Two new cytotoxic stilbenoid dimers isolated from Cajanus cajan
AbstractTwo new stilbenoid dimers, cajanstilbenoids A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves ofCajanus cajan. Planar structures of these compounds were verified by NMR (1D and 2D) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI –MS). Absolute configurations were assigned by comparing experimental and calculated electronic CD values. The cytotoxicity of1 and2 against human hepatoma (HepG2), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human lung cancer (A549) cells were evaluated in vitro. Compound1 showed strong cytotoxicity against all the tested cell lines (IC50 values: 2.14 –2.56 ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Naphthalene glycosides in the Thai medicinal plant Diospyros mollis
This study evaluated methanol extracts from the leaves and branches of the Thai medicinal plantDiospyros mollis (Ebenaceae). Seven triterpenes and 22 aromatic compounds, including five new compounds, were isolated, and their structures were determined. The new compounds had the following structures: diospyrol glycoside (makluoside A,1), 8,8 ′-di-O-6- β-d-apiofuranosyl- β-d-glucopyranosyl-6,6 ′-dimethyl-2,3′-binaphthalene-1-ol-1′,4′- dione (makluoside B,2), and 3-methyl-1,8- naphthalenediol glycosides (makluosides C-E,3–5). Makluoside B is the first example of a naphthoquinone g...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A novel mode of stimulating platelet formation activity in megakaryocytes with peanut skin extract
We report in this study novel biochemical activities of peanut skin extract (PEXT) on thrombocytopoiesis. Peanut skin, derived fromArachis hypogaea L., is a traditional Chinese medicine that is used to treat chronic hemorrhage. We have shown that oral administration of PEXT increases the peripheral platelet levels in mice. Recently, we reported a liquid culture system that is useful for investigating megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis from human CD34+ cells. In this liquid culture system, PEXT was shown to enhance the formation of CD41+/DAPI− cells (platelets), but had no effect on the formation of CD41+/DAP...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ellagic acid glycosides with hepatoprotective activity from traditional Tibetan medicine Potentilla anserina
AbstractTwo new gallic acid glycosides, potentillanosides G (1) and H (2), were newly isolated from the methanol extract of the tuberous roots ofPotentilla anserina (Rosaceae), together with a known compound, ellagic acid 3-O- α-l-rhamnopyranoside (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents, potentillanoside H (2, IC50 = 99.5 μM) was found to show hepatoprotective activity. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of byakujutsu (Atractylodes rhizome) and sojutsu (Atractylodes lancea rhizome) on anti-inflammatory and immunostimulative effects in vitro
AbstractThe Japanese Pharmacopoeia defines byakujutsu (Atractylodes rhizome) as the rhizome ofAtractylodes japonica orA. macrocephala and sojutsu (Atractylodes lancea rhizome) as the rhizome ofA. lancea,A. chinensis, or their interspecific hybrids. Because their pharmaceutical uses differ in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, with less apparent scientific evidence, we compared the pharmacological properties between byakujutsu and sojutsu. Crude drug specimens of byakujutsu (n = 40) and sojutsu (n = 49) obtained in markets were identified by their species using DNA prof...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A mixture: multistep inhibition of the NF- κB signalling pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory effect of Scutellaria root flavonoids
AbstractScutellaria root, the root ofScutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a crude drug used for inflammatory diseases. In our previous report, the combination of flavonoids contained in Scutellaria root have been found to inhibit PGE2 production more strongly than individual flavonoids. Here, to investigate the mechanism of the synergistic effect, we examined the effects of an equimolar mixture (F-mix) of baicalein (1), wogonin (2) and oroxylin A (3) on the production of PGE2 in LPS-treated J774.1 cells. Although1 and3 inhibited COX-2 activity, the F-mix showed no synergistic effect on COX-2 inhibition. Therefore, we investi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

C 21 steroid derivatives from the Dai herbal medicine Dai-Bai-Jie, the dried roots of Marsdenia tenacissima , and their screening for anti-HIV activity
AbstractTwenty-three new C21 steroidal glycosides, marstenacissides C1 –C10 (1–10), D1 –D7 (11–17) and E1 –E6 (18–23), and four new C21 steroids, 11 α,12β-O-ditigloyl-tenacigenin C (24), 11 α-O-benzoyl-12 β-O-tigloyl-tenacigenin C (25), 11 α-O-tigloyl-12 β-O-benzoyl-tenacigenin C (26) and 11 α-O-tigloyl-12 β-O-benzoyl-marsdenin (27), were isolated from the Dai herbal medicine Dai-Bai-Jie, derived from the roots ofMarsdenia tenacissima. The chemical structures of all compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques, including high-resoluti...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 15, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Labdane-type diterpenoids from Vitex limonifolia and their antivirus activities
