Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Changes in content of triterpenoids and polysaccharides in Ganoderma lingzhi at different growth stages
In this study, we quantified 18 triterpenoids, total triterpenoid content and total polysaccharide content in the ethanol and water extracts ofG. lingzhi at different growth stages. Triterpenoids were quantified by liquid chromatograph –tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. Total triterpenoid and total polysaccharide content were determined by colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the fruit bodies at an early growth stage had a higher content of ganoderic acid A, C2, I and LM2, as well as of ganoderenic acid C and D, than those at a later growth stage. In contrast, ganoderic a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Quantitative analysis of the anti-inflammatory activity of orengedokuto II: berberine is responsible for the inhibition of NO production
We report here our analysis of the anti-inflammatory effect of the component crude drugs of orengedokuto and their constituents using the inhibition of nitric oxide (N O) production in the murine macrophage-like cell line J774.1. An initial comparison of NO production inhibitory activities of the extracts of the component crude drugs and their combinations revealed that the activity could be attributed to Phellodendron Bark and Coptis Rhizome. Berberine (1), the major constituent of these crude drugs, showed potent activity (IC50 4.73  ± 1.46 μM). Quantitative analysis of1 in the extracts of al...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Impact of different post-harvest processing methods on the chemical compositions of peony root
AbstractThe impact of key processing steps such as boiling, peeling, drying and storing on chemical compositions and morphologic features of the produced peony root was investigated in detail by applying 15 processing methods to fresh roots ofPaeonia lactiflora and then monitoring contents of eight main components, as well as internal root color. The results showed that low temperature (4  °C) storage of fresh roots for approximately 1 month after harvest resulted in slightly increased and stable content of paeoniflorin, which might be due to suppression of enzymatic degradation. This storage also prevented r...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mitogenic activity of Artocarpus lingnanensis lectin and its apoptosis induction in Jurkat T cells
AbstractLectins are a class of carbohydrate-binding proteins or glycoproteins and used in the purification and characterization of glycoproteins according to their specificity to carbohydrates. In the present study, the mitogenic activity ofArtocarpus lingnanensis lectin (ALL) and its apoptosis induction in Jurkat T cells were explored. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of ALL. Meanwhile, the anti-cancer activity of ALL was also explored using the human leukemic Jurkat T cell line. ALL exhibited strong binding affinity (97%) to the cell membrane, which could be effectively inhibited byN-acetyl-d-galactosaminide...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Toosendanin mediates cisplatin sensitization through targeting Annexin A4/ATP7A in non-small cell lung cancer cells
AbstractCisplatin (CDDP) is used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but due to the development of resistance, the benefit has been limited. Toosendanin (TSN) has shown therapeutic effects on NSCLC; however, the role of TSN on CDDP sensitization in NSCLC remains unknown. The antitumor effects of TSN and CDDP sensitization mediated by TSN were explored. TSN was added in various amounts to measure dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Intracellular CDDP was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The protein levels of ATP7A, ATP7B, hCTR1, MRP-2, P-gp and Annexin A4 (Anxa4) were analyzed. The ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents from Canarium album Raeusch and their anti-influenza A virus activities
AbstractTwo new dyhydrophaseic acid glucoside isomers, (1 ′S, 3 ′R, 5 ′S, 8 ′R, 2Z, 4E)-dihydrophaseic acid-3 ′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) and (1 ′R, 3 ′S, 5 ′R, 8 ′R, 2Z, 4E)-dihydrophaseic acid-3 ′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), together with 10 known compounds [myo-inositol (1), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), 3-O-galloyl quinic acid (5), ellagic acid (6), gallic acid (7), ethyl gallate (8), scopoletin (9), ellagic acid-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10), ellagic acid-4-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (11), and isocorilagin (12)] were isolated from the chlorofo...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Appetite-enhancing effects of vanilla flavours such as vanillin
AbstractVanilla flavour is familiar to consumers through foods, cosmetics, household products and some medicines. Vanilla flavouring agents typically contain vanillin or its analogue ethyl vanillin. Our previous study revealed that the inhalation of eugenol, which contains a vanillyl group, has an appetite-enhancing effect, and the inhalation of aroma compounds containing the vanillyl group or its analogues led to increased food intake in mice. Here, we found that vanillin, ethyl vanillin and eugenol showed appetite-enhancing effects, whereas isoeugenol and safrole did not. These results suggest that the appetite-enhancing...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cellular mechanism for herbal medicine Junchoto to facilitate intestinal Cl − /water secretion that involves cAMP-dependent activation of CFTR
