Flavonoids in Resina Draconis protect against pulmonary fibrosis via the TGF- β1/NOTCH1 pathway
ConclusionFlavonoids in Resina Draconis might play a key role in pulmonary fibrosis via critical pathways, especially the TGF- β1 and NOTCH1 signaling pathways. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effect of Rosa laevigata extract on in vitro and in vivo model of allergic asthma via the suppression of IgE and related cytokines
ConclusionsThe results of this study present the possibility of RL as a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma patients via the suppression of IgE and related cytokines. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Methylation quantitative trait loci analysis in Korean exposome study
ConclusionWe identified genotype variations associated with DNA methylation in the cord blood obtained from Koreans. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 affects keratinocytes via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated suppression of apoptosis
ConclusionUnlike other studies investigating skin disorders associated with PM2.5, our study found the mechanism of apoptosis suppression in keratinocytes. The findings may provide a novel insight into the management of chronic skin diseases in relation to PM2.5. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

MiRNA-338-5p reduced inflammation through TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome axis by CXCR4 in DSS-induced colitis
ConclusionMiRNA-338-5p may potentially serve as novel therapeutic avenues for colitis. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Abnormal differentiation of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells induced by perinatal bisphenol A exposure in female offspring mice
AbstractBackgroundBisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen widely exposed to human beings, and there are more studies on its reproductive toxicity, endocrine disruption and neurobehavioral disorders. Recent few studies have found that BPA has immunotoxicity, and its mechanism is not clear. Therefore, the effects of BPA on immune system have attracted extensive attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of perinatal exposure to BPA on regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cells in female offspring mice.MethodsTwenty-one pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: a con...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

3,4-Dichloroaniline promotes fatty liver in zebrafish larvae
ConclusionOur results indicated that exposure to 3,4-DCA induced fatty liver in zebrafish larvae and that this, in association with additional factors such as ER stress response, can promote liver damage. We accordingly suggest that 3,4-DCA could be used to induce fatty liver in zebrafish larvae. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Attenuated anti-tumor activity of NK-92 cells by invasive human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells
ConclusionThese findings demonstrate that the anti-tumor function of NK-92 cells is significantly suppressed by an invasive human breast carcinoma, MDA-MB-231, and the impairment of NK-92 cell function is associated with the upregulation of the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Toxicoproteomic analysis of deltamethrin exposure in neuroblastoma cell lines
ConclusionDifferential protein expression caused by deltamethrin exposure in neuroblastoma cell lines could allow us to develop biomarkers for deltamethrin toxicity, and pursue future studies to assess the molecular mechanisms of deltamethrin toxicity. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Adverse effects of subchronic exposure to cooking oil fumes on the gonads and the GPR30-mediated signaling pathway in female rats
ConclusionThis study indicated that cooking oil fume exposure disrupted the estrous cycle, sex hormone patterns, and follicle development in female rats in a dose-dependent manner. These adverse effects of cooking oil fumes on female reproductive health were correlated with the G-protein-coupled receptor 30-mediated signaling pathway.HighlightsSubchronic exposure to COFs for 56 days had gonadal toxicity in female rats, that disrupted the estrous cycle, sex hormone patterns, and follicle development in a dose-dependent manner.Reproductive endocrine disruption might be one of the female gonadotoxicity mechanisms of COFs.Thes...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bacterial community of Hydra magnipapillata
ConclusionThe changes in diversity and composition of the associated bacteria may indicate the possible mechanisms by which the associated bacteria maintain their mutual interactions and support the health of their host after exposure to ZnO NPs. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Hydra protein reduces the toxicity of Ag –PVP nanoparticles in a 3D A549 cell line
ConclusionIn conclusion, HP appears to be a non-cytotoxic substance and can reduce the cytotoxicity of Ag nanomaterials. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Propylparaben induces apoptotic cell death in human placental BeWo cells via cell cycle arrest and enhanced caspase-3 activity
ConclusionCollectively, our results suggest that propylparaben causes cytotoxic effects in human placental BeWo cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-dependent transcriptional regulation of PU.1 in microglial cells
ConclusionThe above-mentioned results suggest that PU.1 is directly involved in regulating the immune response and that this regulation of inflammatory chemokines is LPS-dependent. We hope that PU.1 would be an option for limiting neurodegeneration in a diverse range of neurological disorders. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Multi-tissue lipotoxicity caused by high-fat diet feeding is attenuated by the supplementation of Korean red ginseng in mice
ConclusionKRG supplementation attenuates HFD-mediated body weight gain, lipid profile changes, and multi-tissue inflammatory responses. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A toxicogenomics study of two chemicals in coffee roasting process
ConclusionDosage, duration, exposure, and extrapolations are necessary to reflect effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione on workers in the coffee roasting process. This study focuses on early biochemical changes, mechanisms, and early biomarker discovery when normal lung cells are exposed to these two chemicals. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Apoptosis and necroptosis-inducing effects of arctigenin on nasal septum carcinoma RPMI-2650 cells in 2D and 3D culture
ConclusionResults of this study suggest that the apoptosis and necroptosis-inducing effects of arctigenin are associated with ATP depletion due to oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Application of therapeutic protein-based fusion toxins
In this study, we review the recent therapeutic trials and improvements of fusion protein toxins.Recent findingsAs a targeting moiety, non-Ig scaffolds have not only the advantages of immunoglobulin such as high affinity and selectivity, but also small size, high stability, high yield expression. As a toxic moiety, non-immunologic and highly toxic endogenous proteins of human origin like proapoptotic protein or RNase are challenged. To lessen the adverse reactions of fusion toxins, several therapeutic strategies such as removal of epitopes, increase of serum half-life were developed. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Serum metabolomics in mice after paraquat posioning
In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the effects of paraquat poisoning on mice. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and cross orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed that paraquat poisoning induced energy/redox cycle and metabolic perturbations.ResultsCompared with the control group, the levels of creatinine, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid and glycine in the sub acute paraquat poisoning group increased (P
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Characterization of distinct mutation patterns by CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cpf1 genome editing systems
ConclusionGenome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cpf1 shows different characteristics. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Specific elimination of coxsackievirus B3 infected cells with a protein engineered toxin-antitoxin system
ConclusionThese findings suggest that the MazEF fusion protein has a strong potential to be developed as an anti-virus therapy following CVB3 infection. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Negative regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor by its lysine mutations and exposure to nickel
ConclusionLigand-mediated AhR activation can be significantly modulated by co-exposure to other environmental toxicant (s) or by its lysine mutations. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Current fluid biomarkers, animal models, and imaging tools for diagnosing chronic traumatic encephalopathy
AbstractPurpose of reviewChronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI), whether mild or severe. Several popular sports that subject the head to impact have been linked as a primary cause of the disease. Phosphorylated tau and A β deposits are the two proteins observed histopathologically in CTE patients. An ischemic environment is created that contributes to the hyperphosphorylation of tau following traumatic brain injury. The use of fluid biomarkers, animal models for TBI, as well as imaging tools are considered valuable in understandi...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Curcumin inhibits poly(dA:dT)-induced IL-18 secretion by inhibiting the ASC oligomerization in human keratinocytes
ConclusionThese collective results show that curcumin inhibits the poly (dA:dT)-induced secretion of IL-18 via the suppression of ASC oligomerization in IFN- γ-primed human keratinocytes. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

