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Diethylamino-curcumin mimic with trizolyl benzene enhances TRAIL-mediated cell death on human glioblastoma cells
ConclusionThese results demonstrated that YM-4 can be an anticancer candidate that can be effective on human glioblastoma cells in combination with TRAIL. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Igongsan reduces testosterone-induced benign prostate hyperplasia by regulating 5 α-reductase in rats
ConclusionBased on our findings, this study shows that IG S can alleviate BPH by regulating 5AR, suggesting its potential as a new, effective medication for BPH treatment. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Low-dose diethylhexyl phthalate exposure does not impair the expressive patterns of epigenetics-related genes and DNA methylation of breast cancer-related genes in mouse mammary glands
ConclusionThese finding showed no impact of DEHP on the expressive patterns of epigenetics-related genes and DNA methylation of breast cancer-related genes in pregnant mouse mammary gland cells. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Fisetin protects H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis through Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways
ConclusionTaken together, these data suggest that the potential cardioprotective effect of fisetin may involve Cu/Zn-SOD-mediated activation of Bcl-2 through the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Proteins isolated of Pueraria Radix possible to cause allergenic react with immunoglobulin E in human sera
ConclusionThe results imply thatPueraria Radix can act as an allergen given the identification of IgE binding proteins among the isolated proteins ofPueraria Radix. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A study of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in human lung epithelial cells (A549)
ConclusionOur study suggests that ROS-mediated DNA damage may play a major role in PM2.5-induced cell death. This finding represents the basis for further studies addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms of PM2.5 exposure. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effects of waterborne copper on toxicity stress and apoptosis responses in red seabream, Pagrus major
ConclusionThe results of this study indicate that high concentrations induce stress and apoptosis compared to normal conditions. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Clinical genetic strategies for early onset neurodegenerative diseases
AbstractPurpose of reviewMethods for the genetic diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders were reviewed, including their backgrounds and applications in the laboratory. Majority of disease-causing gene mutations were uncommon in the general population, where dominant variations could be easily identified in certain disorders. The development of molecular, next generation sequencing (NGS) and cytogenetic techniques allowed to identify multiple genetic mutations leading to diseases. Using of the accurate multivariate diagnosis of diseases would be essential for appropriate treatment of patients, genetic counseling and preven...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of Adam33 mutations in murine lung cancer cell lines by droplet digital PCR, real-time PCR and Insight Onco ™ NGS
ConclusionWe confirmed that theInsight Onco™ technique is a sensitive method that can be used to detect lung-specific rare mutationsin vitro. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Proteomic analysis of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated proliferation in HT-29 human colon cancer cells
ConclusionOur results indicated that ANXA5 might serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of colon cancer. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Dendropanax morbifera L éveille extract ameliorates cesium-induced inflammation in the kidney and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in the hippocampus
ConclusionThese results suggest that DML reduces the cesium-induced inflammatory response in the kidney and the hippocampal decrease in antioxidant enzymes levels, although it could not decrease the accumulation of cesium in the blood, kidney, and liver. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Perfluorooctane sulfonate exacerbates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation by the release of histamine
ConclusionThis study demonstrated that PFOS more intensifies the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Exosomes as diagnostic biomarkers in cancer
AbstractPurpose of reviewExosomes are extracellular vesicles of 30-150 nm diameter, secreted from nearly all mammalian cells through fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Owing to the differences in the properties of exosomes and microvesicles released through outward budding of the plasma membrane, exosomes have recently received increasing interest. This review discusses the current status of exosome research for diagnostic biomarkers in cancers. The scope of information that can be acquired from exosomal contents potentially include tumour progression, detection of metastasis, and possible chemothera...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effect of sodium salicylate on COX-2 expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes
AbstractSalicylates, one of the oldest medicinal compounds known to humans, have been reported to show anti-inflammatory effects via cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. However, the pathophysiological role of COX-2 in the heart is conflicting, and the role of sodium salicylate in the regulation of cardiac inflammation has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effect of salicylate on COX-2 expression and its associated prostaglandin production using cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were incubated in the presence or absence of sodium salicylate (8 mM). Treatment with sodium salicylate significantly...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Chronic cigarette smoking-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress in human erythrocytes and platelets
