The TLR2 agonist in polysaccharide-K is a structurally distinct lipid which acts synergistically with the protein-bound β-glucan
Abstract Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (Krestin; PSK) is a hot-water extract of Trametes versicolor with immune stimulatory activity. It has been used for the past 30 years and has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in multiple types of cancer. The ability of PSK to activate dendritic cells and T cells is dependent on its ability to stimulate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), yet it remains unknown which structural component within PSK activates TLR2. The purpose of this study was to identify the TLR2 agonist within PSK and understand its role in the overall mechanism of PSK’s immunogenic activity. TLR2 a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 16, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The genus Codonopsis (Campanulaceae): a review of phytochemistry, bioactivity and quality control
Abstract Codonopsis, in the family Campanulaceae, is a genus containing 42 species of dicotyledonous herbaceous perennial plants, predominantly found in Central, East and South Asia. Several Codonopsis species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. Among the Codonopsis species, Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. and C. lanceolata (Sieb. et Zucc.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trautv. are more popular than others according to the findings, especially phytochemical and bioactive studies. Phytochemical research shows that Codonopsis species contain ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar
Abstract Jujube Seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Determination of multiple elements in samples of the medicinal plant Marsdenia tenacissima and estimation of geographic origin via pattern recognition techniques
Abstract Multi-element analysis of the medicinal plant Marsdenia tenacissima was used to develop a reliable method of tracing the geographical source of the samples. The concentrations of 27 elements in 128 samples from 4 provinces in China were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques, viz. principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) and k-nearest neighbor analysis (KNN), were used for this purpose. It was verified that 21 elements in the M. tenacissima samples from different regions showe...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Screening of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from plant resources
Abstract The therapeutic agents for dementia are limited due to the complex system underlying the mechanisms. Taking a preventive point of view, we focused on the inhibition of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In addition, plant resources including herbs and spices have been widely consumed, and further, may be consumed for a long period over a lifetime. Considering this background, we screened β-secretase and AChE inhibitors from curry spices. Amongst them, curry leaf, black pepper, and turmeric extracts were effective to inhibit β-secretase. Furthermore, black pepper and turmeric extr...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of genetic factors on the ephedrine alkaloid composition ratio of Ephedra plants
Abstract We investigated the ephedrine alkaloid [(−)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine] composition ratio of a crude Chinese herbal drug described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia ‘Ephedra herb (Chinese name: Mahuang)’. There were marked changes in the alkaloid composition ratio of wild plants in areas where both male and female clusters coexisted. However, in genetically homogeneous areas with the growth of male or female clusters alone, all of the coefficients of the regression lines were positive, but each gradient varied. This suggests that the alkaloid composition ratio has a clear tendency in...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis
This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from T. ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to analyze the compositions of essential oil. The immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT) were used to evaluate the antidepressive effects of essential oil. Furthermore, chronic mild stress (CMS) rats were established, and contents of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain were determined by high-performance liquid chromat...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 3, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New maltol glycosides from Flos Sophorae
Abstract Three new maltol glycosides, designated soyamalosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with eight known compounds (4–11), were obtained from a 70 % EtOH extract of Flos Sophorae. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Of the known compounds, this is the first report of 4–6, 9, and 11 in the Sophora genus. Compounds 2, 3, and 10 showed significant protective effects against antimycin A-induced L6 cell injury. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 15, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Intestinal bacterial metabolism and anti-complement activities of three major components of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the metabolism of Entadae Semen by human fecal bacteria to clarify the relationship between its pharmacological activities and intestinal metabolism. Three major components (phaseoloidin, entadamide A-β-d-glucopyranoside and entadamide A) were isolated and identified from Entadae Semen and then incubated with human fecal microflora in vitro to investigate the metabolic processes. The metabolites were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anti-complement activities of the three components and their metabolites produced by human fecal mi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 15, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dendrofalconerol A sensitizes anoikis and inhibits migration in lung cancer cells
