Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity on Protein Quality Control, Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of insoluble protein clusters containing α-synuclein. Impairment of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, autophagy and intracellular trafficking proper function has been suggested to be caused by α-synuclein toxicity, which is also associated with the higher levels of ROS found in the aged brain and in PD. Oxidative stress leads to protein oligomerization and aggregation that impair autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics leading to a vicious cycle of organelles damage and neurodegeneration. In this review we focused on the role of α...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Melo TQ, Copray SJCVM, Ferrari MFR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Anethole Against Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Mice.
Abstract Neuropathic pain is an intractable disease with few definitive therapeutic options. Anethole (AN) has been confirmed to possess potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, but its effect on neuropathic pain has not been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of AN on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. AN (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and pregabalin (40 mg/kg) were intragastric administered for 8 consecutive days from the 7th day post-surgery. Behavioral parameters were measured on different days, namely, 0, 7, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang B, Zhang G, Yang M, Liu N, Li YX, Ma H, Ma L, Sun T, Tan H, Yu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Analysis of Motor Function in Amyloid Precursor-Like Protein 2 Knockout Mice: The Effects of Ageing and Sex.
Abstract The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a conserved gene family that includes the amyloid precursor-like proteins 1 (APLP1) and 2 (APLP2). APP and APLP2 share a high degree of similarity, and have overlapping patterns of spatial and temporal expression in the central and peripheral tissues, in particular at the neuromuscular junction. APP-family knockout (KO) studies have helped elucidate aspects of function and functional redundancy amongst the APP-family members. In the present study, we investigated motor performance of APLP2-KO mice and the effect sex differences and age-related changes hav...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Truong PH, Ciccotosto GD, Cappai R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Platelets Bioenergetics Screening Reflects the Impact of Brain A β Plaque Accumulation in a Rat Model of Alzheimer.
Platelets Bioenergetics Screening Reflects the Impact of Brain Aβ Plaque Accumulation in a Rat Model of Alzheimer. Neurochem Res. 2018 Oct 24;: Authors: Prestia FA, Galeano P, Martino Adami PV, Do Carmo S, Castaño EM, Cuello AC, Morelli L Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated to depressed brain energy supply and impaired cortical and hippocampal synaptic function. It was previously reported in McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic (Tg(+/+)) rats that Aβ deposition per se is sufficient to cause abnormalities in glucose metabolism and neuronal connectivity. These data support the utili...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Prestia FA, Galeano P, Martino Adami PV, Do Carmo S, Castaño EM, Cuello AC, Morelli L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

New Insights of a Neuronal Peptidase DINE/ECEL1: Nerve Development, Nerve Regeneration and Neurogenic Pathogenesis.
Abstract Our understanding of the physiological relevance of unique Damage-induced neuronal endopeptidase (DINE) [also termed Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1)] has recently expanded. DINE/ECEL1 is a type II membrane-bound metalloprotease, belonging to a family including the neprilysin (NEP) and endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE). The family members degrade and/or process peptides such as amyloid β and big-endothelins, which are closely associated with pathological conditions. Similar to NEP and ECE, DINE has been expected to play an important role in injured neurons as well as in developing neurons...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kiryu-Seo S, Nagata K, Saido TC, Kiyama H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Functional Neurochemistry of the Ventral and Dorsal Hippocampus: Stress, Depression, Dementia and Remote Hippocampal Damage.
Abstract The hippocampus is not a homogeneous brain area, and the complex organization of this structure underlies its relevance and functional pleiotropism. The new data related to the involvement of the ventral hippocampus in the cognitive function, behavior, stress response and its association with brain pathology, in particular, depression, are analyzed with a focus on neuroplasticity, specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network, corticosteroid signaling through mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus. The data on the septo-temporal hippicampal gradient are...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gulyaeva NV Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dopamine D1 Receptor Within Basolateral Amygdala Is Involved in Propofol Relapse Behavior Induced by Cues.
