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Characterization of ent -kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase involved in gibberellin biosynthesis from Scoparia dulcis
AbstractGibberellins (GAs) are ubiquitous diterpenoids in higher plants, whereas some higher plants produce unique species-specific diterpenoids. In GA biosynthesis,ent-kaurene synthase (KS) andent-kaurene oxidase (KO) are key players which catalyze early step(s) of the cyclization and oxidation reactions. We have studied the functional characterization of gene products of a KS (SdKS) and two KOs (SdKO1 andSdKO2) involved in GA biosynthesis inScoparia dulcis. Using an in vivo heterologous expression system ofEscherichia coli, we found that SdKS catalyzed a cyclization reaction froment-CPP toent-kaurene and that the SdKOs o...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Degranulation inhibitors from the arils of Myristica fragrans in antigen-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia cells
AbstractA methanol extract of mace, the aril ofMyristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), was found to inhibit the release of β-hexosaminidase, a marker of antigen-IgE-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3, IC50 = 45.7 μg/ml). From the extract, three new 8-O-4 ′ type neolignans, maceneolignans I–K (1–3), were isolated, and the stereostructures of1–3 were elucidated based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Among the isolates, maceneolignans A (5), D (6), and H (8), ( −)-(8R)- ∆8 ′-4-hydroxy-3,3 ′,5′-trimethoxy-8-O-4 ′-n...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The active glycosides from Urtica fissa rhizome decoction
This study revealed that glycosides played an important role in the therapeutic effects ofUrtica fissa rhizome. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of components from Salam leaf ( Syzygium polyanthum ) extract
AbstractIn order to identify a novel whitening agent, the methanol extract ofS. polyanthum leaf was focused on by the screening test using nine Indonesian medicinal plants for the inhibition of melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells. Three novel compounds [(1) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)hexane-1-one, (2) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy methylphenyl)octane-1-one, and (3) (4E)-1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one and one known compound [(4) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one were isolated from the methanol extract. Our study demonstrated thatS. polyanthum leaf methanol extract at 25 &nd...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites
AbstractThe article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites, written by Seiichi Sakamoto, Waraporn Putalun, Sornkanok Vimolmangkang, Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Yukihiro Shoyama, Hiroyuki Tanaka and Satoshi Morimoto, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 21 November 2017 without open access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New diterpenes from Nigella damascena seeds and their antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type-1
AbstractNigella species are rich source of dolabellane diterpenes. During our study of Nigella species, new dolabellane diterpenes, damasterpenes V –VIII were isolated. The structural determination of new compounds damasterpenes V–VIII is described with consideration of their absolute configurations. The antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type-1 of the isolated compounds and their derivatives are also evaluated. Damasterpene V (inhibition 35.0%) and 2-phenylacetyl 13-benzoyl damasterpenol (32.0%) showed significant antiviral activity at 10 μM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lignosulfonic acid attenuates NF- κB activation and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction induced by TNF-α/IFN-γ in Caco-2 cells
In this study, we investigated the effect of LM-lignin/lignosulfonic acid on intestinal barrier function. Lignosulfonic acid enhanced transepithelial membrane electrical resistance in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. In Caco-2 cells treated with lignosulfonic acid, expression of claudin-2, which forms high conductive cation pores in tight junctions (TJs), was decreased. Lignosulfonic acid also attenuated the barrier dysfunction that is caused by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α and interferon (IFN)-γ in Caco-2 cells. TNF-α- and IFN-γ-induced activation of NF-κB, such as translocation of ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory constituents from Ascomycetous fungi
AbstractOur screening project, namely, search for new immunomodulatory constituents from Ascomycetous fungi, was guided by the effects on mitogen-induced proliferations of mouse spleen lymphocytes. On the project, the defatted crude extracts fromGelasinospora multiforis,G.heterospora,G.longispora,G.kobi,Diplogelasinospora grovesii,Emericella aurantio-brunnea,Eupenicillium crustaceum, etc., submitted to the solvent partition followed by fractionation with repeated chromatography monitored by immunomodulatory activity to afford many active constituents, of which molecular structures including absolute configurations and immu...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenolic compounds from the leaves of Breynia officinalis and their tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities
AbstractFrom the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves ofBreynia officinalis, five new compounds (1–5) along with 11 known compounds (6–16) were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and compounds1–3 were found to be acylated hydroquinone apiofuranosylglucopyranosides, while compound4 was an acylated hydroquinone glucopyranoside. Compound5 was shown to be butylp-coumarate and this seems to be its first isolation from a natural source. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of all of the isolated compounds was assayed, and the activity was signi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inner morphological and chemical differentiation of Boehmeria species
AbstractThe present study was designed to establish quality control parameters for pharmacognostic evaluation and differentiation of eight locally derivedBoehmeria species,B. gracilis,B. nivea,B. pannosa,B. platanifolia,B. quelpaertensis,B. spicata,B. splitgerbera,B. tricuspis, and two varieties namedB. japonica var.longispica,B. nivea var.concolor, which have been utilized as the folk medicine, ‘Mo-Si-Pool’ in Korea. Although the outer morphological study of these species had been reported, there is no pharmacognostical description yet. Therefore, inner morphological evaluation on leaf midrib, petiole and stem...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Berberine protects HK-2 cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation induced apoptosis via inhibiting SPHK1 expression
AbstractRenal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIRI) refers to the irreversible damage for renal function when blood perfusion is recovered after ischemia for an extended period, which is common in clinical surgeries and has been regarded as a major risk for acute renal failures (ARF) that is accompanied with unimaginably high morbidity and mortality. Hypoxia during ischemia followed by reoxygenation via reperfusion serves as a major event contributing to cell apoptosis, which has been widely accepted as the vital pathogenesis in RIRI. Preventing apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cell has been considered as effective metho...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enhanced ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of quinolizidine alkaloids from Sophora alopecuroides L. seeds
This study reports a novel ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis method for the extraction of these important alkaloids. Box –Behnken design, a widely used response surface methodology, was used to investigate the effects of process variables on ultrasound bath-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (UAEH) extraction. Four independent variables, pH, extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (min) and solvent-to-material rati o (mL/g), were studied. For the extraction of sophocarpine, oxysophocarpine, oxymatrine, matrine, sophoramine, sophoridine and cytisine, the optimal UAEH condition was found to be a pH of 5, ext...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new aromatic glycosides, elengiosides A and B, from the flowers of Mimusops elengi
AbstractTwo new aromatic glycosides, elengiosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers ofMimusops elengi (Sapotaceae) together with 26 known compounds. Their stereostructures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic properties and chemical evidence. Among the isolates, a phenylethanoid glycoside, undatuside C (14), was found to exhibit hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In Memoriam
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Discrimination of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus based on fingerprint profiles of hydrophilic components by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection
AbstractHigh-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC –UV) using 20 mM phosphate mobile phase and an octadecylsilyl column (Triart C18, 150 × 3.0 mm i.d., 3 μm) has been developed for the analysis of hydrophilic compounds in the water extract of Schisandrae Fructus samples. The present HPLC–UV method permits the accurate and precise determin ation of malic, citric, and protocatechuic acids in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) Schisandrae Fructus, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus. The JP Schisandrae Fructus studied conta...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dehydropropylpantothenamide isolated by a co-culture of Nocardia tenerifensis IFM 10554 T in the presence of animal cells
AbstractA new amide, named dehydropropylpantothenamide (1), was obtained by a co-culture ofNocardia tenerifensis IFM 10554T in the presence of the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774.1 in modified Czapek-Dox (mCD) medium. Compound1 was synthesized fromd-pantothenic acid calcium salt in 6 steps. The absolute configuration of natural compound1 was determined by comparisons of the optical rotation and CD spectra of synthetic1. In the present study, a new method for producing secondary metabolites was demonstrated using a “co-culture” in which the genusNocardia was cultured in the presence of an animal cell line. ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Agelamasines A and B, diterpene alkaloids from an Okinawan marine sponge Agelas sp.
