Two new sarpagine-type indole alkaloids and antimalarial activity of 16-demethoxycarbonylvoacamine from Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack
AbstractTwo new sarpagine-type indole alkaloids (1 and2), together with five known alkaloids; 12-methoxy-4-methylvoachalotine (3), 16-demethoxycarbonylvoacamine (4), isositsirikine (5), affinisine (6), affinine (7), were isolated from the bark ofTabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack. The structures of these alkaloids were determined based on spectroscopic data, chemical correlation, and comparison with the literature. 16-Demethoxycarbonylvoacamine (4) showed antiplasmodial activities againstPlasmodium falciparum 3D7 and cytotoxic activities against human cell line, HepG2 cells. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Screening for natural products that affect Wnt signaling activity
AbstractWnt signaling has been implicated in numerous aspects of development, cell biology, and physiology. When aberrantly activated, Wnt signaling can also lead to the formation of tumors. Thus, Wnt signaling is an attractive target for cancer therapy. Based on our screening program targeting Wnt signaling activity using a cell-based luciferase screening system assessing TCF/ β-catenin transcriptional activity, we isolated a series of terpenoids and heterocyclic aromatic compounds that affect the Wnt signaling pathway at different points. Here, we describe our recent results in screening for natural products that in...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sedative effects of the essential oil from the leaves of Lantana camara occurring in the Republic of Benin via inhalation in mice
AbstractLantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) is used traditionally for its numerous medicinal properties such as antimalarial, antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves ofL. camara (LCEO) occurring in the Republic of Benin (West Africa) in comparison with LCEOs from other regions; evaluated its sedative effects in mice via inhalation administration; and identified the compounds responsible for activity. LCEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and chemical analyses of the oil were performed by GC and GC/MS. The oil was domin...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Selective cytotoxicity of epidithiodiketopiperazine DC1149B, produced by marine-derived Trichoderma lixii on the cancer cells adapted to glucose starvation
AbstractThe core of solid tumors is characterized by hypoxia and a nutrient-starved microenvironment and has gained much attention as targets of anti-cancer drugs. In the course of search for selective growth inhibitors against the cancer cells adapted to nutrient starvation, epidithiodiketopiperazine DC1149B (1) together with structurally related compounds, trichodermamide A (2) and aspergillazine A (3), were isolated from culture extract of marine-derivedTrichoderma lixii. Compounds1 exhibited potent selective cytotoxic activity against human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells cultured under glucose-starved conditions wit...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Siphonaxanthin, a carotenoid from green algae, suppresses advanced glycation end product-induced inflammatory responses
AbstractAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) induce inflammation and contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although many studies have demonstrated the protective effects of carotenoids against atherosclerosis, the effects of carotenoids on AGE-induced inflammation have not been characterized. As such, we aimed to identify carotenoids that provided protection against AGE-elicited inflammation. AGE-stimulated RAW264 macrophages were first evaluated for NO generation. Among 17 carotenoids tested, only siphonaxanthin significantly suppressed it. Next, mRNA expression levels were measured in RAW264 macrophages an...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Four new cucurbitane-type triterpenes from Momordica charantia L. with their cytotoxic activities and protective effects on H 2 O 2 -damaged pancreatic cells
In the original publication of the article, affiliations of authors were published incorrectly. The correct information is provided below. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

LC –MS analysis of saponins of Achyranthes root in the Japanese market
AbstractLC –MS analyses of saponin fractions of Achyranthes roots in the Japanese market revealed that there were three patterns for the saponin fraction of their water extracts, i.e., the saponins with a sugar moiety at position 28 [achyranthosides B (3), C (4) and D (5)] were the major constituents, the saponins without sugar moiety at position 28 [betavulgarosides II (10) and IV (11)] were the major constituents, and mixtures of these saponins. In a decoction prepared from the sample which contained10 and11 as the major saponins, their amounts were largely decreased compared with those of the water extract. As lar...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Agarotetrol in agarwood: its use in evaluation of agarwood quality
