The Struggle to Make CNS Axons Regenerate: Why Has It Been so Difficult?
Abstract Axon regeneration in the CNS is inhibited by many extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Because these act in parallel, no single intervention has been sufficient to enable full regeneration of damaged axons in the adult mammalian CNS. In the external environment, NogoA and CSPGs are strongly inhibitory to the regeneration of adult axons. CNS neurons lose intrinsic regenerative ability as they mature: embryonic but not mature neurons can grow axons for long distances when transplanted into the adult CNS, and regeneration fails with maturity in in vitro axotomy models. The causes of this loss of regeneration inc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fawcett JW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Binding Mechanisms and Inhibitory Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on AChE In Vitro and In Vivo: Kinetic Analysis and Molecular Docking.
This study on anesthetic agents that are now widely used in surgical applications, have provided a molecular basis for investigating the drug-enzyme interactions mechanism. In addition, the study is important in understanding the molecular mechanism of inhibitors that are effective in the treatment of AD. PMID: 31385137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Işık M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apelin-13 Protects PC12 Cells Against Methamphetamine-Induced Oxidative Stress, Autophagy and Apoptosis.
In this study, PC12 cells were exposed to both METH (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 mmol/L) and Apelin-13 (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 μmol/L) in vitro for 24 h to measure determined dose, and then downstream pathways were measured to investigate apoptosis, autophagy, and ROS responses. The results have indicated that Apelin-13 decreased the apoptotic response post-METH exposure in PC12 cells by increasing cell viability, reducing apoptotic rates. In addition, the study has revealed Apelin-13 decreased gene expression of Beclin-1 by Real-Time PCR and LC3-II by western blotting in METH-induced PC12 cells, which demonstrat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Foroughi K, Khaksari M, Rahmati M, Bitaraf FS, Shayannia A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Diagnostic Efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in Peripheral Nerve Injury Models.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in two different peripheral neuropathic pain models using the injured rat sciatic nerves. Twelve rats, with operation on left sciatic nerves, were evenly divided into three groups: sham surgery (control group), crushing injury and chronic constriction injury (CCI) (experimental groups). The nerve damage was assessed at 3 weeks postoperatively using following methods: paw withdrawal threshold values (RevWT), maximum standardized uptake values on PET/MRI images (SUVR), and counting the number of myelinated axons in proxima...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nam JW, Lee MJ, Kim HJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Experimental Characterization of the Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain Model in Mice.
This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition. PMID: 31376053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gopalsamy B, Sambasevam Y, Zulazmi NA, Chia JSM, Omar Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Perimal EK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NGF, BDNF and Arc mRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of Rats After Administration of Morphine.
Abstract Morphine can influence immediate early genes (IEG) of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which are activated in response to physiological stimuli during learning, as well as the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene which increases the expression of several IEGs for memory formation. The purpose of the current study was first to evaluate the effect of acute (1-day) and subchronic (15-days) morphine administration on memory retrieval of rats and second to determine the hippocampal expression of NGF, BDNF and Arc genes as potential contributors in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rouhani F, Khodarahmi P, Naseh V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of SPTLC2 on Promoting Neuronal Apoptosis is Alleviated by MiR-124-3p Through TLR4 Signalling Pathway.
Abstract To investigate the role and mechanism of microRNA-124-3p (miR-124-3p) and serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 2 (SPTLC2) in neuronal apoptosis induced by mechanical injury. Transient transfection was used to modify the expression of miR-124-3p and SPTLC2. After transfection, neuronal apoptosis was evaluated in an in vitro injury model of primary neurons using TUNEL staining and western blot. The correlation between miR-124-3p and SPTLC2 was identified through a dual luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. A rescue experiment in primary neurons was performed to further confirm the result...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Su X, Ye Y, Yang Y, Zhang K, Bai W, Chen H, Kang E, Kong C, He X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

GLAST Activity is Modified by Acute Manganese Exposure in Bergmann Glial Cells.
ilde;uelos TN, Ortega A Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. It exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors expressed in neurons and glial cells. Overactivation of glutamate receptors results in neuronal death, known as excitotoxicity. A family of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters enriched in glial cells are responsible of the vast majority of the removal of this amino acid form the synaptic cleft. Therefore, a precise and exquisite regulation of these proteins is required not only for a proper glutamatergic transm...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Escalante M, Soto-Verdugo J, Hernández-Kelly LC, Hernández-Melchor D, López-Bayghen E, Olivares-Bañuelos TN, Ortega A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy.
gh B, Vizi ES Abstract The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lakatos M, Baranyi M, Erőss L, Nardai S, Török TL, Sperlágh B, Vizi ES Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Methamphetamine Exposure on Fear Learning and Memory in Adult and Adolescent Rats.
