Preventive agents for neurodegenerative diseases from resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis attenuate LPS-induced microglia over-activation
AbstractOur previous research revealed resin ofDracaena cochinchinensis as a candidate for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the material basis of Chinese Dragon ’s blood and the primary mechanism of the effective components are discussed. Multiple chromatography and spectra analysis were utilized to identify effective constituents. The production of NO was determined using nitrite assay in BV-2 microglial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). C ell viability was tested using MTT assay. The mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was investigated by quantitative real-...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of pachymic acid, moronic acid and hydrocortisone on the polysome loading of RNAs in lipopolysaccharide-treated THP-1 macrophages
AbstractWe have proposed that analysis of ribosome-loaded mRNAs (i.e., the translatome) is useful for elucidation of pharmacological effects of phytocompounds in immune cells, regarding the involvement of post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms. In the present study, we compared the effects of pachymic acid fromPoria cocos fungus and moronic acid from propolis with those of hydrocortisone on the translatomes of THP-1 macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to find clues to their biological effects. Polysome-associated RNAs collected from cells treated for 3  h with LPS plus each of the compounds...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Application of a proton quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy method for the determination of actinodaphnine in Illigera aromatica and Illigera henryi
AbstractIlligera aromatica S. Z. Huang et S. L. Mo andIlligera henryi W. W. Sm., belonging to the genusIlligera (Hernandiaceae), are used as herbal medicines for promoting blood circulation and treating tuberculosis. Actinodaphnine, the major bioactive alkaloid, plays an important role in the quality controls of the herbs. In the present study, a rapid, simple, accurate, and precise proton quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-qNMR) method was developed to determine the content of actinodaphnine inI. aromatica andI. henryi. DMSO-d6 enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated in1H NMR spectrum. 1,4...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Non-alkaloidal composition of Ephedra Herb is influenced by differences in habitats
In this study, we isolated characteristic non-alkaloidal constituents from the extracts and identified them in relation to the habitat of Ephedra Herb. Extracts were prepared from Ephedra Herb collected from Inner Mongolia and Gansu. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to quantitatively analyse the amount of ephedrine alkaloids in each extract. We compared the chemical compositions of the extracts by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to find spot characteristics depending on the habitat.1H-NMR,13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectra of the samples were also examined. The ephedrine content of all extracts satisfied the q...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Screening for natural medicines effective for the treatment of osteoporosis
AbstractBone-forming osteoblasts are differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells and dysregulation of this differentiation can lead to osteoporosis. Meanwhile, bone-resorbing osteoclasts are both differentiated and multinucleated from hematopoietic precursor cells of monocyte and/or macrophage lineage. Bone resorption inhibitors such as bisphosphonates and estrogen are used to treat osteoporosis. However, the adverse effects of the long-term use of these medicines are of concern, and so the development of new therapies to ameliorate osteoporosis is desirable. Therefore, in the present study, we screened 22 plant extracts an...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Betulinic acid attenuates liver fibrosis by inducing autophagy via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway
In this study, we explored the effects of betulinic acid on expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and autophagy-related proteins. Betulinic acid reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, as well as serum platelet-derived growth factor and serum hydroxyproline levels. Furthermore, betulinic acid downregulated the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and type I collagen in mouse liver and upregulated the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B and autophagy-related gene 7 at the gene and protein levels. LC3II expression was increased and alpha smooth muscle actin expression was decr...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of naturally occurring RXR agonists isolated from Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep. on amyloid- β-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells
AbstractNeuronal cell death induced by amyloid- β (Aβ) oligomers is implicated in neuronal degeneration and is a leading cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, to identify effective therapeutic agents for AD, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of two naturally occurring retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists (SPF1 and SPF2), isola ted from the root ofSophora tonkinensis Gagnep., on the A β25 –35-induced cytotoxicity against nerve growth factor-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Pretreatment with SPFs significantly prevented A β25 –35-induced apoptosis in PC12...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comprehensive evaluation of antioxidant effects of Japanese Kampo medicines led to identification of Tsudosan formulation as a potent antioxidant agent
