Anti-inflammatory effects of alpinone 3-acetate from Alpinia japonica seeds
In conclusion, assays of 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation ear edema in mice and polysome profiling of alpinone 3-acetate bioactivities indicated similar medicinal possibilities to those of hydrocortisone. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The cytotoxic and tyrosine kinase inhibitory properties of C 21 steroids and iridoids from the tubers of Alocasia cucullata
Abstract Ten steroids and iridoids were isolated from the tubers of Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G. Don. Among them, alocasgenin A (1) and alocasgenoside B–C (2–3) were new compounds and the aglycone of compound 1, obtained from the acid hydrolysis of 1, was named alocasgenol (1a). Also, for the first time, tenacigenin B (4), 17β-tenacigenin-B (5), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-d-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-oleandropyranosyl-tenacigenin C (6), marsdenoside A–B (7–8) and tenacigenoside A–B (9–10) were isolated from the genus Alocasia. The chemical structures were elucida...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 27, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potency of extracts from selected Egyptian plants as inducers of the Nrf2-dependent chemopreventive enzyme NQO1
Abstract Medicinal plants from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula are widely used in traditional Bedouin medicine to treat a range of conditions including cancer, and as such are a promising resource for novel anti-cancer compounds. To achieve scientific justification of traditional use and/or to recommend the use of those plants as medicinal herbs for cancer chemoprevention, a group of 11 Sinai plants of different species that belong to 3 families (Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Euphorbiaceae) were biologically screened for cancer preventive activity using the chemoprevention marker enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 27, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Amentoflavone enhances osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells through JNK and p38 MAPK pathways
In this study, we aim to explore the effect of amentoflavone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The results showed that amentoflavone significantly enhanced the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in hMSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 and osterix proteins was upregulated in amentoflavone-treated hMSCs. Furthermore, we investigated the possible signaling pathways responsible for osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs by amentoflavone. We found that amentoflavone significantly increased the levels of phosph...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 22, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes)
This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 21, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vivo efficacy of trans -cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and thymol in attenuating Listeria monocytogenes infection in a Galleria mellonella model
This study investigated the efficacy of three phytochemicals, namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and thymol (TY) in reducing L. monocytogenes virulence in the recently established invertebrate model, Galleria mellonella. In addition, the effect of phytochemicals on the transcription of antimicrobial peptide genes in G. mellonella (responsible for host defense) was investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (105 CFU/larvae) either with or without the subinhibitory concentration (chemical concentration not inhibiting bacterial...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 19, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective effects of Weilikang decoction on gastric ulcers and possible mechanisms
Abstract Although Weilikang decoction (WLK) has been used for gastric ulcer (GU) therapy in a clinical setting with good curative effect for>20 years, the mechanism remains unclear. Several GU animal models, induced by ethanol, hydrochloric acid, aspirin, pylorus ligation, acetic acid and indomethacin, were used to investigate the gastroprotective effects of WLK decoction. Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME), indomethacin, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were pretreated, respectively, to investigate the action mechanism. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis met...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 18, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new compounds from the roots of Ilex pubescens and their cytotoxic activity
Abstract A new phenylethanoid, 1-O-β-d-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-6-O-vanilloyl-glucopyranoside (1), and a new furofuran lignan, (7R,7′R,7′′S,8S,8′S,8′′R)-4′, 4′′-dihydroxy-3,3′,3′′,5-tetramethoxy-7,9′:7′9-diepoxy-4,8′′-oxy-8,8′-sesquineolignan-7′′,9′′-diol (2), along with five known compounds (3–7) were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including UV, IR, MS, and NMR experiments. In ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 18, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants extracts
Abstract Over the course of our studies investigating anti-proliferative properties of compounds originating from plants against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1), human uterine carcinoma (HeLa), murine melanoma (B16F10), and two human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2), we have screened 582 extracted samples obtained from a variety of parts from 370 plants. A few extracts showed anti-proliferative activity against all cell lines, but upon further investigation, toxicity toward selected cell lines was recognized. After activity-guided fractionation, isolation of the a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 16, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anticancer effect of a Kampo preparation Daikenchuto
Abstract No traditional Japanese and Chinese herbal preparations have been shown to be effective antitumor agents, and a Japanese herbal therapy (Kampo medicine) for cancer that causes fewer adverse drug reactions than orthodox pharmaceuticals is desired. Our present study demonstrated that a Kampo preparation Daikenchuto (DKT) exerts an antitumor effect against various cancer cells. We also discovered an antitumor factor in Japanese Zanthoxylum peel, which is an ingredient of DKT. Breast, esophageal, gastric, and colon cancer cell lines were individually incubated with DKT for 1–72 h, followed by asses...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antidepressant, antioxidant and neurotrophic properties of the standardized extract of Cocos nucifera husk fiber in mice
In conclusion, we demonstrated that HECN has antidepressant-like properties, probably based on its antioxidant and neurotrophic effects, and is thus relevant for the treatment of depression. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily
Abstract Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV–VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV–VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher’s method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily....
