Spirituality and Positive Psychology Go Hand in Hand: An Investigation of Multiple Empirically Derived Profiles and Related Protective Benefits
Abstract We investigate the relationship between personal spirituality and positive psychology traits as potentially presented in multiple profiles, rather than monolithically across a full sample. A sample of 3966 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 18–25, mean = 20.19, SD = 2.08) and 2014 older adults (aged 26–82, mean = 38.41, SD = 11.26) completed a survey assessing daily spiritual experiences (relationship with a Higher Power and sense of a sacred world), forgiveness, gratitude, optimism, grit, and meaning. To assess the relative protective benefits of pot...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - April 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Support for Adolescent Spirituality: Contributions of Religious Practice and Trait Mindfulness
Abstract Spirituality and the surge of its development in adolescence have been established in the research. To date, however, these studies look at tendencies across full samples of adolescence rather than investigating multiple subgroups or multiple pathways of spiritual development. The current study uses latent class analysis to identify subgroup portraits of spiritual life in adolescence, based upon a range of dimensions of spiritual experience, religious practice, and mindfulness. Mindfulness, as a dispositional trait, is examined alongside the impact of religious practice on the level of spiritual experienc...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - April 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Intrinsic Religiousness and Spirituality as Predictors of Mental Health and Positive Psychological Functioning in Latter-Day Saint Adolescents and Young Adults
Abstract We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anx...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - April 9, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Guest Editor Note
(Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - April 9, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Beyond Me: Poems About Spirit in Scripture, Psychotherapy, and Life
(Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - April 4, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Editor’s Introduction on the Special Section “Spirituality in Adolescents: The Hub of Mental Health and Positive Development”
(Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - April 4, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Islamic Personal Religiosity as a Moderator of Job Strain and Employee’s Well-Being: The Case of Malaysian Academic and Administrative Staff
This study examines the moderating effects of Islamic personal religiosity on the relationship between job strain and employee well-being in Malaysian universities. One hundred and seventeen (117) Muslim academic and administrative staff from four public universities were sampled. Data were collected via questionnaires, and our findings show that the effect of job strain on well-being is significant for employees and that personal religiosity of employees contributed to alleviating job strain and enhancing well-being. Thus, the study concludes that Islamic personal religiosity moderates the relationship between job strain ...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - April 3, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Psychoanalysis, Religion and Enculturation: Reflections Through the Life of Mother Teresa
Abstract This paper explores the question of whether psychoanalysis can help those who adhere to a worldview that is non-psychoanalytic or even anti-psychoanalytic. It answers this question by comparing the psychoanalytic understanding of suffering with that of the Catholic faith, through the latter’s idea of the ‘dark night of the soul’. The life of Mother Teresa is taken as an illustration of the dark night and how it may be responded to by the faithful. Similarities and differences between the two approaches are pointed out. Finally, it is suggested that psychoanalytic perspectives may enrich...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Sense of Purpose in Life and Escape from Self as the Predictors of Quality of Life in Clinical Samples
Abstract Depression is a leading mental disorder from which suffer Europeans and especially women. In clinical groups with elevated risk of suicidal tendencies, both the negative factors and psychological variables that can protect a person should be analyzed. The aims of the current study were analysis of purpose in life function in perceived quality of life—self-efficacy and life satisfaction among people suffering from depression in comparison with control group and analysis of escape from self (EfS)-function as an indicator of suicidal thoughts occurrence, for suicide attempt and perceived quality of li...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Comparison of Spiritual Well-Being and Coping Strategies of Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder and with Minor General Medical Conditions
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to compare the spiritual well-being and coping strategies of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and those with general medical conditions (GMC). The sample was comprised of 40 participants with GAD fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of DSM IV-TR and 50 participants with GMC. The descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and independent sample t test were used for data analysis. The results revealed the significant negative correlation of spiritual wellness with GAD symptoms and positive correlation between spiritual wellness, active practical and reli...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Religiosity and Internet Pornography Use
