The Neuroprotective Roles of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is characterized by high morbidity, mortality and disability rate worldwide. Because of its complexity in pathogenesis and lack of effective therapeutic strategies and drugs, great breakthrough has not yet been made in the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke. Therefore, to explore a more effective and safer therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemic stroke has been the focus of numerous researchers. Neuroprotective effects of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in ischemic stroke have been reported in recent studies, but have not been fully elucidated. In our review, we elaborate the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu L, Zhao B, Xiong X, Xia Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of miR-429 Attenuates A β-Induced Neuronal Damage by Targeting SOX2 and BCL2 in Mouse Cortical Neurons.
Knockdown of miR-429 Attenuates Aβ-Induced Neuronal Damage by Targeting SOX2 and BCL2 in Mouse Cortical Neurons. Neurochem Res. 2018 Sep 27;: Authors: Fu S, Zhang J, Zhang S Abstract Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and massive neuronal death due to apoptosis were the essential steps in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MiR-429 was reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the detailed function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-429 in the pathogenesis of AD remain elusive. Cortical neurons were stimulated with 20 µM of A&...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu S, Zhang J, Zhang S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Crocin Inhibits Apoptosis and Astrogliosis of Hippocampus Neurons Against Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity via Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms.
Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a stimulant drug, which can cause neurotoxicity and increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of acute METH intoxication comprise intra-neuronal events including oxidative stress, dopamine oxidation, and excitotoxicity. According to recent studies, crocin protects neurons by functioning as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic compound. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine if crocin can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity. Seventy-two male Wistar rats that weighed 260-300 g were randomly allocated to six groups of control ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shafahi M, Vaezi G, Shajiee H, Sharafi S, Khaksari M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Enteric Neurodegeneration is Mediated Through Independent Neuritic and Somal Mechanisms in Rotenone and MPP+ Toxicity.
Abstract Gut motility malfunction and pathological changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are observed in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). In many cases disturbances in the autonomous functions such as gut motility precedes the observed loss of central motor functions in PD. However, the mechanism by which ENS degeneration occurs in PD is unknown. We show that parkinsonian mimetics rotenone and MPP+ induce neurite degeneration that precedes cell death in primary enteric neurons cultured in vitro. If the neuronal death signals originate from degenerating neurites, neuronal death should be prevente...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Virga DM, Capps J, Vohra BPS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Radix Scutellariae Attenuates CUMS-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior by Promoting Neurogenesis via cAMP/PKA Pathway.
In conclusion, RS could exert a natural antidepressant with improving depressive-like behavior via regulation of cAMP/PKA neurogenesis pathway. PMID: 30259256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang R, Guo L, Ji Z, Li X, Zhang C, Ma Z, Fu Q, Qu R, Ma S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exosomes Isolated From Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Neuroinflammation and Reduce Amyloid-Beta Deposition by Modulating Microglial Activation in Alzheimer's Disease.
In this study, exosomes from the supernatant of hucMSCs were injected into AD mouse models. We observed that hucMSC-exosomes injection could repair cognitive disfunctions and help to clear Aβ deposition in these mice. Moreover, we found that hucMSC-exosomes injection could modulate the activation of microglia in brains of the mice to alleviated neuroinflammation. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood and brains of mice were increased and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased. We also treated BV2 cells with hucMSC-exosomes in culture medium. HucMSC-exosomes also had inflammator...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ding M, Shen Y, Wang P, Xie Z, Xu S, Zhu Z, Wang Y, Lyu Y, Wang D, Xu L, Bi J, Yang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intracardiac Injection of Dental Pulp Stem Cells After Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Prevents Cognitive Deficits in Rats.