In this study, we examined whether basolateral amygdala-specific or systematic administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist alters cue-induced propofol-seeking behaviors in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats first received 14 days of propofol self-administration training, where active nose poke resulted in the delivery of propofol infusion paired with a tone and light cues. After 1-30 days of forced abstinence, the cue-induced propofol-seeking behaviors were tested in the operant chamber. We demonstrated, for the first time, after a few days of withdrawal from intravenous bolus administration of propofol, propofol...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang S, Wang X, Lin W, Bao S, Wang B, Wu B, Su Y, Lian Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Determination of Dopamine- β-hydroxylase Activity in Human Serum Using UHPLC-PDA Detection.
Determination of Dopamine-β-hydroxylase Activity in Human Serum Using UHPLC-PDA Detection. Neurochem Res. 2018 Oct 24;: Authors: Punchaichira TJ, Deshpande SN, Thelma BK Abstract Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH, EC 1.14.17.1) is an enzyme with implications in various neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and is a known drug target. There is a dearth of cost effective and fast method for estimation of activity of this enzyme. A sensitive UHPLC based method for the estimation of DBH activity in human sera samples based on separation of substrate tyramine from the product octopamine in 3 min...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Punchaichira TJ, Deshpande SN, Thelma BK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Suggests Synaptic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Hippocampus of Rats Susceptible to Chronic Mild Stress.
Abstract Mounting studies show that hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity are abnormal in depression. It has been suggested that impairment of synaptic mitochondrial functions potentially occurs in the hippocampus. Thus, the synaptic mitochondria may be a crucial therapeutic target in the course of depression. Here, we investigated the potential dysregulation of synaptic mitochondrial proteins in the hippocampus of a chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model. Proteomic changes of hippocampal synaptosomes containing synaptic mitochondria were quantitatively examined using the isobaric tag for relative and abso...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie H, Huang H, Tang M, Wu Y, Huang R, Liu Z, Zhou M, Liao W, Zhou J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Ethanol Exposure on the Neurochemical Profile of a Transgenic Mouse Model with Enhanced Glutamate Release Using In Vivo 1H MRS.
This study describes time courses of neurochemical profiles before and during chronic EtOH exposure, which can serve as a reference for future studies investigating ethanol-induced neurochemical changes. PMID: 30334175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang WT, Lee P, Hui D, Michaelis EK, Choi IY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Novel and Selective p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor Attenuates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglia and a Mouse Model.
This study was designed to evaluate whether NJK14047, a recently identified novel and selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, could modulate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation by utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 cells and an LPS-injected mice model. Our results showed that NJK14047 markedly reduced the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by downregulating the expression of various proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in LPS-induced BV2 microglia. Moreover, NJK14047 significantly reduced microglial activation in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gee MS, Kim SW, Kim N, Lee SJ, Oh MS, Jin HK, Bae JS, Inn KS, Kim NJ, Lee JK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Aggravates and Prolongs Incision-Induced Pain Hypersensitivity via BDNF Signaling-Mediated Descending Facilitation in Rats.
Abstract The mechanisms underlying the pronociceptive effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) are not fully established. The modulation of BDNF signaling-mediated descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) of brain stem has been demonstrated in persistent pain models of inflammatory pain, but not in incisional pain model. Recent study has shown that PSD increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brainstem structure. Therefore, in the current study, we asked whether the BDNF signaling-mediated descending facilitation was involved in the PSD-induced pro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xue J, Li H, Xu Z, Ma D, Guo R, Yang K, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Diallyl Trisulfide Protects Motor Neurons from the Neurotoxic Protein TDP-43 via Activating Lysosomal Degradation and the Antioxidant Response.
This study extends the findings of prior reports indicating that lower doses of DATS mediate cell survival in part by inducing autophagy and activating the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. PMID: 30317421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu C, Leng B, Li Y, Jiang H, Duan W, Guo Y, Li C, Hong K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sodium Valproate Ameliorates Neuronal Apoptosis in a Kainic Acid Model of Epilepsy via Enhancing PKC-Dependent GABAAR γ2 Serine 327 Phosphorylation.