AbstractOxidative stress due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. In the present study, we comprehensively evaluated the antioxidant activities of 147 oral formulations of Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines), representing the entire panel of oral Kampo medicines listed in the Japanese National Health Insurance Drug List, using in vitro radical scavenging assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity assay, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay, and the oxygen radical absorption ca...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Establishment of widely applicable DNA extraction methods to identify the origins of crude drugs derived from animals using molecular techniques
AbstractWe established widely applicable DNA extraction methods to identify the origins of crude drugs derived from animals. Twenty-one samples including 17 kinds of crude drug derived from animals were examined. DNA was extracted from most of the crude drugs by adjustment of the QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit. DNA extraction was performed successfully using phenol to remove impurities after applying a proteinase treatment. DNA extraction was performed successfully by decalcification treatment using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), before applying the proteinase treatment for crude drugs having high calcium content, such ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bioactive constituents obtained from the fruits of Citrus aurantium
AbstractThree new compounds, citrusauranosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), along with 22 known compounds (4–25) were obtained from the 70% ethanol –water extract of the fruits ofCitrus aurantium L.. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Among the known compounds,14,15,17 and23 were firstly obtained fromCitrus genus, and the NMR data of17 is reported here for the first time. Moreover, inhibitory effects of all compounds on motility of mouse isolated intestine tissue were determined. As a result,1,4–8, and11 displayed significant inhibitory effects on contraction tension. (Source: Journal ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structure of constituents isolated from the bark of Cassipourea malosana and their cytotoxicity against a human ovarian cell line
AbstractThree aromatic compounds, 2 α,3α-epoxyflavan-5,7,4′-triol-(4β → 8)-afzelechin (1), 2 β,3β-epoxyflavan-5,7,4′-triol-(4α → 8)-epiafzelechin (2), and methyl 4-ethoxy-2-hydroxy-6-propylbenzoate (3), as well as eight known compounds (4–11) were isolated from the bark ofCassipourea malosana (Rhizophoraceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of an analysis of spectroscopic data. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of these compounds against human ovarian cancer cell line TOV21G were evaluated. Most compounds showed little a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sedative effects of the essential oil and headspace air of Ocimum basilicum by inhalation in mice
AbstractThe sedative effects of the essential oil released by livingOcimum basilicum (basil) plants were investigated using a mouse activity monitoring system.Ocimum basilicum plants were grown in a hydroponic chamber, and either the headspace air from the hydroponic chamber or the essential oil extracted from mature plants was administered by the inhalation route to mice in an open field test. The most effective dose ofO. basilicum essential oil for reducing the locomotor activity of the mice was found to be 4.0  × 10−3 mg per cage. The headspace air was administered to mice held in a glass ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cholestane glycosides from Ornithogalum saundersiae bulbs and the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells by OSW-1 through a mitochondrial-independent signaling pathway
AbstractA search for cytotoxic cholestane glycosides fromOrnithogalum saundersiae bulbs resulted in the isolation of three new OSW-1 analogues (1–3), a new cholestane bisdesmoside (4), a 5 β-cholestane diglycoside (5), and four new 24(23  → 22)-abeo-cholestane glycosides (6–9), together with 11 known cholestane glycosides (10–20), including OSW-1 (11). The structures of1–9 were determined based on conventional spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. As expected, based on previous data,1–3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukem...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of β - carboline and canthinone alkaloids as anti-inflammatory agents but with different inhibitory profile on the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages
AbstractA compound library, which consists of 75 natural β-carboline-type or canthinone-type alkaloids from Simaroubaceae plants and their chemical synthetic analogues, was screened for the anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of the overproduction of inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage c ells. Six compounds, namely, benzalharman (23), kumujian (27), 1-ethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (37), 1-acetophenone-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (42), cathin-6-one (46), and 9-methoxy-cathin-6-one (57), exhibite...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pregnane glycosides from the bark of Marsdenia cundurango and their cytotoxic activity