This study was conducted in order to test the effects of intracardiac transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) for treating HI damage. Seven-day-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-saline, sham-hDPSCs, HI-saline, and HI-hDPSCs. Motor and cognitive tasks were performed from postnatal day 30. HI-induced cognitive deficits in the novel-object recognition test and in spatial reference memory impairment which were prevented by hDPSCs. No motor impairments were observed in HI animals. Immunofluorescence analysis showed human-positive nuclei in hDPSC-treated animals closely associated with anti-GFA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sanches EF, Valentim L, de Almeida Sassi F, Bernardi L, Arteni N, Weis SN, Odorcyk FK, Pranke P, Netto CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Role of Calpain and Proteasomes in the Degradation of Carbonylated Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins in Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the role of calpain and the proteasome in the removal of oxidized neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in myelin basic protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To this end, EAE rats received a single intrathecal injection of calpeptin or epoxomicin at the first sign of clinical disease. Forty-eight hours later, animals were sacrificed and lumbar spinal cord segments were dissected and used for biochemical analyses. The results show that calpain and proteasome activity is specifically, but partially, inhibited with calpeptin and epoxomicin, re...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smerjac SM, Zheng J, Hu CL, Bizzozero OA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RASgrf1, a Potential Methylatic Mediator of Anti-epileptogenesis?
Abstract Epileptogenesis, induced by status epilepticus (SE), is a chronic process, and intervention in this progress may prevent chronic epilepsy. It has been proposed that DNA methylation might be related with epileptogenesis. RASgrf1 has a differentially methylated region at the promoter which can silence gene expression. We have previously observed the down-regulation of RASgrf1 in epilepsy patients and proved that hypermethylation of RASgrf1 reaches maximal level at the latent period in mice after kainate-induced SE (KA mice), with corresponding alteration of RASgrf1 expression. In the present study, N-phthal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bao Y, Chen X, Wang L, Zhou J, Fu X, Wang X, Xiao Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

DNMT1, a Novel Regulator Mediating mTORC1/mTORC2 Pathway-Induced NGF Expression in Schwann Cells.
Abstract Schwann cells play an important role in maintaining the normal function of peripheral nerves via the secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF). The mTOR signaling pathway is known as a kind of Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates various cell functions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is an epigenetic regulator and downstream target of the mTOR pathway. In the present study, we explored the relationship between NGF expression and the mTOR pathway/DNMT1 in RSC96 cells. The results showed that both rapamycin and Torin 1 downregulated NGF expression via the inhibition of phospho-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phospho-S6K...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng M, Lv X, Zhang C, Du W, Liu Y, Zhu L, Hao J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Deciphering the Role of EGL-3 for Neuropeptides Processing in Caenorhabditis elegans Using High-Resolution Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.
The objective of this study was to decipher the role of EGL-3 in the proteolysis of FMRF amide-related peptides (FLPs) or neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs) using synthetic surrogate peptides based on a universal enzymatic cleavage pattern published by Schechter and Berger and used widely in enzymology. The results show evidence that proteolysis controls FLP-21 and NLP-8 related neuropeptide levels in C. elegans. Surrogate peptides were degraded rapidly when exposed to C. elegans S9 fractions leading to the formation of specific peptide fragments related to EGL-3 and CPL-1 pathway. The results suggest that CPL-1 pathway doe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Salem JB, Nkambeu B, Arvanitis DN, Beaudry F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Understanding the Role of ApoE Fragments in Alzheimer's Disease.
Ooi L Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative diseases. It has been known for decades that the APOE ɛ4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD and yet its precise role in the disease remains unclear. The APOE gene encodes apolipoprotein E (apoE), a 35 kDa glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. There are three different isoforms: apoE3 is the most common allele in the population, whilst apoE2 decreases, and apoE4 increases AD risk. ApoE has numerous functions that affect neuronal and non-neuronal cells, thus how it contributes to dis...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Muñoz SS, Garner B, Ooi L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alteration in NMDA Receptor Mediated Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus During Senescence.
Abstract Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in neurons and glia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainate receptors are major ionotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is strongly linked with Ca2+ homeostasis. Research has provided ample evidence that brain aging is associated with altered glutamatergic neurotransmission and Ca2+ dysregulation. Much of the work has focused on the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory, which is particularly susceptible to dysfunction during sen...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kumar A, Foster TC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glycyrrhizic Acid Alleviates 6-Hydroxydopamine and Corticosterone-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Through Modulating Autophagy.