Sodium Valproate Ameliorates Neuronal Apoptosis in a Kainic Acid Model of Epilepsy via Enhancing PKC-Dependent GABAAR γ2 Serine 327 Phosphorylation. Neurochem Res. 2018 Oct 11;: Authors: Li Q, Li QQ, Jia JN, Cao S, Wang ZB, Wang X, Luo C, Zhou HH, Liu ZQ, Mao XY Abstract GABA is a dominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and A type GABA receptor (GABAAR) phosphorylation is critical for GABA-mediated inhibitory effect. However, its role in the neuroprotective effect of sodium valproate (VPA), a prevalent drug for treating patients with epilepsy, remains elusive. The present study was con...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Q, Li QQ, Jia JN, Cao S, Wang ZB, Wang X, Luo C, Zhou HH, Liu ZQ, Mao XY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation Exerts Antiinflammatory Effects and Immune Regulatory Function in a 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract According to epidemiologic studies, smoking appears to downregulate the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to antiinflammatory mechanisms via activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs). This receptor also appears to play a role in T-cell differentiation. Recently, it has become apparent that the innate immune system participates in PD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular vagus nerve stimulation (aVNS) on substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurodegeneration and the associated neuroinflammation and immune responses in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang Y, Cao Z, Ma H, Wang G, Wang X, Wang Z, Yang Y, Zhao H, Liu G, Li L, Feng T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metformin attenuates increase of synaptic number in the rat spinal dorsal horn with painful diabetic neuropathy induced by type 2 diabetes: a stereological study.
Abstract In our previous study, we have shown that number of synapses in the L5 segment of spinal dorsal horn increased significantly in a rat model of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) induced by high-dose of streptozotocin (an animal model of type 1 diabetes). The aims of this study were: (1) to determine whether high fat diet/low dose streptozotocin-diabetes, a rat model for type 2 diabetes, related PDN was also associated with this synaptic plasticity, (2) to reveal the range of this synaptic plasticity change occurred (in the whole length of spinal dorsal horn or only in the L5 lumbar segment of spinal dorsal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lin JY, He YN, Zhu N, Peng B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Trans-cinnamaldehyde Modulates Hippocampal Nrf2 Factor and Inhibits Amyloid Beta Aggregation in LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation Mouse Model.
Abstract Trans-cinnamaldehyde (CNM) has recently drawn attention due to its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The current study explored the memory enhancing effects of CNM against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in mice. CNM and curcumin (a reference antioxidant) were administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg i.p. 3 h after a single LPS injection (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.) and continued daily for 7 days. Our results displayed that CNM and curcumin significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced impairment of learning and memory, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neur...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abou El-Ezz D, Maher A, Sallam N, El-Brairy A, Kenawy S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Assembly and Trafficking of Homomeric and Heteromeric Kainate Receptors with Impaired Ligand Binding Sites.
e;r E Abstract Kainate receptors (KARs) are a subfamily of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediating excitatory synaptic transmission. Cell surface expressed KARs modulate the excitability of neuronal networks. The transfer of iGluRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface requires occupation of the agonist binding sites. Here we used molecular modelling to produce a range of ligand binding domain (LBD) point mutants of GluK1-3 KAR subunits with and without altered agonist efficacy to further investigate the role of glutamate binding in surface trafficking and activation of homomeric and he...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Scholefield CL, Atlason PT, Jane DE, Molnár E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differences in Stability, Activity and Mutation Effects Between Human and Mouse Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2.
Abstract Mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Identification of PD-associated LRRK2 mutations has led to the development of novel animal models, primarily in mice. However, the characteristics of human LRRK2 and mouse Lrrk2 protein have not previously been directly compared. Here we show that proteins from different species have different biochemical properties, with the mouse protein being more stable but having significantly lower kinase activity compared to the human orthologue. In examining the effects of PD-associated ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Langston RG, Rudenko IN, Kumaran R, Hauser DN, Kaganovich A, Ponce LB, Mamais A, Ndukwe K, Dillman AA, Al-Saif AM, Beilina A, Cookson MR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Distinct Cytokine and Chemokine Expression in Plasma and Calpeptin-Treated PBMCs of a Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patient: A Case Report.