In vitro estimation of metal-induced disturbance in chicken gut-oviduct chemokine circuit
ConclusionEF-selective metals can be estimated to trigger the chemokine circuit in the gut-reproductive axis of chickens. Thisin vitro methodology using PCIS-EF culture could be used as a promising alternate platform for the reproductive immunotoxicological assessment. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Sphingosine kinase and p38 MAP kinase signaling promote resistance to arsenite-induced lethality in Caenorhabditis elegan
ConclusionSPHK-1 and PMK-1 signaling play important roles in the oxidative stress response inC. elegans. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of green tea extractives against oxidative stress by enhancing the survival and proliferation of PC12 cells
ConclusionThese results suggested that drinking green tea, particularly the light green tea, performed neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Pesticides as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome: Population-based longitudinal study in Korea
ConclusionPesticide exposure was related to the incidence of MetS; the causal relationship differed in men and women. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Nitrendipine, an antihypertensive alpha calcium channel blocker, is cytotoxic to neuroblastoma cells
ConclusionNTD induced apoptosis on neuroblastoma cells, appears to be independent of the expression of the L-type calcium channel. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The protective effects of echinochrome A structural analogs against oxidative stress and doxorubicin in AC16 cardiomyocytes
ConclusionOur findings indicate that echinochrome A structural analogs may have therapeutic potential for cardio-protection. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Bee venom phospholipase A2 suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is dependent on its enzymatic activity
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that bvPLA2 contributes to the control of MS and that its catalytic ability is needed for its therapeutic action. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Decremental effect of non-host humoral milieu interfacing viral envelope on the RNA level and surface antigenicity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in vitro
Conclusion: This study clearly shows that the non-host humoral milieu such as mouse, and DMEM decreases the RNA level and surface antigenicity, clinically implying the decremental infectivity of HCV virions. This is the frst note to tune HCV viability via conditioning only host humoral milieu free of genetic approach. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Ameliorative effect of chlorin e6-mediated photodynamic therapy on DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice
Conclusion: Ce6-mediated PDT might be used as a potent therapeutics for AD via restoring Th1/Th2 balance and reducing over expressed immune cells. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Prevention and relaxation effects of Liriope platyphylla on bronchial asthma in vitro model by suppressing the activities of MAPK/NF- κB pathway
Conclusion: Based on our results, we believe that LPP shows good potential for application as a therapeutic agent for asthma through inflammation prevention and bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of A β (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity
Conclusion: Although Genes with significant changes in transcriptomic analysis matched very few of the proteins identified in proteomics analysis, our findings will strengthen our knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying AD. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

