activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Zn(2+), at a concentration up to 125 μM, augmented LPS-induced NO production without affecting cell viability. LPS induced expression of both mRNA and protein of inducible NO synthase; this expression was enhanced by 125 µM Zn(2+). Zn(2+) also increased LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Zn(2+) enhanced the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) at 1-6 h after...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Moriyama M, Fujitsuka S, Kawabe K, Takano K, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Sinomenine on the Morphine-Dependence and Related Neural Mechanisms in Mice.
In this study, we focus on the effects of sinomenine on morphine-dependent mice and its related neural mechanisms. Conditioned place preference (CPP) mouse model was established using morphine (9 mg/kg, s.c.), and their expression levels of TH and NR2B were observed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, their mu opioid receptor (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) contents were assessed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that high sinomenine dose (80 mg/kg) effectively attenuated the behavior of CPP mice and reversed increased expression levels of TH and NR2B induced ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fang M, Li J, Zhu D, Luo C, Li C, Zhu C, Fan M, Yung KK, Mo Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effect of Vinorine on Sciatic Nerve Injured Rat.
In conclusion, vinorine treatment accelerated the sciatic nerve regeneration, motor function recovery and sensation recovery after crush injury via regulation of NGF and ERK activity. These results suggested that vinorine is a promising agent for never injury therapy. PMID: 29119332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo D, Lu X, Xu X, Gou H, Wang Z, Cao Y, Luo X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The AMPA Receptor Subunit GluA1 is Required for CA1 Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation but is not Essential for Synaptic Transmission.
Abstract AMPA receptors mediate the majority of excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the mammalian brain and are heterotetramers composed of GluA1-4 subunits. Despite genetic studies, the roles of the subunits in synaptic transmission and plasticity remain controversial. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of cell-specific removal of GluA1 in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using virally-expressed GluA1 shRNA in organotypic slice culture. We show that this shRNA approach produces a rapid, efficient and selective loss of GluA1, and removed > 80% of surface GluA1 from synapses. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Terashima A, Suh YH, Isaac JTR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Adiponectin Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Cognitive Deficits by Rescuing PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 β Pathway.
Adiponectin Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Cognitive Deficits by Rescuing PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017 Nov 02;: Authors: Xu ZP, Gan GS, Liu YM, Xiao JS, Liu HX, Mei B, Zhang JJ Abstract Clinical studies have demonstrated that decreased adiponectin is associated with the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We focused on determining the neuroprotective effect offered by adiponectin against streptozotocin-induced brain damage in ICV-STZ rat model. We found that adiponectin supplements significantly restored the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu ZP, Gan GS, Liu YM, Xiao JS, Liu HX, Mei B, Zhang JJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of Heat Shock Proteins HSPA6 (Hsp70B') and HSPA1A (Hsp70-1) Sensitizes Differentiated Human Neuronal Cells to Cellular Stress.
Abstract Heat shock proteins are involved in cellular repair and protective mechanisms that counter characteristic features of neurodegenerative diseases such as protein misfolding and aggregation. The HSPA (Hsp70) multigene family includes the widely studied HSPA1A (Hsp70-1) and the little studied HSPA6 (Hsp70B') which is present in the human genome and not in mouse and rat. The effect of knockdown of HSPA6 and HSPA1A expression was examined in relation to the ability of differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells to tolerate thermal stress. Low dose co-application of celastrol and arimoclomol, which induces Hsps...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deane CAS, Brown IR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol Attenuates the Cytotoxicity Induced by Amyloid- β1-42 in PC12 Cells by Upregulating Heme Oxygenase-1 via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway.
Resveratrol Attenuates the Cytotoxicity Induced by Amyloid-β1-42 in PC12 Cells by Upregulating Heme Oxygenase-1 via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017 Oct 31;: Authors: Hui Y, Chengyong T, Cheng L, Haixia H, Yuanda Z, Weihua Y Abstract Oxidative stress and cytotoxic damage induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) have been considered pivotal in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may represent a target for treatment. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway elicits a survival signal to protect against multiple injuries, and the transcription factor nuclear factor ery...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hui Y, Chengyong T, Cheng L, Haixia H, Yuanda Z, Weihua Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Minocycline Directly Enhances the Self-Renewal of Adult Neural Precursor Cells.
In this study, we utilized a colony-forming neurosphere assay, in which neural stem cells (NSCs) clonally proliferate to form floating colonies, called neurospheres. We found that minocycline (at therapeutically relevant concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid) enhances the self-renewal capability of NSCs derived from the subependymal zone of adult mouse brain and facilitates their differentiation into oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these effects were independent of a suppression of microglial activation and were specifically observed with minocycline (among tetracycline derivatives). In addition, the size of the NSC populat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kuroda A, Fuchigami T, Fuke S, Koyama N, Ikenaka K, Hitoshi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Phylogenetically Conserved Sequences Around Myelin P0 Stop Codon are Essential for Translational Readthrough to Produce L-MPZ.
