Additional diagnostic testing of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
AbstractPurpose of reviewWithin the last two decades several members of the Coronaviridae family namely Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) have demonstrated epidemic potential. In late, 2019 an unnamed genetic relative, later named SARS-CoV-2 realized its potential in the highly populous neighborhoods of Wuhan, China. Unchecked, the virus rapidly spread among interconnected communities and related households before containment measures could be in acted. “Appropriate” diagnostic testing in response to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak should be urgently considered. This...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The neuroprotective effects of stimulation of NMDA receptors against POX-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal cultured neurons; a morphometric study
ConclusionThe present study indicated that NMDA treatment has neuroprotective effects on hippocampal neurons following exposure to POX. It seems that these protective effects mediated by decrease the activity of caspase3. Additionally, pretreatment of cells with MK801 has toxicity effects on hippocampal neurons. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Graviola leaves extract enhances the anticancer effect of cisplatin on various cancer cell lines
ConclusionThese results demonstrate that Graviola leaves extract optimizes the antitumor potential of cisplatin and could be utilized as a natural adjuvant to decrease cisplatin side effects. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Paclitaxel inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis through regulation ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress in osteosarcoma cell
ConclusionPaclitaxel can inhibit the proliferation of HOS-732 cells and increase ROS and ER-stress response to promote cell apoptosis, suggesting that paclitaxel may represent a new therapeutic option for the treatment and prevention osteosarcoma. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 26, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of acute and chronic stress-induced neurobehavioral alteration and liver injury in mice
ConclusionIn summary, our study provides evidence of a relationship between liver injury and behavioral change upon exposure to restraint stress. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 26, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

lncRNA NONHSAT021963, which upregulates VEGF in A549 cells, mediates PM2.5 exposure-induced angiogenesis in Shenyang, China
ConclusionThese results may help to clarify the proteins and signaling pathways affected by PM2.5 and lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in treating NSCLC. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 24, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

HS-1793 protects C2C12 cells from oxidative stress via mitochondrial function regulation
ConclusionTaken altogether, it shows the viability of HS-1793 as a compound that can restore mitochondrial function and render protection in skeletal muscle cells, especially during high oxidative stress levels. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Toxic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cells
ConclusionTiO2 NPs affect viability, proliferation, and differentiation of hMSCs. Our result suggests more regulation of the use of TiO2. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Myricetin induces apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in 4T1 and E0771 mammary cancer cells
ConclusionWe conclude that the pro-oxidant action of myricetin and ensuing apoptosis of mammary carcinoma cells indicate that myricetin may be useful in breast cancer treatment. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - June 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Aptamer-linked immobilized sorbent assay for detecting GMO marker, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT)
ConclusionWe screened aptamer against PAT for developing an efficient detection method. The selected PAT specific aptamers, HRPA-05 and HRPA-07, showed the distinct target binding behaviors, and detected PAT protein by aptamer-linked immobilized sorbent assay method with high efficiency and selectivity. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - May 26, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The role of miRNA-155 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension through c-Fos/NLRP3/caspase-1
ConclusionsmiRNA-155 increased inflammation in monocrotaline-induced PAH through c-Fos/NLRP3/caspase-1. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - May 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Wax-printed well pads and colorimetric LAMP detection of ApxIA toxin gene
ConclusionOur WPWPs –LAMP–LCV approach can be used as a rapid screening tool forA. pleuropneumoniae pleuropneumonia (APP) caused by ApxIA toxin in future outbreak areas. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - May 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Polystyrene microplastics induce mortality through acute cell stress and inhibition of cholinergic activity in a brine shrimp
ConclusionOur results suggest that MPs exposure to the early stages of brine shrimp could be detrimental for population maintenance through inhibition of cholinergic system and the induction of acute cell stress, including oxidative stress. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - May 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Pulmonary inflammation caused by silica dioxide nanoparticles in mice via TXNIP/NLRP3 signaling pathway
ConclusionCollectively, exposure to SiONPs induced inflammation in the lungs of mice, which resulted in the activation of IL-1 β production via the TXNIP-NLRP3 axis. Our results provide useful information on the pulmonary toxicity induced by SiONPs and provide insights into the underlying mechanism of action. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - May 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Deciphering the possible role of H 2 O 2 in methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in Xenopus laevis
ConclusionThese results supported the idea that neurodevelopment-related gene expression was regulated by oxidative stress and that apoptosis and autophagy pathways were activated by H2O2 and involved in methylmercury neurotoxicity. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - May 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Critical role of bile acid (BA) in the cellular entry and permissiveness of Hepatitis B virus in vitro
ConclusionThis study demonstrates that enterohepatic humoral milieu such as BA, specifically tCDCA would directly regulate HBV DNA and its surface antigen expression in vitro, consequently rendering HBV to enter into human or murine immortalized hepatocytes, and non-hepatocytes. This is the first note to render HBV permissive to human or rodent hepatic and non-hepatic cells via sole manipulation of humoral milieu, thus establishing the platform for in vitro robust replication system of HBV. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - May 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of two pesticides (malathion and cypermethrin) on Allium cepa L.