AbstractPhytochemical investigation of the methanol extract ofVitex limonifolia leaves led to the isolation of three new labdane-type diterpenoids, vitexlimolides A –C (1 –3) and eight known compounds, 5,4 ′-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (4), vitecetin (5), 5,4 ′-dihydroxy-7,3′-dimethoxyflavone (6), verrucosin (7), 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (8), euscaphlic acid (9), 18,19-seco, 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-19-oxo-urs-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (10), and maslinic acid (11). Their chemical structures were elucidated by physical and chemical methods. All compounds were e...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 15, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The promotion of hair regrowth by topical application of a Perilla frutescens extract through increased cell viability and antagonism of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone
This study investigated the potential hair regrowth effects associated with a plant extract ofPerilla frutescens, which was selected due to its putative hair regrowth activity. Extracts were prepared from driedP. frutescens suspended in distilled water, where the resultant aqueous suspension was fractionated sequentially using hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. We observed that the n-butanol fraction resulted in the highest hair regrowth activity. The n-butanol soluble fraction ofP. frutescens extract (BFPE) was further separated using AB-8 macroporous resin and silica gel chromatography to obtain rosma...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Naturally occurring Vpr inhibitors from medicinal plants of Myanmar
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Resin glycosides from Convolvulaceae plants
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of oleuropein on cognitive deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cytokine expression in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder
In this study, we examined whether OLE improved spatial cognitive impairment induced in rats following single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with vehicle or various doses of OLE for 14 consecutive days after the SPS procedure. The SPS procedure resulted in cognitive impairment in the object recognition task and the Morris water maze test, which was reversed by OLE (100  mg/kg, i.p). Additionally, as assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the administration of OLE significantly alleviated memory-ass...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oviposition inhibitor in umbelliferous medicinal plants for the common yellow swallowtail ( Papilio machaon )
AbstractUmbelliferous medicinal plants, such asAngelica acutiloba Kitagawa andAngelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker filius ex Franchet et Savatier, account for a large percentage of crude drug consumption in Japan. The most serious problem in the cultivation of umbelliferous medicinal plants is the feeding damage caused by the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon hippocrates C.& R. Felder, 1864). When we compared the numbers of eggs laid byP. machaon on six umbelliferous medicinal plants, the eggs onA. acutiloba,A. dahurica, andGlehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miquel were the most numerous, those onSaposhnikovia d...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Whitening and anti-wrinkle activities of ferulic acid isolated from Tetragonia tetragonioides in B16F10 melanoma and CCD-986sk fibroblast cells
AbstractFerulic acid isolated fromTetragonia tetragonioides was tested for its whitening effect on the B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line and its anti-wrinkle activity on the CCD-986sk human dermal fibroblast cell line. Ferulic acid, one of the primary phenolic compounds that can be isolated fromT.  tetragonioides, has been reported to show potential as a functional food, for its whitening effect and anti-wrinkle activity. To measure its whitening and anti-wrinkle activities, cells were treated with ferulic acid isolated fromT.  tetragonioides at concentrations between 5 and 20  μM. Ferulic acid showed no cy...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The anti-tumor effect of pachymic acid on osteosarcoma cells by inducing PTEN and Caspase 3/7-dependent apoptosis
This study provides evidence that PA might be useful in the treatment of human osteosarcoma. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 30, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Kaempferia parviflora extract on knee osteoarthritis