Abstract Methamphetamine (meth) use is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with both conditions predominant during adolescence. Conditioned fear extinction is the most widely used model to study the fear learning and regulation that are relevant for anxiety disorders. The present study investigates how meth binge injections or meth self-administration affect subsequent fear conditioning, extinction and retrieval in adult and adolescent rats. In experiment 1, postnatal day 35 (P35-adolescent) and P70 (adult) rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of meth across 9 days. At P50 or P85, the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luikinga SJ, Perry CJ, Madsen HB, Lawrence AJ, Kim JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Genetic Difference of Hypothyroidism-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in C57BL/6j and 129/Sv Mice.
Abstract Adult-onset hypothyroidism induces cognitive impairments in learning and memory. Thyroxin (T4) replacement therapy appears to be effective in biochemically restoring euthyroidism, as evidenced by serum T4 and triiodothyronine concentrations within the normal range, although some the patients still exhibit cognitive dysfunctions. Here, we investigated the cognitive functions of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid mice in C57BL/6j and 129/Sv strains using the passive avoidance task and the novel object recognition test. Cognitive dysfunctions in hypothyroid mice were found only in the C57BL/6j strain, not ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu YX, Sun Y, Cheng J, Xia Q, Liu TT, Zhu DF, Xu Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Identification of Key Genes and Pathways Involved in the Heterogeneity of Intrinsic Growth Ability Between Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.
This study identified DEG candidate genes and pathways involved in the heterogeneity of the intrinsic growth ability between neurons after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration, and these candidate genes and pathways could be therapeutic targets for the treatment of CNS injury. PMID: 31325155 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu H, Han G, Li H, Liang X, Hu D, Zhang L, Tang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Enhances Autophagy and Reduces Apoptosis to Promote Locomotor Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we discovered that MT treatment improved motor function recovery in a rat SCI model. Indeed, MT upregulated the expression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), while expression of protein kinase B (AKT) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated after SCI. Additionally, MT increased the expression of autophagy-activating proteins, while the expression of apoptosis-activating proteins in neurons was decreased following SCI. Furthermore, autophagy was inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in SCI model rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary neurons by treatment with MT, th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Y, Guo Y, Fan Y, Tian H, Li K, Mei X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex are Critical for the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain.
Abstract The mechanisms underlying chronic and neuropathic pain pathology involve peripheral and central sensitisation. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seems to participate in pain chronification, and glutamatergic neurotransmission may be involved in this process. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the participation of the prelimbic (PrL) area of the mPFC in neuropathic pain as well as the role of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in neuropathic pain induced by a modified sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) protocol in Wistar rats. Neural inputs to the PrL cortex we...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Medeiros P, Negrini-Ferrari SE, Palazzo E, Maione S, Ferreira SH, de Freitas RL, Coimbra NC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Methanolic Extract of Avocado Persea americana (var. Colinred) Peel on Paraquat-Induced Locomotor Impairment, Lipid Peroxidation and Shortage of Life Span in Transgenic knockdown Parkin Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, finding new antioxidant sources might be beneficial for its treatment. Avocado Persea americana is a fruit widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. Although avocado by-products in the form of peel, seed coat and seeds are currently of no commercial use, they constitute a natural source of bioactive compounds. Methanolic (80%) extract obtained from lyophilized ground peels, seed coats, and seeds of the avocado Hass, Fuerte, Reed and Colinred varieties were analyzed for ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ortega-Arellano HF, Jimenez-Del-Rio M, Velez-Pardo C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Noscapine, a Non-addictive Opioid and Microtubule-Inhibitor in Potential Treatment of Glioblastoma.
Abstract Noscapine is a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid that easily traverses the blood brain barrier and has been used for years as an antitussive agent with high safety. Despite binding opioid receptors, noscapine lacks significant hypnotic and euphoric effects rendering it safe in terms of addictive potential. In 1954, Hans Lettré first described noscapine as a mitotic poison. The drug was later tested for cancer treatment in the early 1960's, yet no effect was observed likely as a result of its short biological half-life and limited water solubility. Since 1998, it has regained interest thanks to studie...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Altinoz MA, Topcu G, Hacimuftuoglu A, Ozpinar A, Ozpinar A, Hacker E, Elmaci İ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signalling Induces Casein Kinase 1-Dependent Formation of Cytosolic TDP-43 Inclusions in Motor Neuron-Like Cells.