AbstractAgarwood, which is used as medicine and incense, contains sesquiterpenes and chromones. Agarotetrol is a chromone derivative found in high concentrations in the water-extract fraction of agarwood and thus may be present in pharmaceutical products made from decoctions of agarwood. Agarotetrol has been reported to be present at the early stages of cell death in calli. We therefore examined the presence of agarotetrol in medical- and incense-grade agarwood, in agarwood-source plants lacking resin deposits, and in artificially made agarwood. Agarotetrol appeared as a large peak in the HPLC chromatograms of all samples ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glycosides: sonneratiosides A –E and eudesmol β - d -glucopyranoside from the leaves of Sonneratia alba
AbstractFive eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glycosides, named sonneratiosides A –E (1–5), were isolated from the leaves ofSonneratia alba (Lythraceae). The aglycone of sonneratioside A was identified as cryptomeridiol also known as proximadiol. X-ray crystallographic analysis of sonneratioside A confirmed its structure and its absolute stereochemistry. Eudesmolβ-d-glucopyranoside (6) was also isolated from nature for the first time. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity was assayed for the new compounds together with seven known compounds. Among them, arbutin (12) showed the expected activity and luteolin 7-O-r...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of white Kwao Krua ( Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth.) products sold in Thailand by molecular, chemical, and microscopic analyses
In this study, we authenticated white Kwao Krua products collected from Thai herbal markets by molecular, chemical, and microscopic analyses. The nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) andtrnH –psbA regions of 23 samples of authenticP. candollei were analyzed, and both regions were found to have intraspecific DNA polymorphisms. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ITS1 region, species-specific primer sets ofP. candollei were designed to authenticate white Kwao Krua and differentiate it from red and black Kwao Krua. Only the PCR products of KWP02 were not amplified by the primer s...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Prenylated benzophenone derivatives from Hypericum patulum
AbstractA new prenylated benzophenone, hypatulin C (1), was isolated from the leaves ofHypericum patulum together with a biogenetically related analog, hypelodin B (2). Hypatulin C (1) had a tricyclic [4.3.1.03,7]-decane moiety substituted by four prenyl groups. The structure of1 was elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses, while the absolute stereochemistries of1 and2 were assigned by comparison of their ECD spectra with TDDFT calculated spectra. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Serine protease inhibitors and activators from Dalbergia tonkinensis species
AbstractThe vulnerable plantDalbergia tonkinensis Prain is a rare species in Vietnam. In the course of our studies on biologically active plants, we performed serine protease enzyme screenings. The results suggest that at concentrations of 25 –250 ng/mL, methanol extracts of leaf and root, root ethanol extract and its dichloromethane fraction, and heartwood water decoction extract can serve as useful sources to stimulate trypsin enzyme activity. In addition, water decoction extracts of leaf and stem bark may explain unknown ethno-phar macology due to the high inhibitory effects in enzyme assays using trypsin, ch...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effects of vicenin-2 and scolymoside through the modulation of inflammatory pathways
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two structurally related flavonoids found inCyclopia subternata, vicenin-2 (VCN) and scolymoside (SCL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver failure in mice and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Mice were treated intravenously with VCN or SCL at 12  h after LPS treatment. LPS significantly increased mortality, serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and inflammatory cytokines, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein expression; these effects of LPS were inhibited by VCN or SCL. It also attenuated the LPS-induced activati on of ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum japonicum subsp. subcuneatum
AbstractWe explored new cytotoxic C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, lipojesaconitine(1), from rhizoma ofAconitum japonicum Thunb. subsp.subcuneatum (Nakai) Kadota. Two additional non-cytotoxic new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, 10-hydroxychasmanine(2) and 3-hydroxykaracoline(3), together with eight known C19- and C20-diterpenoid alkaloids (4 −11) were also isolated. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR (1D and 2D), IR, and MS (HRMS). Six known diterpenoid alkaloids, foresticine (5), neolinine (6), aconicarchamine A (7), 9-hydroxynominine (8), kobusine (9), and torokonine (10), were is...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

1 H NMR-based metabolomic analysis coupled with reversed-phase solid-phase extraction for sample preparation of Saposhnikovia roots and related crude drugs