Abstract Recent researches have shown that autophagy is associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, but there is no paper to investigate the effects of autophagy modulation on Parkinson's disease depression (PDD). In addition, glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the major bioactive ingredient of Radix glycyrrhizae, can induce autophagy and ease rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is also no paper to study the action and molecular mechanisms of GA on PDD. In this research, we built the injury model of SH-SY5Y cells through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and corticosterone (CORT). Then, ou...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang G, Li J, Cai Y, Yang Z, Li R, Fu W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RUNX2 Promotes Malignant Progression in Glioma.
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor. However, therapeutic strategies against malignant gliomas have not been completely established. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is an essential gene for skeletal development but its regulatory role in the malignant progression of glioma remains unclear. Here we investigated expression levels of RUNX2 in glioma tissues and its regulatory effects on aberrant growth of glioma cells. RUNX2 mRNA levels were higher in GBM tissues than that of normal brains or low-grade gliomas. RUNX2 protein was detected in five out of seven h...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamada D, Fujikawa K, Kawabe K, Furuta T, Nakada M, Takarada T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Time-Course Changes and New Expressions of MIP-3 α and Its Receptor, CCR6, in the Gerbil Hippocampal CA1 Area Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia.
In this study, we investigated transient ischemia-induced changes in MIP-3α and CCR6 protein expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia (tgCI) in gerbils. Both MIP-3α and CCR6 immunoreactivities were very strongly expressed in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 area from 6 h to 1 day after tgCI and were hardly shown 4 days after tgCI. In addition, strong MIP-3α immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes 6 h after tgCI. These results indicate that tgCI causes apparent changes in MIP-3α and CCR6 expressions in pyramidal neur...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Park JH, Noh Y, Kim SS, Ahn JH, Ohk TG, Cho JH, Lee TK, Kim H, Song M, Lee JC, Won MH, Lee CH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Comparison of the Role of D1- and D2-Like Receptors in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus in the Reinstatement Induced by a Subthreshold Dose of Morphine and Forced Swim Stress in Extinguished Morphine-CPP in Rats.
Abstract Reward-seeking and relapse to drug use are two characteristics of addiction and reports have indicated the role of hippocampal structures in reward learning. To find the best ways of treatment, the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of reward and its involved factors is a must. For this reason, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors and compared their activities in the CA1 region, focusing on the reinstatement induced by forced swim stress (FSS) or the combination of FSS and a subthreshold dose of morphine in extinguished morphine-CPP in r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nazari-Serenjeh F, Rezaee L, Zarrabian S, Haghparast A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of an Intraparenchymal Injection of Lidocaine in the Rat Cervical Spinal Cord.
Abstract Lidocaine effects in the spinal cord have been extensively investigated over the years. Although the intrathecal route is usually used to treat insults occurring in the spinal cord, the local delivery drug via intraparenchymal infusions has gained increasing favor for the treatment of some neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and tissue effects of the intraparenchymal injection of different concentrations of lidocaine into the rat cervical spinal cord. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraparenchymally injected with 0.5%, 1% or 2% lidocaine at the C5...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sisti MS, Zanuzzi CN, Nishida F, Cantet RJC, Portiansky EL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Monitoring of the Cytoskeleton-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Fluorescent Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Nanoparticle Pulse-Chase Experiments in C6 Glioma Cells.
In conclusion, nanoparticle pulse-chase experiments allowed to synchronize the cellular uptake of fluorescent IONPs and to identify for C6 cells an actin-dependent early and a microtubule-dependent later process in the intracellular trafficking of fluorescent IONPs. PMID: 30196349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Willmann W, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The detection of age-, gender-, and region-specific changes in mouse brain tocopherol levels via the application of different validated HPLC methods.