This study focused on the induction of cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor tunicamycin induced casein kinase 1 (CK1)-dependent cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in differentiated NSC-34 cells, as seen by immunocytochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that induction of ER stress had no effect on abundance of TDP-43 or phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA soluble fraction. However, there were significant increases in abundance of TDP-43 and phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA-insoluble, urea-soluble fraction, including hi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hicks DA, Cross LL, Williamson R, Rattray M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Licorisoflavan A Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effect in Mice: Involvement of BDNF-TrkB Pathway and AMPA Receptors.
In this study, the antidepressant-like effect and neural mechanism of licorisoflavan A were explored. In the mice behavioral despair test, we observed that licorisoflavan A exhibited powerful antidepressant-like effect in forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), without affecting locomotor activity in open field test (OFT). Additionally, licorisoflavan A administration significantly restored Chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced changes in sucrose preference test (SPT), FST, and TST, without altering the locomotion in OFT. In chronical-stimulated mice, the licorisoflavan A treatment effectively attenuated the ex...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao D, Liu L, Li Y, Ruan J, Wang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Curcumin Acts as Post-protective Effects on Rat Hippocampal Synaptosomes in a Neuronal Model of Aluminum-Induced Toxicity.
Abstract The neurotoxic effects of aluminum are generally associated with reduced antioxidant capacity, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, which lead to the induction of neurodegenerative processes. Curcumin has a lipophilic polyphenol character and effects of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic. The present study was undertaken to examine possible aluminum exposure in rats brain synaptosomes and to investigate whether protective and therapeutic effects of curcumin on biochemical and morphological changes in both pre- and post-treated groups. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) at 50 µM concentration and curcum...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kar F, Hacioglu C, Uslu S, Kanbak G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocytic Endocannabinoids Mediate Hippocampal Transient Heterosynaptic Depression.
Abstract Astrocytes are highly dynamic cells that modulate synaptic transmission within a temporal domain of seconds to minutes in physiological contexts such as Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Heterosynaptic Depression (HSD). Recent studies have revealed that astrocytes also modulate a faster form of synaptic activity (milliseconds to seconds) known as Transient Heterosynaptic Depression (tHSD). However, the mechanism underlying astrocytic modulation of tHSD is not fully understood. Are the traditional gliotransmitters ATP or glutamate released via hemichannels/vesicles or are other, yet, unexplored pathways inv...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith NA, Bekar LK, Nedergaard M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Possible Existence of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Hippocampal (HPH) Axis: A Reciprocal Relationship Between Hippocampal Specific Neuroestradiol Synthesis and Neuroblastosis in Ageing Brains with Special Reference to Menopause and Neurocognitive Disorders.
Abstract The hippocampus-derived neuroestradiol plays a major role in neuroplasticity, independent of circulating estradiol that originates from gonads. The response of hypothalamus-pituitary regions towards the synthesis of neuroestradiol in the hippocampus is an emerging scientific concept in cognitive neuroscience. Hippocampal plasticity has been proposed to be regulated via neuroblasts, a major cellular determinant of functional neurogenesis in the adult brain. Defects in differentiation, integration and survival of neuroblasts in the hippocampus appear to be an underlying cause of neurocognitive disorders. Go...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kandasamy M, Radhakrishnan RK, Poornimai Abirami GP, Roshan SA, Yesudhas A, Balamuthu K, Prahalathan C, Shanmugaapriya S, Moorthy A, Essa MM, Anusuyadevi M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

UPLC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Reveals the Protective Mechanism of Hydrogen on Mice with Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract As a reductive gas, hydrogen plays an antioxidant role by selectively scavenging oxygen free radicals. It has been reported that hydrogen has protective effects against nerve damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion in stroke, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydrogen on stroke-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury and its detailed mechanism. Two weeks after the inhalation of high concentrations (66.7%) of hydrogen, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in mice using the thread occlusion technique to establish an anim...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen L, Chao Y, Cheng P, Li N, Zheng H, Yang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Triptolide Improves Cognitive Dysfunction in Rats with Vascular Dementia by Activating the SIRT1/PGC-1 α Signaling Pathway.
