Minocycline Directly Enhances the Self-Renewal of Adult Neural Precursor Cells.
In this study, we utilized a colony-forming neurosphere assay, in which neural stem cells (NSCs) clonally proliferate to form floating colonies, called neurospheres. We found that minocycline (at therapeutically relevant concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid) enhances the self-renewal capability of NSCs derived from the subependymal zone of adult mouse brain and facilitates their differentiation into oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these effects were independent of a suppression of microglial activation and were specifically observed with minocycline (among tetracycline derivatives). In addition, the size of the NSC populat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kuroda A, Fuchigami T, Fuke S, Koyama N, Ikenaka K, Hitoshi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Phylogenetically Conserved Sequences Around Myelin P0 Stop Codon are Essential for Translational Readthrough to Produce L-MPZ.
Abstract Myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ) is the main cell adhesion molecule in peripheral myelin, the sequence of which is evolutionarily highly conserved. Large myelin protein zero (L-MPZ) is a novel translational readthrough molecule in mammals in a physiological status and is encoded by the P0 mRNA with an extra domain. The sequence similarities in the L-MPZ-specific region are found in humans and frogs but not in fish P0 cDNA. Actual synthesis of L-MPZ has been detected in rat and mouse sciatic nerve but not yet evaluated in frogs and humans. The production mechanism and physiological functions of L-MPZ remain u...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamaguchi Y, Baba H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate Dehydrogenase, a Complex Enzyme at a Crucial Metabolic Branch Point.
Abstract In-vitro, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). GDH is found in all organisms, but in animals is allosterically regulated by a wide array of metabolites. For many years, it was not at all clear why animals required such complex control. Further, in both standard textbooks and some research publications, there has been some controversy as to the directionality of the reaction. Here we review recent work demonstrating that GDH operates mainly in the catabolic direction in-vivo and that the finely tuned network of allo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith HQ, Li C, Stanley CA, Smith TJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Decreased Neuron Number and Synaptic Plasticity in SIRT3-Knockout Mice with Poor Remote Memory.
Abstract The sirtuin family of proteins consists of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that are involved in the response to calorie restriction and various physiological phenomena, such as aging and cognition. One of these proteins, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), is localized in the mitochondria and protects the cell against oxidative or metabolic stress. Sirtuin protein deficiencies have been shown to accelerate neurodegeneration in neurotoxic conditions. The mechanisms underlying the involvement of SIRT3 in cognition remain unclear. Interestingly, SIRT1, another member of the sirtuin family, has been r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim H, Kim S, Choi JE, Han D, Koh SM, Kim HS, Kaang BK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: The Purine Salvage Pathway and the Restoration of Cerebral ATP: Implications for Brain Slice Physiology and Brain Injury.
PMID: 29067553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frenguelli BG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nrf2 Signaling Pathway Mediates the Antioxidative Effects of Taurine Against Corticosterone-Induced Cell Death in HUMAN SK-N-SH Cells.
Abstract Substantial evidence has shown that elevated circulating corticosteroids or chronic stress contributes to neuronal cell death, cognitive and mental disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Taurine is considered to protect neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the protective effects of taurine against corticosterone (CORT)-induced oxidative damage in SK-N-SH neuronal cells were investigated. The results showed that CORT significantly induced cell death, which was blocked by pretreatment with taurine...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun Q, Jia N, Yang J, Chen G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Fascin-1 Contributes to Neuropathic Pain by Promoting Inflammation in Rat Spinal Cord.
Abstract Neuropathic pain is a complicated clinical syndrome caused by heterogeneous etiology. Despite the fact that the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, it is well accepted that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, has been proved to be involved in the processing of diverse biological events including cellular development, immunity, and tumor invasion etc. Recent studies have shown that Fascin-1 participates in antigen presentation and the regulation of pro-inflammatory agents. However, whether Fascin-1 is involved in neuropathic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang B, Fan B, Dai Q, Xu X, Jiang P, Zhu L, Dai H, Yao Z, Xu Z, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Amyloid Precursor Protein Through Synapsin Phosphorylation.