Vécsei L, Zádori D Abstract The aging process clearly increases the demand for antioxidant protection, especially in the brain, involving that provided by α-tocopherol (αT). However, little is known about the age-related changes in brain αT levels and the influencing effect of gender on it, in human or murine samples as well. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to detect age-, gender- and region-specific changes in αT concentrations in mouse brain tissue and to assess the influencing effect of plasma αT levels on it. Female and male C57BL/6 mice at the ages of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nánási N, Veres G, Cseh EK, Szentirmai M, Martos D, Sümegi E, Hadady L, Klivényi P, Vécsei L, Zádori D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Monophosphoryl Lipid A and Pam3Cys Prevent the Increase in Seizure Susceptibility and Epileptogenesis in Rats Undergoing Traumatic Brain Injury.
We examined the impact of early injection of MPL and Pam3Cys to rats, on the rate of kindled seizures acquisition following TBI. Rats received a single dose (1 µg/rat) of MPL or Pam3Cys through intracerebroventricular injection. 5 days later, trauma was exerted to temporo-parietal cortex of rats by controlled cortical impact device. After 24 h, traumatic rats underwent amygdala kindling. Brain level of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was also measured in traumatic rats by immunoblotting. Compared to non-traumatic (sham-operated) rats, traumatic rats showed three time...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hesam S, Khoshkholgh-Sima B, Pourbadie HG, Babapour V, Zendedel M, Sayyah M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lentivirus-Mediated Overexpression of miR-29a Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury via PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.
Abstract MicroRNAs as a novel class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs, modulate negative gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Our previous work has demonstrated that miR-29a reduces PTEN expression by directly targeting the 3'-UTRs (untranslated regions) of its mRNA, thus promoting neurite outgrowth. To further confirm the role of miR-29a in the recovery of SCI and its potential mechanisms, a recombinant lentiviral vector was used to promote miR-29a expression in the injured spinal cord. As compared with the LV-eGFP group and normal saline group, a significantly increased level of miR-29a expressio...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yin H, Shen L, Xu C, Liu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Nitric Oxide Participates in the Brain Ischemic Tolerance Induced by Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in the Hippocampal CA1 Subfield in Rats.
Abstract The order of corresponding author was inadvertently published. Hence, the first and the second corresponding authors should be Min Zhang (hebmuzhangmin@163.com) and Jing-Ge Zhang (zhangjg001@163.com). PMID: 30171421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang YJ, Yuan YJ, Liu YX, Zhang MY, Zhang JG, Wang TC, Zhang LN, Hu YY, Li L, Xian XH, Qi J, Zhang M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intestinal Pathology and Gut Microbiota Alterations in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have non-motor symptoms related to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as constipation and delayed gastric emptying, which manifest prior to the motor symptoms of PD. Increasing evidence indicates that changes in the composition of the gut microbiota may be related to the pathogenesis of PD. However, it is unclear how GI dysfunction occurs and how gut microbial dysbiosis is caused. We investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD induced by chronic low doses of MPTP is capable of reproducing the clinical intestinal pathology of PD, as well as whether gut mi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lai F, Jiang R, Xie W, Liu X, Tang Y, Xiao H, Gao J, Jia Y, Bai Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Expressions of Phosphorylation Akt/Phosphorylation mTOR/Phosphorylation PTEN in Artificial Abnormal Hippocampal Microenvironment in Rats.
Abstract Artificial abnormal microenvironment caused by microperfusion of L-glutamate (Glu) and Ca2+ in the hippocampus results in neuron damage, which is closely related to cerebral ischemia. Ginsenoside Rb1, a compound from Panax notoginseng, was previously used to counter the artificial abnormal hippocampal environment in a microperfusion model. In addition, while the Akt/mTOR/PTEN signaling pathway has been shown to mediate neuronprotection in cerebral ischemia, whether this pathway is involved in the neuroprotection of ginsenoside Rb1 is unknown. Here SH-SY5Y cells exposed to OGD/R injury in treated with LY29...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo Y, Wang LP, Li C, Xiong YX, Yan YT, Zhao LQ, Li SD, Sun J, Luo HY, Xian CJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurolysin: From Initial Detection to Latest Advances.