Triptolide Improves Cognitive Dysfunction in Rats with Vascular Dementia by Activating the SIRT1/PGC-1α Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jun 24;: Authors: Yao P, Li Y, Yang Y, Yu S, Chen Y Abstract Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook F has been exploited as a treatment for several diseases due to its neuroprotective, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. Triptolide is one of its key bioactive compounds. Currently, the role of triptolide in cognitive dysfunction remains unclear. Here, the role of triptolide on cognitive dysfunction was investigated using chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao P, Li Y, Yang Y, Yu S, Chen Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase by Ethyl Pyruvate in Schwann Cells Protects Against Peripheral Nerve Degeneration.
Abstract Schwann cells are essential glial cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and dysfunction of Schwann cells can induce various peripheral neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor in degenerative nerve diseases; however, there no effective molecules are available to inhibit nerve degeneration in peripheral neurodegenerative diseases. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a candidate regulator of oxidative stress, targeting Schwann cells during peripheral nerve degeneration. Here, we investigated the effects of EP on axonal degradation, demyelination, transcriptional regu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chung HJ, Kim M, Jung J, Jeong NY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glial Plasticity in the Trigeminal Root Entry Zone of a Rat Trigeminal Neuralgia Animal Model.
Abstract The trigeminal root entry zone (TREZ) is the transitional zone of central and peripheral tissue compartments in the trigeminal root. Microvascular compression on the TREZ is the main etiology of most idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients. However, the pathogenesis of TN is still uncertain. To investigate the glial plasticity changes in oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, astrocytes and microglia/macrophages in the TREZ in TN, immunohistochemical staining and Western blot methods were performed in rats with TN induced by compression injury. The results showed that mechanical compression injury in the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luo D, Lin R, Luo L, Li Q, Chen T, Qiu R, Li Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

AMPA Receptor in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Plays Different Roles in the Recent and Remote Retrieval of Morphine-Associated Memory.
Abstract Previous studies demonstrate that drug addiction can share the neural circuits in the brain with normal learning and memory. Re-exposure to drug-associated contexts, one way to retrieve the drug-associated memory, can trigger strong psychic craving and even relapse in addicts after prolonged abstinence. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to be involved in time-dependent reinstatement of drug self-administration. This work is designed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the vmPFC in the recent and remote retrieval of morphine-associated memory. Rats were re-exposed to...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun X, Wang N, Wang X, Sun L, Li Y, Cui C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

JLX001 Modulated the Inflammatory Reaction and Oxidative Stress in pMCAO Rats via Inhibiting the TLR2/4-NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
This study was to evaluate the effect of JLX001 against ischemic injury and investigate the mechanisms. The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model was employed in rats. The neurobehavioral score, brain infarction rate, brain water content, pathological changes, immunohistochemical staining, biochemical index (T-AOC, SOD, and MDA), proinflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO), expression of TLR2/4 and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 were determined. To explore probable underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of JLX001, BV-2 cells were exposed to in oxygen-glucose deprivatio...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qiu Y, Yin Q, Fei Y, Li Y, Huang H, Fang W, Shen W, Liang B, Zhu X, Li Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: TREM2 Attenuates A β1-42-Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV-2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling.
Correction to: TREM2 Attenuates Aβ1-42-Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV-2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jun 14;: Authors: Long H, Zhong G, Wang C, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Luo J, Shi S Abstract The article titled "TREM2 Attenuates Aβ1‑42‑Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV‑2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling", written by Huiping Long, Gang Zhong, Chengzhi Wang, Jian Zhang, Yueling Zhang, Jinglian Luo, Shengliang Shi, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 27 May 2019 with open access. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long H, Zhong G, Wang C, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Luo J, Shi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increases in miR-124-3p in Microglial Exosomes Confer Neuroprotective Effects by Targeting FIP200-Mediated Neuronal Autophagy Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract In our recent study, we observed consistent increases in miR-124-3p levels in exosomes derived from cultured BV2 microglia which was treated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) mouse model brain extracts. To clarify the mechanisms underlying increases in microglia-derived exosomal miR-124-3p and their role in regulating neuronal autophagy after TBI, we investigated the impact of exosomal miR-124-3p on neuronal autophagy in scratch-injured HT22 neurons and rTBI mice. We harvested injured brain extracts from rTBI mice at 3 to 21 days post injury (DPI) for the treatment of cultured BV2 microgl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li D, Huang S, Yin Z, Zhu J, Ge X, Han Z, Tan J, Zhang S, Zhao J, Chen F, Wang H, Lei P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Improves Memory Deficits in Rats with Cerebral Hypoperfusion, Possibly, Through Decreasing the Expression of Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels.