In this study, we investigated presynaptic changes in APP knockout (KO) mice. We demonstrate that both sucrose-induced neurotransmission and synaptic depletion in response to high frequency stimulation are significantly enhanced in APP KO compared to wild type littermates. In addition, the level of phosphorylated forms of synapsins, but not total synapsins, is elevated in the KO mice. Furthermore, we show that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels normalizes phosphorylated synapsins and slows down the high frequency induced synaptic depletion in APP KO mice. These results suggest a new mechanism by which APP regulates ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu A, Zhang Y, Han L, He G, Xie W, Zhou Z, Jia Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Delineation of the Role of Astroglial GABA Transporters in Seizure Control.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In Fig. 1 two chemical structures are incorrect, namely exo-THPO and N-methyl-exo-THPO. The hydroxyl group (-OH) in the isoxazole ring is missing. The corrected Fig. 1 is given below. PMID: 29043583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A, Madsen KK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal Acetylation may Improve Prenatal-Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behavior of Male Offspring Rats Through Regulating AMPARs Expression.
This study is to determine the role and mechanism of hippocampal acetylation in prenatal stress (PS) induced depression-like behavior of male offspring rats. PS-induced depression rat model was established. Sucrose preference and forced swim test were used to observe the behavior changes of male offspring rats. Hippocampal acetylation was induced by Trichostatin A injection. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the changes of AMPARs in acetylated hippocampus. The behavioral tests proved that AMPA was involved in the PS-induced depression-like behavior in offspring rats. Hippocampal acetylation...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lu Y, Zhang J, Zhang L, Dang S, Su Q, Zhang H, Lin T, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Sun H, Zhu Z, Li H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Concanavalin A Induces Cortical Neuron Apoptosis by Causing ROS Accumulation and Tyrosine Kinase Activation.
Abstract The lectin, concanavalin A (Con A), is the most extensively investigated member of the lectin family of plant proteins, but its effects on cortical neurons and astrocytes are poorly understood. In cultured cortical neurons and astrocytes, Con A exhibited dose-dependent neurotoxicity, but this was not observed in astrocytes. Similarly, in the cortical areas of rat brains, intracranial administration of Con A caused neuronal but no astrocyte damage. Methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside, a competitor of Con A, blocked Con A-induced cell death, whereas AMPA/KA receptor antagonists showed partial blocking effects....
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jang S, Yayeh T, Leem YH, Park EM, Ito Y, Oh S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lewis X-Carrying Neoglycolipids Evoke Selective Apoptosis in Neural Stem Cells.
Abstract N-glycans carrying the Lewis X trisaccharide [Galβ1-4 (Fucα1-3) GlcNAc] are expressed by neural stem cells (NSCs) exclusively before differentiation, and they actively contribute to the maintenance of stemness of these cells. To address the functional roles of the Lewis X-mediated molecular interactions in NSCs, we created a series of synthetic neoglycolipids that contained a Lewis X-carrying glycan connected to an acyl chain through an amide bond. The neoglycolipids formed aqueous micelles displaying functional Lewis X glycotopes. Surprisingly, the neoglycolipid micelles evoked selective apopt...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yagi H, Yan G, Suzuki T, Tsuge S, Yamaguchi T, Kato K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Deep Sequencing Reveals the Significant Involvement of cAMP-Related Signaling Pathways Following Sciatic Nerve Crush.
Abstract Peripheral nerve injury and regeneration is a complex biological process jointly mediated by numerous factors. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modifies the cellular behaviors of neurons and Schwann cells, and thus may contribute to peripheral nerve regeneration. Despite the importance of cAMP, the temporal and spatial expressions of genes involved in cAMP-related signaling pathways during peripheral nerve regeneration remain unclear. In the current study, by using rat sciatic nerve crush model, we analyzed previously obtained RNA deep sequencing data, explored the significance of cAMP-mediated signa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu J, Wang S, Wu C, Yi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin and Swimming Exercise Protects Against Cognitive Decline: A Study on M1 Acetylcholine Receptors in Aging Male Rat Brain.
Abstract Decline in cognition is one of the earliest signs of normal brain aging. Several dietary and non-pharmacological approaches have been tested to slow down this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) either individually or in combination with swimming training on acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) and m1 acetylcholine receptor (m1AChR) on the extent of cognitive decline with aging. The experimental protocol included the oral administration of GSPE (400 mg/kg body weight) for 14 weeks to 4 (adult) and 18-month-old (middle-aged)...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abhijit S, Subramanyam MVV, Devi SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK Signaling Promote Different Aspects of Neuron Survival and Axonal Regrowth Following Rat Facial Nerve Axotomy.