Abstract Internet pornography (IP) consumption has increased, resulting in functioning and psychological problems. Thus, understanding what variables affect IP uses is needed. One of the variables may be religion. College students (N = 223) completed questions on IP use and religion. About 64 % ever viewed IP and 26 % currently viewed IP, at a rate of 74 min per week. IP use interfered with their relationship with God and spirituality. Religious individuals were less likely to ever or currently view IP. Intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and alignment of spiritual values were associated ...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Living in Hope and Desperate for A Miracle: NICU Nurses Perceptions of Parental Anguish
Abstract The birth of an extremely premature baby is a tragedy, and it is only natural that the parents will rely on the spiritual and religious beliefs that guide the rest of their lives. At this difficult time, parents with strong religious beliefs will hope for divine intervention and pray for a miracle. This paper outlines the difficulties experienced by neonatal nurses when caring for an extremely premature baby whose parents hold on to hope and their belief in divine intervention and a miracle. Data were collected via a questionnaire to Australian neonatal nurses and semi-structured interviews with 24 neona...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Disclosure During Private Prayer as a Mediator Between Prayer Type and Mental Health in an Adult Christian Sample
Abstract According to Poloma and Pendleton’s (J Psychol Theol 19:71–83, 1991) prayer model, there are four prayer types (colloquial, meditative, petitionary, and ritual), all of which have varying associations with mental health. However, few studies have examined what mechanisms explain these associations. The literature demonstrates that disclosing distressing information can improve mental health. Thus, the current study examined self-disclosure as a mediating variable between Poloma and Pendleton’s (J Psychol Theol 19:71–83, 1991) prayer types and mental health. It was hypothesized tha...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Rural Appalachian Faith-Placed Smoking Cessation Intervention
This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants’ positive evaluation of the program; the program’s ability to leverage social connections; the program’s convenience orientation; and the program’s financial support for smoking cessa...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Critical Analysis of the Concepts and Measurement of Awareness and Equanimity in Goenka’s Vipassana Meditation
Abstract Goenka’s Vipassana meditation (GVM), a widely applied mindfulness training system rooted in Buddhism, is currently widely used. Although the two abilities cultivated in GVM, awareness and equanimity, exhibit certain similarities with the mindfulness cultivated in mindfulness-based psychotherapies (MBTs), they are not major concerns in MBTs. While many mindfulness scales have been created to measure different aspects of mindfulness constructs and certain scales and items can indeed reflect the basic abilities of awareness and equanimity, none of them can adequately capture the way in which those abi...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS-P) in Clinical and Non-clinical Samples
This study presents the validation of the Portuguese version of the “Brief Multidimensional Measure in Religiousness and Spirituality” (BMMRS) within the Brazilian context. Inpatients (262) and caregivers (389) at two hospitals of Brazil answered the BMMRS, the DUREL-p, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The internal and convergent validity and test–retest reliability for major dimensions were good. Discriminant validity was high (except for the Forgiveness dimension). The Portuguese version of the BMMRS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess multiple R/S dimensions in clinical and non-clinical s...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Revision of the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale for Measuring Awareness and Equanimity in Goenka’s Vipassana Meditation with Chinese Buddhists
Abstract Goenka’s 10-day Vipassana course is a widespread mindfulness course rooted in traditional Buddhism. Awareness and equanimity are two abilities cultivated in this course that are not featured in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies and thereby not adequately measured by current mindfulness scales. The present article analyzed the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al. in Assessment 15(2):204–223, 2008) and revised it into a short version to avoid confusion when measuring awareness and equanimity. Empirical data obtained using Chinese university students and Chinese Buddh...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Spiritual Energy of Islamic Prayers as a Catalyst for Psychotherapy
Abstract Islamic prayers can produce spiritual energy that may yield many psychological benefits, such as amelioration of stress and improvement in subjective well-being, interpersonal sensitivity, and mastery. Islamic prayers can also be integrated into mainstream therapeutic interventions with religious Muslim clients, and this integration can mobilize, transform, and invigorate the process of psychotherapy. This paper provides methods that can be used for the explicit integration of Islamic prayers into traditional psychotherapy. Further, the paper offers strategies for avoiding potential pitfalls that may ham...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Review and Evaluation of Faith-Based Weight Management Interventions That Target African American Women