AbstractKnee osteoarthritis (OA) is becoming more prevalent worldwide due to increases in the numbers of elderly and obese patients. Currently, pharmaceutical medicines used for the treatment of OA are for symptomatic therapy and therefore new therapeutic agents are needed.Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a plant growing naturally in Southeast Asia and has various pharmacological effects including an anti-inflammatory effect, but no effect on OA has yet been reported. We therefore conducted a search for the effects KP and the active components of KP extract (KPE) exert on OA as well as its mechanism of action. Results from a ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sansoninto as evidence-based remedial medicine for depression-like behavior
AbstractIn vitro screening methods using cultured Neuro2a cells to examine the activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and promotion of neurite outgrowth revealed that the extracts of 5 Kampo (Japanese traditional) formulations have potential as medicines for the treatment of behavioral abnormalities. Since sansoninto (SAT) extract exerted stronger effects than the other candidates tested, we investigated whether its oral administration ameliorates the pathologies of some mouse models of behavioral impairments. The results obtained suggested that SAT extract exerted anti-depression-l...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sesquiterpenes from fruits of Torilis japonica with inhibitory activity on melanin synthesis in B16 cells
AbstractMelanin, a dark macromolecular pigment, protects skin from harmful damage. However, abnormal accumulation is responsible for hyperpigmentation disorders. Melanogenesis inhibitors have therefore become important constituents in cosmetic products for depigmentation.Torilis japonica Decandolle (Umbelliferae) is a biennial plant which is distributed in East Asia. Fruits of this plant have been used for the treatment of skin disease and inflammation. In our previous study, torilin, a major sesquiterpene ofT. japonica, showed an inhibitory effect on melanin production in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MS...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ceramicines M –P from Chisocheton ceramicus : isolation and structure–activity relationship study
AbstractCeramicines are a series of limonoids which were isolated from the bark of MalaysianChisocheton ceramicus (Meliaceae) and show various biological activities. Ceramicine B, in particular, has been reported to show a strong lipid droplet accumulation (LDA) inhibitory activity on a mouse pre-adipocyte cell line (MC3T3-G2/PA6). With the purpose of discovering compounds with stronger activity than ceramicine B, we further investigated the constituents ofC.  ceramicus. As a result, from the bark ofC.  ceramicus four new ceramicines (ceramicines M –P,1–4) were isolated, and their structures were dete...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities of Anvillea garcinii and isolation of four new secondary metabolites
AbstractAnvillea garcinii is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, gastrointestinal troubles, hepatitis, lung disease, colds, digestive problems and pulmonary affections and in liver diseases. Four new sesquiterpene lactones, garcinamines A –D, along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the leaves ofA. garcinii. This is the first report of the isolation of amino acid analogues of parthenolide-type sesquiterpene lactones from the family Asteraceae. Total ethanol extract of leaves as well as the chloroform andn-butanol fractions were tested for their hepatoprotective effect usin...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of chemical constituents among licorice, roasted licorice, and roasted licorice with honey
In this report, we prepared roasted licorice with or without honey using 3 lots of crude drug samples derived from wildG. uralensis, and analyzed the constituents in unprocessed, roasted, and honey-roasted licorice samples by high performance liquid chromatography –electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-IT-TOF-MSn) with principal component analysis. We found that the areas of 41 peaks were noticeably changed by processing. Among them, the areas of 12 peaks, viz. isoliquiritin, isoliquiritigenin, glucoisoliquiritin, 6 ″-O-acetylisoliquiritin, 6 ″-O-acetylisoliquir...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two flavone C -glycosides as quality control markers for the manufacturing process of ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) as a crude drug preparation
AbstractAs part of our continuing study of ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) in pursuit of its approval as a crude drug preparation, we identified two quantitative markers for the quality control of the manufacturing process of EFE and sought to establish cost-effective and simple methods for quantitative analyses. We analysed Ephedra Herb extracts grown in different habitats and collection years by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and detected two notable peaks common to each extract. These peaks were identified as vicenin-2 (1) and isovitexin 2 ″-O-rhamnoside (2). ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 3, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A supplement to Prof. Shoji Shibata ’s achievements: the history of “Shōsō-in Medicines” and the reason why Magnolia obovata (old name: Hoogashiwa) was not given a Chinese herbal name in Japan’s oldest anthology “Man’yōshū”