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 5, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi) alters the profiles of organic and inorganic components in Keishikaryukotsuboreito
In this study, we focused on decoction of Keishikaryukotsuboreito (KRB). The profile of inorganic and organic components in the extract was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC/FID), respectively. Twenty-five elements were detected by ICP-MS in KRB and longgu-free KRB (KB) decoctions. However, 23 elements were detected in unadultrated longgu (R) decoctions, and their total amount was 30 times lower than those of the KRB and KB decoctions were. No organic compounds were detected in R decoctions by GC/FID, though many were detected in KRB and ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 3, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of the constituents in Saposhnikoviae Radix and Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma by monitoring inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production
Abstract During the development of natural herbal medicines in Japan, Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma (Hamabofu in Japanese) has been used as a substitute for Saposhnikoviae Radix (Bofu). Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae. For example, Bofu is included in Jumihaidokuto by a manufacturer, whereas Hamabofu is included instead of Bofu in the same formula by other manufacturers. Although both Bofu and Hamabofu are used for their expected anti-inflammatory effects, differences in their medicinal properties are not well characterized. In addition, there have been very few reports comparing t...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 1, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora
Abstract The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2–26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) w...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 30, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Acylated neo -clerodane type diterpenoids from the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia Levl. (Lamiaceae)
Abstract Twenty new neo-clerodane type diterpenoids, scutefolides G1-S (1–20), were isolated from the 70 % aqueous acetone extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1, 2, 7, 8, 14 and 15 were determined by means of the CD exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 18 and 19 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines, and anti-bacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 29, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats
This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 27, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bioactive cyclolanstane-type saponins from the stems of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao
Abstract Twelve cyclolanstane-type saponins including six new ones, astrolanosaponins A1 (1), A2 (2), B (3), C (4), D (5), and E (6) were obtained from the stem of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, and their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Of the known ones, cycloastragenol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), astraverrucin II (8), cycloaraloside E (9), huangqiyenin A (10), and huangqiyenin B (11) were isolated from the species first. Meanwhile, compounds 1–3, 5–9, and aleksandroside I (12) showed inhibitory effects on triglyceride accum...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 22, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo antiherpetic effects of (1 R ,2 R )-1-(5′-methylful-3′-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol
In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo antiherpetic activities of a stable furan derivative, (1R,2R)-1-(5′-methylful-3′-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol (MFPT), which had originally been isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain FV60. In the present study, we synthesized MFPT from (5-methylfuran-3-yl)methanol in 6 steps for use in the experiments. MFPT showed potent in vitro antiviral activities against two acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive (KOS and HF) strains and an ACV-resistant (A4-3) strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and an ACV-sensitive HSV type 2 (HSV-2) UW 268 strain, their selectivity indices ra...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and inhibitory activity towards acetylcholinesterase of essential oils from Gynura bicolor DC.