Abstract The mechanisms by which peptidergic signals are terminated have been the center of multiple studies leading to the discoveries of novel proteolytic activities. When studying the catabolic fate of neurotensin (NT) in brain and gastrointestinal tract, we detected a novel activity belonging to the metallopeptidases class and apparently distinct from previously known enzymes. Purification and cloning confirmed that this NT-degrading neutral metalloendopeptidase activity was indeed original. It was named endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 according to the IUBMB nomenclature and later, referred to as neurolysin. This revi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Checler F, Ferro ES Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of NMDAR Antagonist on the Regulation of P-MARCKS Protein to A β1-42 Oligomers Induced Neurotoxicity.
In conclusion, NMDAR antagonist may ameliorate neurotoxicity induced by Aβ1-42 oligomers through reducing neuronal apoptosis and protecting synaptic plasticity in rat primary neurons. The mechanism involved may be mediated by the variation of protein P-MARCKS. PMID: 30155805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Zhang P, Zheng Y, Yang C, Du T, Ge M, Chang X, Duan R, Ma G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Modafinil on Clonic Seizure Threshold Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice: Involvement of Glutamate, Nitric oxide, GABA, and Serotonin Pathways.
Abstract Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder. Modafinil is an awakening agent approved for narcolepsy. In addition to its clinical uses some reports revealed that modafinil was associated with some alterations in seizure threshold. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of acute administration of modafinil in clonic seizure threshold (CST) induced by pentylenetetrazole in mice and the involvement of glutamate, nitric oxide, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), and serotonin systems in this feature. Modafinil at 80 and 150 mg/kg showed anti- and pro-convulsant effects respectively...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bahramnjead E, Kazemi Roodsari S, Rahimi N, Etemadi P, Aghaei I, Dehpour AR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Geraniol Protects Against the Protein and Oxidative Stress Induced by Rotenone in an In Vitro Model of Parkinson's Disease.
In this study, we investigated the protective effect of GE on rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction dependent oxidative stress leads to cell death in SK-N-SH cells. In addition, we assessed the involvement of GE on rotenone-induced dysfunction in autophagy machinery via α-synuclein accumulation induced ER stress. We found that pre-treatment of GE enhanced cell viability, ameliorated intracellular redox, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential and improves the level of mitochondrial complex-1 in rotenone treated SK-N-SH cells. Furthermore, GE diminishes autophagy flux by reduced autophagy markers, and decrease...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rekha KR, Inmozhi Sivakamasundari R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NR4A1 Promotes Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Repressing Mfn2-Mediated Mitophagy and Inactivating the MAPK-ERK-CREB Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction has been acknowledged as the key pathogenic mechanism in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Mitophagy is the protective system used to sustain mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the upstream regulator of mitophagy in response to brain IR injury is not completely understood. Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) has been found to be associated with mitochondrial protection in a number of diseases. The aim of our study is to explore the functional role of NR4A1 in cerebral IR injury, with a particular focus on its influence on mitophagy. Wild-type mice and ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Z, Yu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Tolfenamic Acid Attenuates 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Biochemical Alteration in Mice.
In this study, the striatal lesion area was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Glutamate, SDH and ATP levels were tested using colorimetric assay kits. The neuroinflammatory cytokine levels were tested by ELISA kits. The expression of synaptic proteins and the subtypes of the NMDA receptor were tested by western blotting. TA was orally administered 10 days before 3-NP injection (pretreatment) or on the same day as 3-NP injection (co-treatment). TA pretreatment showed the strongest neuroprotective effects: pretreatment significantly attenuated the 3-NP-induced muscular weakness in the forelimb an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu P, Li Y, Liu D, Ji X, Chi T, Li L, Zou L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabolomic Assays of Postmortem Brain Extracts: Pitfalls in Extrapolation of Concentrations of Glucose and Amino Acids to Metabolic Dysregulation In Vivo in Neurological Diseases.
Abstract Glucose utilization is reduced in vulnerable brain regions affected by neurological disorders, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the basis for abnormal glucose homeostasis is unknown. Studies of brain-bank human tissue have made major contributions to understanding complex aspects of neurological, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases, but they are not appropriate for metabolomic analysis of labile metabolites because postmortem intervals between death and tissue freezing are much too long. Recent reports of postmortem brain glucose levels led to suggestions that AD patients may be hyperglyce...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dienel GA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Muscarinic Receptor Modulation of the Cerebellar Interpositus Nucleus In Vitro.