Abstract The cytokine/chemokine expression signature of a 60-year-old African American male with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) was analyzed using patient blood samples obtained from two separate visits to the clinic. Thirty-six different cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were detected in the plasma of the RRMS patient using a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results indicated that at least ten of these factors with a concentration of> 100 pg/mL are identified as pro-inflammatory. Calpain inhibition led to an anti-inflammatory effect, as indicated by a decrease in expressio...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chandran R, Capone M, Matzelle D, Polcyn R, Kau E, Haque A, Banik NL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SMER28 Attenuates Dopaminergic Toxicity Mediated by 6-Hydroxydopamine in the Rats via Modulating Oxidative Burdens and Autophagy-Related Parameters.
This study examined the pharmacological roles of SMER28, especially by focusing on the autophagy (p62/ SQSTM1 and LC3II/LC3I ratio where LC3 is microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3), inhibiting free radicals, and activating the antioxidant system. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), GSH/glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant activity of SMER28. Moreover, Iba-1 (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule, indicating microgliosis) and tyrosi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Darabi S, Noori-Zadeh A, Rajaei F, Abbaszadeh HA, Bakhtiyari S, Roozbahany NA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The 1980s: D-AP5, LTP and a Decade of NMDA Receptor Discoveries.
Abstract In the 1960s and 70s, biochemical and pharmacological evidence was pointing toward glutamate as a synaptic transmitter at a number of distinct receptor classes, known as NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. The field, however, lacked a potent and highly selective antagonist to block these putative postsynaptic receptors. So, the discoveries in the early 1980s of D-AP5 as a selective NMDA receptor antagonist and of its ability to block synaptic events and plasticity were a major breakthrough leading to an explosion of knowledge about this receptor subtype. During the next 10 years, the role of NMDA receptors was e...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lodge D, Watkins JC, Bortolotto ZA, Jane DE, Volianskis A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Identification of C-Terminal Binding Protein 1 as a Novel NMDA Receptor Interactor.
Abstract A new N-methyl D aspartate neurotransmitter receptor interacting protein has been identified by yeast two-hybrid screening of a mouse brain cDNA library. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) was shown to associate with the intracellular C-terminal regions of the N-methyl D aspartate receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2D but not with GluN1-1a cytoplasmic C-terminal region. In yeast mating assays using a series of GluN2A C-terminal truncations, it was demonstrated that the CtBP1 binding domain was localized to GluN2A 1157-1382. The GluN2A binding domain was identified to lie within the CtBP1 161-224 region. C...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cousins SL, Stephenson FA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-539 Targets MMP-9 to Regulate the Permeability of Blood-Brain Barrier in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury of Brain.
Abstract Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury severely threatens human life, while the potential mechanism underlying it is still need further exploration. The rat model of cerebral I/R injury was established using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rat microvascular endothelial cell line bEND.3 was exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) to mimic ischemic condition in vitro. Evans blue was performed to determine the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to determine gene expression in mRNA and protein level, individually. Luciferase...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fan F, Yang J, Xu Y, Guan S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Signature of Aberrantly Expressed microRNAs in the Striatum of Rotenone-Induced Parkinsonian Rats.