ConclusionIn conclusion, the present results showed that malathion and cypermethrin can get absorbed in the exposed plant parts or other non-target organisms in the vicinity, and may adversely affect their genomes, thus cause significant harm to crop plants and the environment as well. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - April 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Characteristic molecular signature of pericardial effusion identifies malignant cancer in pericardial disorder patients
ConclusionOur results suggest that etiology-specific molecular signatures can discriminate cancer patients within pericardial disorder patients. CD24, SDC1, and ST14 are strong molecular markers for such discrimination. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - April 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Trichloroethylene injures rat liver and elevates the level of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (Ehhadh)
ConclusionThese findings indicate that TCE induces liver injury in rats. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - April 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA content and deletion ratio are associated with metabolic syndrome in a general population exposed to pesticide
We examined 215 randomly sampled adults who were exposed to pesticide but did not present with MetS in a prospective cohort study. Both mtDNA copy number and deletion ratio were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.ResultsDuring the average 2.8-year follow-up period, 76 (35.3%) participants developed new-onset MetS. The numbers of mtDNA copies were significantly lower in participants with new-onset MetS than in those without MetS (112.15  ± 26.15 vs. 133.13 ± 44.44, p 
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Green tea ameliorates the side effects of the silver nanoparticles treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice
ConclusionsGTE can not only ameliorate AgNPs-induced adverse effects but also improve their anti-cancer effect against EAC. So, it could be useful in the treatment of liver dysfunction associated with AgNPs. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Molecular hydrogen protects against oxidative stress-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through the activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of MAPK signaling pathway
ConclusionCollectively, our results indicate the strong antioxidant role of H2 against LPS-and H2O2-induced oxidative stress on macrophage cells by activating the Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting the MAPK-signaling pathway.Graphic AbstractOur results clearly showed that LPS increased the cellular ROS by recognizing the TLR4 and H2O2 rapidly increased the cellular (1) and mitochondrial (2) oxidative stress. Excessive ROS/NO molecules cause intracellular calcium influxes (3) As a results imbalance the cellular membrane homeostasis and activate the stress response MAPK signaling pathway with its downstream signaling protein and mi...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Glypican 2 regulates cell proliferation and metastasis in thyroid cancer cells
ConclusionsGPC2 is highly expressed in thyroid cancer tissues and regulates cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - March 12, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The role and mechanism of lncRNA NEAT1 in the fibrosis of pulmonary epithelial cell
ConclusionThis study investigated the mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis progression by elucidating the role of NEAT1/miR-29c in the fibrosis and proliferation of BEAS-2B cells, thus providing a basis for the new therapeutic targets of pulmonary fibrosis. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - February 19, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Flavonoids in Resina Draconis protect against pulmonary fibrosis via the TGF- β1/NOTCH1 pathway
ConclusionFlavonoids in Resina Draconis might play a key role in pulmonary fibrosis via critical pathways, especially the TGF- β1 and NOTCH1 signaling pathways. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effect of Rosa laevigata extract on in vitro and in vivo model of allergic asthma via the suppression of IgE and related cytokines
ConclusionsThe results of this study present the possibility of RL as a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma patients via the suppression of IgE and related cytokines. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Methylation quantitative trait loci analysis in Korean exposome study
ConclusionWe identified genotype variations associated with DNA methylation in the cord blood obtained from Koreans. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 affects keratinocytes via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated suppression of apoptosis