Abstract This integrative review was conducted to present results of the use of recommended criteria to evaluate faith-based weight management interventions (WMIs) that target African American women. This group experiences the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the US when compared to other ethnic groups. “Best practice” WMIs can help to alleviate obesity. Faith-based interventions hold promise for helping to address the problem of obesity in African American women since a significant portion of these persons views the church as a trusted entity that advocates for their well-being. No systematic e...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Religious Orientation and Life Aspirations
In conclusion, although religious orientation and life aspirations are significantly related to each other and to outcome, life aspirations did not mediate the effects of religious orientation. Therefore, self-determination theory does not appear to completely account for the effects of religious orientation. (Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Image of God, Religion, Spirituality, and Life Changes in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Qualitative Approach
This study explored the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on religion/faith and changes in behaviors, relationship, or goals. In this qualitative study, women, who participated in a larger, quantitative study, completed written responses to questions regarding the role of religion/faith in their lives, the impact of their diagnosis on their image of God and on faith/religious beliefs, and any changes in behaviors, relationships, or life goals were examined. Based on previous findings noting differences in psychological outcomes based on a higher (HE) or lesser (LE) engaged view of God, 28 (14 HE; 14 LE) women were includ...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Medical–Religious Practice of Votive Offerings and the Representation of a Unique Pathognomonic One Inside the Asclepieion of Corinth
Abstract Votive offerings to the healing gods were a common religious custom for the ill believers to achieve the expected cure. The dedication of votive offerings began in Prehistoric Crete and continued during the Classical Period, mainly connected with the god Asclepius. Most offerings presented healthy members, while in some rare cases a disease had been displayed. A unique votive offering, found in the Asclepieion of Corinth, presented an anomaly, bringing to light the religious beliefs of the era. The custom of votive offerings was absorbed by the Orthodox Christians and still remains a common practice. (So...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Subjective Religiosity, Church Attendance, and Depression in the National Survey of American Life
This study examined the association between religion and depression and whether religion explained lower rates of depression among blacks compared to whites. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life, a multi-ethnic sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 6,082). African Americans and Caribbean Blacks reported higher mean levels of subjective religiosity than whites, but there were no significant differences in levels of church attendance. African Americans (OR 0.54; CI 0.45–0.65) and Caribbean Blacks (OR 0.66; CI 0.48–0.91) reported significantly lo...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Increased Congregational Support for Parents of Children with Cystic Fibrosis
Abstract Positive health outcomes are related to adults’ religious congregational participation. For parents of children with chronic disease, structured daily care routines and/or strict infection control precautions may limit participation. For this exploratory study, we examined the relationship between congregational support and religious coping by parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared to parents for whom child health issues were not significant stressors. CF parents reported higher levels of emotional support from congregation members and use of religious coping. Within-group diffe...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Analysis of Medical Confidentiality from the Islamic Ethics Perspective
Abstract Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other’s secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in thes...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Struggling with Alcoholism
Abstract Written conjointly by a psychoanalyst and his patient, this article was inspired by a poem and commentary written in the course of his analysis by a patient who was dealing with profound loss and the struggle to remain sober in the face of that loss. The article explores the influence of Swiss psychiatrist C. G. Jung upon Bill Wilson, co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, especially the discovery of both men that alcoholism is best treated by helping the alcoholic accept the helplessness and hopelessness that his/her addiction to alcohol generates and in developing a spiritual life based on a deep encounter...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 7, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Suppressor Effects of Positive and Negative Religious Coping on Academic Burnout Among Korean Middle School Students
In this study, the suppressor effects of positive and negative religious coping on academic burnout were examined using longitudinal data. First, 388 middle school students reported their type of religion and use of positive and negative religious coping strategies. Four months later, they also reported their level of academic burnout. From structural equation modeling, significant suppressor effects were found among religious students. That is, the coefficients became larger when both positive and negative religious coping predicted academic burnout simultaneously, compared to when each religious coping predicted academic...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 6, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Challenges to the Conceptualization and Measurement of Religiosity and Spirituality in Mental Health Research