AbstractConstipation is a common symptom frequently compromising the quality of daily life. Several mechanistically different drugs have been used to mitigate constipation, including Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicines. However, the mechanisms of their actions are often not well understood. Here we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Junchoto (JCT), a Kampo medicine empirically prescribed for chronic constipation. Cl− channel activity was measured by the patch-clamp method in human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing HEK293T cells and human intestina...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Quantification of terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba with a 1 H NMR method
AbstractGinkgo biloba L. has been used as a herbal medicine in the traditional treatment of insufficient blood flow, memory deficits, and cerebral insufficiency. The terpene trilactone components, the bioactive agents ofGinkgo biloba L., have also been reported to exhibit useful functionality such as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, in the present research, we attempted to analyze quantitatively the terpene trilactone components inGinkgo biloba leaf extract, with quantitative1H  NMR (qNMR) and obtained almost identical results to data reported using HPLC. Application of the qNMR method for the...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new pyrrolo-2-aminoimidazoles from a Myanmarese marine sponge, Clathria prolifera
AbstractMarine organisms such as marine sponges and soft corals are valuable sources of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. In our ongoing research on the discovery of new secondary metabolites from marine organisms, two new pyrrolo-2-aminoimidazoles, clathriroles A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the water-soluble portion prepared from the methanol and acetone (2:1) extract of the marine sponge,Clathria prolifera, collected in Myanmar. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined using extensive spectroscopic techniques, including NMR, HRESIMS, IR, and optical rotation, and comparisons w...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-invasive effect of Cyclamen pseudibericum extract on A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via inhibition of ZEB1 mediated by miR-200c
In this study, we investigated the effects of endemicCyclamen pseudibericum (CP) saponin-rich tuber extract on the capacity of non-small cell lung cancer line A549 cells to proliferate, invade and migrate and also examined the expression levels of several invasion –migration-related microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify those which directly targeted ZEB1. The cytotoxicity effect of the CP extract on the A549 cancer cells was determined by the luminometric method. The half-minimal (50%) inhibitory concentration dose in the A549 cells was determined to be 41.64 ±  2.35 µg/mL. Using the Matrigel...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of the active ingredient of Kaempferia parviflora , 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam
In this study, its safety was evaluated from a pharmacokinetic point of view, based on daily ingestion of 5,7-DMF. Midazolam, a substrate of CYP3As, was orally administered to mice treated with 5,7-DMF for 10  days, and its pharmacokinetic properties were investigated. In the group administered 5,7-DMF, the area under the curve (AUC) of midazolam increased by 130% and its biological half-life was extended by approximately 100 min compared to the control group. Compared to the control group, 5,7-DMF mar kedly decreased the expression of CYP3A11 and CYP3A25 in the liver. These results suggest that continued ingesti...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

β-amyloid cytotoxicity is prevented by natural achillolide A
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia in adults. Current available drugs for AD transiently alleviate some of the symptoms, but do not modify the disease mechanism or cure it. Therefore, new drugs are desperately needed. Key contributors to AD are amyloid beta (Aβ)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cytotoxicities. Plant-derived substances have been shown to affect various potential targets in various diseases including AD. Therefore, phytochemicals which can protect neuronal cells against these insults might help in preventing and treating this disease. In the fol low...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Scutellaria baicalensis regulates FFA metabolism to ameliorate NAFLD through the AMPK-mediated SREBP signaling pathway
This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms ofS. baicalensis and its major constituent baicalin on hepatic lipotoxicity. KK-Ay mice and orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats were used to evaluate lipid metabolism regulatory effects. Sodium oleate-induced triglyceride-accumulated HepG2 cells were used for the mechanism study, pretreated with or without compound C or STO-609 or transfected with liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA. In KK-Ay mice,S. baicalensis extract showed a decreased effect on serum and hepatic triglycerides, total cholesterols, and free fatty acid (FFA) levels after 8 ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Cypripedin, a phenanthrenequinone from Dendrobium densiflorum , sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis
In original publication of the article, unfortunately one of the author names was published incorrectly as “Boonchu Sritularuk”. The correct name is “Boonchoo Sritularak”. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Three new 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone derivatives enantiomeric to agarotetrol from agarwood
AbstractAgarwood (jinkoh in Japanese) is a resinous wood fromAquilaria species of the family Thymelaeaceae and has been used as incense and in traditional medicines. Characteristic chromone derivatives such as agarotetrol have been isolated from agarwood. In previous study, we isolated two new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones together with six known compounds from MeOH extract of agarwood. Further chemical investigation of the MeOH extract led to isolation of eighteen 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, including three new 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromones with stereochemistry enantiomeric to agarotetrol-type, viz. (5R,6S...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-amyloidgenic and neurotrophic effects of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside on a chronic mitochondrial dysfunction rat model induced by sodium azide