In this study we tested how activation of acetylcholine receptors modulated firing rate, intrinsic properties and synaptic transmission in the CN. Using in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from neurons in the interpositus nucleus, the acetylcholine receptor agonist carbachol was shown to induce a short-term increase in firing rate, increase holding current and decrease input resistance of interpositus CN neurons. Carbachol also induced long-term depression of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents and a short-term depression of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents. All effects were shown to be dependent upon mus...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pickford J, Apps R, Bashir ZI Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Interactions of Mexiletine with Novel Antiepileptic Drugs in the Maximal Electroshock Test in Mice: An Isobolographic Analysis.
tt KK Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate precisely the type of interactions between mexiletine (an antiarrhythmic drug) and four new generation antiepileptic drugs: lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, topiramate and pregabalin in the maximal electroshock test in mice (MES). The isobolographic analysis was used to assess the nature of interactions between the tested drugs. Total brain concentrations of antiepileptics were also measured to detect possible pharmacokinetic interactions. The results obtained indicated that the mixture of mexiletine and pregabalin at the fixed ratios of 1:1 and 3:1 led to supra-addit...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wróblewska D, Rudkowska M, Banach M, Borowicz-Reutt KK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NMDA Receptor Dependent Long-term Potentiation in Chronic Pain.
Abstract Since the discovery of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, many studies have demonstrated that NMDAR dependent LTP exists throughout central synapses, including those involved in sensory transmission and perception. NMDAR LTP has been reported in spinal cord dorsal horn synapses, anterior cingulate cortex and insular cortex. Behavioral, genetic and pharmacological studies show that inhibiting or reducing NMDAR LTP produced analgesic effects in animal models of chronic pain. Investigation of signalling mechanisms for NMDAR LTP may provide novel targets for futur...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li XH, Miao HH, Zhuo M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Barnes Maze Task Reveals Specific Impairment of Spatial Learning Strategy in the Intrahippocampal Kainic Acid Model for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
Abstract Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is an acquired form of focal epilepsy, in which patients not only suffer from unprovoked, devastating seizures, but also from severe comorbidities, such as cognitive dysfunction. Correspondingly, several animal models of TLE exhibit memory dysfunction, especially spatial memory. The Morris water maze test is the most commonly used test for assessing spatial learning and memory in rodents. However, high stress and poor swimming abilities are common confounders and may contribute to misinterpretation. Particularly epileptic mice show altered behaviour during the test as they fai...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Van Den Herrewegen Y, Denewet L, Buckinx A, Albertini G, Van Eeckhaut A, Smolders I, De Bundel D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

TLR2 Ligand Pam3CSK4 Regulates MMP-2/9 Expression by MAPK/NF- κB Signaling Pathways in Primary Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.
This study showed that Pam3CSK4 upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of MMP-9 and downregulated MMP-2 and TJ expression in BMECs simultaneously. Pam3CSK4 also induced the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways in BMECs. MMP-9 expression was found to decrease by pretreatment with inhibitors of ERK1/2 and JNK but not p38. However, the mRNA and protein expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased after addition of a NF-κB inhibitor. Our results indicated that Pam3CSK4 was able to upregulate MMP-9 expression through ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways, but the NF-κB signaling pathway negatively...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhu H, Dai R, Zhou Y, Fu H, Meng Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

How to Study the Uptake and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Cultured Brain Cells: The Dos and Don't Forgets.