ida R Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly complex brain disorder regarding clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and therapeutics. The cardinal motor signs, i.e., rigidity, bradykinesia, and unilateral tremors, arise in consequence of a progressive neuron death during the prodromal phase. Although multiple transmission systems are involved in disease neurobiology, patients will cross the line between the prodromal and early stage of diagnosed PD when they had lost half of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells. As the neurons continue to die ascending the neuroaxis, patients will face a more disabling disea...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Horst CH, Schlemmer F, de Aguiar Montenegro N, Domingues ACM, Ferreira GG, da Silva Ribeiro CY, de Andrade RR, Del Bel Guimarães E, Titze-de-Almeida SS, Titze-de-Almeida R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Roles of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is characterized by high morbidity, mortality and disability rate worldwide. Because of its complexity in pathogenesis and lack of effective therapeutic strategies and drugs, great breakthrough has not yet been made in the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke. Therefore, to explore a more effective and safer therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemic stroke has been the focus of numerous researchers. Neuroprotective effects of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in ischemic stroke have been reported in recent studies, but have not been fully elucidated. In our review, we elaborate the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu L, Zhao B, Xiong X, Xia Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of miR-429 Attenuates A β-Induced Neuronal Damage by Targeting SOX2 and BCL2 in Mouse Cortical Neurons.
Knockdown of miR-429 Attenuates Aβ-Induced Neuronal Damage by Targeting SOX2 and BCL2 in Mouse Cortical Neurons. Neurochem Res. 2018 Sep 27;: Authors: Fu S, Zhang J, Zhang S Abstract Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and massive neuronal death due to apoptosis were the essential steps in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MiR-429 was reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the detailed function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-429 in the pathogenesis of AD remain elusive. Cortical neurons were stimulated with 20 µM of A&...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu S, Zhang J, Zhang S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Crocin Inhibits Apoptosis and Astrogliosis of Hippocampus Neurons Against Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity via Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms.
Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a stimulant drug, which can cause neurotoxicity and increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of acute METH intoxication comprise intra-neuronal events including oxidative stress, dopamine oxidation, and excitotoxicity. According to recent studies, crocin protects neurons by functioning as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic compound. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine if crocin can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity. Seventy-two male Wistar rats that weighed 260-300 g were randomly allocated to six groups of control ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shafahi M, Vaezi G, Shajiee H, Sharafi S, Khaksari M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Enteric Neurodegeneration is Mediated Through Independent Neuritic and Somal Mechanisms in Rotenone and MPP+ Toxicity.
Abstract Gut motility malfunction and pathological changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are observed in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). In many cases disturbances in the autonomous functions such as gut motility precedes the observed loss of central motor functions in PD. However, the mechanism by which ENS degeneration occurs in PD is unknown. We show that parkinsonian mimetics rotenone and MPP+ induce neurite degeneration that precedes cell death in primary enteric neurons cultured in vitro. If the neuronal death signals originate from degenerating neurites, neuronal death should be prevente...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Virga DM, Capps J, Vohra BPS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Radix Scutellariae Attenuates CUMS-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior by Promoting Neurogenesis via cAMP/PKA Pathway.
In conclusion, RS could exert a natural antidepressant with improving depressive-like behavior via regulation of cAMP/PKA neurogenesis pathway. PMID: 30259256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang R, Guo L, Ji Z, Li X, Zhang C, Ma Z, Fu Q, Qu R, Ma S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exosomes Isolated From Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Neuroinflammation and Reduce Amyloid-Beta Deposition by Modulating Microglial Activation in Alzheimer's Disease.
In this study, exosomes from the supernatant of hucMSCs were injected into AD mouse models. We observed that hucMSC-exosomes injection could repair cognitive disfunctions and help to clear Aβ deposition in these mice. Moreover, we found that hucMSC-exosomes injection could modulate the activation of microglia in brains of the mice to alleviated neuroinflammation. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood and brains of mice were increased and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased. We also treated BV2 cells with hucMSC-exosomes in culture medium. HucMSC-exosomes also had inflammator...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ding M, Shen Y, Wang P, Xie Z, Xu S, Zhu Z, Wang Y, Lyu Y, Wang D, Xu L, Bi J, Yang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intracardiac Injection of Dental Pulp Stem Cells After Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Prevents Cognitive Deficits in Rats.