This study investigated the expression pattern, regulation of expression, and the role of hippocampal small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels in memory deficits after cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP) with or without melatonin treatment, in rats. Adults male Wistar rats (n = 20/group) were divided into (1) a sham (2) a sham + melatonin (3) a two-vessel occlusion (2-VO) model, and (4) a 2-VO + melatonin. Melatonin was administered (i.p.) to all rats at a daily dose of 10 mg kg-1 for 7 days starting at the time of 2-VO-induction. In contrast to 2-VO rats, mel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Al Dera H, Alassiri M, Eleawa SM, AlKhateeb MA, Hussein AM, Dallak M, Sakr HF, Alqahtani S, Khalil MA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Integrity of White Matter is Compromised in Mice with Hyaluronan Deficiency.
Abstract Brain white matter is the means of efficient signal propagation in brain and its dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. We studied the effect of hyaluronan deficiency on the integrity of myelin in murine corpus callosum. Conditional knockout mice lacking the hyaluronan synthase 2 were compared with control mice. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy revealed a higher proportion of myelin lamellae intruding into axons of knockout mice, along with significantly slimmer axons (excluding myelin sheath thickness), lower g-ratios, and frequent loosening of the myelin wrappings, ev...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sherpa AD, Guilfoyle DN, Naik AA, Isakovic J, Irie F, Yamaguchi Y, Hrabe J, Aoki C, Hrabetova S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

On the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Neuromodulation of the Claustrum.
Abstract G protein-coupled receptors modulate the synaptic glutamate and GABA transmission of the claustrum. The work focused on the transmitter-receptor relationships in the claustral catecholamine system and receptor-receptor interactions between kappa opioid receptors (KOR) and SomatostatinR2 (SSTR2) in claustrum. Methods used involved immunohistochemistry and in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) using confocal microscopy. Double immunolabeling studies on dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivities (IR) demonstrated that D1R IR existed in almost all claustral and dorsal en...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Borroto-Escuela DO, Fuxe K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Food Selection of Cafeteria Diet Affects Memory Dysfunction Related to Obesity.
es RP Abstract Cafeteria diet (CAF) mimics human Western diet and has been used in animal models to study obesity. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that our CAF model induces metabolic disorder related to obesity and affects recognition memory in Wistar rats. We also compared the intake of two different soft drinks, as part of the CAF, on recognition memory. Our results demonstrate that CAF-fed rats increased weight gain and visceral adiposity, and exhibited hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, high leptin and low insulin plasma levels. Moreover, CAF animals showed higher lipid peroxidation in the liver...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feijó GDS, de Oliveira S, Thoen R, Schaab EE, de Moura AC, Franco F, Giovenardi M, Porawski M, Guedes RP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

TREM2 Attenuates A β1-42-Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV-2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling.
In conclusion, TREM2 promoted clearance of Aβ1-42 by BV-2 cells and restored BV-2 cell viability from Aβ1-42-mediated neuroinflammation by downregulating TLRs. These findings suggest that TREM2 may be a target for LOAD therapy. PMID: 31134514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long H, Zhong G, Wang C, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Luo J, Shi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Restraint Water-Immersion Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage on Astrocytes and Neurons in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus of Rats via the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS) consists of psychological and physical stimulation, and it has been utilized in the research of gastric mucosal damage. It has been shown by previous studies that the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is closely involved in the gastrointestinal function, but its functions on the stress-induced gastric mucosal injury (SGMI) have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Consequently, in this research, we aim to measure the expression of astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal c-Fos, and phosphorylation extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fan F, Yang M, Geng X, Ma X, Sun H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Imaging features of immune-mediated genitourinary disease.
Abstract The authors regret that they neglected to cite their conference report on the technical part of a 'preliminary study' presented at, and published in, the Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference (BSEC), 2010, May 25-26 (Fully automated segmentation and characterization of the dendritic trees of retinal horizontal neurons -DOI: 10.1109/BSEC.2010.5510843 ), as it related to the larger dataset presented as validation of the method in the Neurochemical Research article (Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development- Neurochem Res. 2011 Apr;36(4):583-93). This resulted in th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kerekes RA, Martins RAP, Davis D, Karakaya M, Gleason S, Dyer MA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Protective Effects of Levetiracetam on a Human iPSCs-Derived Spinal Muscular Atrophy Model.
Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited disease characterized by progressive motor neuron death and subsequent muscle weakness and is caused by deletion or mutation of survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene. Protecting spinal motor neuron is an effective clinical strategy for SMA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of an anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam on SMA. In the present study, we used differentiated spinal motor neurons (MNs) from SMA patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (SMA-iPSCs) to investigate the effect of levetiracetam. Levetiracetam promoted neurite...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ando S, Funato M, Ohuchi K, Inagaki S, Sato A, Seki J, Kawase C, Saito T, Nishio H, Nakamura S, Shimazawa M, Kaneko H, Hara H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Silibinin Alleviates the Learning and Memory Defects in Overtrained Rats Accompanying Reduced Neuronal Apoptosis and Senescence.
In this study, rats were subjected to overtraining exercise, and the protective effects of silibinin were investigated in these models. Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests showed that silibinin significantly attenuated memory defects in overtrained rats. At the same time, the results of Nissl, TUNEL and SA-β-gal staining showed that silibinin reversed neuronal loss caused by apoptosis, and delayed cell senescence of the hippocampus in the overtrained rats, respectively. In addition, silibinin decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels which is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Sili...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu B, Liu W, Liu P, Liu X, Song X, Hayashi T, Onodera S, Ikejima T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intrinsic Effects of Gold Nanoparticles on Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Cortical Neurons.
This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) on rat cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) and to elucidate the corresponding mechanisms. Primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to OGD/R, which is commonly used in vitro to mimic ischemic injury, and then treated with 5- or 20-nm Au-NPs. We then evaluated cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial respiration in these neurons. We found that 20-nm Au-NPs increased cell viability, alleviated neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress, and improved mitochondrial respiration after OGD...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng Y, Wu Y, Liu Y, Guo Z, Bai T, Zhou P, Wu J, Yang Q, Liu Z, Lu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Protects Astrocytes from Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage Through Inhibition of ERK 1/2 Pathway Overexpression.
Abstract Overexpression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK ½) signaling pathway leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induces oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) scavenges ROS and protects cells against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to examine whether the protection of Coenzyme Q10 against oxidative damage in astrocytes is through regulating ERK 1/2 pathway. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation was chosen as a tool to induce oxidative stress. Murine astrocytes were treated with 10 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml of CoQ10 for 24 h prior to...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao Q, Ma YM, Jing L, Zheng TX, Jiang HF, Li PA, Zhang JZ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ethanol Induces Sedation and Hypnosis via Inhibiting Histamine Release in Mice.
Abstract Ethanol is one of the most highly abused psychoactive compounds worldwide and induces sedation and hypnosis. The histaminergic system is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake function and is a crucial player in promoting wakefulness. To explore the role and mechanism of the histaminergic system in ethanol-induced sedation and hypnosis, we recorded locomotor activity (LMA) and electroencephalography (EEG)/electromyography (EMG) in mice using an infrared ray passive sensor recording system and an EEG/EMG recording system, respectively, after administration of ethanol. In vivo microdialysis coupled with h...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma Z, Wang W, Wang T, Xu W, Qu W, Huang Z, Hong Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of microRNA-17-5p Enhances the Neuroprotective Effect of Act A/Smads Signal Loop After Ischemic Injury.
Abstract Cerebral ischemic injury is a leading cause of human mortality and disability, seriously threatening human health in the world. Activin A (Act A), as a well-known neuroprotective factor, could alleviate ischemic brain injury mainly through Act A/Smads signaling. In our previous study, a noncanonical Act A/Smads signal loop with self-amplifying property was found, which strengthened the neuroprotective effect of Act A. However, this neuroprotective effect was limited due to the self-limiting behavior mediated by Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. It was reported that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang JQ, Dong Y, Li SJ, Pan CL, Liu HY, Wang YK, Xu L, Yang JH, Cui YX, He JT, Mang J, Xu ZX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Axonal Protection by Tacrolimus with Inhibition of NFATc1 in TNF-Induced Optic Nerve Degeneration.