Abstract Investigating religiosity and spirituality may help to further elucidate how individuals’ worldviews influence their attitudes, behavior, and overall well-being. However, inconsistencies in how these constructs are conceptualized and measured may undercut the potential value of religiosity and spirituality research. Results from a survey of undergraduate students suggest that laypeople define spirituality as independent from social influence and that few people associate religiosity with negative terms. A content analysis of spirituality measures indicates that spirituality measures contain items th...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 3, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Faith-Based Community Partnership to Address HIV/AIDS in the Southern United States: Implementation, Challenges, and Lessons Learned
This article will describe Project Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal (F.A.I.T.H), a faith-based model for successfully developing, implementing, and sustaining locally developed HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in African American churches in South Carolina. This was achieved by engaging the faith community and the provision of technical assistance, grant funding and training for project personnel. Elements of success, challenges, and lessons learned during this process will also be discussed. (Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Spirituality, Health and Life Satisfaction of Undergraduate Students in the UK: An Online Questionnaire Study
Abstract US students with higher spirituality scores report better health and life satisfaction. This is the first UK study to explore the relationship between spirituality, health and life satisfaction of undergraduate students. Over 500 undergraduates completed an online questionnaire. Significant differences in spirituality score were present across college, ethnicity and religious belief. There appears to be a desire for spirituality amongst many students. Universities have a role to play in supporting students’ search for meaning and purpose. Additional research is warranted to further understand the r...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

RSAS-3: Validation of a Very Brief Measure of Religious Commitment for Use in Health Research
Abstract Religious Commitment is a construct known to be predictive of various health-related factors of importance to researchers. However, data collection efficiency and instrument brevity in healthcare settings are priorities regardless of the construct being measured. Brief, valid instruments are particularly valuable in health research and will be vital for testing mechanisms by which health may be improved or maintained. This series of studies aims to demonstrate that Religious Commitment can be validly measured with a very brief instrument, the Religious Surrender & Attendance Scale-3 (RSAS-3), which c...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Men’s Shed: Providing Biopsychosocial and Spiritual Support
Abstract Community Men’s Sheds (CMS) have been a unique approach within Australia for addressing and promoting men’s health and well-being issues by providing biopsychosocial support. Given the decline of traditional religious influence, and the contemporary understanding of ‘spirituality’, it can be argued that CMS may also develop and demonstrate characteristics of a communal spirituality. This research aimed to explore the individual and community contribution of CMS in terms of men’s health and well-being and subsequently whether CMS programmes satisfied the contemporary and cons...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Religion, Kinship and Health Behaviors of African American Women
We present an empirical definition of religion and describe the key elements of religious behavior, building a model that can be used to explore the presumed relationship between religion and health. Semi-structured interactive interviews were conducted with 22 participants over a 6-month period. Head Start programs and churches located in the inner city of a large metropolitan area. Twenty-two African American women were aged from 21 to 45. We focus on social relationships and propose that prophet-created religions mimic kinship relationships and encourage kinship-like cooperation between members. (Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Role of Religious Leaders in Health Promotion for Older Mexicans with Diabetes
Abstract Clergy in the Mexico play a major role in addressing the health care needs of their congregants. With qualitative semi-structured key-informant interviews, this study explored the views of ten male Mexican religious leaders (mostly Catholic) about their understanding of their role in diabetes health promotion. The major themes from the qualitative interviews emphasized the importance of open communication between church leaders and their parishioners, the role of the church in diabetes programs, and the unique position of religious institutions as a link between physical and spiritual aspects of health. ...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Experience and Convergence in Spiritual Direction
Abstract The practice of spiritual direction concerns the human experience of God. As praxis, spiritual direction has a long tradition in Western Christianity. It is a process rooted in spirituality with theology as its foundation. This paper explores the convergences between aspects of philosophy (contemplative awareness), psychology (Rogerian client-centered approach) and phenomenology. There are significant points of convergence between phenomenology and spiritual direction: first, in Ignatius of Loyola’s phenomenological approach to his religious experience; second, in the appropriation by spiritual dir...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Empathy and Silence in Pastoral Care for Traumatic Grief and Loss