AbstractTwo new diterpene alkaloids having anN-methyladenine moiety, agelamasines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from an Okinawan marine spongeAgelas sp. The structures of1 and2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Agelamasine A (1) is the first diterpene alkaloid with a rearranged (4  → 2)-abeo-clerodane skeleton from a marine source, while agelamasine B (2) is a clerodane diterpene alkaloid. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Production of an emericellin and its analogues as fungal biological responses for Shimbu-to extract
AbstractThis research examined the production of fungal metabolites as a biological response to Kampo medicines. Shimbu-to (SMB) is a Kampo medicine composed of five herbal components: peony root (Shakuyaku), ginger (Shokyo), processed aconite root (Bushi),Poria sclerotium (Bukuryo), andAtractylodes lancea rhizomes (Sojutsu). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the fungusAspergillus nidulans CBS 112.46 incubated in potato dextrose broth supplemented with SMB extract revealed emericellin (2) as the major peak and new xanthone analogues 24-hydroxyshamixanthone (1), shamixanthone (3), epishamixanthone (4...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Botanical origin of Mei-gui Hua in Chinese markets
AbstractThe petals or buds ofRosa species have been used as an important Chinese crude drug called “Mei-gui Hua” and also an ingredient for herbal tea in China. The 15 flavonol glycosides in 34 commercially available “Mei-gui Hua” were quantitatively determined by UPLC, and the data were compared with those of knownRosa sp. belong toCinnamomeae,Gallicanae,Caninae andSynstylae by principal component analysis for the estimation of original plants of these “Mei-gui Hua”. Seven samples were classified into two groups (Types A and B) composed of species inGallicae andSynstilae and 11 samples ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane hexa- and hepta-glycosides from the roots of Asclepias tuberosa
AbstractPreviously, phytochemical investigation of the roots ofAsclepias tuberosa (Asclepiadaceae) led to the isolation of some 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane tri-, tetra-, and penta-glycosides. An additional eight new minor 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane glycosides were afforded in the recent investigation of this plant. These glycosides consisted of six or seven 2,6-dideoxy-hexopyranoses together with the aglycone, tuberogenin. The structures of each of these compounds were established using NMR, mass spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. As 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane-type glycosides were obser...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 25, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites
AbstractImmunoassays are antibody-based analytical methods for quantitative/qualitative analysis. Since the principle of immunoassays is based on specific antigen –antibody reaction, the assays have been utilized worldwide for diagnosis, pharmacokinetic studies by drug monitoring, and the quality control of commercially available products. Berson and Yalow were the first to develop an immunoassay, known as radioimmunoassay (RIA), for detecting endogenous pl asma insulin [1], a development for which Yalow was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1977. Even today, after half a century, immunoassays are ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

AU-1 from Agavaceae plants downregulates the expression of glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase
AbstractThe spirostanol saponin AU-1 from Agavaceae plants stimulates the expression of the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) in ACHN cells. We hypothesized that this may arise from the downregulation of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. In this article, we showed that, unlike in renal adenocarcinoma cells, AU-1 does not affect the expression of SIRT1 in the normal renal cell-derived cell line HK-2. Consistent with the lack of a downregulation of SIRT1, AU-1 did not upregulate, but rather decreased PGAM expression. Moreover, AU-1 inhibited the increase in PGAM levels that results from the knock-down of S...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New cyclic sulfides extracted from Allium sativum : garlicnins P, J 2 , and Q
AbstractTwo atypical cyclic-type sulfides, garlicnin P (1) and garlicnin J2 (2), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin Q (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic,Allium sativum, bulbs cultivated in the Kumamoto city area, and their structures characterized. Their production pathways are also discussed. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potent apoptosis-inducing activity of erypoegin K, an isoflavone isolated from Erythrina poeppigiana , against human leukemia HL-60 cells