In this study, we investigated whether tacrolimus modulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated axonal degeneration and whether it alters nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc), a downstream effector of CaN signaling. Immunoblot analysis showed no significant difference in CaNAα protein levels in optic nerve on day 3, 7, or 14 after TNF injection compared with PBS injection. However, a significant increase in NFATc1 protein level was observed in optic nerve 7 days after TNF injection. This increase was negated by simultaneous administration of tacrolimus. Administration of tacrolimus alone did not change t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tsukahara C, Sase K, Fujita N, Takagi H, Kitaoka Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Palmitic Acid-Induced NAD+ Depletion is Associated with the Reduced Function of SIRT1 and Increased Expression of BACE1 in Hippocampal Neurons.
;lez-Barrios R, Arias C Abstract Increased levels of circulating fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (PA), are associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, these diseases are linked to an increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, mild cognitive impairment and even Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise actions of elevated PA levels on neurons and their association with neuronal metabolic disruption that leads to the expression of pathological markers of AD, such as the overproduction and accumulation of the amyloid-β pepti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Flores-León M, Pérez-Domínguez M, González-Barrios R, Arias C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PGC-1 α, Sirtuins and PARPs in Huntington's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Conditions: NAD+ to Rule Them All.
PGC-1α, Sirtuins and PARPs in Huntington's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Conditions: NAD+ to Rule Them All. Neurochem Res. 2019 May 07;: Authors: Lloret A, Beal MF Abstract In this review, we summarize the available published information on the neuroprotective effects of increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels in Huntington's disease models. We discuss the rationale of potential therapeutic benefit of administering nicotinamide riboside (NR), a safe and effective NAD+ precursor. We discuss the agonistic effect on the Sirtuin1-PGC-1α-PPAR pathway as well as Sirtuin ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lloret A, Beal MF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Purinergic Signalling in Parkinson's Disease: A Multi-target System to Combat Neurodegeneration.
aacute;gh B Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons that results in characteristic motor and non-motor symptoms. L-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the gold standard therapy for the treatment of PD. However, long-term use of L-DOPA leads to side effects such as dyskinesias and motor fluctuation. Since purines have neurotransmitter and co-transmitter properties, the function of the purinergic system has been thoroughly studied in the nervous system. Adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) are modula...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tóth A, Antal Z, Bereczki D, Sperlágh B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Tool for Tracking Injured Spinal Cord Fibres in Rat.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe disorder of the CNS leading to tissue damage and disability. Because it is critical to understand the pathological processes, it is important to find efficient ways to diagnose the severity of injured spinal cord tracts in situ from beginning up to a certain level of recovery following therapeutic interventions. In the current study, we set-up the criteria for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to capture changes of nerve fibre tracts in rat spinal cord compression injury. We tested four DTI parameters, such as fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffus...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Murgoci AN, Baciak L, Cubinkova V, Smolek T, Tvrdik T, Juranek I, Kafka J, Cizkova D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Acetyl-L-carnitine Used for Protection of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury on Acute Kidney Changes in Male and Female Rats.
Abstract Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common cause of brain injury in infants. Acute kidney injury frequently occurs after birth asphyxia and is associated with adverse outcome. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) after HI protects brain and improves outcome. Rat pups underwent carotid ligation and 75 min hypoxia on postnatal day 7 to determine effects of HI on kidney which is understudied in this model. HI + ALCAR pups were treated at 0, 4 and 24 h after HI. The organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2), transports ALCAR and functions to reabsorb carnitine and acylcarniti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang AG, Diamond M, Waddell J, McKenna MC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Characterization of Functional Primary Cilia in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.
Abstract Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new possibilities for biomedical research and clinical applications. Neurons differentiated from hiPSCs may be promising tools to develop novel treatment methods for various neurological diseases. However, the detailed process underlying functional maturation of hiPSC-derived neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze the developmental architecture of hiPSC-derived cortical neurons, iCell GlutaNeurons, focusing on the primary cilium, a single sensory organelle that protrudes from the surface of most growth-arrested vertebrate ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miki D, Kobayashi Y, Okada T, Miyamoto T, Takei N, Sekino Y, Koganezawa N, Shirao T, Saito Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Biomaterials and Magnetic Stem Cell Delivery in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury.
e; Š Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma, which often results in a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions, pain and spasticity. Despite extensive research, there is currently no available therapy that would restore the lost functions after SCI in human patients. Advanced treatments use regenerative medicine or its combination with various interdisciplinary approaches such as tissue engineering or biophysical methods. This review summarizes and critically discusses the research from specific interdisciplinary fields in SCI treatment such as the development of biomaterials as scaffold...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kubinová Š Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research