Abstract This paper evaluates silence as a therapeutic practice in pastoral care for traumatic grief and loss. Informed by the history of attachment and mourning theory, its research considers the basic effect that empathy has upon the therapeutic relationship around psychic difference. The study appraises the potential resources and detriments that empathic language may have for the grief process. Offering clinical examples in hospice chaplaincy, it refutes the idea that silence is formulaic tool to be used. It instead offers silence as the acceptance of the limits of empathic language and the affirmation of psy...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Religious–Spiritual Self-Image and Behaviours Among Adolescent Street Children in Harare, Zimbabwe
Abstract The present study sought to explore the relationship between street childhood and adolescent religious–spiritual self-image. In Zimbabwe, there has been a rise in street children population in the urban centres. The current study investigated whether adolescent street children live and work in an eco-developmentally risky context for the development of positive religious–spiritual self-image. This rise in street children population has been in the context of a socio-politico-economic crisis, which was marked by record inflation rates and the HIV and AIDS pandemic. The research objectives were...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Correlation of Parents’ Religious Behavior with Family’s Emotional Relations and Students’ Self-actualization
Abstract The main goal of this research is to study the relationship between parents’ religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and self-actualization of male and female high school students of district 2 in Kerman city. Research method is descriptive and of correlative type. Questionnaires of parent’s religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and students’ self-actualization were used in the research. After collecting questionnaires, data were analyzed by SPSS, MINITAB, and EXCEL software. The sample volume in the research has been 309 students and their parents, and t...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp 12) Among Brazilian Psychiatric Inpatients
Abstract Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spiritual Well-Being scale (FACIT-Sp 12) is one of the most used and most validated instruments for assessing spiritual well-being in the world. Some Brazilian studies have used this instrument without, however, assessing its psychometric properties. The present study aims to validate the Portuguese version of the FACIT-Sp 12 among Brazilian psychiatric inpatients. A self-administered questionnaire, covering spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp 12), depression, anxiety, religiosity, quality of life, and optimism, was administered. Of those who met the incl...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Role of Religion and Spirituality in Coping with Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study among Black Men
This article reports on data from 12 of the 30 Black men who reported the use of religion and spirituality as a coping strategy for diabetes management. The following coping strategies were reported: prayer and belief in God, keeping me alive, turning things over to God, changing my unhealthy behaviors, supplying my needs, reading the Bible, and religious or spiritual individuals helping me. Healthcare professionals and researchers involved in diabetes management among Black men should consider these findings in their efforts. (Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Trends of Indigenous Healing Among People with Psychiatric Disorders: Comparative Study of Arabic and Kurdish Ethnicities in Iraq
Abstract Indigenous healing is commonly practiced in Middle East. Little is known about trends of indigenous therapies among patients with psychiatric disorders in Iraq. To determine and compare rates and predictors of indigenous healings by individuals with psychiatric disorders, and the practiced rituals among Arabic and Kurdish ethnicities in Iraq, patients aged 18 year and older attending outpatients in Erbil and Najaf were assessed for their prior contacts with indigenous healers. About 48.9 % had indigenous healer’s consultations before visiting their psychiatrists; the figure was three time...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Do Patients with Chronic Pain Diseases Believe in Guardian Angels: Even in a Secular Society? A Cross-Sectional Study Among German Patients with Chronic Diseases
Abstract We intended to analyze whether patients with chronic diseases believe in guardian angels (GdA) as a coping resource. In a cross-sectional survey, we analyzed data from 576 German patients with chronic diseases (mean age 51.3 ± 15.4 years). We found that 56 % of the patients often or even regularly believed in GdA, with significantly more women than men believing. Particularly interesting was the fact that 38 % of patients who were identified as neither religious nor spiritual (R−S−) believed in GdAs. This belief may indicate that patients are interested in brid...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Gaps in Preparedness of Clergy and Healthcare Providers to Address Mental Health Needs of Returning Service Members