AbstractProf. Shoji Shibata (1916 –2016) left behind remarkable achievements in the field of the history of pharmacy. Among those, the scientific survey on medicines preserved in Shōsō-in, globally known as the World Cultural Heritage, is of particular interest, drawing wide attention from scholars to the general public. Its mos t spectacular and also shocking study in the field of pharmacognosy will be the one on the true origin of Kōboku (Houpu) that seems quite ordinary from its name. Prof. Shibata revealed that it is of juglandaceous origin that is completely different from what is known today under the same n...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Resin glycosides from Convolvulaceae plants
AbstractResin glycosides are well known as purgative ingredients, which are characteristic of certain crude drugs such as Mexican Scammony Radix, Orizabae Tuber, and Jalapae Tuber, all of which originate from Convolvulaceae plants. Depending on their solubility in ether, these are roughly classified into two groups —jalapin (soluble) and convolvulin (insoluble). Almost all jalapins hitherto isolated and characterized had common intramolecular macrocyclic ester structures. These are composed of 1 mol of oligoglycoside of hydroxyl fatty acid (glycosidic acid) partially acylated by some organic acids at the su gar ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Shikonin changes the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammation-related genes in macrophages
AbstractWe aimed to find candidate molecules possibly involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of shikonin (active compound of “Shikon”) by analyzing its effects on gene expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated THP-1 macrophages. Polysome-associated mRNAs (those expected to be under translation: translatome) from cells treated with LPS alone (LPS: 5 µg/mL), shikonin alone (S: 100 nM), or LPS plus shikonin (LPS&S) for 3  h were analyzed by DNA microarray followed by detection of enriched pathways/gene ontologies using the tools of the STRING database. Candidate genes in enriched ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structures of antimutagenic constituents in the peels of Citrus limon
AbstractThe methanolic extracts from the peels ofCitrus limon were found to show antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in the Ames test. From the methanolic extracts, four new coumarins (wakayamalimonol A –D) and a new furanocoumarin (wakayamalimonol E) were isolated together with fifteen known compounds. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined by chemical synthesis and the modified Mosher’s method. Among the isolated constituents, coumarins, furanocoumarins, and limono ids showed antimutag...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Semisynthesis and biological evaluation of prenylated resveratrol derivatives as multi-targeted agents for Alzheimer ’s disease
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of ninjin ’yoeito and ginseng extracts on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathies in mice
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the in vivo effects of NYT on L-OHP-induced neuropathic pain in mice and identify the active ingredients in NYT. Treatment with NYT extract significantly ameliorated both cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by L-OHP. While L-OHP tre atment suppressed neurite outgrowths from primary dorsal root ganglion cells in vitro, NYT extract blocked this suppression in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the herbal components of NYT, the extract of ginseng (Panax ginseng roots) showed a protective effect against neurite damage induced by L-OHP, and one of its acti...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of anti-inflammatory constituents in Phellodendri Cortex and Coptidis Rhizoma by monitoring the suppression of nitric oxide production
AbstractPhellodendri Cortex (Obaku in Japanese) and Coptidis Rhizoma (Oren), both of which contain berberine, have been used to prepare the kampo formulaorengedokuto to treat inflammatory diseases, including dermatitis, gastric ulcers, and gastritis. These drugs are blended differently in other formulas, such as the use of Phellodendri Cortex inshichimotsukokato to treat hypertension and Coptidis Rhizoma inhangeshashinto to treat diarrhea and stomatitis. However, the differences in their medicinal properties are not well characterized. We prepared extracts fromPhellodendron amurense bark (PAB) andCoptis chinensis rhizome (...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antiosteoporotic activity of a syringic acid diet in ovariectomized mice