Abstract The ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways play important role in neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relative importance and degree of functional overlap of the two pathways are still debated due to lack of in-vivo data. We used rats which underwent a facial nerve axotomy, and examined subsequent ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling activity by quantifying phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. We also assessed the survival rate of facial neurons, number of regenerated axons, and the length of axonal regrowth in axotomized animals treated with an inhibitor of ERK/M...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang H, Liu H, Yan R, Hu M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Potentiate 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Stimulation and Glucose Uptake Triggered by Thapsigargin-Induced Store-Operated Ca(2+) Entry in Human Neuroblastoma Cells.
Abstract The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of the cellular energy metabolism and may induce either cell survival or death. We previously reported that in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) activate AMPK by triggering store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). However, whether mAChRs may control AMPK activity by regulating additional mechanisms beyond SOCE remains to be investigated. In the present study we examined the effects of mAChRs on AMPK when SOCE was induced by the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olianas MC, Dedoni S, Onali P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Temporal Changes in Transcription Factor Expression Associated with the Differentiation State of Cerebellar Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells During Development.
Abstract During central nervous development, multi-potent neural stem/progenitor cells located in the ventricular/subventricular zones are temporally regulated to mostly produce neurons during early developmental stages and to produce glia during later developmental stages. After birth, the rodent cerebellum undergoes further dramatic development. It is also known that neural stem/progenitor cells are present in the white matter (WM) of the postnatal cerebellum until around P10, although the fate of these cells has yet to be determined. In the present study, it was revealed that primary neurospheres generated from...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Naruse M, Shibasaki K, Ishizaki Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Unconventional Myosin ID is Involved in Remyelination After Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination.
Abstract Myelin, which is a multilamellar structure that sheathes the axon, is essential for normal neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes (OLs), which wrap their plasma membrane around axons. The dynamic membrane trafficking system, which relies on motor proteins, is required for myelin formation and maintenance. Previously, we reported that myosin ID (Myo1d) is distributed in rat CNS myelin and is especially enriched in the outer and inner cytoplasm-containing loops. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment highlighted the involvement of Myo1d in th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamazaki R, Baba H, Yamaguchi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Origin of Oligodendrocytes in the Vertebrate Optic Nerve: A Review.
Abstract One of the unsolved problems in the research field of oligodendrocyte (OL) development has been the site(s) of origin of optic nerve OLs and its precursor cells (OPCs). It is generally accepted that OLs in the optic nerve are derived from the brain, and thus optic nerve OLs are immigrant cells. We previously demonstrated the brain origin of optic nerve OPCs in chick embryos. However, the site of optic nerve OPC origin has not been examined experimentally in developing rodents for the past two decades. We have recently reported that optic nerve OPCs in mice arise in the preoptic area by E12.5 and gradually...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ono K, Hirahara Y, Gotoh H, Nomura T, Takebayashi H, Yamada H, Ikenaka K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Peroxynitrite-Induced Tyrosine Nitration Contributes to Matrix Metalloprotease-3 Activation: Relevance to Hyperglycemic Ischemic Brain Injury and Tissue Plasminogen Activator.
Abstract Matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP3) activation mediates the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced hemorrhagic transformation after stroke. Hyperglycemia (HG) further exacerbates this outcome. We have recently shown that HG increases MMP3 activity in the brain after stroke. However, the combined HG-tPA effect on MMP3 activation, and the mechanisms through which MMP3 is activated were not previously reported. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that tPA and HG increases MMP3 activity in the brain after stroke through peroxynitrite induced tyrosine nitration. Normoglycemic and mildly hyperglycemic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hafez S, Abdelsaid M, Fagan SC, Ergul A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Nerve Growth Factor Ameliorate Diabetic Cystopathy in Rats.
Abstract Diabetic cystopathy is a common complication of voiding disorders in diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy and bladder remodeling underlie the lack of efficacy of pharmacological and surgical treatments. Previous studies have shown that decreased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) are closely associated with disease progression. Besides, application of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) is also considered a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. In our study, we determine the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of hUC-MSCs which transfected with NGF geen in ameli...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: WenBo W, Fei Z, YiHeng D, Wei W, TingMang Y, WenHao Z, QianRu L, HaiTao L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differential Molecular Targets for Neuroprotective Effect of Chlorogenic Acid and its Related Compounds Against Glutamate Induced Excitotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Cortical Neurons.