Abstract The compositions of the essential oils obtained from leaves and stems of Gynura bicolor DC. were analyzed by GC–MS. One hundred eight components of these oils were identified. (E)-β-caryophyllene (31.42 %), α-pinene (17.11 %), and bicyclogermacrene (8.09 %) were found to be the main components of the leaf oil, while α-pinene (61.42 %), β-pinene (14.39 %), and myrcene (5.10 %) were the major constituents of the stem oil. We found 73 previously unidentified components in these oils from G. bicolor. The oils were also subjected to odor evaluation. Ele...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 12, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new prenylflavonoids from Epimedii Herba and their inhibitory effects on advanced glycation end-products
Abstract Because inhibitors of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), for example pyridoxamine, significantly inhibit the development of retinopathy and neuropathy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, treatment with AGE inhibitors is believed to be a potential strategy for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetic complications. In the present study, the MeOH extract of Epimedii Herba (EH; aerial parts of Epimedium spp.) was found to inhibit the formation of N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N ω -...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 12, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory terpenylated coumarins from the leaves of Zanthoxylum schinifolium with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity
Abstract Nine terpenylated coumarins, namely 7-[(E)-3′,7′-dimethyl-6′-oxo-2′,7′-octadienyl]oxy-coumarin (1), schinilenol (2), schinindiol (3), collinin (4), 7-[(E)-7′-hydroxy-3′,7′-dimethy-locta-2′,5′-dienyloxy]-coumarin (5), 8-methoxyanisocoumarin (6), 7-(6′R-hydroxy-3′,7′-dimethyl-2′E,7′-octadienyloxy)coumarin (7), (E)-4-methyl-6-(coumarin-7′-yloxy)hex-4-enal (8), and aurapten (9), along with a 4-quinolone alkaloid (10) and integrifoliodiol (11), were isolated from the leaves of Zanthoxylum schinifolium. Of the isolat...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 11, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous quantitative analysis of 12 methoxyflavones with melanogenesis inhibitory activity from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora
Abstract A methanol extract from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker (Zingiberaceae) has shown inhibitory effects against melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells (IC50 = 9.6 μg/mL). Among 25 flavonoids and three acetophenones isolated previously (1–28), several constituents including 5-hydroxy-7,3′,4′-trimethoxyflavone (6, IC50 = 8.8 μM), 5,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (7, 8.6 μM), 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (12, 2.9 μM), and 5-hydroxy-3,7,3′,4′-tetra...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Investigation of sedative and hypnotic effects of Amygdalus communis L. extract: behavioral assessments and EEG studies on rat
Abstract Amygdalus communis L. (almond) has been traditionally used as a natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. The present research studied the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous fraction of seeds of almond in rats. In order to investigate these effects, a combination of behavioral methods (open field test and loss of righting reflex test) as well as quantitative and analytic methods (EEG and EMG) were applied. The results of the open field test showed that a dose of 400 mg/kg of the almond extract significantly inhibited the locomotion activity of rats compared to no...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Optimization of combinations of ginsenoside-Rg 1 , ginsenoside-Rb 1 , evodiamine and rutaecarpine for effective therapy of mouse migraine
Abstract Wuzhuyu decoction (WZYD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. It has been extensively used for treating migraine for thousands of years in TCM. Four potential active ingredients from WZYD, ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1), ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1), evodiamine (Ev) and rutaecarpine (Ru), were found to have positive correlations with pharmacodynamic indicators involving mouse migraine in our previous study. To find a better therapeutic effect on migraine, this research was carried out to optimize the combinations of Rg1, Rb1, Ev and Ru using the uniform design method. The results sh...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new bicyclic sulfoxides from Welsh onion
In this study, the structures of 1 and 2, which are tetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives, were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds appeared to be derived from the coupling of 1-propenyl sulfenic acid and uronic acid. Welsonin A1 (1) showed the potential to suppress tumor-cell proliferation by inhibiting the polarization of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 16, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Erratum to: LC-MS-based quantification method for Achyranthes root saponins
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 12, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Composition of the endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana seeds and production of Cinchona alkaloids
Abstract Four kinds of endophytic filamentous fungi (code names: CLS-1, CLS-2, CLS-3, and CLS-4) associated with the seeds of Cinchona ledgeriana (Rubiaceae) from West Java, Indonesia, were isolated. All of the isolates were classified into Diaporthe spp. based on phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) including the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region. All four of these endophytic fungi produce Cinchona alkaloids, mainly quinine and quinidine, in synthetic liquid medium. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 8, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Three new xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba
Abstract Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G−I (1–3), together with fifteen known ones (4–18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 μM, respectively. (Source: ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 8, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of ethyl acetate extract of Kaempferia parviflora on brown adipose tissue
This study therefore showed that KPE enhanced the thermogenesis effect of brown adipocytes as well as promoted the differentiation of brown adipocyte cells. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

ent -Atisane diterpenoids from Euphorbia fischeriana inhibit mammosphere formation in MCF-7 cells
Abstract The discovery of new drugs that target cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a critical approach to overcome the major difficulties of the metastasis, chemotherapeutic resistance and recurrence for successful cancer therapy. Chemical investigation of the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana resulted in the isolation of eight ent-atisane diterpenoids (1–8), including two new compounds: 19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (7) and 19-O-(6-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (8). The structures were elucidated on extensive spectroscopic analyses, as well as chemical transfor...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro antituberculosis activity of diterpenoids from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis
In this study, we report the antituberculosis activity of these diterpenoids against both susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis for the first time. All of the ent-kaurane, kaurane and grayanane diterpenoids showed high to moderate activity against Mycobacterium. The highest antituberculosis activity was observed for ent-1β,7α,14β-triacetoxykaur-16-en-15-one (cpp604), with MIC values of 0.78, 1.56 and 3.12–12.5 µg/ml against H37Ra, H37Rv and all other resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis examined. In addition, other ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids also showed very hig...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

What caused the changes in the usage of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma from ancient to current times?