LncRNA MALAT1 protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against ox-LDL triggered cell death through regulation of MGP
Conclusion: The present work described that MALAT1 up-regulation prevented ox-LDL-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in HUVECs. The protective effects of MALAT1 might be partially via up-regulating MGP, which led to the activation of mTOR signaling. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Mild NO preconditioning protects H9c2 cells against NO-induced apoptosis through activation of PI3K/Akt and PKA-dependent pathways
Conclusion: Our results indicate that low NO preconditioning prevent subsequent high NO-induced apoptosis via Akt/PKA/CREB activation in H9c2 cells. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Roles of integrins in regulating metastatic potentials of cancer cell derived exosomes
AbstractPurpose of review: Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles ranging from 30 –150 nm in diameter. Exosomes interact with nearby or distantly localized recipient cells by involving ligand/receptor binding at the surface of recipient cells or fusion with plasma membrane of recipient cells. A number of recent literatures support the role of integrins in mediating metastatic p rocess of cancer cell derived exosomes. While exosomes need to dock on the surface of recipient cells to transmit signals or transfer their contents, the process of docking and uptake of exosomes by recipient cells is poorly understood...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Novel GRN mutations in Koreans with Alzheimer ’s disease
Conclusion: Our data suggest that it would be important to re-examine EOAD patients who had been diagnosed when the FTD spectrum was not well described and the causative FTD genes had not yet been identifed. In addition, we propose initially analyzing genes associated with the frst form of suspected dementia and, if the results are negative, studying genes implicated in the other form of dementia. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Interactive effects between components in binary mixtures of zinc sulfate and iron oxide nanoparticles on Daphnia magna
Conclusion: In this study, synergistic- and antagonistic effects in binary mixtures with various concentrationcombinations will provide important information for elucidating the toxicity mechanism of mixtures composed inorganic compounds and metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs). However, in order to conduct the risk assessment of environmental nanoparticle, further studies regarding the mixture toxicity of nanomaterials with environmentally relevant concentrations and the interaction between components will be required. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Covalent conjugates of granulin-epithelial precursor-siRNA with arginine-rich peptide for improved stability and intracellular delivery in hepatoma cells
Conclusion: These results provide insights into the importance of chemical modification of unstable genetic therapeutics for HCC treatment. Conjugation of PEGylated GEP siRNA with ARP may be a potential HCC therapeutic agent. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Comparison of three human liver cell lines for in vitro drug-induced liver injury assessment: Huh7, HepaRG, and stem cell-derived hepatocytes
Conclusion: To predict the responses of DILI-inducing drugs in human liver cells, using diverse cell lines having different drug metabolic capabilities is more suitable for predicting DILI. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA RP11-6O2.4 indicates poor prognosis and suppresses cell cycle progression through the p38-MAPK signaling pathway in gastric cancer
AbstractBackgrounds: The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in gastric cancer (GC) has been highlighted in studies conducted over the past decade. However, the potential clinical value and the mechanisms of action of RP11 –6O2.4 in GC have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The specific aim of the present study was to assess RP11–6O2.4 and to explore its role in human GC.Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to analyze the expression levels of RP11-6O2.4 in GC tissues, paired adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANTs) and GC cell lines. In addition, the correlation bet...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Mitigating effect of fermented Korean red ginseng extract with yeast and probiotics in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-induced skin allergic inflammation
AbstractBackgroundsAtopic dermatitis (AD) frequently affects both infants and adults, impacting on the quality of life of the individual and imposing a significant psychosocial burden. The efficacy against AD-like skin lesions of the fermented form of Korea red ginseng (FRG), that contains ginsenoside metabolites, has not been investigated.MethodsFRG was prepared after fermentation of Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract in the presence of yeast and probiotics. The effects of FRG on skin allergic inflammation were then investigated by examining the frequency of scratching, and assessing the levels of representative allergic ma...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Manganese induces neuroinflammation via NF- κB/ROS NLRP3 pathway in rat brain striatum and HAPI cells
ConclusionThese findings suggest that NLRP3 activation plays an important role in Mn-induced neuroinflammation, and it is associated with NF- κB and ROS. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The immunological and oxidative stress regulation of non-thermal plasma-aided water on atopic dermatitis-like lesion in dinitrochlorobenzene-induced SKH-1 hairless mice
ConclusionCollectively, this study clearly indicates the therapeutic effect of NTP-AW on DNCB-induced AD in hairless mice via immuno-redox regulation, clinically implying that NTP-AW treatment might be a safe and promising therapeutic candidate against AD. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The associations of TAC1 gene polymorphisms with major depressive disorder
ConclusionOur results suggest a possible involvement of genetic variants ofTAC1 with the plasma level of substance P and symptom severity of MDD. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

P16 expression and its association with PD-L1 expression and FOXP3-positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
ConclusionP16 expression may predict PD-L1 expression, and p16 expression may also be associated with the immune evasion of HNSCC. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Skin transcriptome profiling reveals the distinctive molecular effects of temperature changes on Antarctic bullhead notothen
ConclusionOur results suggest that, as a first barrier for fish, the skin has complex metabolisms with high transcriptional sensitivity against environmental temperature stress. These results will be useful for understanding the skin-specific molecular mechanisms that Antarctic fish use to adapt to temperature fluctuations. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Malnutrition worsens fluorosis-induced damage in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of rats
ConclusionMalnourishment could promote the abnormal secretion of HPOA sex hormones in females with fluorosis. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research