Abstract1H NMR-based metabolomics has been applied in research on food, herbal medicine, and natural products. Although excellent results were reported, samples were directly extracted with a deuterated solvent (e.g., methanol-d4 or D2O) in most reports. As primary metabolites account for most of the results, data for secondary metabolites are partially reflected. Consequently, secondary metabolites tend to be excluded from factor loading analysis, serving as a significant unfavorable feature of1H NMR-based metabolomics when investigating biologically active or functional components in natural products and health foods. Re...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mycobacterium smegmatis alters the production of secondary metabolites by marine-derived Aspergillus niger
AbstractIt is generally accepted that fungi have a number of dormant gene clusters for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, and the activation of these gene clusters can expand the diversity of secondary metabolites in culture. Recent studies have revealed that the mycolic acid-containing bacteriumTsukamurella pulmonis activates dormant gene clusters in the bacterial genusStreptomyces. However, it is not clear whether the mycolic acid-containing bacteria activate dormant gene clusters of fungi. We performed co-culture experiments using marine-derivedAspergillus niger withMycobacterium smegmatis, a mycolic acid-containin...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sweroside ameliorated carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver fibrosis through FXR-miR-29a signaling pathway
In conclusion, sweroside exerted its anti-fibrotic effect in vivo and in vitro by up-regulation of miR-29a and repression of COL1 and TIMP1, which was at least in part through FXR. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Medicinal uses, thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of plant species from Abomey-Calavi and Dantokpa Market in the Republic of Benin
This study provides a list of popular medicinal plants found in southern Benin (West Africa) with their mode of use, diseases treated, and thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography profiles. The list includes 10 of the most widely used plant species from Dantokpa Market (biggest market located in Cotonou) and Abomey-Calavi in the Republic of Benin. Species were identified by the Laboratory of Botany and Applied Ecology, University of Abomey-Calavi. Voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Jap...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antiinflammatory constituents of Atractylodes chinensis rhizome improve glomerular lesions in immunoglobulin  A nephropathy model mice
AbstractThe crude drugSojutsu, as defined by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, is the rhizome ofAtractylodes lancea De Candolle,Atractylodes chinensis Koidzumi, or their interspecific hybrids (Asteraceae).Sojutsu is one of the traditional Kampo formulas, which are administered to patients suffering from stomach disorders, edema, and nephrotic syndrome. Although antiinflammatory effects ofSojutsu have been reported, its effects on the liver and kidney have not been extensively investigated. Here, we used aSojutsu sample identified asA.  chinensis rhizome and isolated several constituents from its ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-solubl...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Consumption of lycopene-rich tomatoes improved glucose homeostasis in rats via an increase in leptin levels
AbstractThe lycopene content of tomatoes is important because of its effects on vital physiological functions such as improvement of glucose tolerance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. To investigate the influence of the lycopene content of tomatoes on glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid content, homogenates of lycopene-rich (LR) or lycopene-free negative control (NC) tomato varieties were administrated to normal rats for 4  weeks. At the end of the experiment, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Rats were fed once and then dissected. According to the OGTT results, plasma glucose levels in the LR...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory activities of kukoamines A and B from Lycii Cortex on amyloid aggregation related to Alzheimer ’s disease and type 2 diabetes
AbstractAlzheimer ’s diseases (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two age-related diseases characterized by amyloid fibrillogenesis. Prevention of amyloid aggregation is a promising therapeutic strategy for AD and T2D. Two spermine alkaloids, kukoamines A and B, isolated from Lycii Cortex (LyC) were investigated f or their inhibitory effect on amyloid aggregation. Both kukoamines A and B inhibited aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in a dose-dependent manner. Kukoamine B showed stronger inhibitory activity than kukoamine A. These results on...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Four new cucurbitane-type triterpenes from Momordica charantia L. with their cytotoxic activities and protective effects on H 2 O 2 -damaged pancreatic cells
