Effect of Ibuprofen on Autophagy of Astrocytes During Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epilepsy and its Significance: An Experimental Study.
This study investigated the effect and significance of ibuprofen on autophagy of astrocytes during pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epilepsy. 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (received normal saline), PTZ group, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) + PTZ group, ibuprofen + PTZ group and 3-MA + ibuprofen + PTZ group. Dose of each agent was 35 mg/kg (PTZ), 10 mg/kg (3-MA) and 30 mg/kg (ibuprofen) and all drugs were administered intraperitoneally 15 times on alternate days (29 days). Human astrocytes were culture...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peng J, Wu S, Guo C, Guo K, Zhang W, Liu R, Li J, Hu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Mitochondrial Targets of Neuroprotective Drug Vinpocetine on Primary Neuron Cultures, Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells, Synaptosomes, and Brain Mitochondria.
r L Abstract Vinpocetine is considered as neuroprotectant drug and used for treatment of brain ischemia and cognitive deficiencies for decades. A number of enzymes, channels and receptors can bind vinpocetine, however the mechanisms of many effects' are still not clear. The present study investigated the effects of vinpocetine from the mitochondrial bioenergetic aspects. In primary brain capillary endothelial cells the purinergic receptor-stimulated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and efflux were studied. Vinpocetine exerted a partial inhibition on the mitochondrial calcium efflux. In rodent brain synaptosomes vinpoceti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Svab G, Doczi J, Gerencser AA, Ambrus A, Gallyas F, Sümegi B, Tretter L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dcf1 Affects Memory and Anxiety by Regulating NMDA and AMPA Receptors.
Abstract The hippocampus is critical for memory and emotion and both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl- 4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are known to contribute for those processes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously found that mice undergo memory decline upon dcf1 deletion through ES gene knockout. In the present study, a nervous system-specific dcf1 knockout (NKO) mouse was constructed, which was found to present severely damaged neuronal morphology. The damaged neurons caused structural abnormalities in dendritic spi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Liu Q, Xie J, Feng R, Ma F, Wang F, Shen S, Wen T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Natural Product with High Affinity to Sigma and 5-HT7 Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Drug for Negative and Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia.
Abstract Dehydrocorybulbine (DHCB), an alkaloid from Corydalis yanhusuo. W.T, has been identified as a dopamine receptor antagonist. We extended our assessment of its pharmacological profile and found that DHCB exhibits high to moderate binding affinities to sigma 1 and 2 receptors, serotonin 5-HT7 receptor, and histamine H2 receptors. This led us to evaluate DHCB properties in pharmacological (apomorphine and MK-801) animal models of schizophrenia in mice. The pharmacological profile of DHCB was screened through radioligand receptor binding assays. Single dose of DHCB reversed the locomotor hyperactivity, stereot...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang L, Zhang Y, Wang C, Zhang X, Wang Z, Liang X, Alachkar A, Civelli O Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Stretch-Induced Deformation as a Model to Study Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Traumatic Brain Injury.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of in vitro simulated TBI on human dopaminergic neurons. To simulate TBI, neurons were subjected to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% deformation. 24 h after injury, cell viability and apoptosis were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and DNA fragmentation, as well as ethidium homodimer and caspase 3/7 staining. Dopamine (DA) levels were determined by ELISA. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) were determined by western blot. Only 50% stretch increased LDH release and ethidium homodimer staining, suggesting the induction of necrosis. On the contrar...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rosas-Hernandez H, Burks SM, Cuevas E, Ali SF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of Paeonol in Epileptic Rats.
In this study, we found that paeonol reduced the seizure scores of epileptic rats and attenuated the duration and onset latency of seizures. Paeonol can also increase the activities of total antioxidant capacity, SOD and catalase activity and reduce MDA content as well. This suggests that paeonol can improve the level of oxidative stress in rats. More significantly, paeonol can improve neuronal loss and apoptosis in epileptic rats. These results indicate that paeonol has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects in epileptic rats. This effect may be caused by reducing oxidative stress. PMID: 31520267 [PubMed - as sup...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu DH, Agbo E, Zhang SH, Zhu JL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Ubiquitination of Spinal MrgC Alleviates Bone Cancer Pain and Reduces Intracellular Calcium Concentration in Spinal Neurons in Mice.