Abstract The present study has been designed to explore the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway targets of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its main hydrolysates, caffeic (CA) and quinic acid in the protective effect against glutamate-excitotoxicity. For this purpose 8-DIV cortical neurons in primary culture were exposed to 50 μM L-glutamic acid plus 10 µM glycine, with or without 10-100 μM tested compounds. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid via their antioxidant properties inhibited cell death induced by glutamate in dose depended manner. However, quinic acid slightly protects neurons a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rebai O, Belkhir M, Sanchez-Gomez MV, Matute C, Fattouch S, Amri M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Genomics-Guided Precise Anti-Epileptic Drug Development.
PMID: 28936619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Delanty N, Cavalleri G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Necrostatin-1 Mitigates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress After Spinal Cord Injury.
Abstract Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) has been shown to inhibit necroptosis and convey a significant protective effect after spinal cord injury (SCI). This small molecule inhibitor may reduce tissue damage and restore neurological function by lessening mitochondrial injury after SCI and preserving energy homeostasis. However, the effects of Nec-1 on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-an important pathological consequence of SCI-are still not clear. The present study investigates the relationship between necroptosis and ERS in a rat model of SCI. Electron microscopy was employed to observe ultra-structural changes in the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang S, Wu J, Zeng YZ, Wu SS, Deng GR, Chen ZD, Lin B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Yokukansan Reduces Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination in the Corpus Callosum Through Anti-inflammatory Effects on Microglia.
In this study, female C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% cuprizone (bis-cyclohexanone oxaldihydrazone) to induce demyelination in the corpus callosum. We investigated whether or not yokukansan reduces cuprizone-induced demyelination using immunohistochemical analyses. Furthermore, we examined the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of yokukansan on LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, a murine microglial cell line. Luxol fast blue staining and immunostaining for myelin basic protein demonstrated that yokukansan reduces demyelination of the corpora callosa of cuprizone-fed mice. In addition, yokukansan significantly decreased...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nomura T, Bando Y, You H, Tanaka T, Yoshida S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Betaine in the Brain: Characterization of Betaine Uptake, its Influence on Other Osmolytes and its Potential Role in Neuroprotection from Osmotic Stress.
Abstract Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specificall...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Knight LS, Piibe Q, Lambie I, Perkins C, Yancey PH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oligodendrocyte-Neuron Interactions: Impact on Myelination and Brain Function.
Abstract In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understan...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shimizu T, Osanai Y, Ikenaka K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Stress Causes Sex-Specific and Structure-Specific Alterations in Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Activity in Rat Brain.
This study aimed to investigate the CRS effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, as well as mitochondrial potential and mass in cell body and synapses using hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male and female rats. Rats were divided into non-stressed (control) and stressed group (CRS during 40 days). Results showed that CRS increased complex I-III activity in hippocampus. We also observed an interaction between CRS and sex in the striatal complex II activity, since CRS induced a reduction in complex II activity in males, while in females this activity was increased. Also an interaction was observed between...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Souza Mota C, Weis SN, Almeida RF, Dalmaz C, Guma FTC, Pettenuzzo LF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Re Protects Trimethyltin-Induced Neurotoxicity via Activation of IL-6-Mediated Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling in Mice.
Abstract Ginseng (Panax ginseng), an herbal medicine, has been used to prevent neurodegenerative disorders. Ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, or Rg1) were obtained from Korean mountain cultivated ginseng. The anticonvulsant activity of ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg/day × 3) against trimethyltin (TMT) insult was the most pronounced out of ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, and Rg1). Re itself did not significantly alter tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-ϒ (IFN-ϒ), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, however, it significantly increases the interleukin-6 (IL-6) ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tu TT, Sharma N, Shin EJ, Tran HQ, Lee YJ, Jeong JH, Jeong JH, Nah SY, Tran HP, Byun JK, Ko SK, Kim HC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neural Progenitor Cells Undergoing Yap/Tead-Mediated Enhanced Self-Renewal Form Heterotopias More Easily in the Diencephalon than in the Telencephalon.