AbstractCigarette smoke contains a number of highly unstable free radicals and these free radicals enhance reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production leading to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress plays an important role in the onset of various vascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate smoking-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress and the role of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 α) in erythrocytes and platelets. For this study human male volunteers aged 35±8 years were recruited and divided into two groups, namely contro...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in gynecological cancers
AbstractExpression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) is normally restricted to the ovary and the testis, where FSH-dependent cell differentiation occurs. FSHR also is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in ovary. Expression of FSHR has been consistently shown in vascular endothelial cells of human malignant tumors although biological functions of FSHR on tumor neovasculature have not been fully understood. FSHR expression in vasculature of normal or inflammatory tissues is scarce, suggesting its potential role as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in cancer. FSHR has recently been tested as an imaging...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of dithiocarbamate fungicide mancozeb on the endocrine functions in male rats
AbstractIn the present study, we evaluated the mancozeb-induced toxicity on the liver, thyroid, and testis via histological and functional hormone assay in male rats. Mancozeb was orally administered at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Upon the chronic administration of mancozeb, the body weight slightly decreased, but, liver, thyroid, and testis weights per 100 g body weight were not changed. Histological studies of the testis of male rats treated with mancozeb revealed spermatogenesis inhibition, which was reflected by significant decreases in the numbers of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatid, and sperm...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Nicotinamide suppresses cell growth by G1-phase arrest and induces apoptosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
In conclusion, our findings provide the experimental basis for using NA as a potential anticancer agent against human iCCA in the future. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Calreticulin protects the HT22 hippocampal neurons from injury induced by hypoxia
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of calreticulin (CRT) in the hypoxia-induced injury of HT22 cells through over-expression and knockdown of CRT. Cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1, pcDNA3.1 carrying full length CRT (pcDNA-CRT), small interfering RNA targeting CRT (si-CRT) or its negative control (siNC). Then, cell viability and apoptosis were respectively detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to evaluate mRNA expression level of CRT. Western blot...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Predicting ZnO nanoparticle and ZnSO 4 toxicity from zebrafish embryo gene expression
AbstractThe potential to replace the early-life-stage toxicity test (ELS) with the gene expression toxicity test in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (gene-DarT) was evaluated. We compared the lowest-observable- effect concentrations (LOECs) for each. For ELS, zebrafish were exposed to ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and ZnSO4 at 0-0.25 and 0-16 mg/L, respectively, for 28 d. For 48-h gene-DarT tests, expression of potential marker genes (opioid growth factor receptor-like 2 [ogfrl2], cytochrome b5 domain-containing 1 [cyb5d1], and intelectin 2 [intl2] for ZnO NPs and trace amine-associated receptor 10c, CaM kinase-like vesicle-assoc...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effects of low bisphenol A concentration on protein expression profiles in an in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
AbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental toxicant that causes adverse effects to liver even at low concentrations. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents as significant accumulation of lipids in the liver, impairing detoxification processes. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding the susceptibility of NAFLD to BPA toxicity. Here, we compared the effects of low concentration BPA exposure on the protein profiles of normal and NAFLD cells. We established NAFLD model by treating HepG2 cells with fatty acids and subsequently treated with low BPA concentration. Protein expression profiles showed...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Activation of PXR inhibits LPS-induced NF- κB activation by increasing IκBα expression in HepG2 cells
In this study, we found that rifampicin-activated pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important role in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide-activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB) activity by increasing the expression of the inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) in HepG2 cells. Rifampicin did not increase the expression of IκBα in PXR knockdown HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we found that the activation of PXR could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nuclear translocation of N F-κB p50/p65 using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunoprecipitation assays, and microscopy. High lev...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Corni fructus ameliorates menopause symptom in 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of CF in follicle depletion of a mice model using the industrial chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). VCD directly targets prenatal follicles. Mice were injected with VCD (160 mg/kg) daily for 15 days and administered CF 18 times after VCD injection. CF treatment reduced body weight, tail skin temperature, and uterus weight. In addition, CF treatment significantly decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio, and osteocalcin levels as well as correcting skin temperature. These results support ...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Molecular and cellular toxicological profiling of DNA bis-intercalator, quinoxaline compounds: echinomycin as the versatile lead