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative brain disorder with complex pathogenesis. Emerging evidence indicates that there is a tight relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and β-amyloid (Aβ) formation. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is one of the mai n active components extracted fromPolygonum multiflorum. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of TSG on A β production and neurotrophins in the brains of rats by using a mitochondrial dysfunction rat model induced by sodium azide (NaN3), an inhibitor of mitoc...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Total syntheses of schizandriside, saracoside and ( ±)-isolariciresinol with antioxidant activities
AbstractLignans are widely distributed in plants and exhibit significant pharmacological effects, including anti-tumor and antioxidative activities. Here, we describe the total synthesis of schizandriside (1), a compound we previously isolated fromSaraca asoca by monitoring antioxidative activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Starting from a tandem Michael-aldol reaction, the lignan skeleton was synthesized in 6 steps, including a cyclization step. To determine the stereochemistry of1, we synthesized the natural product ( ±)-isolariciresinol (18) from alcohol17. Comparison of the ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Four new resin glycosides, murasakimasarins I –IV, from the tuber of Ipomoea batatas
AbstractFour new resin glycosides having macrolactone structures (jalapins), murasakimasarins I –IV, were isolated from the tubers ofIpomoea batatas (L.) Lam. ( ‘Murasakimasari’, Convolvulaceae), along with three known glycosides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. Murasakimasarin III is the first representative of a resin glycoside with 10-methylundecanoic acid as the component organic acid . (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cladosporamide A, a new protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitor, produced by an Indonesian marine sponge-derived Cladosporium sp.
AbstractCladosporamide A (1), a new protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B inhibitor, was isolated together with a known prenylated flavanone derivative (2) from the culture broth of an Indonesian marine sponge-derivedCladosporium sp. TPU1507 by solvent extraction, ODS column chromatography, and preparative HPLC (ODS). The structure of1 was elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR data. Compound1 modestly inhibited PTP1B and T-cell PTP (TCPTP) activities with IC50 values of 48 and 54  μM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of2 against PTP1B (IC50 = 11 μM) was approximately 2-fold stronger than that aga...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Comparison of glycyrrhizin content in 25 major kinds of Kampo extracts containing Glycyrrhizae Radix used clinically in Japan
The article Comparison of glycyrrhizin content in 25 major kinds of Kampo extracts containing Glycyrrhizae Radix used clinically in Japan, written by Mitsuhiko Nose, Momoka Tada, Rika Kojima, Kumiko Nagata, Shinsuke Hisaka, Sayaka Masada, Masato Homma and Takashi Hakamatsuka, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 71, issue 4, page 711 –722 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2018 and the article is forthwith distributed under the te...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain
The article Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain, written by Shunsuke Nakamori, Jun Takahashi, Sumiko Hyuga, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Masashi Hyuga, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Hiroshi Odaguchi, Yukihiro Goda, Toshihiko Hanawa and Yoshinori Kobayashi, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 71, issue 1, page 105 –113 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Autho...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for total potent estrogenic miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol of Pueraria candollei , a Thai herb for menopause remedy
AbstractMiroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are the most potent phytoestrogens ofPueraria candollei var.mirifica, having been proved as an effective herb for menopausal symptoms in folk medicines and clinical trials. To ensure efficacy and safety ofP. candollei var.mirifica involved in nutraceutical products being available worldwide, the content of potent phytoestrogens as active ingredients should be specified. Therefore, in this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody for total analysis of potent estrogenic miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol, for which an analytical method was developed using a procedure for an indirect competi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A bibenzyl from Dendrobium ellipsophyllum induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cells
This study aimed to evaluate the anticancer activity and related mechanisms of 4,5,4 ′-trihydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxybibenzyl (TDB), a bibenzyl extracted fromDendrobium ellipsophyllum Tang and Wang, in human lung cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of TDB (0 –300 µM) in different types of human lung cancer cells (H460, H292 and H23) and human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) was evaluated via MTT viability assay. Selective anticancer activity of TDB against human lung cancer cells was demonstrated with a high IC50 (approximately  >  300 µM) in DPCs, while IC50 in human lung cancer H460, H2...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two flavonol glycosides from Liparis bootanensis