AbstractSeven new pregnane glycosides (1–7) and eight known compounds (8–15) were isolated from the bark ofMarsdenia cundurango (Asclepiadaceae). The structures of1–7 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimension NMR spectroscopy, chemical transformations, and chromatographic analysis of the hydrolyzed products. The isolated compounds1–15 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human leukemia cells, A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells, and TIG-3 normal human lung cells, including apoptosis-inducing activity of a representative pregnane glycoside in HL-60 cells...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Aloin promotes osteogenesis of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via the ERK1/2-dependent Runx2 signaling pathway
AbstractOsteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and the degeneration of bone structure, conditions which increase the risk of fracture. Aloin has been shown to affect bone metabolism, but its role in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether aloin promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and, if so, whether it acts via activation of the ERK1/2-Runx2 signaling pathway. We found that the different concentrations of aloin tested had no obvious cytotoxic effects on the viability of BMSCs. Under...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus L. suppresses Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts and RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of an extract fromCynara scolymus L. and its pharmacologically effective compound cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) stimulated by LPS and the potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects on RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF- κB ligand (RANKL). We found that cynaropicrin inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA and protein synthesis in LPS-stimulated HGFs in a dose-dependent manner.P. gingivalis LPS-induced degradation of I κBα and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 were also suppressed by cynaropicrin, a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Aloin promotes osteogenesis of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via the ERK1/2-dependent Runx2 signaling pathway
AbstractOsteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and the degeneration of bone structure, conditions which increase the risk of fracture. Aloin has been shown to affect bone metabolism, but its role in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether aloin promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and, if so, whether it acts via activation of the ERK1/2-Runx2 signaling pathway. We found that the different concentrations of aloin tested had no obvious cytotoxic effects on the viability of BMSCs. Under...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus L. suppresses Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts and RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of an extract fromCynara scolymus L. and its pharmacologically effective compound cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) stimulated by LPS and the potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects on RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF- κB ligand (RANKL). We found that cynaropicrin inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA and protein synthesis in LPS-stimulated HGFs in a dose-dependent manner.P. gingivalis LPS-induced degradation of I κBα and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 were also suppressed by cynaropicrin, a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Geraniin promotes osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) via activating β-catenin: a comparative study between BMSCs from normal and osteoporotic rats
This study associated the osteogenic effect of geraniin to activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and provided rationale for pharmacological investigation of geraniin in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ameliorative effect of Xiaoyao - jieyu - san on post-stroke depression and its potential mechanisms
AbstractA stroke is a severe life-threatening disease with high fatality and disability rate. This investigation aimed to study the effect ofXiaoyao-jieyu-san (XYJY) on post-stroke depression (PSD) and its potential mechanisms. PSD rats were prepared using middle cerebral artery embolization (MCAO) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and divided into six groups (n = 10)—sham; MCAO; MCAO + CUMS (PSD); PSD + fluoxetine (1.84 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks); and PSD + XYJY (450 mg/kg/day and 900 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks). Body weight recording, des...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Geraniin promotes osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) via activating β-catenin: a comparative study between BMSCs from normal and osteoporotic rats
This study associated the osteogenic effect of geraniin to activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and provided rationale for pharmacological investigation of geraniin in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ameliorative effect of Xiaoyao - jieyu - san on post-stroke depression and its potential mechanisms