AbstractFour new cucurbitane-type triterpenes were isolated from the fruit ofMomordica charantia L. The structures of the new compounds were identified based on HR-ESI-MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using three human cancer cell lines, HeLa, Caco2, and U87. Compound3 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 11.18  μM. Additionally, the cytoprotective activity of these compounds was determined in vitro against H2O2-induced pancreatic injury. The results revealed that all the compounds obtained possess cyto...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Computationally-assisted discovery and structure elucidation of natural products
The article Computationally-assisted discovery and structure elucidation of natural products, written by Alfarius Eko Nugroho and Hiroshi Morita, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 15 May 2019 without open access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Screening for natural products that affect Wnt signaling activity
The article Screening for natural products that affect Wnt signaling activity, written by Masami Ishibashi, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 30 May 2019 without open access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

DNA barcoding for identification of agarwood source species using trn L- trn F and mat K DNA sequences
In this study, DNA was extracted from putative agarwood samples collected from Japanese, Indonesian, Thai, and Vietnamese markets. ThetrnL-trnF region andmatK gene were amplified from each sample by PCR to serve as DNA barcodes for identifying the plant species to which each sample belonged. One of the wood samples did not originate from a genuine agarwood species. Although some species were identified, sequence data for agarwood source species currently available in GenBank is insufficient to identify the species to which all of these putative agarwood samples belonged. Thus, positive identification of remaining samples w...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical components from the twigs of Caesalpinia latisiliqua and their antiviral activity
AbstractThree new compounds, (3S)-dihydrobonducellin 8-O- β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3 ′,5′-dimethoxy-jezonolid (2), and latisilinoid (3), along with 16 known compounds, were isolated from the twigs ofCaesalpinia latisiliqua (Leguminosae). The known compounds were identified as flavonoids, stilbenes, and phenolics as determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity in HRV1B-, CVB3-, and EV71-infected cells. Among the tested compounds, three flavonoids (4–6) and two stilbenes (12 and14) exhibited significant an...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sanguinarine inhibits the proliferation of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells via regulating miR-96-5p/miR-29c-3p and the MAPK/JNK signaling pathway
In this study, the in vitro proliferation inhibition effect of SAN in GC cells was determined using CCK-8 assay, the in vivo antitumor effect of SAN was evaluated in mice with xenotransplanted tumor. The mechanism underlying the antitumor activity of SAN was explored by gene microarray assay and bioinformatics analysis. The levels of differentially expressed miRNAs and target genes were verified by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. SAN inhibited the proliferation of BGC-823 cells in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. The miR-96-5p and miR-29c-3p were significantly upregulated in untreated BGC-8...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Theaflavic acid from black tea protects PC12 cells against ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis induced by OGD/R via activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway
AbstractCerebral ischemic stroke is a severe disease afflicting people worldwide. Phytochemicals play a pivotal role in the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention of ischemic stroke. In our continual search for bioactive natural products for the treatment of ischemic stroke, we have evaluated the protective effects of theaflavic acid (TFA) from black tea using PC12 cells injured by oxygen and glucose deprivation/restoration (OGD/R), and investigated the possible mechanisms. The results showed that TFA can protect PC12 cells against OGD/R through increasing cell viability and decreasing intracellular l...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structure –activity relationships and evaluation of esterified diterpenoid alkaloid derivatives as antiproliferative agents
AbstractDiterpenoid alkaloids with remarkable chemical properties and biological activities are frequently found in plants of the generaAconitum,Delphinium, andGarrya. However, little information has been reported on the antiproliferative effects of the diterpenoid alkaloid constituents ofAconitum andDelphinium plants. C-1 and 14 esterifications of delcosine (1) were carried out to provide 39 new diterpenoid alkaloid derivatives (3–14,16–29,3a–7a,9a,13a,13b,14a,14b,16a,17a,24a,35a). Selected compounds (3–14,16–29,3a–7a,9a,13a,13b,14a,14b,16a,17a,24a,35a) were evaluated for antiproliferat...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro hepatoprotective activity of flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis
AbstractTwo new flavonoid glycosides, 2 ′,4′-dihydroxydihydrochalcone-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and medicarpin-3-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl (1  → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), together with 34 known flavonoids were isolated from the 75% EtOH extract of the dried roots ofGlycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The flavonoids were classified into ten sub-types, namely, dihydrochalcone (1), pterocarpans (2–4), flavones (5–6), flavanones (7–11), chalcones (12–15), retro-chalcones (16–18), isoflavan...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Naringenin suppresses neutrophil infiltration into adipose tissue in high-fat diet-induced obese mice
AbstractRecruitment of immune cells to adipose tissue is altered dramatically in obesity, which results in chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue that leads to metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The regulation of immune cell infiltration into adipose tissue has prophylactic and therapeutic implications for obesity-related diseases. We previously showed that naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, suppressed macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue by inhibiting monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in the progression phase to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pyrrole 2-carbaldehyde derived alkaloids from the roots of Angelica dahurica
AbstractSix new pyrrole 2-carbaldehyde derived alkaloids, dahurines A–F (1–6), along with five known ones (7 –11) and butyl 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate (12) were isolated from the roots ofAngelica dahurica. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric data (1D and 2D NMR, IR, and HRESIMS) and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) methods. Although compounds7 and8 have been chemically synthesized, they were obtained from natural materials for the first time. Compounds2,3,4,10, and11 exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic abietane and kaurane diterpenoids from Celastrus orbiculatus
AbstractCelastrus orbiculatus is a medicinal plant belonging to the Celastraceae family. In this survey on the secondary metabolites of plants for obtaining antitumor substances, the chemical constituents of the stems ofC. orbiculatus were investigated. Nortriptonoterpene (1), a new C19-norabietane diterpenoid, together with six other known abietane-type diterpenoids (2–7) and five known kaurane-type diterpenoids (8–12) were isolated and identified from the EtOAc extract ofC. orbiculatus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, HR-ESI –MS, ECD, a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cornel iridoid glycoside induces autophagy to protect against tau oligomer neurotoxicity induced by the activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 β
AbstractTau oligomers are the etiologic molecules of Alzheimer ’s disease, and correlate strongly with neuronal loss and exhibit neurotoxicity. Recent evidence indicates that small tau oligomers are the most relevant toxic aggregate species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on tau oligomers and c ognitive functions. We injected wortmannin and GF-109203X (WM/GFX, 200 μM each) into the lateral ventricles to induce tau oligomer and memory impairment in rats. When orally administered with CIG at 60 and 120 mg/kg/day for 14 days, CIG decreas...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Search of anti-allodynic compounds from Plantaginis Semen, a crude drug ingredient of Kampo formula “Goshajinkigan”
AbstractChemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the dose-limiting side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Although the control of CIPN is important, it is difficult to manage with currently available therapeutic drugs. Therefore, there is a need for novel therapeutic agents for treating CIPN. Goshajinkigan (GJG) is a Kampo formula composed of ten crude drugs. While GJG has been used for the treatment of CIPN, the active constituents of GJG and their underlying mechanisms of pharmacological effects are still unknown. Our previous study revealed that repetitive oral administration of the water extract of Pla...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Clerodane diterpenoids from Casearia kurzii and their cytotoxic activities
AbstractA search for bioactive natural products as anticancer lead compounds resulted in the isolation of one previously undescribed and three known clerodane diterpenoids (1–4) fromCasearia kurzii. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their NMR, MS, and electronic circular dichroism data. The cytotoxic activities of four compounds against three human cancer cell lines were evaluated. Compound2 was found to be the most active with an IC50 value of 4.1  μM against HeLa cells, and was selected to investigate the possible cytotoxic mechanism.Graphic abstract (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Suppression of colorectal cancer cell growth by combined treatment of 6-gingerol and γ-tocotrienol via alteration of multiple signalling pathways