Abstract Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor subtype C (MrgC) has been shown to play an important role in the development of bone cancer pain. Ubiquitination is reported to participate in pain. However, whether MrgC ubiquitination plays a role in bone cancer pain remains unclear. To answer this question, we designed and performed this study. Osteosarcoma cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right femurs of C3H/HeJ mice to induce progressive bone cancer pain. MrgC agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM 8-22) or MrgC antagonist anti-MrgC antibody were injected intrathecally on day 14 after ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun YE, Xu HY, Hao J, Huo WW, Qian Y, Hou BL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sodium Valproate Reduces Neuronal Apoptosis in Acute Pentylenetetrzole-Induced Seizures via Inhibiting ER Stress.
Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been indicated to be involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Sodium valproate (VPA), one of the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is reported to regulate ER stress in many neurological diseases. However, the effect of VPA on ER stress in epilepsy remains unclear. The current study was performed to investigate the role of ER stress in the neuroprotection of VPA against seizure induced by pentylenetetrzole (PTZ). Our results showed that VPA treatment could inhibit the increased expressions of ER stress proteins (GRP78 and CHOP), and significantly reduce neuronal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu J, Peng L, Wang W, He H, Zeng S, Chen TC, Chen Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Guest Editorial.
PMID: 31486965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chinopoulos C, Starkov A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sepantronium Bromide (YM155), A Small Molecule Survivin Inhibitor, Promotes Apoptosis by Induction of Oxidative Stress, Worsens the Behavioral Deficits and Develops an Early Model of Toxic Demyelination: In Vivo and In-Silico Study.
In conclusion, this modified model promotes cup-induced redox and apoptosis signaling, elevates behavioral deficits, saves time, minimizes variations, and can be employed for early evaluation of novel neuroprotective agents in oligodendropathies. PMID: 31489534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Reiszadeh-Jahromi S, Sepand MR, Ramezani-Sefidar S, Shahlaei M, Moradi S, Yazdankhah M, Sanadgol N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Higher Circulating Trimethylamine N-oxide Sensitizes Sevoflurane-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged Rats Probably by Downregulating Hippocampal Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A.
Abstract Gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been shown to promote oxidative stress and inflammation in the peripheral tissues, contributing to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Here we examined whether pre-existing higher circulating TMAO would influence cognitive function in aged rats after anesthetic sevoflurane exposure. Aged rats received vehicle or TMAO treatment for 3 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, these animals were exposed to either control or 2.6% sevoflurane for 4 h. One week after exposure, freezing as measured by fear conditioning test,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao L, Zhang C, Cao G, Dong X, Li D, Jiang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Enhanced Expression of PD-L1 on Microglia After Surgical Brain Injury Exerts Self-Protection from Inflammation and Promotes Neurological Repair.
This study aimed to evaluate the expression and the role of PD-L1 in a mouse model of SBI induced inflammation and to further study the potential therapeutic effects of PD-L1 on SBI. Here we showed that PD-L1 expression was markedly elevated in the surrounding peri-resection brain tissue post-SBI in vivo. PD-L1 was up-regulated through ERK signal pathway in LPS-treated BV-2 cells in vitro. Furthermore, blockade of the PD-L1 checkpoint using PD-L1 antibody significantly enhanced brain edema, exacerbated apoptosis and increased neurodeficits post-SBI. Moreover, activated PD-1/PD-L1 with PD-L1 protein significantly attenuated...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen Q, Xu L, Du T, Hou Y, Fan W, Wu Q, Yan H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase is Involved in Valproic Acid-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic NSCs and Neurite Outgrowth of NSC-Derived Neurons.