Abstract Resistance to anoikis, enhanced cell motility, and growth in anchorage-independent conditions are hallmarks of highly metastatic cancer cells. The present study demonstrates the anoikis-sensitizing and anti-migration activities of dendrofalconerol A (DF-A), a pure bis(bibenzyl) isolated from the stem of Dendrobium falconeri (Orchidaceae), and its underlying mechanisms in human lung cancer H460 cells. DF-A at non-toxic concentrations significantly increased the anoikis response of the cancer cells, but caused no toxic effect on normal keratinocytes. In addition, DF-A significantly inhibited the growth ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 12, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Local and systemic toxicity of Echis carinatus venom: neutralization by Cassia auriculata L. leaf methanol extract
Abstract Viper bites cause high morbidity and mortality especially in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting a large number of the rural population in these areas. Even though anti-venoms are available, in most cases they fail to tackle viper venom-induced local manifestations that persist even after anti-venom administration. Several studies have been reported the use of plant products and approved drugs along side anti-venom therapy for efficient management of local tissue damage. In this regard, the present study focuses on the protective efficacy of Cassia auriculata L. (Leguminosae) against Echis carinat...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 7, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Novel urushiols with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the leaves of Rhus verniciflua
Abstract Two novel urushiols, 1 and 2, and two known urushiols, 3 and 4, were isolated from the leaves of Rhus verniciflua and were examined for their human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activity. The novel urushiols were found to be 1,2-dihydroxyphenyl-3-[7′(E),9′(Z),11′(Z)-pentadecatrienyl]-14′-ol (1) and 1,2-dihydroxyphenyl-3-[8′(Z),10′(E),12′(E)-pentadecatrienyl]-14′-ol (2) by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration at C-14′ in 1 and 2 was determined to be a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) isomers by o...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Contribution of C -glucosidic ellagitannins to Lythrum salicaria L. influence on pro-inflammatory functions of human neutrophils
This study has demonstrated potent activity of aqueous extract on stimulated neutrophils; this enhanced response is known to cause pathological changes in skin and mucosa tissues. These observations support and explain the traditional use of the herb Lythrum salicaria to treat certain diseases with an inflammatory background. C-glucosidic ellagitannins, especially dimeric salicarinins, are the factors responsible for these effects. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical structures of constituents from the flowers of Osmanthus fragrans var . aurantiacus
Abstract Three new megastigmane glycosides named floraosmanosides I–III and a new γ-decalactone named floraosmanolactone I together with 16 known constituents were isolated from the flowers of Osmanthus fragrans var. aurantiacus cultivated in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among them, ligustroside and (+)-pinoresinol significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structure of diarylheptanoids with antiallergic activity from the rhizomes of Curcuma comosa
Abstract The methanolic extract from the dried rhizomes of Curcuma comosa cultivated in Thailand was found to inhibit the release of β-hexosaminidase as a maker of degranulation from rat basophil leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Two new diarylheptanoids, diarylcomosols IV and V, were isolated from the methanolic extract. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The isolated diarylheptanoids showed inhibitory activity, and the structural requirements of the active constituents for the inhibition were clarified. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents with NO production inhibitory and cytotoxic activities from Litsea cubeba
Abstract A bioassay-guided fractionation of the roots and stems of Litsea cubeba led to the isolation of 14 constituents, including three new compounds, cubebanone (1), N-cis-3,4-methylenedioxycinnamoyl-3-methoxytyramine (2), and 9,9′-O-di-(E)-feruloyl-(+)-secoisolariciresinol (3), together with 11 known ones (4–14). Compounds 1, 4, and 8–11 showed obvious in vitro anti-inflammatory activities against NO production in LPS-induced murine microglial (BV-2) cell line and RAW 264.7 macrophages. A cytotoxic evaluation showed that 2, 3, and 5–8 exhibited considerable inhibition against the growth...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Resin glycosides from Ipomoea tyrianthina and their sedative and vasorelaxant effects
Abstract The methanol-soluble extract from the root of Ipomoea tyrianthina was studied in order to isolate compounds with activity on the central nervous system and vasorelaxant effects. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate and purify seven new glycolipids (2–8). The structures of compounds 1–8 were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Tyrianthinoic acid (1) is a glycosidic acid composed of a linear pentasaccharide core bonded to a 11-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. The structure of tyrianthinic acids III (2), IV (3), and V (4) consists of a partially acylated tyria...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Application of anatomy and HPTLC in characterizing species of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae)