AbstractA stroke is a severe life-threatening disease with high fatality and disability rate. This investigation aimed to study the effect ofXiaoyao-jieyu-san (XYJY) on post-stroke depression (PSD) and its potential mechanisms. PSD rats were prepared using middle cerebral artery embolization (MCAO) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and divided into six groups (n = 10)—sham; MCAO; MCAO + CUMS (PSD); PSD + fluoxetine (1.84 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks); and PSD + XYJY (450 mg/kg/day and 900 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks). Body weight recording, des...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Polydatin protects against acute myocardial infarction-induced cardiac damage by activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling
In conclusion, polydatin effectiv ely inhibited hypoxia- and AMI-induced myocardial damage by promotion of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A review of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Changium smyrnioides Wolff
AbstractChangium smyrnioides Wolff is a monotypic species of the genusChangium Wolff which is only found in eastern China.C. smyrnioides has been used as a traditional medicine for ages to treat cough, vomiting, nausea, megrim, and carbuncle. It is also widely used to brew medicated liquor and health tea with other herbs in order to moisten the lungs and nourish blood and yin. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity ofC. smyrnioides based on studies published in recent y...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New depsidone and dichromone from the stems of Garcinia paucinervis with antiproliferative activity
AbstractA new depsidone, paucinervin Q (1), a new dichromone, paucinervin R (2), and a known compound, paucinervin B (3), were isolated from the stems ofGarcinia paucinervis by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. The isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines HL-60, PC-3 and CaCo-2. Compound1 showed significant inhibitory activities. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A review of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Changium smyrnioides Wolff
AbstractChangium smyrnioides Wolff is a monotypic species of the genusChangium Wolff which is only found in eastern China.C. smyrnioides has been used as a traditional medicine for ages to treat cough, vomiting, nausea, megrim, and carbuncle. It is also widely used to brew medicated liquor and health tea with other herbs in order to moisten the lungs and nourish blood and yin. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity ofC. smyrnioides based on studies published in recent y...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New depsidone and dichromone from the stems of Garcinia paucinervis with antiproliferative activity
AbstractA new depsidone, paucinervin Q (1), a new dichromone, paucinervin R (2), and a known compound, paucinervin B (3), were isolated from the stems ofGarcinia paucinervis by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. The isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines HL-60, PC-3 and CaCo-2. Compound1 showed significant inhibitory activities. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Three new C -glycosyflavones with acetyl substitutions from Swertia mileensis
AbstractThree new acetylatedC-glycosylflavones, 3 ″,6″-di-O-acetylswertiajaponin (1), 4 ″,6″-di-O-acetylswertiajaponin (2), and 6 ″-O-acetylswertiajaponin (3), together with six known compounds were isolated from the whole herb ofSwertia mileensis. Their structures were elucidated on extensive NMR experiments and mass spectrometry studies.1H and13C NMR data exhibited doublet signals at room temperature. Variable temperature1H NMR experiments were carried out to investigate the presence of rotational isomerism ofC-glycosylflavones. All compounds showed potential antioxidant activities against a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological evaluation of the efficacy of Dysoxylum binectariferum stem bark and its active constituent rohitukine in regulation of dyslipidemia in rats
AbstractThe antidyslipidemic effect of the ethanolic extract ofDysoxylum binectariferum stem bark and its major active constituent rohitukine was evaluated in a high fat diet (HFD)-fed dyslipidemic rat model. Chronic feeding of ethanolic extract (200  mg/kg) in HFD-fed rats showed significant lipid lowering activity. The bioassay guided fractionation of ethanolic extract resulted in the identification of known alkaloid rohitukine as major active constituent. Rohitukine (50 mg/kg) significantly decreased the plasma levels of total cholesterol ( 24 %), phospholipids (25 %), triglycerides (27 %), very...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of lawsone contents among Lawsonia inermis plant parts and neurite outgrowth accelerators from branches
In this study, we measured lawsone contents in the extracts ofL. inermis flowers, leaves and branches by HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry. The extracts ofL. inermis flowers, leaves and branches contained 116.9, 486.2 and 5.4  μg/g lawsone, respectively. Lawsone content was much lower in branches than the other plant parts. Next, in order to identify the biological constituents in the branches, we isolated nine known compounds and examined their effects on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Among the constituents isolate d, 2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]-propane-1,3-diol (1) and quercetin 7-O- β-D-glu...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Genistein has the function of alleviating and treating disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by lipopolysaccharide
AbstractSymptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) include thromboembolism, acute attrition bleeding and multiple organ failure. Genistein isolated from leguminous plants has been shown to be effective in oxidation resistance and tumor inhibition. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of genistein in DIC and preliminarily discuss the mechanisms regarding the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant effect of genistein. Swiss mice were randomly divided into the following groups —(1) lipopolysaccharide (LPS), (2) genistein, (3) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, the non-major solvent compon...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new secoiridoid glucosides and a new lignan from the roots of Ilex pubescens
AbstractTwo new secoiridoid glucosides, ilexpublignoside (1), pubzenoside (2), and a new lignan, ilexlignan B (3), along with seven known compounds (4 –10) were isolated from the roots ofIlex pubescens for the first time. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, UV, HR-ESI –MS, CD, NMR experiments, as well as comparison with the reported data. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hydroxyobtustyrene protects neuronal cells from chemical hypoxia-induced cell death
AbstractHydroxyobtustyrene is a derivative of cinnamyl phenol isolated fromDalbergia odorifera T. Chen. The heartwood, known as ‘JiangXiang’, is a traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies showed that hydroxyobtustyrene inhibited the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, which are mediators of neuronal cell death in ischemia. However, it currently remains unclear whether hydroxyobtustyrene protects neurons against ischemi c stress. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of hydroxyobtustyrene against sodium cyanide (NaCN)-induced chemical ischemia. Hippocampal neurons were cultured from the ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bioassay-guided isolation of cantharidin from blister beetles and its anticancer activity through inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated STAT3 and Akt pathways
In this study, we isolated canthari din from cantharides by bioassay-guided fractionation and examined its inhibitory effect on STAT3 activation in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, expressing high level of phosphorylated STAT3. Cantharides were extracted with acetonitrile and separated into hexane, methylene chloride/acetonitrile , and water fractions. The methylene chloride/acetonitrile fraction was further separated into four fractions by preparative high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography. Cantharidin was then isolated from the third fraction by countercurrent chromatography and structurally det...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New podolactones from the seeds of Podocarpus nagi and their anti-inflammatory effect
In this study, the seeds ofP. nagi were isolated by comprehensive chromatographic methods to obtain three new podolatones, named nagilactone B 1-O- β-d-glucoside (1), nagilactone N3 3-O- β-d-glucoside (2), and 2-epinagilactone B (3), as well as a known compound, nagilactone B (4). Their structures were determined by analyses of NMR and HRESIMS data. Compounds1 and2 significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values of 0.18  ± 0.04 and 0.53 ± 0.03 μM, respectively. Indomethacin (IC50 4.21  ±&t...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Use of a Caco-2 permeability assay to evaluate the effects of several Kampo medicines on the drug transporter P-glycoprotein
AbstractIn modern medical care in which Kampo and Western drugs are often combined, it is extremely important to clarify drug –drug interaction (DDI) to ensure safety and efficacy. However, there is little evidence of DDI in Kampo medicines. Therefore, as part of our studies to clarify the DDI risk for Kampo medicines, we evaluated the effects of five Kampo medicines [yokukansan (YKS), rikkunshito (RKT), shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), hangeshashinto (HST), and goshajinkigan (GJG)] that are widely used in Japan, on drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a Caco-2 permeability assay. These Kampo medicines inhibited the P...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activities of Ophiopogonis Radix on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular senescence of normal human dermal fibroblasts
In this study, it was revealed that there are two chemotypes (Types A and B) in the root of the original plant,O. japonicus. Methylophiopogonanone A (compound1) and methylophiopogonanone B (compound2) were isolated as index compounds from Type A and compound1 and ophiopogonanone A (compound3) from Type B. In addition, ophiopogonin B (compound4) was isolated as the main steroidal saponin from both Type A and B. The results indicated that two different methanol extracts (from Types A and B) and the main constituents ofO. japonicus (compound1–4), significantly downregulated the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8,...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Morin protects glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis through regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway
AbstractOur aim is to investigate the potential therapeutic value of morin against osteoporosis and elucidate the mechanism of action. Osteoporosis was induced in rats by a subcutaneous injection of dexamethasone (DEX) for 5  weeks. Body weight was regularly monitored. Body mineral density (BMD) was determined at proximal femurs using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pathological examination was performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The relative expression of osteogenic and bone resorption markers was determine d by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Activation of the MAPK ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Naturally occurring cell adhesion inhibitors
The article Naturally occurring cell adhesion inhibitors, written by Satoshi Takamatsu, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new oleanane derivatives from the fruits of Leonurus japonicus and their cytotoxic activities
AbstractTwo new oleanane derivatives, leonuronins A and B (1 and2), along with three known oleanane triterpenes (3–5) were isolated from the fruits ofLeonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, MS, IR and UV spectroscopic data. The new compounds were tested for cytotoxic activities against A549 and Hela cancer cell lines. Compounds1 and2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 6.97 to 18.13  μM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new xanthones and cytotoxicity from the bark of Garcinia schomburgkiana
AbstractTwo new xanthone derivatives, named schomburgones A (1) and B (2), along with eight known compounds, including xanthones (3–8) and anthraquinones (9–10) were isolated from the bark ofGarcinia schomburgkiana. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis especially 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines (KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7 and HepG-2). Compounds3–6 and8 showed good cytotoxicity against all the five cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.45 –9.46 µM. (Source: Journal...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans and their cytotoxic activities
AbstractThree new dihydrobenzofuran neolignans, myticaganal A –C (1–3), along with five known compounds (4–8), were isolated from the seeds ofMyristica fragrans. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against three human cancer cell lines (KB, oral cavity; MCF-7, breast cancer; and NCI-H187, small cell lung cancer) were evaluated. Neolignan3 showed significant cytotoxicity against KB and NCI-H187 cell lines with IC50 values of 5.9 and 6.3  μM, respectively. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oenothein B, dimeric hydrolysable tannin inhibiting HCV invasion from Oenothera erythrosepala
AbstractThe envelope proteins of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), E1 and E2, have been revealed to be essential for invasion of HCV. Thus, we were engaged in the search for the inhibitors against HCV invasion through the assay system using the model virus expressing recombinant HCV envelopes, E1 and E2. Now, we disclosed dimeric hydrolysable tannin oenothein B (1) from MeOH extract ofOenothera erythrosepala as an active principle for inhibition of HCV invasion and its potency was almost the same as that of monomeric hydrolysable tannin, tellimagrandin I (2). Furthermore, by use of stereoselectively prepared 1- β- and 1-&a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Shikonofuran E plays an anti-inflammatory role by down-regulating MAPK and NF- κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages
AbstractThe anti-inflammatory effects of shikonofuran E fromOnosma paniculatum on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were first time examined. A series of non-cytotoxic concentrations of shikonofuran E (
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The pivotal role of microRNA-21 in osteoclastogenesis inhibition by anthracycline glycoside aloin
This study also highlights the dynamic potential of aloin as a therapeutic agent to treat osteope nic disorders. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological evaluation of the efficacy of Dysoxylum binectariferum stem bark and its active constituent rohitukine in regulation of dyslipidemia in rats
AbstractThe antidyslipidemic effect of the ethanolic extract ofDysoxylum binectariferum stem bark and its major active constituent rohitukine was evaluated in a high fat diet (HFD)-fed dyslipidemic rat model. Chronic feeding of ethanolic extract (200  mg/kg) in HFD-fed rats showed significant lipid lowering activity. The bioassay guided fractionation of ethanolic extract resulted in the identification of known alkaloid rohitukine as major active constituent. Rohitukine (50 mg/kg) significantly decreased the plasma levels of total cholesterol ( 24 %), phospholipids (25 %), triglycerides (27 %), very...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Use of a Caco-2 permeability assay to evaluate the effects of several Kampo medicines on the drug transporter P-glycoprotein
AbstractIn modern medical care in which Kampo and Western drugs are often combined, it is extremely important to clarify drug –drug interaction (DDI) to ensure safety and efficacy. However, there is little evidence of DDI in Kampo medicines. Therefore, as part of our studies to clarify the DDI risk for Kampo medicines, we evaluated the effects of five Kampo medicines [yokukansan (YKS), rikkunshito (RKT), shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), hangeshashinto (HST), and goshajinkigan (GJG)] that are widely used in Japan, on drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a Caco-2 permeability assay. These Kampo medicines inhibited the P...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research