Abstract To elucidate gaps in the preparedness of clergy and healthcare providers to care for service members (SM) with deployment-related mental health needs. Participants identified clinically relevant symptoms in a standardized video role play of a veteran with deployment-related mental health needs and discussed their preparedness to deal with SM. Clergy members identified suicide and depression most often, while providers identified difficulty sleeping, low energy, nightmares and irritability. Neither clergy nor providers felt prepared to minister to or treat SM with traumatic brain injury. Through a mixed m...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ischiopagus and Diprosopus in India: Two Pairs of Conjoined Twins Perceived as Incarnations of Hindu Deities
This article briefly reviews two specific types of conjoined twins, ischiopagus and diprosopus, and discusses recent cases of such twins born in India. Some members of the Hindu community worshiped these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities. In discussing this phenomenon, the authors aim to elucidate certain features of the faith tradition of Hinduism itself. The reception of these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities can be understood by examining two salient features of Hindu polytheism: the pictorial depiction of Hindu deities with multiple appendages and the concept of an incarnation, or avatar,...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Qualitative Investigation of the Effects of Psycho-Spiritual Integrative Therapy on Breast Cancer Survivors’ Experience of Paradox
This study is an exploratory, qualitative investigation of breast cancer survivors’ experiences of paradox, following psycho-spiritual integrative therapy (PSIT). Previous studies examined the role of paradox in spiritual development among women diagnosed with cancer; this study investigated a psycho-spiritual intervention for multicultural cancer survivors. Twelve multicultural breast cancer survivors, from a sample of 30 women participants in an 8-week PSIT group intervention, were recruited from oncologists, hospitals, support groups, outpatient oncology centers, surgeons, radiation therapy centers, cancer events,...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Righteousness in the Land of Forgetfulness
Abstract The experience of dementia is raises many important questions about the nature of self and personhood. No disease is experienced in isolation and dementia embodies this. Ideas of loss of self and loss of life feature strongly in dementia and have the potential to profoundly affect a person’s spirituality. The Christian faith offers the possibility of retaining and recovering the sense of personhood and connection with God and others. This allows for the possibility of hope. (Source: Journal of Religion and Health)
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Developing a Culturally Competent Faith-Based Framework to Promote Breast Cancer Screening Among Afghan Immigrant Women
Abstract For the tens of thousands of Afghan immigrant women currently living in the USA, religious and cultural beliefs can act as a barrier to health care access. Islamic frameworks and men’s gatekeeping roles often control women’s decision-making power about their health care needs. Gatekeepers, however, can be reconceived as facilitators empowered to protect the well-being of the family, and positive messages within Islam can foster collaborative investment in women’s health. Drawing upon a pilot study utilizing community-based participatory research involving the largest Afghan community in...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Religion and Health: Anxiety, Religiosity, Meaning of Life and Mental Health
We examined the association among anxiety, religiosity, meaning of life and mental health in a nonclinical sample from a Chinese society. Four hundred fifty-one Taiwanese adults (150 males and 300 females) ranging in age from 17 to 73 years (M = 28.9, SD = 11.53) completed measures of Beck Anxiety Inventory, Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey, Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Scale, and Personal Religiosity Scale (measuring religiosity and meaning of life). Meaning of life has a significant negative correlation with anxiety and a significant positive correlation with mental health and relig...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Religious, Ethical and Legal Considerations in End-of-Life Issues: Fundamental Requisites for Medical Decision Making
Abstract Religion and spirituality have always played a major and intervening role in a person’s life and health matters. With the influential development of patient autonomy and the right to self-determination, a patient’s religious affiliation constitutes a key component in medical decision making. This is particularly pertinent in issues involving end-of-life decisions such as withdrawing and withholding treatment, medical futility, nutritional feeding and do-not-resuscitate orders. These issues affect not only the patient’s values and beliefs, but also the family unit and members of the medic...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Religious Differences in Self-Rated Health Among US Jews: Findings from Five Urban Population Surveys
In this study, data are analyzed from five urban surveys of Jews conducted since 2000: two surveys from New York (N = 4,533; N = 5,993) and one apiece from Chicago (N = 1,993), Philadelphia (N = 1,217), and Boston (N = 1,766). A strategy of two-way ANCOVA with interaction was used to test for differences in self-rated health across five categories of Jewish religious affiliation (secular, Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative, Orthodox) and four categories of synagogue attendance (from never to at least weekly). Findings, adjusted for age and effects of other covariates, ...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - January 9, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research