Abstract Due to their exciting properties, engineered nanoparticles have obtained substantial attention over the last two decades. As many types of nanoparticles are already used for technical and biomedical applications, the chances that cells in the brain will encounter nanoparticles have strongly increased. To test for potential consequences of an exposure of brain cells to engineered nanoparticles, cell culture models for different types of neural cells are frequently used. In this review article we will discuss experimental strategies and important controls that should be used to investigate the physicochemic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Willmann W, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Luteolin Ameliorates Cognitive Impairments by Suppressing the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Enhancing Synapse-Associated Proteins GAP-43 and SYN Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
In this study, we examined whether luteolin could suppress the inflammatory cytokines, thus increasing synapse-associated proteins in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rat models. The model rats underwent luteolin treatment for 8 consecutive weeks, followed by assessment of cognitive performances with MWM test. Nissl staining was employed to assess the neuropathological changes in the hippocampus and the effects of luteolin on diabetic rats. With animals sacrificed, expressions of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and synapse-associated ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gu JX, Cheng XJ, Luo X, Yang X, Pang YP, Zhang XF, Zhang YY, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Silencing VEGF-B Diminishes the Neuroprotective Effect of Candesartan Treatment After Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia.
In this study, we aimed to silence VEGF-B expression to assess its contribution to candesartan's benefit on stroke outcome. Silencing VEGF-B expression was achieved by bilateral intracerebroventricular injections of lentiviral particles containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against VEGF-B. Two weeks after lentiviral injections, rats were subjected to either 90 min or 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and randomized to intravenous candesartan (1 mg/kg) or saline at reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed at 24 or 72 h and brains were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) excess and infarct ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ishrat T, Soliman S, Eldahshan W, Pillai B, Ergul A, Fagan SC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

An Integrative Overview of Non-Amyloid and Non-Tau Pathologies in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that devastates the lives of its victims, and challenges the family members and health care infrastructures that care for them. Clinically, attempts to understand AD have focused on trying to predict the presence of, and more recently demonstrate the presence of, its characteristic amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathologies. Fundamental research has also traditionally focused on understanding the generation, content, and pathogenicity of plaques and tangles, but in addition to this there is now an emerging independent interest in other mol...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Menta BW, Swerdlow RH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

miR-3075 Inhibited the Migration of Schwann Cells by Targeting Cntn2.
Abstract Peripheral nerve injury is a complex biological process that involves the expression changes of various coding and non-coding RNAs. Previously, a number of novel miRNAs that were dysregulated in rat sciatic nerve stumps after peripheral nerve injury were identified and functionally annotated by Solexa sequencing. In the current study, we studied one of these identified novel miRNAs, miR-3075, in depth. Results of transwell-based cell migration assay showed that increased expression of miR-3075 suppressed the migration rate of Schwann cells while decreased expression of miR-3075 elevated the migration rate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang P, He J, Wang S, Wang X, Liu Q, Peng W, Qian T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-21 in the Pathogenesis of Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an abundant class of small noncoding RNA molecules, which regulate gene expression by functioning as post-transcriptional regulatory factors, have been identified as key components of traumatic brain injury (TBI) progression. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a recently identified typical miRNA that is involved in the signaling pathways of inflammation, neuronal apoptosis, reactive gliosis, disruption of blood brain barrier, angiogenesis and recovery process induced by physical exercises in TBI. Hence, miR-21 is now considered as a potential therapeutic target of TBI. We review the correlative l...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ji W, Jiao J, Cheng C, Shao J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

High-Dose Tanshinone IIA Suppresses Migration and Proliferation While Promoting Apoptosis of Astrocytoma Cells Via Notch-1 Pathway.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of tanshinone IIA on migration, proliferation and apoptosis of astrocytoma cells. The efficacy of tanshinone IIA on migration, proliferation and apoptosis of astrocytoma cells were evaluated by flow cytometry and the assays of plate clone formation, CCK-8, wound healing and transwell migration. The protein molecule and signaling pathway were detected by western blot. High-dose tanshinone IIA suppressed migration and proliferation of astrocytoma cells while promoting apoptosis of astrocytoma cells. The western blot results showed that there were high Notch-1 protein expression and ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dong W, Zhang Y, Chen X, Jia Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ischemic Postconditioning Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Activating Autophagy During Early Reperfusion in Rats.