Abstract In the original version of this article, unfortunately, the images in Fig. 4 and 7 are mixed. The correct version of the Fig.4 and 7 is given below. PMID: 31432305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lu L, Zhou H, Pan B, Li X, Fu Z, Liu J, Shi Z, Chu T, Wei Z, Ning G, Feng S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ilex paraguariensis Attenuates Changes in Mortality, Behavioral and Biochemical Parameters Associated to Methyl Malonate or Malonate Exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.
This study confirm the hypothesis that supplementation with IP offers protection against changes associated to MMA or MA exposure in DM, due, at least in part, to its antioxidant effect. PMID: 31422521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Portela JL, Bianchini MC, Boligon AA, Carriço MRS, Roehrs R, Soares FAA, de Gomes MG, Hassan W, Puntel RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

CXCL1 and CXCL2 Inhibit the Axon Outgrowth in a Time- and Cell-Type-Dependent Manner in Adult Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.
In this study we investigated the effects of long-term incubation (24, 48 and 72 h) with different concentrations of CXCL1 (0.4, 4 or 40 nM) or CXCL2 (0.36, 3.6 or 36 nM) on the axon outgrowth of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons in culture. The results showed that both chemokines significantly inhibited the axon outgrowth, with large and medium NF200 (NeuroFilament 200) (+) dorsal root ganglia neurons affected quicker, compared to small IB4 (Isolectin B4) (+) dorsal root ganglia neurons which were affected after longer exposure. Blocking CXCR2 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2) which mediates the effect...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deftu AT, Ciorescu R, Gheorghe RO, Mihăilescu D, Ristoiu V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Elevated Neuroglobin Lessens Neuroinflammation and Alleviates Neurobehavioral Deficits Induced by Acute Inhalation of Combustion Smoke in the Mouse.
Abstract Acute inhalation of combustion smoke produces long-term neurologic deficits in survivors. To study the mechanisms that contribute to the development of neurologic deficits and identify targets for prevention, we developed a mouse model of acute inhalation of combustion smoke, which supports longitudinal investigation of mechanisms that underlie the smoke induced inimical sequelae in the brain. Using a transgenic mouse engineered to overexpress neuroglobin, a neuroprotective oxygen-binding globin protein, we previously demonstrated that elevated neuroglobin preserves mitochondrial respiration and attenuate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gorgun MF, Zhuo M, Dineley KT, Englander EW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Aspects of cAMP Signaling in Epileptogenesis and Seizures and Its Potential as Drug Target.
k LK Abstract Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions. Today, close to 30 different medications to prevent epileptic seizures are in use; yet, far from all patients become seizure free upon medical treatment. Thus, there is a need for new pharmacological approaches including novel drug targets for the management of epilepsy. Despite the fact that a role for cAMP signaling in epileptogenesis and seizures was first suggested some four decades ago, none of the current medications target the cAMP signaling system. The reasons for this are probably many including limited knowledge of the unde...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mertz C, Krarup S, Jensen CD, Lindholm SEH, Kjær C, Pinborg LH, Bak LK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal Up-Regulation of Apolipoprotein D in a Rat Model of Maternal Hypo- and Hyperthyroidism: Implication of Oxidative Stress.
Abstract Thyroid disorders impair various functions of the hippocampus where thyroid hormone receptors are localized in the brain. Hyper and hypothyroidism are associated with large changes in brain oxidative stress. Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a conserved glycoprotein that increased in response to oxidative stress in the brain and has been suggested function as an antioxidant in the brain. Thus, the goal of this work was to explore the effect of maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the Apod expression in the pup's brain regarding changes in oxidative stress. For induction hypo and hyperthyroidism in adult female ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Salami M, Bandegi AR, Sameni HR, Vafaei AA, Pakdel A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Uptake of Intact Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Causes Acute Toxicity in Cultured Glial Cells.