Abstract Myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ) is the main cell adhesion molecule in peripheral myelin, the sequence of which is evolutionarily highly conserved. Large myelin protein zero (L-MPZ) is a novel translational readthrough molecule in mammals in a physiological status and is encoded by the P0 mRNA with an extra domain. The sequence similarities in the L-MPZ-specific region are found in humans and frogs but not in fish P0 cDNA. Actual synthesis of L-MPZ has been detected in rat and mouse sciatic nerve but not yet evaluated in frogs and humans. The production mechanism and physiological functions of L-MPZ remain u...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamaguchi Y, Baba H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate Dehydrogenase, a Complex Enzyme at a Crucial Metabolic Branch Point.
Abstract In-vitro, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). GDH is found in all organisms, but in animals is allosterically regulated by a wide array of metabolites. For many years, it was not at all clear why animals required such complex control. Further, in both standard textbooks and some research publications, there has been some controversy as to the directionality of the reaction. Here we review recent work demonstrating that GDH operates mainly in the catabolic direction in-vivo and that the finely tuned network of allo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith HQ, Li C, Stanley CA, Smith TJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Decreased Neuron Number and Synaptic Plasticity in SIRT3-Knockout Mice with Poor Remote Memory.
Abstract The sirtuin family of proteins consists of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that are involved in the response to calorie restriction and various physiological phenomena, such as aging and cognition. One of these proteins, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), is localized in the mitochondria and protects the cell against oxidative or metabolic stress. Sirtuin protein deficiencies have been shown to accelerate neurodegeneration in neurotoxic conditions. The mechanisms underlying the involvement of SIRT3 in cognition remain unclear. Interestingly, SIRT1, another member of the sirtuin family, has been r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim H, Kim S, Choi JE, Han D, Koh SM, Kim HS, Kaang BK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: The Purine Salvage Pathway and the Restoration of Cerebral ATP: Implications for Brain Slice Physiology and Brain Injury.
PMID: 29067553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frenguelli BG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nrf2 Signaling Pathway Mediates the Antioxidative Effects of Taurine Against Corticosterone-Induced Cell Death in HUMAN SK-N-SH Cells.
Abstract Substantial evidence has shown that elevated circulating corticosteroids or chronic stress contributes to neuronal cell death, cognitive and mental disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Taurine is considered to protect neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the protective effects of taurine against corticosterone (CORT)-induced oxidative damage in SK-N-SH neuronal cells were investigated. The results showed that CORT significantly induced cell death, which was blocked by pretreatment with taurine...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun Q, Jia N, Yang J, Chen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Fascin-1 Contributes to Neuropathic Pain by Promoting Inflammation in Rat Spinal Cord.
Abstract Neuropathic pain is a complicated clinical syndrome caused by heterogeneous etiology. Despite the fact that the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, it is well accepted that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, has been proved to be involved in the processing of diverse biological events including cellular development, immunity, and tumor invasion etc. Recent studies have shown that Fascin-1 participates in antigen presentation and the regulation of pro-inflammatory agents. However, whether Fascin-1 is involved in neuropathic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang B, Fan B, Dai Q, Xu X, Jiang P, Zhu L, Dai H, Yao Z, Xu Z, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Amyloid Precursor Protein Through Synapsin Phosphorylation.
In this study, we investigated presynaptic changes in APP knockout (KO) mice. We demonstrate that both sucrose-induced neurotransmission and synaptic depletion in response to high frequency stimulation are significantly enhanced in APP KO compared to wild type littermates. In addition, the level of phosphorylated forms of synapsins, but not total synapsins, is elevated in the KO mice. Furthermore, we show that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels normalizes phosphorylated synapsins and slows down the high frequency induced synaptic depletion in APP KO mice. These results suggest a new mechanism by which APP regulates ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu A, Zhang Y, Han L, He G, Xie W, Zhou Z, Jia Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Delineation of the Role of Astroglial GABA Transporters in Seizure Control.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In Fig. 1 two chemical structures are incorrect, namely exo-THPO and N-methyl-exo-THPO. The hydroxyl group (-OH) in the isoxazole ring is missing. The corrected Fig. 1 is given below. PMID: 29043583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A, Madsen KK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal Acetylation may Improve Prenatal-Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behavior of Male Offspring Rats Through Regulating AMPARs Expression.
This study is to determine the role and mechanism of hippocampal acetylation in prenatal stress (PS) induced depression-like behavior of male offspring rats. PS-induced depression rat model was established. Sucrose preference and forced swim test were used to observe the behavior changes of male offspring rats. Hippocampal acetylation was induced by Trichostatin A injection. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the changes of AMPARs in acetylated hippocampus. The behavioral tests proved that AMPA was involved in the PS-induced depression-like behavior in offspring rats. Hippocampal acetylation...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lu Y, Zhang J, Zhang L, Dang S, Su Q, Zhang H, Lin T, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Sun H, Zhu Z, Li H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Concanavalin A Induces Cortical Neuron Apoptosis by Causing ROS Accumulation and Tyrosine Kinase Activation.