This study aimed to investigate whether ischemic postconditioning (IpostC) alleviates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury involved in autophagy. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: sham (sham surgery), I/R (middle cerebral artery occlusion [MCAO] for 100 min, then reperfusion), IpostC (MCAO for 100 min, reperfusion for 10 min, MCAO for 10 min, then reperfusion), IpostC+3MA (3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, administered 30 min before first reperfusion), and IpostC+Veh (vehicle control for IpostC+3MA group). Infarct volume was measured using cresyl violet staining....
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun Y, Zhang T, Zhang Y, Li J, Jin L, Sun Y, Shi N, Liu K, Sun X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exposure of Rat Neural Stem Cells to Ethanol Affects Cell Numbers and Alters Expression of 28 Proteins.
Abstract Developing brain cells express many proteins but little is known of how their protein composition responds to chronic exposure to alcohol and/or how such changes might relate to alcohol toxicity. We used cultures derived from embryonic rat brain (previously shown to contain mostly neural stem cells; rat NSC, rNSC), exposed them to ethanol (25-100 mM) for up to 96 h and studied how they reacted. Ethanol (50 and 100 mM) reduced cell numbers indicating either compromised cell proliferation, cytotoxicity or both. Increased lipid peroxidation was consistent with the presence of oxidative stress ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kashem MA, Sultana N, Balcar VJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Temporal and Site-Specific Changes in Central Neuroimmune Factors During Rapid Weight Gain After Ovariectomy in Rats.
Abstract Systemic inflammation is present in obesity and emerging evidence, primarily from studies using male rodents fed high-fat diets, suggests neuroimmune signaling also is involved. We investigated early changes in neuroimmune signaling during the weight gain that follows ovariectomy in rats. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were given standard rat chow and terminated 5 days (baseline), 4 or 8 weeks after ovariectomy. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in plasma and periuterine adipose were not affected by ovariectomy. In contrast, compared to baseline levels, IL-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Curtis KS, McCracken K, Espinosa E, Ong J, Buck DJ, Davis RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Berberine Protects Secondary Injury in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury Through Anti-oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Modulation.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. Novel and effective therapy is needed to prevent the secondary spread of damage beyond the initial injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether berberine has a neuroprotective effect on secondary injury post-TBI, and to explore its potential mechanism in this protection. The mice were randomly divided into Sham-saline, TBI-saline and TBI-Berberine (50 mg/kg). TBI was induced by Feeney's weight-drop technique. Saline or berberine was administered via oral gavage starting 1 h post-TBI and continu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang SX, Qiu G, Cheng FR, Pei Z, Yang Z, Deng XH, Zhu JH, Chen L, Chen CC, Lin WF, Liu Y, Liu Z, Zhu FQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Ketogenic Diet Improves Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Bioenergetics via the PGC1 α-SIRT3-UCP2 Axis.
We examined the levels of mRNAs and proteins crucial for mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics. We show that hippocampal pyramidal neurons in mutUNG1 mice, as well as cultured rat hippocampal neurons and human fibroblasts with H2O2 induced oxidative stress, improve markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and function when fed on a KD, and when exposed to the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate, respectively, by upregulating PGC1α, SIRT3 and UCP2, and (in cultured cells) increasing the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and the NAD+/NADH ratio. The mitochondrial level of UCP2 was significantly higher in the perikarya ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hasan-Olive MM, Lauritzen KH, Ali M, Rasmussen LJ, Storm-Mathisen J, Bergersen LH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

All Trans Retinoic Acid Attenuates Markers of Neuroinflammation in Rat Brain by Modulation of SIRT1 and NF κB.
All Trans Retinoic Acid Attenuates Markers of Neuroinflammation in Rat Brain by Modulation of SIRT1 and NFκB. Neurochem Res. 2018 Jul 18;: Authors: Priyanka SH, Syam Das S, Thushara AJ, Rauf AA, Indira M Abstract Alcohol abuse affects several neurological pathways and causes significant alterations in the brain. Abstention from alcohol causes only a marginal decrease in oxidative stress and neuro inflammation. Our previous studies had shown that an active metabolite of vitamin A, all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), ameliorates alcohol induced toxicity. Hence in the present study we investigated whet...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Priyanka SH, Syam Das S, Thushara AJ, Rauf AA, Indira M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research