AbstractTwo new flavonol glycosides, bootanenside  I and II (1 and2), along with ten known compounds (3–12), were isolated from whole plant ofLiparis bootanensis Griff. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including high-resolution electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (HR –ESIMS) and one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was investigated against HCT116 human cancer cell line, revealing that none of them possessed considerable cytotoxic activity. Bioassays of the new metabolites sho...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New geranyl flavonoids from the leaves of Artocarpus communis
AbstractFour new geranyl flavonoids1–4 and four known flavonoids5–8 were obtained from the leaves ofArtocarpus communis collected in Indonesia. The planar structures of flavonoids were elucidated by analyses of MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Absolute configurations of1 and2 were determined by ECD spectroscopy. Analyses by HPLC with a chiral-phase column and ECD spectra confirmed that3 and4 were stereoisomeric mixtures and7 and8 were racemic mixtures. The compounds obtained in this study inhibited the enzymatic activities of ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) and the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasom...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Allergy-preventive effects of linarinic acid and its tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline derivatives isolated from Linaria vulgaris
We examined their allergy-preventive effects using an in vivo assay system we developed previously, that monitors a decrease in blood flow in the tail vein of mice subjected to sensitization with hen egg-white lysozyme. We observed that4a and its three derivatives, amide (6a), ester (5a), bromine (4b), and alcohol substituent (6b), showed significant allergy-preventive activities. The study confirmed the allergy-preventive activity of tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline derivatives by comprehensively monitoring the specific blood flow decrease occurring in the induction phase of allergy. This finding may aid in the develop...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Agarotetrol: a source compound for low molecular weight aromatic compounds from agarwood heating
In this study, different fractions obtained from agarwood were analyzed to reveal the source compounds of LACs. Some LACs detected in the resinous agarwood were absent from the non-resinous parts and confirmed as characteristic of the resinous parts. The essential oil and hydrosol of agarwood obtained by distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography –mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Sesquiterpenes were detected in the essential oil, and sesquiterpenes and a variety of LACs were detected in the hydrosol. A hot water extract of agarwood remaining in the distillation flask after distillation was analyzed by high-perf...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Determination of ( E )-ferulic acid content in the root of Angelica acutiloba: a simple chemical evaluation method for crude drug quality control
AbstractThe root ofAngelica acutiloba Kitagawa is an important crude drug in Kampo medicines (traditional Japanese medicine). Chemical evaluation of crude drugs is crucial to ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine; however, there is currently no chemical standard for theA. acutiloba crude drug in Japanese pharmacopoeia. (E)-ferulic acid (FA) is an important active ingredient ofAngelica spp., includingA. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, and has been suggested as a marker for quality evaluation of those crude drugs. However, it has been controversial whether FA is a reliable marker constituent ofA. acutiloba. To achieve ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reinereins A and B, new onocerane triterpenoids from Reinwardtiodendron cinereum
AbstractBioactivity guided separation of Reinwardtiodendroncinereum barks methanol extract led to the isolation of two new onocerane triterpenoids, reinereins A and B (1 and2), together with three known onocerane triterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. In vitro cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against several type of cancer cells were evaluated. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methylquercetins stimulate melanin biosynthesis in a three-dimensional skin model
AbstractIn a previous study, we found that both synthetic 3-O-methylquercetin (3MQ) and 3,4 ′,7-O-trimethylquercetin (34 ′7TMQ) increased extracellular melanin content. 34′7TMQ increased the activity of melanogenic enzymes by stimulating the p38 pathway and the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In contrast, 3MQ increased the activity of melanogenic enzymes without the involvement of MITF, which suggests that 3MQ inhibits the degradation of melanogenic enzymes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3MQ and 34′7TMQ on melanogenesis in normal human mela...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-oral common pathogenic bacterial active acetylenic acids from Thesium chinense Turcz
AbstractDiscovery of agents for oral infectious diseases is always encouraged in natural products chemistry. A bioassay-guided isolation led to the isolation of two new acetylenic acids (1,2) along with seven known ones (3–9) from the ethanol extract ofThesium chinense Turcz, a commonly used oral anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory herb. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Exocarpic acid (3) demonstrated the most promising activity against three tested oral pathogenic bacterial strains,Porphyromonas gingivalis,Fusobacterium nucleatum, andStreptococcus mutans, with mi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area