Abstract Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) dispersions are known for their high cell toxic potential but contaminating copper ions in such dispersions are a major hurdle in the investigation of specific nanoparticle-mediated toxicity. In order to distinguish between the adverse effects exhibited by CuO-NPs and/or by contaminating ionic copper, the membrane-impermeable copper chelator bathocuproine disulfonate (BCS) was added in a low molar ratio (20% of the total copper applied) in order to chelate the copper ions that had been released extracellularly from the CuO-NPs before or during the incubation. Physicoch...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joshi A, Thiel K, Jog K, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of TRIM32 Protects Hippocampal Neurons from Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Injury.
Abstract Tripartite motif 32 (TRIM32) is a member of TRIM family that plays a potential role in neural regeneration. However, the biological function of TRIM32 in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury has not been investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the expression level of TRIM32 in hippocampal neurons following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). The results showed that TRIM32 expression was significantly elevated in hippocampal neurons subjected to OGD/R as compared to the neurons cultured in the normoxia condition. To further evaluate the role of TRIM32, hippocampal neurons were transfec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei L, Zhang JS, Ji SF, Xu H, Zhao ZH, Zhang L, Pang L, Zhang JF, Yang PB, Ma H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of PGC-1 α in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Role of PGC-1α in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Neurochem Res. 2019 Aug 13;: Authors: Zhang Q, Lei YH, Zhou JP, Hou YY, Wan Z, Wang HL, Meng H Abstract As one of the major cell organelles responsible for ATP production, it is important that neurons maintain mitochondria with structural and functional integrity; this is especially true for neurons with high metabolic requirements. When mitochondrial damage occurs, mitochondria are able to maintain a steady state of functioning through molecular and organellar quality control, thus ensuring neuronal function. And whe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Q, Lei YH, Zhou JP, Hou YY, Wan Z, Wang HL, Meng H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Struggle to Make CNS Axons Regenerate: Why Has It Been so Difficult?
Abstract Axon regeneration in the CNS is inhibited by many extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Because these act in parallel, no single intervention has been sufficient to enable full regeneration of damaged axons in the adult mammalian CNS. In the external environment, NogoA and CSPGs are strongly inhibitory to the regeneration of adult axons. CNS neurons lose intrinsic regenerative ability as they mature: embryonic but not mature neurons can grow axons for long distances when transplanted into the adult CNS, and regeneration fails with maturity in in vitro axotomy models. The causes of this loss of regeneration inc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fawcett JW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Binding Mechanisms and Inhibitory Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on AChE In Vitro and In Vivo: Kinetic Analysis and Molecular Docking.
This study on anesthetic agents that are now widely used in surgical applications, have provided a molecular basis for investigating the drug-enzyme interactions mechanism. In addition, the study is important in understanding the molecular mechanism of inhibitors that are effective in the treatment of AD. PMID: 31385137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Işık M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apelin-13 Protects PC12 Cells Against Methamphetamine-Induced Oxidative Stress, Autophagy and Apoptosis.
In this study, PC12 cells were exposed to both METH (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 mmol/L) and Apelin-13 (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 μmol/L) in vitro for 24 h to measure determined dose, and then downstream pathways were measured to investigate apoptosis, autophagy, and ROS responses. The results have indicated that Apelin-13 decreased the apoptotic response post-METH exposure in PC12 cells by increasing cell viability, reducing apoptotic rates. In addition, the study has revealed Apelin-13 decreased gene expression of Beclin-1 by Real-Time PCR and LC3-II by western blotting in METH-induced PC12 cells, which demonstrat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Foroughi K, Khaksari M, Rahmati M, Bitaraf FS, Shayannia A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Diagnostic Efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in Peripheral Nerve Injury Models.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in two different peripheral neuropathic pain models using the injured rat sciatic nerves. Twelve rats, with operation on left sciatic nerves, were evenly divided into three groups: sham surgery (control group), crushing injury and chronic constriction injury (CCI) (experimental groups). The nerve damage was assessed at 3 weeks postoperatively using following methods: paw withdrawal threshold values (RevWT), maximum standardized uptake values on PET/MRI images (SUVR), and counting the number of myelinated axons in proxima...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nam JW, Lee MJ, Kim HJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Experimental Characterization of the Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain Model in Mice.