AbstractIn recent years, the number of patients with osteoporosis has risen with the increase in average longevity. Therefore, the chemoprevention of osteoporosis using food materials or food components has become an increasingly important target. Syringic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound present in the fruit of the a çaí palmEuterpe oleracea and the mycelium of the shiitake mushroomLentinula edodes. This compound has no affinity for estrogen receptors and is potentially useful for disease prevention. However, little is known about the effects of a SA diet on bone metabolism, particularly bone resorption in v...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Naturally occurring Vpr inhibitors from medicinal plants of Myanmar
AbstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a lentiviral family member that encodes the retroviral Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, along with six additional accessory proteins, Tat, Rev, Vpu, Vif, Nef, and Vpr. The currently approved anti-HIV drugs target the Pol and Env encoded proteins. However, these drugs are only effective in reducing viral replication. Furthermore, the drugs ’ toxicities and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have become serious worldwide problems. Resistance eventually arises to all of the approved anti-HIV drugs, including the newly approved drugs that target HIV integrase (IN). D...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of the ameliorative effects of Qingfei Tongluo formula and azithromycin on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia
In conclusion, QTF treatment inhibited the progression of MPP, reduced vascular permeability, and improved pulmonary microcirculation more effectively than conventional treatment with Western medicine. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Kuguacin J isolated from bitter melon leaves modulates paclitaxel sensitivity in drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells
This study investigated whether KJ could promote cisplatin- and paclitaxel (PTX)-induced cancer cell death in drug-resistance human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3). Cytotoxicity testing showed that SKOV3 was more resistant to cisplatin and PTX compared to drug-sensitive human ovarian cancer cells (A2780). The cytotoxicity of PTX was significantly increased in SKOV3 cells when co-treated with KJ. We found that enhancement of PTX toxicity in the cells was not related to P-gp inhibition. To elucidate the mechanism by which KJ increases PTX sensitivity, the expression of cell death involving proteins was analyzed by Western blot ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nine pairs of megastigmane enantiomers from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver
AbstractNine pairs of megastigmane enantiomers (1a/1b–9a/9b), comprising two new compounds (6S,9R)-blumenol C (7b), (6S,9S)-blumenol C (8b), two pairs of enantiomers (+)-(6R)-eucomegastigmane A (1a), ( −)-(6S)-eucomegastigmane A (1b), (+)-(3S,4S)-eucomegastigmane B (5a), ( −)-(3R,4R)-eucomegastigmane B (5b) isolated by chiral resolution firstly, and twelve known compounds, were isolated from the leaves ofEucommia ulmoides Oliver. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. Absolute configurations of the megastigmane enantiomers were assigned by comparing experimental ECD an...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

An overview and comparison of a recombinant antigen-binding fragment and an antigen-binding fragment from a monoclonal antibody against wogonin glucuronide
AbstractWogonin glucuronide (wogonin 7-O- β-d-glucuronide, Wgn) is widely recognized as a constituent of Scutellariae radix, which is used in Kampo medicines. Wgn has been used for both pharmacological (antifebrile uses and in detoxification) and research purposes. A recombinant antigen-binding fragment (rFab) and an antigen-binding fragment from a monoclonal antibody (mFab) against Wgn were constructed and used in an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) in this study. The rFab and mFab against Wgn showed both activity and recognition against Wgn. The developed icELISA was validated as a qu...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 16, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of glycyrrhizin content in 25 major kinds of Kampo extracts containing Glycyrrhizae Radix used clinically in Japan
AbstractGlycyrrhizae Radix is the most frequently used crude drug in Japan and is prescribed in Kampo medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. The major active ingredient of Glycyrrhizae Radix, glycyrrhizin (GL), has been shown to possess various pharmacological actions, but is also known to cause adverse effects such as pseudoaldosteronism. To avoid the adverse effects of GL, precautions have been indicated on the package inserts of Glycyrrhizae Radix-containing formulas depending on the amount of Glycyrrhizae Radix they contain. However, it remains unknown whether the extraction efficiency of GL from Glycy...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Semisynthesis and biological evaluation of prenylated resveratrol derivatives as multi-targeted agents for Alzheimer ’s disease