AbstractErypoegin K is an isoflavone isolated from the stem bark ofErythrina poeppigiana. It contains a furan group at the A-ring of the core isoflavone structure and can inhibit the activity of glyoxalase I, an enzyme that catalyzes the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a by-product of glycolysis. In the present study, we found that erypoegin K has a potent cytotoxic effect on human leukemia HL-60 cells. Its cytotoxic effect was much stronger than that of a known glyoxalase I inhibitorS-p-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester. Conversely, erypoegin K demonstrated weak cytotoxicity toward normal human peripheral l...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Botanical origin and chemical constituents of commercial Saposhnikoviae radix  and its related crude drugs available in Shaanxi and the surrounding regions
AbstractSaposhnikoviae radix (SR) is described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia as a crude drug derived from the root ofSaposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin (Umbelliferae). According toFlora of China, the root ofPeucedanum ledebourielloides K. F. Fu is used as a regional substitute for  SR. Therefore, we surveyed the botanical origin of the drug used in China, especially Shaanxi and the surrounding regions, through nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. As a result, several samples from Shaanxi (陝西) and Shanxi (山西) provinces were i dentified asPeucedanum ledebourielloides. ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 17, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of saffron  and its constituents, crocin-1, crocin-2, and crocetin on α-synuclein fibrils
This study (part of this study was presented at the 137th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) examined the effects of saffron, its constituents (crocin-1, crocin-2, crocetin, and safranal), and crocetin structural analogs (hexadecanedioic acid, norbixin, andtrans,trans-muconic acid) on αS aggregation, and αS fibril dissociation. Saffron dose-dependently inhibited αS aggregation and dissociated αS fibrils by thioflavin T fluorescence assay. These effects were observed by transmission electron microscopy, which showed reduced and shortened αS fibrils. Crocin-1, crocin-2, and c...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 17, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Biological activity of Entada phaseoloides and Entada rheedei
AbstractThe aim of our study is to find functional compounds from natural resources. We focus on plants grown in tropical areas, especially Madagascar and Thailand, because they have unique flora and are expected to contain interesting compounds. We review the functional compounds of the seed kernels ofEntada phaseoloides andE. rheedei and their biological activities such as anti-proliferation and melanogenesis inhibitory properties, etc. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells via the ROS/PKC-α/ERK pathway
In conclusion, this study revealed that 18β-GA inhibits migration and invasion via the ROS/PKC-α/ERK signaling pathway in g astric cancer cells. This suggests that 18β-GA has the potential to be used as an effective chemopreventive agent for the prevention of gastric cancer metastasis. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New cyclic sulfides, garlicnins I 2 , M, N, and O, from Allium sativum
AbstractOne atypical thiolane-type sulfide, garlicnin I2 (1), two 3,4-dimethylthiolane-type sulfides, garlicnins M (2) and N (3), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin O (4), were isolated from the acetone extracts of Chinese garlic bulbs,Allium sativum and their structures were characterized. Hypothetical pathways for the production of the respective sulfides were discussed. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 30, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives from the stems of Dendrobium officinale with their cytotoxic activities
AbstractTwo new phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives (1 –2) with six known congeners (3 –8) were isolated from the extraction of stems ofDendrobium officinale. Compounds1 and2 were based on carbon skeleton in which phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene moiety were linked with a phenylpropane unit through a dioxane bridge, respectively. Their structures were determined by comprehensive NMR spectroscopic data, the absolute configuration of new compounds were determined by comparing their experimental and calculated ECD for the first time. All the compounds were investigated contains two can...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of raw nepodin extraction from Rumex japonicus and R. obtusifolius and their DNA polymorphisms
In this study, all specimens on the Ryukyu Islands were identified asR. japonicus. Conversely, all specimens on mainland Japan wereR. obtusifolius. The DNA sequence of the chloroplasttrnL –trnF intergenic spacer region and partial nuclear internal transcribed spacer was consistent with the identification ofR. japonicus andR. obtusifolius by morphological characteristics of the perianth segments. Therefore, to avoid erroneous identification and misuse of the plant species used for extraction of raw materials, it is preferable to develop DNA markers for these two regions. The content of nepodin varied from undetectable...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Piperine-like alkamides from Piper nigrum induce BDNF promoter and promote neurite outgrowth in Neuro-2a cells