In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classifyC. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accur...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Terpenoids from Vitex trifolia and their anti-inflammatory activities
AbstractA new diterpenoid glucoside, (3S,5S,6S,8R,9R,10S)-3,6,9-trihydroxy-13(14)-labdean-16,15-olide 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and a new iridoid glucoside, (1S, 5S,6R,9R)-10-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-5,6β-dihydroxy iridoid 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with six known compounds (3-8) were isolated fromVitex trifolia L.. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All these isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds2,4,5, and7 showed moderate inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 90.05...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cypripedin, a phenanthrenequinone from Dendrobium densiflorum , sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis
AbstractThe life-threatening potential of lung cancer has increased over the years due to its acquisition of chemotherapeutic resistance, especially to cisplatin, a first-line therapy. In response to this development, researchers have turned their attention to several compounds derived from natural origins, including cypripedin (CYP), a phenanthrenequinone substance extracted fromDendrobium densiflorum. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of CYP to induce apoptosis and enhance cisplatin-mediated death of human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells using cell viability and apoptosis assays. The induction of apo...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of bofutsushosan (fang feng tong sheng san) on glucose transporter 5 function in vitro
AbstractBofutsushosan (BTS; fang feng tong sheng san in Chinese) is a formula in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese medicine comprising eighteen crude drugs, and is used to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose is contained in refreshing beverages as high-fructose corn syrup, and is associated with obesity. Fructose is absorbed via glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) in the intestine. Therefore, the inhibition of GLUT5 is considered to be a target of obesity drugs. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of BTS extract and its constituents on fructose uptake using Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, i.e., cells sta...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rigenolides D –H, norsecoiridoid and secoiridoids from Gentiana rigescens Franch
AbstractFive new compounds, rigenolides D –H (1–5), were isolated from the aerial parts ofGentiana rigescens Franch. Their structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical conversions. Rigenolides D (1) and E (2) were elucidated to be a secoiridoid and a norsecoiridoid, respectively, possessing a dienone moiety in common. Rigenolides F –H (3–5) were assigned as acylated secoiridoid glucosides. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lanostane triterpenoids from Fomitopsis officinalis and their trypanocidal activity
AbstractFomitopsis officinalis is a medicinal fungus, known as ‘Agarikon’, and is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma and rheumatism in Mongolia. The investigation of the chemical constituents ofF.officinalis led to the isolation of 4 new lanostane triterpenoids together with 4 known triterpenoids. Inhibitory activity againstTrypanosoma congolense, which causes fatal diseases in animals including livestock, was estimated for the isolated compounds. Compounds2–5 and8 exhibited moderate inhibition activities with IC50 values ranging from 7.0 −27.1 µM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Laxative effect of repeated Daiokanzoto is attributable to decrease in aquaporin-3 expression in the colon
In this study, we analyzed the laxative effect of repeated DKT administration, focusing on AQP3 expression in the colon. After rats were treated for 7  days, decreased AQP3 expression and the onset of diarrhea were observed in the DKT group, but were not seen in the Daio group either. Although the relative abundance of gut microbiota after repeated DKT administration was similar to that after control treatment, Daio reducedLactobacillaceae,Bifidobacteriaceae, andBacteroidaceae levels and markedly increasedLachnospiraceae levels. In this study, we show that DKT has a sustained laxative effect, even upon repeated use, p...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oxyresveratrol prevents murine H22 hepatocellular carcinoma growth and lymph node metastasis via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of oxyresveratrol (Oxyres) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo. The MTT and Transwell assays were performed to investigate the effects of Oxyres on cell proliferation and migration of two HCC cell lines, QGY-7701 and SMMC-7721 cells. H22 cells were subcutaneously injected into hind foot pads of 70 male mice to establish a lymph node metastasis model. These mice were randomly divided into seven groups as follows, control group, HCC group, Oxyres 20  mg/kg group, Oxyres 40 mg/kg group, Oxyres 60 mg/kg group, Resv...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structure –activity relationships of flavanones, flavanone glycosides, and flavones in anti-degranulation activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells
AbstractThe incidence of type I allergies, which are associated with mast cell degranulation and local inflammation, is increasing, and new treatments are needed. To date, structure –activity relationships of flavonoids in their degranulation-inhibiting activity have not been systematically characterized. In the current study, the degranulation-inhibiting activity of a series of flavonoids was evaluated. The following three observations were made: (1) the activity disappears when a sugar moiety is introduced into the A ring of the flavanone; (2) the activity depends on the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring; (3)...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Characterization of ent -kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase involved in gibberellin biosynthesis from Scoparia dulcis