ConclusionUnlike other studies investigating skin disorders associated with PM2.5, our study found the mechanism of apoptosis suppression in keratinocytes. The findings may provide a novel insight into the management of chronic skin diseases in relation to PM2.5. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

MiRNA-338-5p reduced inflammation through TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome axis by CXCR4 in DSS-induced colitis
ConclusionMiRNA-338-5p may potentially serve as novel therapeutic avenues for colitis. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Abnormal differentiation of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells induced by perinatal bisphenol A exposure in female offspring mice
AbstractBackgroundBisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen widely exposed to human beings, and there are more studies on its reproductive toxicity, endocrine disruption and neurobehavioral disorders. Recent few studies have found that BPA has immunotoxicity, and its mechanism is not clear. Therefore, the effects of BPA on immune system have attracted extensive attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of perinatal exposure to BPA on regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cells in female offspring mice.MethodsTwenty-one pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: a con...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

3,4-Dichloroaniline promotes fatty liver in zebrafish larvae
ConclusionOur results indicated that exposure to 3,4-DCA induced fatty liver in zebrafish larvae and that this, in association with additional factors such as ER stress response, can promote liver damage. We accordingly suggest that 3,4-DCA could be used to induce fatty liver in zebrafish larvae. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Attenuated anti-tumor activity of NK-92 cells by invasive human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells
ConclusionThese findings demonstrate that the anti-tumor function of NK-92 cells is significantly suppressed by an invasive human breast carcinoma, MDA-MB-231, and the impairment of NK-92 cell function is associated with the upregulation of the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Toxicoproteomic analysis of deltamethrin exposure in neuroblastoma cell lines
ConclusionDifferential protein expression caused by deltamethrin exposure in neuroblastoma cell lines could allow us to develop biomarkers for deltamethrin toxicity, and pursue future studies to assess the molecular mechanisms of deltamethrin toxicity. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Adverse effects of subchronic exposure to cooking oil fumes on the gonads and the GPR30-mediated signaling pathway in female rats
ConclusionThis study indicated that cooking oil fume exposure disrupted the estrous cycle, sex hormone patterns, and follicle development in female rats in a dose-dependent manner. These adverse effects of cooking oil fumes on female reproductive health were correlated with the G-protein-coupled receptor 30-mediated signaling pathway.HighlightsSubchronic exposure to COFs for 56 days had gonadal toxicity in female rats, that disrupted the estrous cycle, sex hormone patterns, and follicle development in a dose-dependent manner.Reproductive endocrine disruption might be one of the female gonadotoxicity mechanisms of COFs.Thes...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bacterial community of Hydra magnipapillata
ConclusionThe changes in diversity and composition of the associated bacteria may indicate the possible mechanisms by which the associated bacteria maintain their mutual interactions and support the health of their host after exposure to ZnO NPs. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Hydra protein reduces the toxicity of Ag –PVP nanoparticles in a 3D A549 cell line
ConclusionIn conclusion, HP appears to be a non-cytotoxic substance and can reduce the cytotoxicity of Ag nanomaterials. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Propylparaben induces apoptotic cell death in human placental BeWo cells via cell cycle arrest and enhanced caspase-3 activity
ConclusionCollectively, our results suggest that propylparaben causes cytotoxic effects in human placental BeWo cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-dependent transcriptional regulation of PU.1 in microglial cells
ConclusionThe above-mentioned results suggest that PU.1 is directly involved in regulating the immune response and that this regulation of inflammatory chemokines is LPS-dependent. We hope that PU.1 would be an option for limiting neurodegeneration in a diverse range of neurological disorders. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Multi-tissue lipotoxicity caused by high-fat diet feeding is attenuated by the supplementation of Korean red ginseng in mice