This study was conducted in order to test the effects of intracardiac transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) for treating HI damage. Seven-day-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-saline, sham-hDPSCs, HI-saline, and HI-hDPSCs. Motor and cognitive tasks were performed from postnatal day 30. HI-induced cognitive deficits in the novel-object recognition test and in spatial reference memory impairment which were prevented by hDPSCs. No motor impairments were observed in HI animals. Immunofluorescence analysis showed human-positive nuclei in hDPSC-treated animals closely associated with anti-GFA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sanches EF, Valentim L, de Almeida Sassi F, Bernardi L, Arteni N, Weis SN, Odorcyk FK, Pranke P, Netto CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Role of Calpain and Proteasomes in the Degradation of Carbonylated Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins in Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the role of calpain and the proteasome in the removal of oxidized neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in myelin basic protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To this end, EAE rats received a single intrathecal injection of calpeptin or epoxomicin at the first sign of clinical disease. Forty-eight hours later, animals were sacrificed and lumbar spinal cord segments were dissected and used for biochemical analyses. The results show that calpain and proteasome activity is specifically, but partially, inhibited with calpeptin and epoxomicin, re...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smerjac SM, Zheng J, Hu CL, Bizzozero OA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RASgrf1, a Potential Methylatic Mediator of Anti-epileptogenesis?
Abstract Epileptogenesis, induced by status epilepticus (SE), is a chronic process, and intervention in this progress may prevent chronic epilepsy. It has been proposed that DNA methylation might be related with epileptogenesis. RASgrf1 has a differentially methylated region at the promoter which can silence gene expression. We have previously observed the down-regulation of RASgrf1 in epilepsy patients and proved that hypermethylation of RASgrf1 reaches maximal level at the latent period in mice after kainate-induced SE (KA mice), with corresponding alteration of RASgrf1 expression. In the present study, N-phthal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bao Y, Chen X, Wang L, Zhou J, Fu X, Wang X, Xiao Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

DNMT1, a Novel Regulator Mediating mTORC1/mTORC2 Pathway-Induced NGF Expression in Schwann Cells.
Abstract Schwann cells play an important role in maintaining the normal function of peripheral nerves via the secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF). The mTOR signaling pathway is known as a kind of Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates various cell functions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is an epigenetic regulator and downstream target of the mTOR pathway. In the present study, we explored the relationship between NGF expression and the mTOR pathway/DNMT1 in RSC96 cells. The results showed that both rapamycin and Torin 1 downregulated NGF expression via the inhibition of phospho-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phospho-S6K...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng M, Lv X, Zhang C, Du W, Liu Y, Zhu L, Hao J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Deciphering the Role of EGL-3 for Neuropeptides Processing in Caenorhabditis elegans Using High-Resolution Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.
The objective of this study was to decipher the role of EGL-3 in the proteolysis of FMRF amide-related peptides (FLPs) or neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs) using synthetic surrogate peptides based on a universal enzymatic cleavage pattern published by Schechter and Berger and used widely in enzymology. The results show evidence that proteolysis controls FLP-21 and NLP-8 related neuropeptide levels in C. elegans. Surrogate peptides were degraded rapidly when exposed to C. elegans S9 fractions leading to the formation of specific peptide fragments related to EGL-3 and CPL-1 pathway. The results suggest that CPL-1 pathway doe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Salem JB, Nkambeu B, Arvanitis DN, Beaudry F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Understanding the Role of ApoE Fragments in Alzheimer's Disease.
Ooi L Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative diseases. It has been known for decades that the APOE ɛ4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD and yet its precise role in the disease remains unclear. The APOE gene encodes apolipoprotein E (apoE), a 35 kDa glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. There are three different isoforms: apoE3 is the most common allele in the population, whilst apoE2 decreases, and apoE4 increases AD risk. ApoE has numerous functions that affect neuronal and non-neuronal cells, thus how it contributes to dis...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Muñoz SS, Garner B, Ooi L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alteration in NMDA Receptor Mediated Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus During Senescence.
Abstract Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in neurons and glia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainate receptors are major ionotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is strongly linked with Ca2+ homeostasis. Research has provided ample evidence that brain aging is associated with altered glutamatergic neurotransmission and Ca2+ dysregulation. Much of the work has focused on the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory, which is particularly susceptible to dysfunction during sen...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kumar A, Foster TC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glycyrrhizic Acid Alleviates 6-Hydroxydopamine and Corticosterone-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Through Modulating Autophagy.