This study aimed to identify and elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in the suppression of SW837 colorectal cancer cells modulated by combined tre atment of γ-tocotrienol and 6-gingerol. Total RNA from both untreated and treated cells was prepared for transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing techniques. We performed high-throughput sequencing at approximately 30–60 million coverage on both untreated and 6G + γT3-treated cells. The results showed that cancer-specific differential gene expression occurred and functional enrichment pathway analysis suggested that more than one pathw...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A new triterpene from the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim
AbstractA new triterpene named klodorol B (1), together with six known compounds, were isolated from the green walnut husks ofJuglans mandshurica Maxim. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities on human gastric carcinoma (BGC-823), human liver cancer (HepG-2) and human lung cancer (A549) cell lines.Graphical abstract. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Schisandrae Fructus on glycyrrhizin content in Kampo extracts containing Glycyrrhizae Radix used clinically in Japan
AbstractGlycyrrhizae Radix is an important crude drug in Japan and is the most frequently prescribed drug in Kampo medicines for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Glycyrrhizin (GL), the major active ingredient of Glycyrrhizae Radix, has various pharmacological actions but causes adverse effects such as pseudoaldosteronism. In a previous study, the GL content of shoseiryuto was found to be unexpectedly low, and Schisandrae Fructus in shoseiryuto reduced the pH value of the decoction and drastically decreased the extraction efficiency of GL from Glycyrrhizae Radix. In the present study, we investigated the extractio...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structures of triterpenoids from the leaves of Lansium domesticum
AbstractFrom the methanolic extract of the leaves ofLansium domesticum, three new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lansium acids X –XII and a new cycloartane-type triterpene, lansium acid XIII, were isolated. The chemical structures of the isolated new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical/physicochemical evidence. For new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, the absolute configurations were established by comparison of experimental and predicted electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. The isolated onoceranoid-type triterpenoids showed antimutagenic effects in the Ames assay against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-p...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Leaves of Lippia triphylla improve hepatic lipid metabolism via activating AMPK to regulate lipid synthesis and degradation
We report herein the regulatory effect ofL.  triphylla extract (LTE) and its major compound acteoside (ACT) on abnormal liver lipid metabolism. Both LTE and ACT administration significantly decreased serum and hepatic lipid content, increased the phosphorylation level of the energy metabolism moderator adenosine 5 ′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and reduced two major markers of lipid synthesis, viz. acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), with an obvious enhancement in ACC phosphorylation. Furthermore, ACT promoted lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation by increasing messeng er R...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Computationally-assisted discovery and structure elucidation of natural products
AbstractComputer hardware development coupled with the development of quantum chemistry, new computational models and algorithms, and user-friendly interfaces have lowered the barriers to the use of computation in the discovery and structure elucidation of natural products. Consequently, the use of computational chemistry software as a tool to discover and determine the structure of natural products has become more common in recent years. In this review, we provide several examples of recent studies that used computer technology to facilitate the discovery and structure determination of various natural products. (Source: J...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diarylheptanoid 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6 E )-6-hepten-3-one enhances C2C12 myoblast differentiation by targeting membrane estrogen receptors and activates Akt-mTOR and p38 MAPK-NF- κB signaling axes
AbstractDiarylheptanoid, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl(6E)-6-hepten-3-one (HPPH), has been reported to enhance myoblast differentiation via estrogen receptor (ER). However, the underlying signaling pathway promising this action remains unknown. The present study thus aimed to investigate the signaling pathway of HPPH that enhances myoblast differentiation. Confluence C2C12 myoblasts were induced to differentiate in the absence or presence of HPPH (10  nM). Differentiation markers (myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myogenin) and other signaling molecules implicated in myogenic differentiation were analyzed by immunostaining ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-melanin deposition activity and active constituents of Jatropha multifida stems