This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition. PMID: 31376053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gopalsamy B, Sambasevam Y, Zulazmi NA, Chia JSM, Omar Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Perimal EK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NGF, BDNF and Arc mRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of Rats After Administration of Morphine.
Abstract Morphine can influence immediate early genes (IEG) of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which are activated in response to physiological stimuli during learning, as well as the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene which increases the expression of several IEGs for memory formation. The purpose of the current study was first to evaluate the effect of acute (1-day) and subchronic (15-days) morphine administration on memory retrieval of rats and second to determine the hippocampal expression of NGF, BDNF and Arc genes as potential contributors in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rouhani F, Khodarahmi P, Naseh V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of SPTLC2 on Promoting Neuronal Apoptosis is Alleviated by MiR-124-3p Through TLR4 Signalling Pathway.
Abstract To investigate the role and mechanism of microRNA-124-3p (miR-124-3p) and serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 2 (SPTLC2) in neuronal apoptosis induced by mechanical injury. Transient transfection was used to modify the expression of miR-124-3p and SPTLC2. After transfection, neuronal apoptosis was evaluated in an in vitro injury model of primary neurons using TUNEL staining and western blot. The correlation between miR-124-3p and SPTLC2 was identified through a dual luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. A rescue experiment in primary neurons was performed to further confirm the result...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Su X, Ye Y, Yang Y, Zhang K, Bai W, Chen H, Kang E, Kong C, He X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

GLAST Activity is Modified by Acute Manganese Exposure in Bergmann Glial Cells.
ilde;uelos TN, Ortega A Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. It exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors expressed in neurons and glial cells. Overactivation of glutamate receptors results in neuronal death, known as excitotoxicity. A family of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters enriched in glial cells are responsible of the vast majority of the removal of this amino acid form the synaptic cleft. Therefore, a precise and exquisite regulation of these proteins is required not only for a proper glutamatergic transm...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Escalante M, Soto-Verdugo J, Hernández-Kelly LC, Hernández-Melchor D, López-Bayghen E, Olivares-Bañuelos TN, Ortega A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy.
gh B, Vizi ES Abstract The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lakatos M, Baranyi M, Erőss L, Nardai S, Török TL, Sperlágh B, Vizi ES Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Methamphetamine Exposure on Fear Learning and Memory in Adult and Adolescent Rats.
Abstract Methamphetamine (meth) use is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with both conditions predominant during adolescence. Conditioned fear extinction is the most widely used model to study the fear learning and regulation that are relevant for anxiety disorders. The present study investigates how meth binge injections or meth self-administration affect subsequent fear conditioning, extinction and retrieval in adult and adolescent rats. In experiment 1, postnatal day 35 (P35-adolescent) and P70 (adult) rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of meth across 9 days. At P50 or P85, the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luikinga SJ, Perry CJ, Madsen HB, Lawrence AJ, Kim JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Genetic Difference of Hypothyroidism-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in C57BL/6j and 129/Sv Mice.
Abstract Adult-onset hypothyroidism induces cognitive impairments in learning and memory. Thyroxin (T4) replacement therapy appears to be effective in biochemically restoring euthyroidism, as evidenced by serum T4 and triiodothyronine concentrations within the normal range, although some the patients still exhibit cognitive dysfunctions. Here, we investigated the cognitive functions of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid mice in C57BL/6j and 129/Sv strains using the passive avoidance task and the novel object recognition test. Cognitive dysfunctions in hypothyroid mice were found only in the C57BL/6j strain, not ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu YX, Sun Y, Cheng J, Xia Q, Liu TT, Zhu DF, Xu Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Identification of Key Genes and Pathways Involved in the Heterogeneity of Intrinsic Growth Ability Between Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.