AbstractA series of prenylated resveratrol derivatives were designed, semisynthesized and biologically evaluated for inhibition of β-secretase (BACE1) and amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation as well as free radical scavenging and neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities, as potential novel multifunctional agents against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The results showed that compound4b exhibited good anti-A β aggregation (IC50 = 4.78 µM) and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 41.22 µM) and moderate anti-BACE1 inhibitory activity (23.70% at 50 µM), and could be a ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenylpropanoid composition in fig ( Ficus carica L.) leaves
AbstractThe leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) have been used for traditional and Chinese medicine. We determined the composition of phenylpropanoids (polyphenols and furanocoumarins) as a functional agent in the leaves of 37 cultivars of fig. The most abundant polyphenol was caffeoylmalic acid (12.0 –26.6 mg/g dry weight), followed by rutin (4.7–14.6 mg/g dry weight) and isoschaftoside (2.5–6.4 mg/g dry weight). Psoralen (3.8–23.0 mg/g dry weight) was dominant in the furanocoumarins. In molar amounts, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG), a precursor of psoralen, was equivalent to psorale...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for rapid detection of miroestrol in samples of White Kwao Krua, a phytoestrogen-rich plant
This study shows that the developed LFIA is practical and suitable for detecting small amounts of miroestrol in WKK samples. This qualitative assay is more rapid in screening miroestrol in WKK samples (within 10 min) than conventional methods (ELISA and HPLC). (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemical profile and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of Limonium michelsonii Lincz
AbstractMembers of the genusLimonium are widely used as medicinal herbs due to their health-promoting effects, such as an ability to improve blood circulation by inhibiting angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). While the potential ofL. michelsonii Lincz. (a medicinal plant endemic to Kazakhstan) to inhibit ACE has been demonstrated, the inhibitory activities of its secondary metabolites have not been explored. In this work, the principal phenolic compounds (1–20) among these metabolites were isolated to determine the components responsible for ACE inhibition. The natural abundances of the active constituents within ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A new biflavonoid and a new triterpene from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis and their biological activities
AbstractA new biflavonoid, paucinervin K (1) and a new triterpene, 23-hydroxy-friedelin (2), together with eleven known compounds3-13 were isolated from the leaves ofGarcinia paucinervis. Their structures, including stereochemistry, were determined by spectroscopic analysis of NMR, MS, IR and ECD calculation and the octant rule. Some of the isolated compounds were tested for antiproliferative,α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities in vitro. Compounds1,3,4,5 and9 showed moderate preferential antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Compounds3–6 and9 exhibited potent growth inhibition against HepG-2 ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A new biphenyl ether derivative produced by Indonesian ascidian-derived Penicillium albobiverticillium
AbstractA new biphenyl ether derivative, 2-hydroxy-6-(2 ′-hydroxy-3′-hydroxymethyl-5-methylphenoxy)-benzoic acid (1), was isolated together with the known benzophenone derivative, monodictyphenone (2), from a culture broth of Indonesian ascidian-derivedPenicillium albobiverticillium TPU1432 by solvent extraction, ODS column chromatography, and preparative HPLC (ODS). The structure of1 was elucidated based on NMR experiments. Compound2 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B, T cell PTP (TCPTP), and CD45 tyrosine phosphatase (CD45), whereas compound1 modestly inhibi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Triterpenoid saponins from Polaskia chichipe Backbg. and their inhibitory or promotional effects on the melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells
AbstractFive new oleanane-type saponins1–5 together with a known saponin6 and a steroidal glycoside7 were isolated fromPolaskia chichipe Backbg., and their structures were determined from their 1D and 2D NMR and HRFABMS spectral data. The six isolated saponins1–6 were tested for their effects on the melanogenesis of B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Compound1 exerted an inhibitory effect at 100  μM whereas compound3 promoted melanogenesis at the same concentration, even though these two compounds contain the same aglycon structure. The dose-dependent activities of compounds1 and3 on melanin synthesis were investi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Fermented Citrus reticulata (ponkan) fruit squeezed draff that contains a large amount of 4 ′-demethylnobiletin prevents MK801-induced memory impairment