In this study, we investigated the effects of alkamides from white pepper (P. nigrum) on neuronal cells. Twelve alkamides were isolated from white pepper MeOH extracts, and their chemical structures were identified by NMR and MS analyses. The compounds were subjected to assays using the luciferase-reporter gene under the control of the BDNF promoter or cAMP response element in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells. In both assays, marked reporter-inducing activity was observed for piperine (1), piperettine (2) and piperylin (7), all of which have in common an (E)-5-(buta-1,3-dien-1-yl)benzo[d] [1,3] dioxole moiety. Piperettin...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A new cinnamoylphenethylamine derivative from a Mongolian Allium species, Allium carolinianum
AbstractA new cinnamoylphenethylamine derivative, compound1, was isolated as the main HPLC peak after partitioning the methanol extract of bulbs of a Mongolian onion species,Allium carolinianum DC. The chemical structure of this substance was determined by spectroscopic analysis including MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Compound1 showed weak cytotoxic activity in the murine leukemia cell line P388. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Four new diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum japonicum subsp. subcuneatum
AbstractDiterpenoid alkaloids with remarkable chemical properties and biological activities are frequently found in plants of the generaAconitum,Delphinium, andGarrya. Accordingly, several diterpenoid alkaloid constituents ofAconitum andDelphinium plants as well as their derivatives exhibited cytotoxic activity against lung, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines. Four new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, 14-anisoyllasianine (1), 14-anisoyl-N-deethylaconine (2),N-deethylaljesaconitine A (3), andN-deethylnevadensine (4), together with 17 known C19- and C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, were ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Different expression systems resulted in varied binding properties of anti-paclitaxel single-chain variable fragment antibody clone 1C2
AbstractThe binding properties of recombinant antibody fragments, such as affinity and specificity, determine their usefulness for therapeutic and analytical applications. Anti-paclitaxel single-chain variable fragment clone 1C2 (anti-PT scFv1C2) was expressed usingEscherichia coli cell andBombyx mori larvae expression systems. The binding characteristics of the scFvs were evaluated using indirect competitive ELISA. The linear range of binding between anti-PT scFv1C2 and paclitaxel was significantly different between the anti-PT scFv1C2s derived fromE. coli (1.056 –5.700 μg/ml) andB. mori (7.813 –1000&n...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new cytotoxic stilbenoid dimers isolated from Cajanus cajan
AbstractTwo new stilbenoid dimers, cajanstilbenoids A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves ofCajanus cajan. Planar structures of these compounds were verified by NMR (1D and 2D) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI –MS). Absolute configurations were assigned by comparing experimental and calculated electronic CD values. The cytotoxicity of1 and2 against human hepatoma (HepG2), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human lung cancer (A549) cells were evaluated in vitro. Compound1 showed strong cytotoxicity against all the tested cell lines (IC50 values: 2.14 –2.56 ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Naphthalene glycosides in the Thai medicinal plant Diospyros mollis
This study evaluated methanol extracts from the leaves and branches of the Thai medicinal plantDiospyros mollis (Ebenaceae). Seven triterpenes and 22 aromatic compounds, including five new compounds, were isolated, and their structures were determined. The new compounds had the following structures: diospyrol glycoside (makluoside A,1), 8,8 ′-di-O-6- β-d-apiofuranosyl- β-d-glucopyranosyl-6,6 ′-dimethyl-2,3′-binaphthalene-1-ol-1′,4′- dione (makluoside B,2), and 3-methyl-1,8- naphthalenediol glycosides (makluosides C-E,3–5). Makluoside B is the first example of a naphthoquinone g...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A novel mode of stimulating platelet formation activity in megakaryocytes with peanut skin extract
We report in this study novel biochemical activities of peanut skin extract (PEXT) on thrombocytopoiesis. Peanut skin, derived fromArachis hypogaea L., is a traditional Chinese medicine that is used to treat chronic hemorrhage. We have shown that oral administration of PEXT increases the peripheral platelet levels in mice. Recently, we reported a liquid culture system that is useful for investigating megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis from human CD34+ cells. In this liquid culture system, PEXT was shown to enhance the formation of CD41+/DAPI− cells (platelets), but had no effect on the formation of CD41+/DAP...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ellagic acid glycosides with hepatoprotective activity from traditional Tibetan medicine Potentilla anserina