AbstractJatropha multifida is a medicinal plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. Our investigation revealed that the chloroform extract ofJ. multifida stems showed anti-melanin deposition activity against α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)- and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanogenesis in the mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F10). Further fractionation and purification of the major constituents led to the isolation of two coumarins (1 and2) and seven known lignoids (3 –9). All isolated compounds exhibited anti-melanin deposition activities against the mouse melanoma cell line (B...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Scrobiculosides A and B from the deep-sea sponge Pachastrella scrobiculosa
AbstractTwo new steroidal saponins, scrobiculosides A and B, were isolated from the deep-sea spongePachastrella scrobiculosa, collected at a depth of 200  m off Miura Peninsula, Japan. The aglycones of scrobiculosides A and B feature a vinylic cyclopropane and a ∆24,25 exomethylene on the side chains, respectively. Both saponins have a common sugar moiety composed of β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1  → 2)-6-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, with the exception of an acetyl group on C6 ″ in scrobiculoside A. Scrobiculoside A exhibited cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells, with IC50 values of 5...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems II: comparison of serum concentration of glycyrrhetinic acid serum concentration in mice
AbstractTo evaluate the safety and efficacy ofGlycyrrhiza uralensis root produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin (GL), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Hot water extracts obtained from the roots of the artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivatedGlycyrrhiza uralensis were orally administered at a dose of 100  mg/kg as GL in mice and, compared with a commercial crude drug, Glycyrrhizae Radix. The temporal changes in serum GA concentration was found to depend on the GL concentration of the hot-wa...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Salacia chinensis stem extract and its thiosugar sulfonium constituent, neokotalanol, improves HbA1c levels in ob / ob mice
AbstractThe antidiabetic effects of a hot water extract of the stems ofSalacia chinensis (SCE) were evaluated in vivo inob/ob mice (genetically obese hyperglycemic mice). Administration of dietary feed containing 0.20 and 0.50% of SCE for 23  days toob/ob mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels, without significantly changing body weight and food intake. To characterize the antidiabetic effects of the thiosugar sulfonium constituent neokotalanol (1), which has potentα-glucosidase inhibitory activity, we performed a similar in vivo study. HbA1c levels were significantly ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Three new alkaloids from the roots of Sophora tonkinensis
AbstractA new β-carboline alkaloid (1) and two new matrine-type alkaloids (2 and3), together with two known alkaloids (4 and5), were isolated from the roots ofSophora tonkinensis. The new structures were elucidated via extensive analyses of the spectroscopic data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, NMR) and X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of1 was established by electronic circular dichroism data. Herein, is the first report of β-carboline alkaloid in the plant of genusSophora. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells of compounds1–5 were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Agarotetrol: a source compound for low molecular weight aromatic compounds from agarwood heating
In the original publication of the article, under the paragraphs “Collection of volatile compound” and “Analysis of essential oil and hydrosol” holding time for the end of GC and GC–MS programs at 180 °C was incorrectly published as “10 min”. The correct time limit is “30 min”. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Determination of perillaldehyde in perilla herbs using relative molar sensitivity to single-reference diphenyl sulfone
In this study, we utilized an alternative quantitative method using on a single reference with relative molar sensitivity (RMS) based on the results of experiments performed in two laboratories. It was possible to calculate the exactRMS using an offline combination of1H-quantitative NMR spectroscopy (1H-qNMR) and an HPLC/photodiode array (PDA) detector (or an HPLC/variable-wavelength detector [VWD]). Using theRMS of PRL to the single-reference compound diphenyl sulfone (DFS), which is an inexpensive and stable compound, the PRL content in the perilla herb could be determined using HPLC/PDA or HPLC/VWD without the need for ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research