This study is aimed to fill this gap and provides a detailed investigation of the anatomy and micro-morphology of the rhizomes and tubers of five different species of Dioscorea, namely D. balcanica, D. bulbifera, D. polystachya, D. rotundata and D. villosa. The primary features that can help in distinguishing the species include the nature of periderm, presence or absence of pericyclic sclereids, lignification in the phloem, types of calcium oxalate crystals and features of starch grains. The descriptions are supported with images of bright-field and scanning electron microscopy for better understanding of these species. T...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

l-Theanine healed NSAID-induced gastric ulcer by modulating pro/antioxidant balance in gastric ulcer margin
Abstract l-Theanine is a unique non-protein-forming amino acid present in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. In the present work, we evaluated the healing effect of l-theanine on NSAID (indomethacin)-induced gastric ulcer. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the third day after indomethacin administration (18 mg/kg, single dose p.o.) which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation; protein carbonylation; Th1 cytokine synthesis, and depletion of thiol, mucin, prostaglandin (PG) E, Th2 cytokine synthesis; and total antioxidant status in mice. l-Theanine healed...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Justidrusamides A–D, new 2-aminobenzyl alcohol derivatives from Justicia gendarussa
Abstract Justidrusamides A–D (1–4), four new alkaloids containing 2-aminobenzyl alcohol, succinic acid, and 2,3-dihydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) butanoic acid skeletons have been isolated from leaves of Justicia gendarussa, and their structures were elucidated using 2D NMR data and chemical means. This is the first report of a 2,3-dihydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) butanoic acid derivative in nature. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract
Abstract A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca2+ ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only neglig...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sucutinirane-diterpene derivatives induce apoptosis via oxidative stress in HL-60 cells
In this study, a series of sucutinirane derivatives was prepared, and their in vitro toxicity in the HL-60 cell line was evaluated. Then the action mechanism of a representative compound that induces cell death was investigated. Whereas C-6 or C-7 diol esters and ether decreased the activity against the HL-60 cell line, furan-oxidized derivatives 12 and 13 showed improvement or retention of the activity compared with those of the natural products sucutinirane A (11), E (1), and F (2). Treatment with sucutinirane derivative 13 elevated caspase 3/7 activity and also decreased expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Mcl-1, and B...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cytotoxicity of compounds from the fruits of Derris indica against cholangiocarcinoma and HepG2 cell lines
Abstract Two new compounds, derrivanone (1) and derrischalcone (2), were isolated from the crude hexane extract of the fruits of Derris indica. In addition, 14 known compounds were isolated from the fruits of this plant. Chalcones 2–4 showed strong cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma cell line (M156) and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In addition, flavanones 15 and 16 exhibited potent and high cytotoxic efficacy. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Salacia reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity
Abstract Salacia reticulata Wight (S. reticulata) is a herbal medicine used for treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine. In previous reports, the extract of S. reticulata showed preventive effects on obesity and various metabolic disorders and a suppressive effect on differentiation in premature adipocytes. The aim of this research was to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of the extract of S. reticulata on obesity and various metabolic disorders in 12-week-old TSOD mice with obesity and metabolic disorders and in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In TSOD mice, S. reticulata therapy produced a reduc...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenanthrene and phenylpropanoid constituents from the roots of Cymbidium Great Flower ‘Marylaurencin’ and their antimicrobial activity
Abstract Two new phenanthrenes, and one new phenylpropanoid, named ephemeranthoquinone C (1), and marylaurencinols C (2) and D (3), were isolated from the roots of Cymbidium Great Flower ‘Marylaurencin’, respectively. These structures were determined on the basis of 2D NMR experiments. The compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Trichophyton rubrum. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Screening of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. containing high concentrations of glycyrrhizin by Eastern blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using anti-glycyrrhizin monoclonal antibody for selective breeding of licorice
Abstract A rapid selection system was used to screen Glycyrrhiza uralensis plants containing high concentrations of glycyrrhizin (GC) by Eastern blotting using anti-GC monoclonal antibody (MAb). Chromatographic fingerprinting by Eastern blotting correlated with the GC concentration analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The roots of wild G. uralensis growing in Mongolia were analyzed by Eastern blotting to identify plants containing high concentrations of GC, and the GC concentration was confirmed by ELISA. G. uralensis plants cultivated in the greenhouse were also analyzed in the same manner. GC ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry
Abstract In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers o...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structure of constituents isolated from the flower buds of Cananga odorata and their inhibitory effects on aldose reductase
Abstract Three new terpenoid derivatives, canangaterpenes IV–VI, were isolated from the flower buds of Cananga odorata, cultivated in Thailand, together with eight known flavonoids. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on aldose reductase were also investigated. Several terpenoid derivatives and flavonoids were shown to inhibit aldose reductase. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hypelodins A and B, polyprenylated benzophenones from Hypericum elodeoides
Abstract Two new polyprenylated benzophenones, hypelodins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of the Chinese medicinal plant Hyperium elodeoides (Choisy). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Hypelodin A (1) is a polyprenylated benzophenone having a tetrahydropyrane ring with three prenyl groups and one 4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene moiety, while hypelodin B (2) has a cage-like structure with a 6/6/5/7/6/5 hexacyclic ring system. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Parkinson’s disease rat model
Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the irreversible loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway with subsequent dopamine deficiency. Environmental causes have been proposed through molecules, such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), to induce oxidative stress. The methanolic extract of plants of the genus Buddleja has been reported to have in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties to protect against neuronal death. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the MPP+ PD rat model was investigated...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of Galla chinensis extracts on UVB-irradiated MMP-1 production in hairless mice
Abstract Galla chinensis (GAC) is a natural traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in folk medicine. Although GAC compounds (mainly gallic acid and methyl gallate) possess strong antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities, there is no report regarding topical or oral administration of GAC compounds on UVB irradiation-induced photoaging in hairless mice (SKH: HR-1). In the present study, we examined cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes induced by...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new diterpenoids from Leonotis leonurus R. Br.
Abstract Two new diterpenoids, 14α-hydroxy-9α,13α-epoxylabd-5(6)-en-7-on-16,15-olide (1) and 13ξ-hydroxylabd-5(6),8(9)-dien-7-on-16,15-olide (2) along with six known diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. These structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Some of the isolated compounds showed weak to moderate estrogen sulfotransferase inhibitory activity. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 16, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diversity in aconitine alkaloid profile of Aconitum plants in Hokkaido contrasts with their genetic similarity
Abstract Aconite tuber is a representative crude drug for warming the body internally in Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. The crude drug is used in major prescriptions for the aged. Varieties of Aconitum plants are distributed throughout the Japanese Islands, especially Hokkaido. With the aim of identifying the medicinal potential of Aconitum plants from Hokkaido, 107 specimens were collected from 36 sites in the summer of 2011 and 2012. Their nuclear DNA region, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and aconitine alkaloid contents were analyzed. Phylogenic analysis of ITS by maximum parsimon...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 9, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Genetic and chemical characterization of white and red peony root derived from Paeonia lactiflora
This study attempted to clarify the genetic and chemical characteristics of WPR and RPR in order to provide a scientific dataset for their identification and effective use. The nucleotide sequence of nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the contents of 8 main bioactive constituents were analyzed from specimens of P. lactiflora, P. veitchii and two related species as well as crude drug samples of WPR, RPR and peony root produced in Japan. Of the samples derived from P. lactiflora, the WPR produced in the southern parts of China and the RPR produced in the northern parts of China were clearly divided into two subgroup...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Scutia buxifolia Reissek in nucleotidase activities and inhibition of platelet aggregation
This study aimed to determine the effect of lyophilized aqueous extracts of Scutia buxifolia on NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase activity on platelets and lymphocytes as well as the profile of the platelet aggregation. In vitro tests were used to investigate the effect of the aqueous crude extract obtained from S. buxifolia leaves (SbL) and stem bark (SbS) on enzymatic activities and platelet aggregation. The platelets and lymphocytes were exposed to lyophilized aqueous extracts of S. buxifolia at concentrations of 1–200 μg/mL in the presence of ATP, ADP, AMP as substrates, during the enzymatic assay, as wel...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 23, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction protects against cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway
This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of the Chinese herbal medicine formula THSWD. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 23, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research