ConclusionKRG supplementation attenuates HFD-mediated body weight gain, lipid profile changes, and multi-tissue inflammatory responses. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A toxicogenomics study of two chemicals in coffee roasting process
ConclusionDosage, duration, exposure, and extrapolations are necessary to reflect effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione on workers in the coffee roasting process. This study focuses on early biochemical changes, mechanisms, and early biomarker discovery when normal lung cells are exposed to these two chemicals. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Apoptosis and necroptosis-inducing effects of arctigenin on nasal septum carcinoma RPMI-2650 cells in 2D and 3D culture
ConclusionResults of this study suggest that the apoptosis and necroptosis-inducing effects of arctigenin are associated with ATP depletion due to oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - December 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Application of therapeutic protein-based fusion toxins
In this study, we review the recent therapeutic trials and improvements of fusion protein toxins.Recent findingsAs a targeting moiety, non-Ig scaffolds have not only the advantages of immunoglobulin such as high affinity and selectivity, but also small size, high stability, high yield expression. As a toxic moiety, non-immunologic and highly toxic endogenous proteins of human origin like proapoptotic protein or RNase are challenged. To lessen the adverse reactions of fusion toxins, several therapeutic strategies such as removal of epitopes, increase of serum half-life were developed. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Serum metabolomics in mice after paraquat posioning
In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the effects of paraquat poisoning on mice. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and cross orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed that paraquat poisoning induced energy/redox cycle and metabolic perturbations.ResultsCompared with the control group, the levels of creatinine, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid and glycine in the sub acute paraquat poisoning group increased (P
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Characterization of distinct mutation patterns by CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cpf1 genome editing systems
ConclusionGenome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cpf1 shows different characteristics. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Specific elimination of coxsackievirus B3 infected cells with a protein engineered toxin-antitoxin system
ConclusionThese findings suggest that the MazEF fusion protein has a strong potential to be developed as an anti-virus therapy following CVB3 infection. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Negative regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor by its lysine mutations and exposure to nickel
ConclusionLigand-mediated AhR activation can be significantly modulated by co-exposure to other environmental toxicant (s) or by its lysine mutations. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Current fluid biomarkers, animal models, and imaging tools for diagnosing chronic traumatic encephalopathy
AbstractPurpose of reviewChronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI), whether mild or severe. Several popular sports that subject the head to impact have been linked as a primary cause of the disease. Phosphorylated tau and A β deposits are the two proteins observed histopathologically in CTE patients. An ischemic environment is created that contributes to the hyperphosphorylation of tau following traumatic brain injury. The use of fluid biomarkers, animal models for TBI, as well as imaging tools are considered valuable in understandi...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Curcumin inhibits poly(dA:dT)-induced IL-18 secretion by inhibiting the ASC oligomerization in human keratinocytes
ConclusionThese collective results show that curcumin inhibits the poly (dA:dT)-induced secretion of IL-18 via the suppression of ASC oligomerization in IFN- γ-primed human keratinocytes. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

In vitro estimation of metal-induced disturbance in chicken gut-oviduct chemokine circuit
ConclusionEF-selective metals can be estimated to trigger the chemokine circuit in the gut-reproductive axis of chickens. Thisin vitro methodology using PCIS-EF culture could be used as a promising alternate platform for the reproductive immunotoxicological assessment. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Sphingosine kinase and p38 MAP kinase signaling promote resistance to arsenite-induced lethality in Caenorhabditis elegan
ConclusionSPHK-1 and PMK-1 signaling play important roles in the oxidative stress response inC. elegans. (Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research