In this study, the components of AMR that are responsible for its expectorant and tocolytic effects were evaluated in order to clarify the differences in its application between ancient and modern times. A decoction of AMR was separated into five fractions, namely, volatile oil (VO), petroleum ether (PE), alcohol eluate from macroporous resin (AE), water eluate from macroporous resin (WE), and polysaccharides (PS), using various separation methods. The expectorant experiment indicated that the VO fraction, which mainly contains atractylone, produced an obvious expectorant effect. The experiment that assessed the irritabili...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Moscatilin inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and sensitizes anoikis in human lung cancer H460 cells
Abstract Metastasis in lung cancer has been recognized as an important cause of high mortality. Resistance to anoikis and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are critical factors for the successful spread of cancer cells. Compounds that suppress these features of cancer cells should be potentially active for anti-metastasis approaches. We have demonstrated for the first time that moscatilin, at its non-toxic concentrations to lung cancer cells and human normal keratinocytes, significantly decreases lung cancer cell survival in the detached condition, and suppresses the formation of tumors in an anchora...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rb1 rescues anxiety-like responses in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder
Abstract Single prolonged stress (SPS), a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), induces alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Korean red ginseng, whose major active component is ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), is one of the widely used traditional anxiolytics. However, the efficacy of GRb1 in alleviating PTSD-associated anxiety-like abnormalities has not been investigated. The present study used several behavioral tests to examine the effects of GRb1 on symptoms of anxiety in rats after SPS exposure and on the central noradrenergic system. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sulfotanone, a new alkyl sulfonic acid derivative from Streptomyces sp. IFM 11694 with TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity
Abstract One new alkyl sulfonic acid derivative, sulfotanone (1), and the known panosialin wA (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of mycelium of Streptomyces sp. 11694. The structure of the new compound (1) was established by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including HRESIMS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR measurements. Compound 1 (40 µM) in combination with TRAIL showed synergistic activity in sensitizing TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 25, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ameliorative effects of Qingfei Tongluo formula on experimental mycoplasmal pneumonia in mice
In conclusion, QTF alleviates MPP inflammation possibly via inhibitory activation of MAPK/NF-κB pathways, which can act as a new agent for MPP treatment. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 20, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enhancement of energy production by black ginger extract containing polymethoxy flavonoids in myocytes through improving glucose, lactic acid and lipid metabolism
In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties
In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The renoprotective effect of shichimotsukokato on hypertension-induced renal dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Abstract Antihypertensive treatment is highly important to prevent the progression of chronic kidney disease. Shichimotsukokato (SKT), a traditional Japanese medicine (i.e., Kampo formula), lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) in experimental animal models of hypertension. However, its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the potential renoprotective mechanism of SKT in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Ten-week-old SHRs were randomly divided into four groups (six rats per group). In the SHR control group, the SBP increased remarkably during the 8-week experimental period. In t...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Informatics framework of traditional Sino-Japanese medicine (Kampo) unveiled by factor analysis
This study will theoretically form the basis for establishing traditionally and empirically based medications worldwide, leading to systematically personalized medicine. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Purple potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense
This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenylethanoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides with melanogenesis inhibitory activity from the flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis
Abstract A methanol extract of the flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. (Amaryllidaceae) demonstrated inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. From the extract, four new phenylethanoid glycosides, tazettosides A–D (1–4), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, tazettoside E (5), were isolated along with 23 known compounds (6–28). Of the isolates, 1 (IC50 = 22.0 μM) and 4 (82.5 μM), 3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthridine (13, IC50 = 28.5 μM), 5,6-dihydrobicolorine (14, 23.7&nb...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 16, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective activity of crocin against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats
Abstract The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the gastro-protective effect of crocin against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Crocin or pantoprazole was administered to rats 30 min before indomethacin. Five hours later, the animals were killed and their stomachs were removed and examined macroscopically. Samples of gastric mucosa were collected for microscopic evaluation, mRNA expression of caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was quantified by RT-PCR, and protein levels of COX-1, COX-2, iNOS and caspase-3 were assessed by Western blottin...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 6, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

LC-MS-based quantification method for Achyranthes root saponins
Abstract A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of Achyranthes root saponins: chikusetsusaponins IVa (1) and V (2), achyranthosides B (3), C (4), D (5), E (6), and G (7), sulfachyranthosides B (8) and D (9), and betavulgarosides II (10) and IV (11). Satisfactory separation of the saponins was achieved with the use of a volatile ion-pair reagent (dihexyl ammonium acetate) on a phenyl-hexylated silica gel column, and the amounts of saponins extracted under three different conditions were determined. When Achyranthes root was extracted with water ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 6, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antiviral effects of Yinhuapinggan granule against influenza virus infection in the ICR mice model
This study investigated the antiviral effects of YHPG on the production of inflammatory cytokines in influenza virus (IFV)-infected mice and evaluated the effect of YHPG on the expression of NF-κB p65 and the level of key signaling molecules in the TLR4 signaling pathway. ICR mice were orally administrated YHPG at doses of 7.5, 15 and 30 g kg−1 day−1 for 2 or 6 days after IFV infection. On days 3 and 7 after infection, YHPG (15 g/kg and 30 g/kg) significantly increased levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma and decreased levels of IL-4, IL-5 and tumor necrosis fact...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 6, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Distinguishing Ophiopogon and Liriope tubers based on DNA sequences
Abstract Ophiopogon japonicus is a herbaceous perennial plant in Liliaceae, and its tubers are used in traditional Japanese medicine as Bakumondo (麦門冬), prescribed for treating cough, sputum, and thirst. Liriope is a genus of ornamental plants related to Ophiopogon, and its tubers are used in folk medicine as well. Although tubers from both genera are traded in Korean and Chinese markets, only O. japonicus is defined as the plant of origin for Bakumondo in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia [1], and Liriope tubers cannot legally be used as Bakumondo in Japan. Ophiopogon plants can be distinguished c...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Myrtucommulone-A treatment decreases pluripotency- and multipotency-associated marker expression in bladder cancer cell line HTB-9
Abstract Cancer and stem cells exhibit similar features, including self-renewal, differentiation and immortality. The expression of stem-cell-related genes in cancer cells is demonstrated to be potentially correlated with cancer cell behaviour, affecting both drug response and tumor recurrence. There is an emerging body of evidence that subpopulations of tumors carry a distinct molecular sign and are selectively resistant to chemotherapy. Therefore, it is important to find novel therapeutic agents that could suppress the stem-like features of cancer cells while inhibiting their proliferation. Myrtucommulone-A (MC...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like activity of Tagetes lucida Cav. is mediated by 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 2A receptors
Abstract It has been demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Tagetes lucida Cav. shows an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of the serotoninergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of the aqueous extract of T. lucida. Different doses of the extract of T. lucida were administered at 72, 48, 24, 18 and 1 h before FST. The animals were pretreated with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.5 mg/kg), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (pr...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A bibenzyl from Dendrobium ellipsophyllum inhibits migration in lung cancer cells
This study aimed to evaluate the activity of a bibenzyl, 4,5,4′-trihydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxybibenzyl (TDB), isolated from Dendrobium ellipsophyllum Tang and Wang, in the suppression of migration in human lung cancer cells. TDB at nontoxic concentrations (1 and 5 µM) significantly inhibited the motility of lung cancer cells in scratch-wound assay. Chemotaxis-induced migration and invasion assays also revealed that the cell motility dramatically diminished in the cells treated with 1–5 µM TDB. Western blot analysis provided the underlying molecular mechanism, showing that TDB reduced such...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research