Abstract Spatiotemporally ordered production of cells is essential for brain development. Normally, most undifferentiated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) face the apical (ventricular) surface of embryonic brain walls. Pathological detachment of NPCs from the apical surface and their invasion of outer neuronal territories, i.e., formation of NPC heterotopias, can disrupt the overall structure of the brain. Although NPC heterotopias have previously been observed in a variety of experimental contexts, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1) and the TEA domain (Tead) proteins, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Saito K, Kawasoe R, Sasaki H, Kawaguchi A, Miyata T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cytochrome P450 2D6 and Parkinson's Disease: Polymorphism, Metabolic Role, Risk and Protection.
Abstract Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is one of the most highly active, oxidative and polymorphic enzymes known to metabolize Parkinsonian toxins and clinically established anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) drugs. Albeit CYP2D6 gene is not present in rodents, its orthologs perform almost the similar function with imprecise substrate and inhibitor specificity. CYP2D6 expression and catalytic activity are found to be regulated at every stage of the central dogma except replication as well as at the epigenetic level. CYP2D6 gene codes for a set of alternate splice variants that give rise to a range of enzymes possessing var...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ur Rasheed MS, Mishra AK, Singh MP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Activities of Spirulina platensis in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease Are Related to Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects.
In conclusion, we showed that behavioral and neurochemical alterations in hemiparkinsonian rats were partly reversed by SPI, characterizing the neuroprotective potential of Spirulina and stimulating translational studies focusing on its use as an alternative treatment for PD. PMID: 28861668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lima FAV, Joventino IP, Joventino FP, de Almeida AC, Neves KRT, do Carmo MR, Leal LKAM, de Andrade GM, de Barros Viana GS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SOD1 Mutations Causing Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Induce Toxicity in Astrocytes: Evidence for Bystander Effects in a Continuum of Astrogliosis.
Abstract Astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons via non-cell autonomous mechanisms of injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) underlie the neuropathology of some forms of familial ALS, we explored how expression of mutant SOD1 protein A4V SOD1-EGFP affected the biology of secondary murine astrocytes. A4V SOD1-EGFP expressing astrocytes (72 h after transfection) displayed decreased mitochondrial activity (~45%) and L-glutamate transport (~25%), relative to cells expressing wild-type SOD1-EGFP. A4V SOD1-EGFP altered F-act...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wallis N, Lau CL, Farg MA, Atkin JD, Beart PM, O'Shea RD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Estrogen Receptor β Mediated Neuroprotective Efficacy of Cicer microphyllum Seed Extract in Global Hypoxia.
Estrogen Receptor β Mediated Neuroprotective Efficacy of Cicer microphyllum Seed Extract in Global Hypoxia. Neurochem Res. 2017 Aug 31;: Authors: Sharma D, Biswal SN, Kumar K, Bhardwaj P, Barhwal KK, Kumar A, Hota SK, Chaurasia OP Abstract Hypoxia induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus has been implicated for memory impairment in conditions like stroke, ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia. The present study, aimed at investigating the potential of ethanolic extract of Cicer microphyllum seeds (CSE) for amelioration of global hypoxia induced neurodegeneration in CA1 region of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sharma D, Biswal SN, Kumar K, Bhardwaj P, Barhwal KK, Kumar A, Hota SK, Chaurasia OP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Capsaicin Protects Against Oxidative Insults and Alleviates Behavioral Deficits in Rats with 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinson's Disease via Activation of TRPV1.
This study investigated the potential neuroprotective role of capsaicin in a rat model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). Capsaicin was treated intraperitoneally for the 6-OHDA induced PD rats and the locomotor activity and abnormal involuntary movements were found alleviated. Besides, brain oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and catalase) was also assessed, and oxidative insults were investigated relieved. Both the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and TRPV1 were increased in the striatal and substantia nigra areas of 6-OHDA induced rats after the treatment of capsaici...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao Z, Wang J, Wang L, Yao X, Liu Y, Li Y, Chen S, Yue T, Wang X, Yu W, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

GluA4 Dependent Plasticity Mechanisms Contribute to Developmental Synchronization of the CA3-CA1 Circuitry in the Hippocampus.