Abstract The lectin, concanavalin A (Con A), is the most extensively investigated member of the lectin family of plant proteins, but its effects on cortical neurons and astrocytes are poorly understood. In cultured cortical neurons and astrocytes, Con A exhibited dose-dependent neurotoxicity, but this was not observed in astrocytes. Similarly, in the cortical areas of rat brains, intracranial administration of Con A caused neuronal but no astrocyte damage. Methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside, a competitor of Con A, blocked Con A-induced cell death, whereas AMPA/KA receptor antagonists showed partial blocking effects....
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jang S, Yayeh T, Leem YH, Park EM, Ito Y, Oh S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lewis X-Carrying Neoglycolipids Evoke Selective Apoptosis in Neural Stem Cells.
Abstract N-glycans carrying the Lewis X trisaccharide [Galβ1-4 (Fucα1-3) GlcNAc] are expressed by neural stem cells (NSCs) exclusively before differentiation, and they actively contribute to the maintenance of stemness of these cells. To address the functional roles of the Lewis X-mediated molecular interactions in NSCs, we created a series of synthetic neoglycolipids that contained a Lewis X-carrying glycan connected to an acyl chain through an amide bond. The neoglycolipids formed aqueous micelles displaying functional Lewis X glycotopes. Surprisingly, the neoglycolipid micelles evoked selective apopt...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yagi H, Yan G, Suzuki T, Tsuge S, Yamaguchi T, Kato K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Deep Sequencing Reveals the Significant Involvement of cAMP-Related Signaling Pathways Following Sciatic Nerve Crush.
Abstract Peripheral nerve injury and regeneration is a complex biological process jointly mediated by numerous factors. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modifies the cellular behaviors of neurons and Schwann cells, and thus may contribute to peripheral nerve regeneration. Despite the importance of cAMP, the temporal and spatial expressions of genes involved in cAMP-related signaling pathways during peripheral nerve regeneration remain unclear. In the current study, by using rat sciatic nerve crush model, we analyzed previously obtained RNA deep sequencing data, explored the significance of cAMP-mediated signa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu J, Wang S, Wu C, Yi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin and Swimming Exercise Protects Against Cognitive Decline: A Study on M1 Acetylcholine Receptors in Aging Male Rat Brain.
Abstract Decline in cognition is one of the earliest signs of normal brain aging. Several dietary and non-pharmacological approaches have been tested to slow down this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) either individually or in combination with swimming training on acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) and m1 acetylcholine receptor (m1AChR) on the extent of cognitive decline with aging. The experimental protocol included the oral administration of GSPE (400 mg/kg body weight) for 14 weeks to 4 (adult) and 18-month-old (middle-aged)...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abhijit S, Subramanyam MVV, Devi SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK Signaling Promote Different Aspects of Neuron Survival and Axonal Regrowth Following Rat Facial Nerve Axotomy.
Abstract The ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways play important role in neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relative importance and degree of functional overlap of the two pathways are still debated due to lack of in-vivo data. We used rats which underwent a facial nerve axotomy, and examined subsequent ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling activity by quantifying phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. We also assessed the survival rate of facial neurons, number of regenerated axons, and the length of axonal regrowth in axotomized animals treated with an inhibitor of ERK/M...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang H, Liu H, Yan R, Hu M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Potentiate 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Stimulation and Glucose Uptake Triggered by Thapsigargin-Induced Store-Operated Ca(2+) Entry in Human Neuroblastoma Cells.
Abstract The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of the cellular energy metabolism and may induce either cell survival or death. We previously reported that in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) activate AMPK by triggering store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). However, whether mAChRs may control AMPK activity by regulating additional mechanisms beyond SOCE remains to be investigated. In the present study we examined the effects of mAChRs on AMPK when SOCE was induced by the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olianas MC, Dedoni S, Onali P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Temporal Changes in Transcription Factor Expression Associated with the Differentiation State of Cerebellar Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells During Development.
Abstract During central nervous development, multi-potent neural stem/progenitor cells located in the ventricular/subventricular zones are temporally regulated to mostly produce neurons during early developmental stages and to produce glia during later developmental stages. After birth, the rodent cerebellum undergoes further dramatic development. It is also known that neural stem/progenitor cells are present in the white matter (WM) of the postnatal cerebellum until around P10, although the fate of these cells has yet to be determined. In the present study, it was revealed that primary neurospheres generated from...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Naruse M, Shibasaki K, Ishizaki Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Unconventional Myosin ID is Involved in Remyelination After Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination.
Abstract Myelin, which is a multilamellar structure that sheathes the axon, is essential for normal neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes (OLs), which wrap their plasma membrane around axons. The dynamic membrane trafficking system, which relies on motor proteins, is required for myelin formation and maintenance. Previously, we reported that myosin ID (Myo1d) is distributed in rat CNS myelin and is especially enriched in the outer and inner cytoplasm-containing loops. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment highlighted the involvement of Myo1d in th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamazaki R, Baba H, Yamaguchi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research