Abstract Recent researches have shown that autophagy is associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, but there is no paper to investigate the effects of autophagy modulation on Parkinson's disease depression (PDD). In addition, glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the major bioactive ingredient of Radix glycyrrhizae, can induce autophagy and ease rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is also no paper to study the action and molecular mechanisms of GA on PDD. In this research, we built the injury model of SH-SY5Y cells through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and corticosterone (CORT). Then, ou...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang G, Li J, Cai Y, Yang Z, Li R, Fu W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RUNX2 Promotes Malignant Progression in Glioma.
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor. However, therapeutic strategies against malignant gliomas have not been completely established. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is an essential gene for skeletal development but its regulatory role in the malignant progression of glioma remains unclear. Here we investigated expression levels of RUNX2 in glioma tissues and its regulatory effects on aberrant growth of glioma cells. RUNX2 mRNA levels were higher in GBM tissues than that of normal brains or low-grade gliomas. RUNX2 protein was detected in five out of seven h...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamada D, Fujikawa K, Kawabe K, Furuta T, Nakada M, Takarada T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Time-Course Changes and New Expressions of MIP-3 α and Its Receptor, CCR6, in the Gerbil Hippocampal CA1 Area Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia.
In this study, we investigated transient ischemia-induced changes in MIP-3α and CCR6 protein expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia (tgCI) in gerbils. Both MIP-3α and CCR6 immunoreactivities were very strongly expressed in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 area from 6 h to 1 day after tgCI and were hardly shown 4 days after tgCI. In addition, strong MIP-3α immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes 6 h after tgCI. These results indicate that tgCI causes apparent changes in MIP-3α and CCR6 expressions in pyramidal neur...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Park JH, Noh Y, Kim SS, Ahn JH, Ohk TG, Cho JH, Lee TK, Kim H, Song M, Lee JC, Won MH, Lee CH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Comparison of the Role of D1- and D2-Like Receptors in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus in the Reinstatement Induced by a Subthreshold Dose of Morphine and Forced Swim Stress in Extinguished Morphine-CPP in Rats.
Abstract Reward-seeking and relapse to drug use are two characteristics of addiction and reports have indicated the role of hippocampal structures in reward learning. To find the best ways of treatment, the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of reward and its involved factors is a must. For this reason, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors and compared their activities in the CA1 region, focusing on the reinstatement induced by forced swim stress (FSS) or the combination of FSS and a subthreshold dose of morphine in extinguished morphine-CPP in r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nazari-Serenjeh F, Rezaee L, Zarrabian S, Haghparast A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of an Intraparenchymal Injection of Lidocaine in the Rat Cervical Spinal Cord.
Abstract Lidocaine effects in the spinal cord have been extensively investigated over the years. Although the intrathecal route is usually used to treat insults occurring in the spinal cord, the local delivery drug via intraparenchymal infusions has gained increasing favor for the treatment of some neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and tissue effects of the intraparenchymal injection of different concentrations of lidocaine into the rat cervical spinal cord. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraparenchymally injected with 0.5%, 1% or 2% lidocaine at the C5...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sisti MS, Zanuzzi CN, Nishida F, Cantet RJC, Portiansky EL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Monitoring of the Cytoskeleton-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Fluorescent Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Nanoparticle Pulse-Chase Experiments in C6 Glioma Cells.
In conclusion, nanoparticle pulse-chase experiments allowed to synchronize the cellular uptake of fluorescent IONPs and to identify for C6 cells an actin-dependent early and a microtubule-dependent later process in the intracellular trafficking of fluorescent IONPs. PMID: 30196349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Willmann W, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The detection of age-, gender-, and region-specific changes in mouse brain tocopherol levels via the application of different validated HPLC methods.