Abstract During the course of development, molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity change considerably. At immature CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, PKA-driven synaptic insertion of GluA4 AMPA receptors is the predominant mechanism for synaptic strengthening. However, the physiological significance of the developmentally restricted GluA4-dependent plasticity mechanisms is poorly understood. Here we have used microelectrode array (MEA) recordings in GluA4 deficient slice cultures to study the role of GluA4 in early development of the hippocampal circuit function. We find that duri...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Atanasova T, Kharybina Z, Kaarela T, Huupponen J, Luchkina NV, Taira T, Lauri SE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Extracellular Cytosolic Aspartate Aminotransferase Promotes Axonal Growth and Object Recognition Memory.
Abstract Previous proteome analysis studies from other groups have shown that cAST might be secreted from neurons and that cAST was detected in human cerebrospinal fluid. However, none of these studies focused on its role or significance. We therefore investigated the role of extracellular cAST for neurons. cAST was detected in conditioned medium from cultured cortical neurons, but not in fresh medium. Recombinant cAST treatment of cortical neurons significantly extended axonal length. Continuous intracerebroventricular administration of recombinant cAST in normal mice for 14 days significantly enhanced objec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kobayashi R, Tohda C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anti-glioma Activity of Dapsone and Its Enhancement by Synthetic Chemical Modification.
Abstract The sulfone dapsone is an old antibiotic used for the treatment of mycobacterial and protozoal infections. We postulated before that dapsone might possess biological activity exceeding its anti-infectious properties and that it could potentially be repurposed for the treatment of glioma. To test this hypothesis, we treated established and primary cultured glioma cells with dapsone or several dapsone analogues which we previously synthesized (D2-D5) and determined effects on proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and migration. While dapsone and its synthetic analogues D2-D5 displayed only modest anti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karpel-Massler G, Kast RE, Siegelin MD, Dwucet A, Schneider E, Westhoff MA, Wirtz CR, Chen XY, Halatsch ME, Bolm C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antioxidative and Anti-Apoptotic Roles of Silibinin in Reversing Learning and Memory Deficits in APP/PS1 Mice.
Abstract Silibinin has been widely used to treat liver diseases due to its antioxidant activity. However, the effects of silibinin on the central nervous system have not been thoroughly investigated. The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are the accumulation of amyloid β protein, development of neurofibrillary tangles and increased oxidative stress, which ultimately lead to irreversible neuronal loss and cognitive impairment. Our findings show that silibinin ameliorated memory impairments in APP/PS1 mice in the Morris water maze via suppression of oxidative stress and inhibition of apoptosis. Trea...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bai D, Jin G, Yin S, Zou D, Zhu Q, Yang Z, Liu X, Ren L, Sun Y, Gan S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

N-Acetylcysteine Prevents the Increase in Spontaneous Oxidation of Dopamine During Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition in PC12 Cells.
This study examined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of the anti-oxidant glutathione, attenuates the increase in Cys-DA production during MAO inhibition. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were incubated with NAC, the MAO-B inhibitor selegiline, or both. Selegiline decreased DOPAL and increased Cys-DA levels (p 
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Goldstein DS, Jinsmaa Y, Sullivan P, Sharabi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Promotes Amyloid-Beta Pathogenesis via Activating β/γ-Secretases.
Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Promotes Amyloid-Beta Pathogenesis via Activating β/γ-Secretases. Neurochem Res. 2017 Aug 24;: Authors: Cai Z, Liu Z, Xiao M, Wang C, Tian F Abstract Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) contributes to the Alzheimer's-like pathogenesis, but the relationship between CCH and the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains obscure. The aim is to elucidate the potential pathophysiological mechanism in the field of amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology induced by CCH. A rat model of CCH has been developed with permanent bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cai Z, Liu Z, Xiao M, Wang C, Tian F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Future Vocation of Neural Stem Cells: Lineage Commitment in Brain Development and Evolution.
Abstract Understanding the fate commitment of neural stem cells is critical to identify the regulatory mechanisms in developing brains. Genetic lineage-tracing has provided a powerful strategy to unveil the heterogeneous nature of stem cells and their descendants. However, recent studies have reported controversial data regarding the heterogeneity of neural stem cells in the developing mouse neocortex, which prevents a decisive conclusion on this issue. Here, we review the progress that has been made using lineage-tracing analyses of the developing neocortex and discuss stem cell heterogeneity from the viewpoint o...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nomura T, Gotoh H, Ono K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Purinergic Antagonism Prevents Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Behavioral Deficits Associated with Dopaminergic Toxicity Induced by 6-OHDA in Rats.