In this study using PC12D cells and cultured central nervous system neurons, we therefore examined whetherAspergillus kawachii-fermented citrus fruit squeezed draff could affect cAMP response element (CRE)- and choline acetyltransferase gene (ChAT) promoter region-mediated transcriptional activities relevant to memory formation and cholinergic function. Our current fermentation yielded approximately 80% nobiletin bioconversion, and a sample of hot-water extract of the fermented fruit squeezed draff was stronger than that of the unfermented one in facilitating CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons as we...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ceylonins G –I: spongian diterpenes from the marine sponge Spongia ceylonensis
AbstractThree new spongian diterpenes, ceylonins G –I (1–3), were isolated from the marine spongeSpongia ceylonensis collected in Indonesia, together with five known spongian diterpenes (4–8). Only4 inhibited USP7 with an IC50 value of 8.2  μM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 3, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New ellagitannins from Tiencha and their inhibitory activity against dental plaque
AbstractFour new galloyl-oxygen-diphenyl (GOD)-type ellagitannins, brambliins A –D (1–4), were isolated from the leaves ofRubus suavissimus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and the absolute configurations of1–4 were determined by chemical and phytochemical evidence. These GOD-type ellagitannins inhibited the formation of dental plaque, which is beneficial for oral hygiene. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new antimalarial quassinoid derivatives from the stems of Brucea javanica
AbstractPhytochemical investigation of the stems fromBrucea javanica led to the isolation of two new quassinoids, brujavanol C (1) and brujavanol D (2), together with six known compounds (3–8). The chemical structures were elucidated by means of various spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for antimalarial activity againstPlasmodium falciparum and compounds6 and7 exhibited the most potent activity against the K1 strain, with IC50 values of 1.41 and 1.06 μM, respectively. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Genistein modulation of seizure: involvement of estrogen and serotonin receptors
AbstractGenistein, a major source of phytoestrogen exposure for humans and animals, has been shown to mediate neuroprotection in Alzheimer ’s disease and status epilepticus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of genistein on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in ovariectomized mice and the possible involvement of estrogenic and serotonergic pathways in the probable effects of genistein. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administr ation of genistein (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the seizure threshold 30 min prior to induction of seizures 14 days after ovariectomy surgery. Administration of fulvestra...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 24, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sharkquinone, a new ana -quinonoid tetracene derivative from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. EGY1 with TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity
AbstractA newana-quinonoid tetracene metabolite, named sharkquinone (1), and the known SS-228R (2) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of marineStreptomyces sp. EGY1. The strain was isolated from sediment sample collected from the Red Sea coast of Egypt. The structure of sharkquinone (1) was elucidated using detailed spectral (HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR) analyses and quantum chemical calculations. This is the first report of the isolation ofana-quinonoid tetracene derivative from a natural source. Compound1 showed the ability to overcome tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRA...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay for the determination of oxyresveratrol from Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham.
AbstractOxyresveratrol is a major active compound in the heartwood ofArtocarpus lacucha. It plays an important role in anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and neuroprotective properties. There are manyA. lacucha commercial products available on the market for skin whitening and anti-aging effects. To evaluate the quality of raw material from the plant, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against oxyresveratrol was generated in this study. The immunogen was prepared by the Mannich reaction for the conjugation of oxyresveratrol and cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA). The conjugation of oxyresveratrol &ndas...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 31, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research