AbstractGibberellins (GAs) are ubiquitous diterpenoids in higher plants, whereas some higher plants produce unique species-specific diterpenoids. In GA biosynthesis,ent-kaurene synthase (KS) andent-kaurene oxidase (KO) are key players which catalyze early step(s) of the cyclization and oxidation reactions. We have studied the functional characterization of gene products of a KS (SdKS) and two KOs (SdKO1 andSdKO2) involved in GA biosynthesis inScoparia dulcis. Using an in vivo heterologous expression system ofEscherichia coli, we found that SdKS catalyzed a cyclization reaction froment-CPP toent-kaurene and that the SdKOs o...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Degranulation inhibitors from the arils of Myristica fragrans in antigen-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia cells
AbstractA methanol extract of mace, the aril ofMyristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), was found to inhibit the release of β-hexosaminidase, a marker of antigen-IgE-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3, IC50 = 45.7 μg/ml). From the extract, three new 8-O-4 ′ type neolignans, maceneolignans I–K (1–3), were isolated, and the stereostructures of1–3 were elucidated based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Among the isolates, maceneolignans A (5), D (6), and H (8), ( −)-(8R)- ∆8 ′-4-hydroxy-3,3 ′,5′-trimethoxy-8-O-4 ′-n...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The active glycosides from Urtica fissa rhizome decoction
This study revealed that glycosides played an important role in the therapeutic effects ofUrtica fissa rhizome. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of components from Salam leaf ( Syzygium polyanthum ) extract
AbstractIn order to identify a novel whitening agent, the methanol extract ofS. polyanthum leaf was focused on by the screening test using nine Indonesian medicinal plants for the inhibition of melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells. Three novel compounds [(1) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)hexane-1-one, (2) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy methylphenyl)octane-1-one, and (3) (4E)-1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one and one known compound [(4) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one were isolated from the methanol extract. Our study demonstrated thatS. polyanthum leaf methanol extract at 25 &nd...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites
AbstractThe article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites, written by Seiichi Sakamoto, Waraporn Putalun, Sornkanok Vimolmangkang, Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Yukihiro Shoyama, Hiroyuki Tanaka and Satoshi Morimoto, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 21 November 2017 without open access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bioactive constituents from the whole plants of Leontopodium leontopodioides (Wild.) Beauv.
AbstractFive new compounds, leontoaerialosides A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), and E (5) were obtained from the 70% EtOH extract of the whole plants ofLeontopodium leontopodioides (Wild.) Beauv. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Moreover, compounds4 and5 showed significant effects on stimulating the hepatic glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New diterpenes from Nigella damascena seeds and their antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type-1
AbstractNigella species are rich source of dolabellane diterpenes. During our study of Nigella species, new dolabellane diterpenes, damasterpenes V –VIII were isolated. The structural determination of new compounds damasterpenes V–VIII is described with consideration of their absolute configurations. The antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type-1 of the isolated compounds and their derivatives are also evaluated. Damasterpene V (inhibition 35.0%) and 2-phenylacetyl 13-benzoyl damasterpenol (32.0%) showed significant antiviral activity at 10 μM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lignosulfonic acid attenuates NF- κB activation and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction induced by TNF-α/IFN-γ in Caco-2 cells
In this study, we investigated the effect of LM-lignin/lignosulfonic acid on intestinal barrier function. Lignosulfonic acid enhanced transepithelial membrane electrical resistance in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. In Caco-2 cells treated with lignosulfonic acid, expression of claudin-2, which forms high conductive cation pores in tight junctions (TJs), was decreased. Lignosulfonic acid also attenuated the barrier dysfunction that is caused by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α and interferon (IFN)-γ in Caco-2 cells. TNF-α- and IFN-γ-induced activation of NF-κB, such as translocation of ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory constituents from Ascomycetous fungi
AbstractOur screening project, namely, search for new immunomodulatory constituents from Ascomycetous fungi, was guided by the effects on mitogen-induced proliferations of mouse spleen lymphocytes. On the project, the defatted crude extracts fromGelasinospora multiforis,G.heterospora,G.longispora,G.kobi,Diplogelasinospora grovesii,Emericella aurantio-brunnea,Eupenicillium crustaceum, etc., submitted to the solvent partition followed by fractionation with repeated chromatography monitored by immunomodulatory activity to afford many active constituents, of which molecular structures including absolute configurations and immu...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research