Abstract Purinoceptors are present in neurons, microglia and oligodendrocytes and regulate dopamine (DA) release, striatal-related function and striatal neuronal and DA cells damage. Therefore, purinoceptors may be involved in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and purinergic antagonism may show neuroprotective effect. The study investigated the role of the non-selective purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2('), 4(')-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and a selective purinergic receptor P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) against 6-OHDA induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats; ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kumar S, Mishra A, Krishnamurthy S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Purine Salvage Pathway and the Restoration of Cerebral ATP: Implications for Brain Slice Physiology and Brain Injury.
Abstract Brain slices have been the workhorse for many neuroscience labs since the pioneering work of Henry McIlwain in the 1950s. Their utility is undisputed and their acceptance as appropriate models for the central nervous system is widespread, if not universal. However, the skeleton in the closet is that ATP levels in brain slices are lower than those found in vivo, which may have important implications for cellular physiology and plasticity. Far from this being a disadvantage, the ATP-impoverished slice can serve as a useful and experimentally-tractable surrogate for the injured brain, which experiences simil...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frenguelli BG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Puerarin and Amlodipine Improvement of D-Galactose-Induced Impairments of Behaviour and Neurogenesis in Mouse Dentate Gyrus: Correlation with Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression.
In this study, we hypothesized that hypotensors could alleviate the decline of GR gene expression and ameliorate age-induced learning and memory deficits in a D-gal-induced ageing mice model. In line with our hypothesis, we found that chronic D-gal treatment decreased GR and DCX expression in the hippocampus, leading to learning and memory deficits. Amlodipine (AM) and puerarin (PU) treatment improved GR gene expression decline in the hippocampus and ameliorated the learning and memory deficits of D-gal-treated mice. These changes correlated with enhanced DCX expression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expressi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li X, Ma J, Xu J, Zhu D, Li A, Che Y, Chen D, Feng X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of Unconventional Myosin VI in Oligodendrocytes.
In this study, to analyze expression of Myo6 in oligodendrocytes, we performed immunofluorescence analysis on brains of adult normal and cuprizone-induced demyelination mice. Myo6 expression was detected in mature oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the cerebellum and corpus callosum. To compare temporal expression patterns of myosin superfamily members in vitro, double immunostainings using anti-Myo6, myosin Va (Myo5a), or Myo1d with each stage-specific oligodendrocyte marker antibody were performed. In cultured oligodendrocytes, although Myo1d was found only in mature oligodendrocytes, Myo6 and Myo5a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamazaki R, Ishibashi T, Baba H, Yamaguchi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Dimeric PSD-95 Inhibition on Excitotoxic Cell Death and Outcome After Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats.
The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of a dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, UCCB01-144, on excitotoxic cell death in vitro and outcome after experimental TBI in rats in vivo. In addition, the pharmacokinetic parameters of UCCB01-144 were investigated in order to assess uptake of the drug into the central nervous system of rats. After a controlled cortical impact rats were randomized to receive a single injection of either saline or two different doses of UCCB01-144 (10 or 20 mg/kg IV) immediately after injury. Spatial learning and memory were assessed in a water maze at 2 weeks post-trauma, a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sommer JB, Bach A, Malá H, Gynther M, Bjerre AS, Gram MG, Marschner L, Strømgaard K, Mogensen J, Pickering DS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Oligomer Hypothesis in α-Synucleinopathy.
This report reviews the recent findings regarding the oligomer hypothesis in the research of α-synucleinopathies. PMID: 28828740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ono K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Do Evolutionary Changes in Astrocytes Contribute to the Computational Power of the Hominid Brain?
Abstract It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of as...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oberheim Bush NA, Nedergaard M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Leptin Regulation of Synaptic Function at Hippocampal TA-CA1 and SC-CA1 Synapses: Implications for Health and Disease.
Abstract Growing evidence indicates that the endocrine hormone leptin regulates hippocampal synaptic function in addition to its established role as a hypothalamic satiety signal. Indeed, numerous studies show that leptin facilitates the cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking, indicating that leptin may be a potential cognitive enhancer. Although there has been extensive investigation into the modulatory role of leptin at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses, recent evidence indicates that leptin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McGregor G, Harvey J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research