This study identified DEG candidate genes and pathways involved in the heterogeneity of the intrinsic growth ability between neurons after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration, and these candidate genes and pathways could be therapeutic targets for the treatment of CNS injury. PMID: 31325155 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu H, Han G, Li H, Liang X, Hu D, Zhang L, Tang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Enhances Autophagy and Reduces Apoptosis to Promote Locomotor Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we discovered that MT treatment improved motor function recovery in a rat SCI model. Indeed, MT upregulated the expression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), while expression of protein kinase B (AKT) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated after SCI. Additionally, MT increased the expression of autophagy-activating proteins, while the expression of apoptosis-activating proteins in neurons was decreased following SCI. Furthermore, autophagy was inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in SCI model rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary neurons by treatment with MT, th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Y, Guo Y, Fan Y, Tian H, Li K, Mei X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex are Critical for the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain.
Abstract The mechanisms underlying chronic and neuropathic pain pathology involve peripheral and central sensitisation. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seems to participate in pain chronification, and glutamatergic neurotransmission may be involved in this process. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the participation of the prelimbic (PrL) area of the mPFC in neuropathic pain as well as the role of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in neuropathic pain induced by a modified sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) protocol in Wistar rats. Neural inputs to the PrL cortex we...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Medeiros P, Negrini-Ferrari SE, Palazzo E, Maione S, Ferreira SH, de Freitas RL, Coimbra NC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Methanolic Extract of Avocado Persea americana (var. Colinred) Peel on Paraquat-Induced Locomotor Impairment, Lipid Peroxidation and Shortage of Life Span in Transgenic knockdown Parkin Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, finding new antioxidant sources might be beneficial for its treatment. Avocado Persea americana is a fruit widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. Although avocado by-products in the form of peel, seed coat and seeds are currently of no commercial use, they constitute a natural source of bioactive compounds. Methanolic (80%) extract obtained from lyophilized ground peels, seed coats, and seeds of the avocado Hass, Fuerte, Reed and Colinred varieties were analyzed for ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ortega-Arellano HF, Jimenez-Del-Rio M, Velez-Pardo C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Noscapine, a Non-addictive Opioid and Microtubule-Inhibitor in Potential Treatment of Glioblastoma.
Abstract Noscapine is a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid that easily traverses the blood brain barrier and has been used for years as an antitussive agent with high safety. Despite binding opioid receptors, noscapine lacks significant hypnotic and euphoric effects rendering it safe in terms of addictive potential. In 1954, Hans Lettré first described noscapine as a mitotic poison. The drug was later tested for cancer treatment in the early 1960's, yet no effect was observed likely as a result of its short biological half-life and limited water solubility. Since 1998, it has regained interest thanks to studie...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Altinoz MA, Topcu G, Hacimuftuoglu A, Ozpinar A, Ozpinar A, Hacker E, Elmaci İ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signalling Induces Casein Kinase 1-Dependent Formation of Cytosolic TDP-43 Inclusions in Motor Neuron-Like Cells.
This study focused on the induction of cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor tunicamycin induced casein kinase 1 (CK1)-dependent cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in differentiated NSC-34 cells, as seen by immunocytochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that induction of ER stress had no effect on abundance of TDP-43 or phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA soluble fraction. However, there were significant increases in abundance of TDP-43 and phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA-insoluble, urea-soluble fraction, including hi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hicks DA, Cross LL, Williamson R, Rattray M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Licorisoflavan A Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effect in Mice: Involvement of BDNF-TrkB Pathway and AMPA Receptors.