Vécsei L, Zádori D Abstract The aging process clearly increases the demand for antioxidant protection, especially in the brain, involving that provided by α-tocopherol (αT). However, little is known about the age-related changes in brain αT levels and the influencing effect of gender on it, in human or murine samples as well. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to detect age-, gender- and region-specific changes in αT concentrations in mouse brain tissue and to assess the influencing effect of plasma αT levels on it. Female and male C57BL/6 mice at the ages of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nánási N, Veres G, Cseh EK, Szentirmai M, Martos D, Sümegi E, Hadady L, Klivényi P, Vécsei L, Zádori D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Monophosphoryl Lipid A and Pam3Cys Prevent the Increase in Seizure Susceptibility and Epileptogenesis in Rats Undergoing Traumatic Brain Injury.
We examined the impact of early injection of MPL and Pam3Cys to rats, on the rate of kindled seizures acquisition following TBI. Rats received a single dose (1 µg/rat) of MPL or Pam3Cys through intracerebroventricular injection. 5 days later, trauma was exerted to temporo-parietal cortex of rats by controlled cortical impact device. After 24 h, traumatic rats underwent amygdala kindling. Brain level of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was also measured in traumatic rats by immunoblotting. Compared to non-traumatic (sham-operated) rats, traumatic rats showed three time...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hesam S, Khoshkholgh-Sima B, Pourbadie HG, Babapour V, Zendedel M, Sayyah M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lentivirus-Mediated Overexpression of miR-29a Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury via PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.
Abstract MicroRNAs as a novel class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs, modulate negative gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Our previous work has demonstrated that miR-29a reduces PTEN expression by directly targeting the 3'-UTRs (untranslated regions) of its mRNA, thus promoting neurite outgrowth. To further confirm the role of miR-29a in the recovery of SCI and its potential mechanisms, a recombinant lentiviral vector was used to promote miR-29a expression in the injured spinal cord. As compared with the LV-eGFP group and normal saline group, a significantly increased level of miR-29a expressio...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yin H, Shen L, Xu C, Liu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Nitric Oxide Participates in the Brain Ischemic Tolerance Induced by Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in the Hippocampal CA1 Subfield in Rats.
Abstract The order of corresponding author was inadvertently published. Hence, the first and the second corresponding authors should be Min Zhang (hebmuzhangmin@163.com) and Jing-Ge Zhang (zhangjg001@163.com). PMID: 30171421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang YJ, Yuan YJ, Liu YX, Zhang MY, Zhang JG, Wang TC, Zhang LN, Hu YY, Li L, Xian XH, Qi J, Zhang M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intestinal Pathology and Gut Microbiota Alterations in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have non-motor symptoms related to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as constipation and delayed gastric emptying, which manifest prior to the motor symptoms of PD. Increasing evidence indicates that changes in the composition of the gut microbiota may be related to the pathogenesis of PD. However, it is unclear how GI dysfunction occurs and how gut microbial dysbiosis is caused. We investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD induced by chronic low doses of MPTP is capable of reproducing the clinical intestinal pathology of PD, as well as whether gut mi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lai F, Jiang R, Xie W, Liu X, Tang Y, Xiao H, Gao J, Jia Y, Bai Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Expressions of Phosphorylation Akt/Phosphorylation mTOR/Phosphorylation PTEN in Artificial Abnormal Hippocampal Microenvironment in Rats.
Abstract Artificial abnormal microenvironment caused by microperfusion of L-glutamate (Glu) and Ca2+ in the hippocampus results in neuron damage, which is closely related to cerebral ischemia. Ginsenoside Rb1, a compound from Panax notoginseng, was previously used to counter the artificial abnormal hippocampal environment in a microperfusion model. In addition, while the Akt/mTOR/PTEN signaling pathway has been shown to mediate neuronprotection in cerebral ischemia, whether this pathway is involved in the neuroprotection of ginsenoside Rb1 is unknown. Here SH-SY5Y cells exposed to OGD/R injury in treated with LY29...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo Y, Wang LP, Li C, Xiong YX, Yan YT, Zhao LQ, Li SD, Sun J, Luo HY, Xian CJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research