AbstractOf quinoxaline compounds, echinomycin is classically known as an antitumor agent which binds to DNA via a mechanism of bis-intercalation. In addition to intercalation, quinoxaline compounds such as echinomycin, echinomycin derivatives or analogues might control anomalous cellular proliferation in eukaryotes via specifically triggering cellular signaling pathways in mitochondria, as well as under hypoxia. Further, since echinomycin was proven to be a specific inhibitor of HIF-1 α, these novel mechanisms could be clinically applied in the development of therapeutics against cancer, infection, obesity, fibrosis,...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Leptin is a dose-dependent marker of caloric restriction in adipose tissues located in different parts of the mouse body
AbstractWe investigated leptin expression in four fat tissues located in different body parts of male mice. In the absence of caloric restriction (CR), the highest relative levels of leptin mRNA were detected in epididymal fat (EF). Lateral abdominal fat (LAF) and subcutaneous fat (SF) had intermediate leptin expression levels, while the lowest leptin mRNA content was revealed in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We also investigated differential regulation of leptin expression in these adipose tissues following diets that were based on various levels of CR for 10 weeks. The largest reduction of leptin mRNA levels by CR was obse...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

MiR-200-3p inhibits tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by upregulation of FOXO1 in osteosarcoma cells
AbstractOsteosarcoma has been reported as a severe and worldwide clinical problem, research focusing on osteosarcoma for overall analysis and understanding of the mechanism will be of great importance for theoretical basis and treatment of osteosarcoma. In the present study, we sought to explore the correlation of miR-200-3p with osteosarcoma proliferation, apoptosis and the related signaling pathway. MTT, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and western blot were separately used to test the influence of miR-200-3p on cells proliferation, cells apopsotis and the FOXO expression. The results shown that miR-200-3p inhibits cell viability...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Melanogenic mechanism of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia odorifera
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract ofD. odorifera (DOE) on melanogenesis and determine its mechanism of action in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes. DOE increased melanin content levels. It also enhanced the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene and its downstream target genes tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, TRP 2, and tyrosinase. DOE increased cAMP levels, as determined by a cAMP production assay. In addition, DOE increased PKA activity and induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CRE B) protein, its do...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Ketamine induces neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disorder via miR-199a-5p/HIF-1 α in neonatal rats
In conclusion, we suggest that ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in neonatal rats, followed by lea rning and memory impairment, might be mediated via the miR-199a-5p/HIF-1α signalling pathway. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of Spirosoma pulveris JSH 5-14 T , a bacterium isolated from a dust sample
In this study, we discuss the implication of such findings concerning other radiation resistant bacteria. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Toxicity of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the NRK52E renal cell line
In this study, aggregate sizes were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The stability of the suspension was evaluated by turbidimetry and the size by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). In the present study the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluatedin vitro on rat kidney proximal tubular cells (NRK-52E). Cells were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (20 μg/mL) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. TiO2 nanoparticles induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The relative number of mitosis decreased, while an increase of apoptotic cells was noted. The number of S-phase cells evidenced by BrdU immu...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Gamma irradiation-induced liver injury and its amelioration by red ginseng extract
AbstractRadiation therapy is associated with liver damage and late liver injury. The hepatoprotective effect of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) was determined in whole-body gamma-irradiated ( γIR) mice. KRG at a dose of 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight was administrated to male C57BL/6 mice (each group, n=5) intraperitoneally for five days before whole-body γIR (6.5 Gy). Three days after γIR, serum and liver tissue were collected and analysed. Pretreatment with KRG suppressed serum alkalin e phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl-transferase ...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Urinary bisphenol A versus serum bisphenol A concentration and ovarian reproductive outcomes among IVF patients: Which is a better biomarker of BPA exposure?
AbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) that is used widely in commercial products in the production of polycarbonate plastics for baby and water bottles, epoxy resins for lacquer lining of food and beverage cans and water pipes, dental sealants, dental composites and thermal receipts paper. There is inhibitory effect of BPA on nuclear estrogen (E2) production in granulosa cells of developing follicles that disrupt normal development to the antral follicles via suppression of E2 in granulosa cells of developing follicles during the menstrual cycle followed by reduction in the number of oocytes r...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Identification of aberrant overexpression of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 and role as a regulatory microRNA in liver cancer
AbstractMALAT1 is deregulated in various cancers. The underlying mechanisms of MALA T1-mediated tumorigenesis are unclear. We found that MALAT1 was highly overexpressed and its overexpression was significantly associated with poor prognosis of liver cancer patients analyzed from the TCGA Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Gene Expression Omnibus databases of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Microarray analysis to identify the miRNAs deregulated by silencing MALAT1 in two liver cancer cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, revealed the common deregulation of 16 miRNAs including miR-574 and miR-20b in both cell lines...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Heterogeneous expression of Chlamydia pneumoniae antigen candidates and high-level soluble expression of its inclusion membrane proteins in Escherichia coli
In this study, seven antigen candidates fromC. pneumoniae TW-183 (OmpH, Omp11, Eno, ArtJ, IncA, IncB and IncC) were screenedin silico genome. Immunogenicity of the heterogeneously overexpressed antigen candidates in E. coli BL21 (DE3) was investigated by Western blot analysis using in sera fromC. pneumoniae infected individuals. The soluble forms of three inclusion membrane proteins (IncA, IncB and IncC), carrying unique bilobal hydrophobic domains, were also successfully expressed inE. coli BL21 (DE3) through truncation of their membrane bound transmembrane domains. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Fucoidan inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages and zebrafish larvae
AbstractFucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, is an active component found in various species of seaweed. Although this compound has a strong anti-inflammatory activity, the underlying mechanisms exerted by fucoidan have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and zebrafish larvae were examined. The present data indicated that fucoidan significantly suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- α and interl...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Association between FGFRs and the susceptibility of digestive and reproductive system cancers in Chinese population
AbstractFibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) modulate a wide range of biological functions, especially tumor genesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association of FGFR expression with the susceptibility of digestive system and reproductive system cancers in Chinese population. In total, 343 patients with digestive or reproductive system cancers were enrolled in this study. The expression levels of four highly-conserved FGFRs including FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4 were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression levels of FGFRs were compared between carcinoma and p...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The effect of purple rice ( Oryza sativa L. indica ) extract on the inflammatory response in a colon cancer cell line and dextran sulfate-induced tumor promotion in the rat colon
This study investigated the effects of purple rice extract (PRE ) on inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis. Administration of PRE 1 g/kg bodyweight reduced both the number (39.05%) and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (14.28%) in the colons of rats that received dimethylhydrazine (DMH) initiation with promotion by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (P
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Chemical management policies and a distribution model for chemical accidents
This study compares and evaluates domestic and overseas chemical substance management systems, and compares domestic risk management systems and overseas cases regarding issues and vulnerabilities to propose a plan for improving these issues. The Chemical Substance Control Act is a more powerful law than the chemical substance control acts of other countries, but it requires a seamless system and information sharing between managing government agents to correct overlaps in the reporting system for chemical substance management. A comparison of chemical substance dispersion models finds that ALOHA, from the United States, f...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

6-Hydroxydopamine induces nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor in nigral dopaminergic neurons in rat
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by relatively selective death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin that causes the death of DA neurons, is commonly used to produce experimental PD model in rodents. Accumulating evidences suggest that caspase-independent apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD) could also be involved in the progression of various neurodegenerative diseases in addition to caspase-dependent neuronal PCD. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial intermem brane o...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Environmental exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
AbstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development and exacerbation of COPD are influenced by environmental factors. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for COPD, and environmental tobacco smoking also contributes to its development. Occupational exposure to vapor, dust, gas, and fumes are other important risk factors for COPD. Outdoor air pollution increases COPD-related hospital admissions and is an important factor for disease exacerbation and mortality. Indoor air pollution due to biomass fuel use is also a risk factor for COPD, particularl...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

RBPJ contributes to acquired docetaxel resistance in prostate cancer cells
In this study, we aimed to investigate the function of RBPJ in the chemoresistance of prostate cancer. The expression of RBPJ was quantified in docetaxel-resistant and parental prostate cancer cells. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments were conducted to explore the regulatory role of RBPJ in prostate cancer sensitivity to docetaxel. The pro-apoptotic effect of RBPJ silencing was checked in docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer cells. We found that docetaxel-resistant PC3-DR and DU145-DR cells expressed 3 –5-fold high levels of RBPJ than parental PC3 and DU145 cells. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of RBPJ inhib...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Cadmium-induced biomarkers discovery and comparative network analysis in Daphnia magna