In this study, the antidepressant-like effect and neural mechanism of licorisoflavan A were explored. In the mice behavioral despair test, we observed that licorisoflavan A exhibited powerful antidepressant-like effect in forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), without affecting locomotor activity in open field test (OFT). Additionally, licorisoflavan A administration significantly restored Chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced changes in sucrose preference test (SPT), FST, and TST, without altering the locomotion in OFT. In chronical-stimulated mice, the licorisoflavan A treatment effectively attenuated the ex...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao D, Liu L, Li Y, Ruan J, Wang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Curcumin Acts as Post-protective Effects on Rat Hippocampal Synaptosomes in a Neuronal Model of Aluminum-Induced Toxicity.
Abstract The neurotoxic effects of aluminum are generally associated with reduced antioxidant capacity, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, which lead to the induction of neurodegenerative processes. Curcumin has a lipophilic polyphenol character and effects of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic. The present study was undertaken to examine possible aluminum exposure in rats brain synaptosomes and to investigate whether protective and therapeutic effects of curcumin on biochemical and morphological changes in both pre- and post-treated groups. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) at 50 µM concentration and curcum...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kar F, Hacioglu C, Uslu S, Kanbak G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocytic Endocannabinoids Mediate Hippocampal Transient Heterosynaptic Depression.
Abstract Astrocytes are highly dynamic cells that modulate synaptic transmission within a temporal domain of seconds to minutes in physiological contexts such as Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Heterosynaptic Depression (HSD). Recent studies have revealed that astrocytes also modulate a faster form of synaptic activity (milliseconds to seconds) known as Transient Heterosynaptic Depression (tHSD). However, the mechanism underlying astrocytic modulation of tHSD is not fully understood. Are the traditional gliotransmitters ATP or glutamate released via hemichannels/vesicles or are other, yet, unexplored pathways inv...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith NA, Bekar LK, Nedergaard M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Possible Existence of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Hippocampal (HPH) Axis: A Reciprocal Relationship Between Hippocampal Specific Neuroestradiol Synthesis and Neuroblastosis in Ageing Brains with Special Reference to Menopause and Neurocognitive Disorders.
Abstract The hippocampus-derived neuroestradiol plays a major role in neuroplasticity, independent of circulating estradiol that originates from gonads. The response of hypothalamus-pituitary regions towards the synthesis of neuroestradiol in the hippocampus is an emerging scientific concept in cognitive neuroscience. Hippocampal plasticity has been proposed to be regulated via neuroblasts, a major cellular determinant of functional neurogenesis in the adult brain. Defects in differentiation, integration and survival of neuroblasts in the hippocampus appear to be an underlying cause of neurocognitive disorders. Go...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kandasamy M, Radhakrishnan RK, Poornimai Abirami GP, Roshan SA, Yesudhas A, Balamuthu K, Prahalathan C, Shanmugaapriya S, Moorthy A, Essa MM, Anusuyadevi M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

UPLC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Reveals the Protective Mechanism of Hydrogen on Mice with Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract As a reductive gas, hydrogen plays an antioxidant role by selectively scavenging oxygen free radicals. It has been reported that hydrogen has protective effects against nerve damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion in stroke, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydrogen on stroke-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury and its detailed mechanism. Two weeks after the inhalation of high concentrations (66.7%) of hydrogen, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in mice using the thread occlusion technique to establish an anim...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen L, Chao Y, Cheng P, Li N, Zheng H, Yang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Triptolide Improves Cognitive Dysfunction in Rats with Vascular Dementia by Activating the SIRT1/PGC-1 α Signaling Pathway.
Triptolide Improves Cognitive Dysfunction in Rats with Vascular Dementia by Activating the SIRT1/PGC-1α Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jun 24;: Authors: Yao P, Li Y, Yang Y, Yu S, Chen Y Abstract Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook F has been exploited as a treatment for several diseases due to its neuroprotective, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. Triptolide is one of its key bioactive compounds. Currently, the role of triptolide in cognitive dysfunction remains unclear. Here, the role of triptolide on cognitive dysfunction was investigated using chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao P, Li Y, Yang Y, Yu S, Chen Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase by Ethyl Pyruvate in Schwann Cells Protects Against Peripheral Nerve Degeneration.
Abstract Schwann cells are essential glial cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and dysfunction of Schwann cells can induce various peripheral neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor in degenerative nerve diseases; however, there no effective molecules are available to inhibit nerve degeneration in peripheral neurodegenerative diseases. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a candidate regulator of oxidative stress, targeting Schwann cells during peripheral nerve degeneration. Here, we investigated the effects of EP on axonal degradation, demyelination, transcriptional regu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chung HJ, Kim M, Jung J, Jeong NY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glial Plasticity in the Trigeminal Root Entry Zone of a Rat Trigeminal Neuralgia Animal Model.
Abstract The trigeminal root entry zone (TREZ) is the transitional zone of central and peripheral tissue compartments in the trigeminal root. Microvascular compression on the TREZ is the main etiology of most idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients. However, the pathogenesis of TN is still uncertain. To investigate the glial plasticity changes in oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, astrocytes and microglia/macrophages in the TREZ in TN, immunohistochemical staining and Western blot methods were performed in rats with TN induced by compression injury. The results showed that mechanical compression injury in the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luo D, Lin R, Luo L, Li Q, Chen T, Qiu R, Li Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

AMPA Receptor in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Plays Different Roles in the Recent and Remote Retrieval of Morphine-Associated Memory.
Abstract Previous studies demonstrate that drug addiction can share the neural circuits in the brain with normal learning and memory. Re-exposure to drug-associated contexts, one way to retrieve the drug-associated memory, can trigger strong psychic craving and even relapse in addicts after prolonged abstinence. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to be involved in time-dependent reinstatement of drug self-administration. This work is designed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the vmPFC in the recent and remote retrieval of morphine-associated memory. Rats were re-exposed to...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun X, Wang N, Wang X, Sun L, Li Y, Cui C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

JLX001 Modulated the Inflammatory Reaction and Oxidative Stress in pMCAO Rats via Inhibiting the TLR2/4-NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
This study was to evaluate the effect of JLX001 against ischemic injury and investigate the mechanisms. The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model was employed in rats. The neurobehavioral score, brain infarction rate, brain water content, pathological changes, immunohistochemical staining, biochemical index (T-AOC, SOD, and MDA), proinflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO), expression of TLR2/4 and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 were determined. To explore probable underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of JLX001, BV-2 cells were exposed to in oxygen-glucose deprivatio...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qiu Y, Yin Q, Fei Y, Li Y, Huang H, Fang W, Shen W, Liang B, Zhu X, Li Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: TREM2 Attenuates A β1-42-Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV-2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling.
Correction to: TREM2 Attenuates Aβ1-42-Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV-2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jun 14;: Authors: Long H, Zhong G, Wang C, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Luo J, Shi S Abstract The article titled "TREM2 Attenuates Aβ1‑42‑Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV‑2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling", written by Huiping Long, Gang Zhong, Chengzhi Wang, Jian Zhang, Yueling Zhang, Jinglian Luo, Shengliang Shi, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 27 May 2019 with open access. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long H, Zhong G, Wang C, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Luo J, Shi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increases in miR-124-3p in Microglial Exosomes Confer Neuroprotective Effects by Targeting FIP200-Mediated Neuronal Autophagy Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract In our recent study, we observed consistent increases in miR-124-3p levels in exosomes derived from cultured BV2 microglia which was treated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) mouse model brain extracts. To clarify the mechanisms underlying increases in microglia-derived exosomal miR-124-3p and their role in regulating neuronal autophagy after TBI, we investigated the impact of exosomal miR-124-3p on neuronal autophagy in scratch-injured HT22 neurons and rTBI mice. We harvested injured brain extracts from rTBI mice at 3 to 21 days post injury (DPI) for the treatment of cultured BV2 microgl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li D, Huang S, Yin Z, Zhu J, Ge X, Han Z, Tan J, Zhang S, Zhao J, Chen F, Wang H, Lei P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research