AbstractExposure to cadmium is gradually increased and its toxicity can be fatal to organisms in aquatic environment.D. magna inhabits in water. It is recommended by OECD guideline to test toxicity of chemicals. Through acute immobilization test, we observed a mobility change ofD. magna caused by cadmium chloride exposure. The EC50 value of cadmium chloride was 14.5 ppb. UsingD. magna in EC50 value of cadmium, we conducted microarray analysis to investigate differential gene expression and found 247 up- and 146 down-regulated genes. We performed BLAST analysis to identify and understand the meaning of the microarray data i...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

CARM1 is involved in CYP1A1 gene expression as a transcriptional coactivator
In this study, we investigated the change of AhR and CYP1A1 expression by inhibition of CARM1 (also known as PRMT4) to show the involvement of protein arginine methylation in CYP1A1 gene expression. Also, we tested the hypothesis that CARM1 recruitment to the CYP1A1 promoter and subsequent histone arginine methylation are required for the activation of transcription. We found that treatment of HepG2 cells with silencing RNA targeting CARM1 or an arginine methyltransferase inhibitor (AMI-5) significantly decreased the CYP1A1 gene expression level. Furthermore, treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Ssanghwa-Tang, a traditional herbal formula, suppresses cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation via inhibition of MMP-9 and Erk signaling
AbstractWe investigated the effects of Ssanghwa-Tang water extract (STWE), a traditional herbal medicine, on airway inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (8 cigarettes per day) from day 1 to day 7. On day 4, the mice were treated intranasally with LPS. STWE (50 or 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1 h before the CS exposure. STWE markedly decreased the neutrophil and other inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, along with the reduction of proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tum...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effect of crotonaldehyde on the induction of COX-2 expression in human endothelial cells
In this study, we evaluated the effect of CRA stimulation on COX-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cel ls. CRA-stimulated COX-2 induction was accompanied by enhanced p38 phosphorylation and PGE2 generation. However, CRA-induced PGE2 production was reduced by pretreatment with an inhibitor of p38 MAPK. These results demonstrated that in human endothelial cells, CRA-induced COX-2-dependent PGE2 generation was mediated by p38 MAPK, and CRA may play a role in the development of inflammation. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effects of triterpenoid Alisol-F on human 5-hydroxytryptamine 3A and α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel activity
In this study, we tested the effects of a new triterpene, Alisol-F, on human 5-HT3A and α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor channel currents by usingXenopus oocytes expressing these channels. Co-application of Alisol-F inhibited 5-HT3A and α3β4 nACh receptor-mediated inward peak currents. The inhibitory effect of Alisol-F on 5-HT and ACh-induced inward peak currents occurred in a reversible and concentration- dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Alisol-F were 79.4 ± 11.0 and 21.2 ±6.0 μM for the 5-HT3A and α3β4 nACh receptors, resp...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The role of bacterial cellulose in artificial blood vessels
AbstractCardiovascular diseases are major causes of death worldwide, with pathologies including stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular disease. Vascular grafts may be necessary to treat cardiovascular disease. The replacement of blood vessels has been very challenging in biomedical research. Dacron, ePTFE, and polyurethane are the most commonly used materials for artificial blood vessels. Bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesized byGluconacetobacter xylinus exhibits unique properties including high purity, biocompatibility, resistance to degradation and low solubility. BC has been widely studied for applications in biomedi...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effect of heavy metals, pesticides and pharmaceuticals on yeast ’s vacuoles as a biomarker for toxic detection
In this study, the effect of different toxic chemicals onSaccharomyces cerevisiae ’s vacuoles was determined. More precisely, oxidative stress was mediated by pesticides and heavy metals, whereas nonoxidative stress influence was caused by the treatment with pharmaceuticals. Previously, oxidative stress was reported to alter yeast vacuolar enzymes, thus, intracellular vacuoles are assumed to be used as a biomarker to detect the oxidative stresses on yeast. Simultaneously, nonoxidative stress effect was expected to be recognized by vacuoles as well. The feasibility of toxic detection by vacuolar response was evaluated...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Comparative toxicity related to metabolisms of benzophenone-type UV filters, potentially harmful to the environment and humans
AbstractRecently, sunscreens containing ultraviolet (UV)-blocking substance actively encourage to reduce damage caused by solar UV radiation. Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters have become widely used as UV stabilizers in skin-moisturizing products and sunscreen lotions of human skin and hair. However, very little information is available regarding the potential harmful effects of long term exposure to these substances. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of genotoxic effects related to metabolism of BP-type UV filters in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. In metabolism process of BP-type UV filters, BP was mainly converte...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA NEAT1 decreases the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells via regulating P-glycoprotein expression
AbstractDrug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in clinical treatment of gastric cancer (GC). Accumulating evidences have highlighted the involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in carcinogenesis, chemoresistance, and metastasis. NEAT1, a recently identified lncRNA, was identified as an oncogene to regulate carcinogenesis. This present study aimed to investigate the role of NEAT1 in the drug resistance in GC. Our study found that NEAT1 expression was significantly upregulated in relapsed GC patients and cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant cell lines compared with primary GC patients and parental GC cell lines....
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research