AbstractTwo new gallic acid glycosides, potentillanosides G (1) and H (2), were newly isolated from the methanol extract of the tuberous roots ofPotentilla anserina (Rosaceae), together with a known compound, ellagic acid 3-O- α-l-rhamnopyranoside (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents, potentillanoside H (2, IC50 = 99.5 μM) was found to show hepatoprotective activity. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of byakujutsu (Atractylodes rhizome) and sojutsu (Atractylodes lancea rhizome) on anti-inflammatory and immunostimulative effects in vitro
AbstractThe Japanese Pharmacopoeia defines byakujutsu (Atractylodes rhizome) as the rhizome ofAtractylodes japonica orA. macrocephala and sojutsu (Atractylodes lancea rhizome) as the rhizome ofA. lancea,A. chinensis, or their interspecific hybrids. Because their pharmaceutical uses differ in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, with less apparent scientific evidence, we compared the pharmacological properties between byakujutsu and sojutsu. Crude drug specimens of byakujutsu (n = 40) and sojutsu (n = 49) obtained in markets were identified by their species using DNA prof...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A mixture: multistep inhibition of the NF- κB signalling pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory effect of Scutellaria root flavonoids
AbstractScutellaria root, the root ofScutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a crude drug used for inflammatory diseases. In our previous report, the combination of flavonoids contained in Scutellaria root have been found to inhibit PGE2 production more strongly than individual flavonoids. Here, to investigate the mechanism of the synergistic effect, we examined the effects of an equimolar mixture (F-mix) of baicalein (1), wogonin (2) and oroxylin A (3) on the production of PGE2 in LPS-treated J774.1 cells. Although1 and3 inhibited COX-2 activity, the F-mix showed no synergistic effect on COX-2 inhibition. Therefore, we investi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

C 21 steroid derivatives from the Dai herbal medicine Dai-Bai-Jie, the dried roots of Marsdenia tenacissima , and their screening for anti-HIV activity
AbstractTwenty-three new C21 steroidal glycosides, marstenacissides C1 –C10 (1–10), D1 –D7 (11–17) and E1 –E6 (18–23), and four new C21 steroids, 11 α,12β-O-ditigloyl-tenacigenin C (24), 11 α-O-benzoyl-12 β-O-tigloyl-tenacigenin C (25), 11 α-O-tigloyl-12 β-O-benzoyl-tenacigenin C (26) and 11 α-O-tigloyl-12 β-O-benzoyl-marsdenin (27), were isolated from the Dai herbal medicine Dai-Bai-Jie, derived from the roots ofMarsdenia tenacissima. The chemical structures of all compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques, including high-resoluti...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 15, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Labdane-type diterpenoids from Vitex limonifolia and their antivirus activities
AbstractPhytochemical investigation of the methanol extract ofVitex limonifolia leaves led to the isolation of three new labdane-type diterpenoids, vitexlimolides A –C (1 –3) and eight known compounds, 5,4 ′-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (4), vitecetin (5), 5,4 ′-dihydroxy-7,3′-dimethoxyflavone (6), verrucosin (7), 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (8), euscaphlic acid (9), 18,19-seco, 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-19-oxo-urs-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (10), and maslinic acid (11). Their chemical structures were elucidated by physical and chemical methods. All compounds were e...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 15, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The promotion of hair regrowth by topical application of a Perilla frutescens extract through increased cell viability and antagonism of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone
This study investigated the potential hair regrowth effects associated with a plant extract ofPerilla frutescens, which was selected due to its putative hair regrowth activity. Extracts were prepared from driedP. frutescens suspended in distilled water, where the resultant aqueous suspension was fractionated sequentially using hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. We observed that the n-butanol fraction resulted in the highest hair regrowth activity. The n-butanol soluble fraction ofP. frutescens extract (BFPE) was further separated using AB-8 macroporous resin and silica gel chromatography to obtain rosma...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Naturally occurring Vpr inhibitors from medicinal plants of Myanmar
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Resin glycosides from Convolvulaceae plants
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of oleuropein on cognitive deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cytokine expression in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder
In this study, we examined whether OLE improved spatial cognitive impairment induced in rats following single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with vehicle or various doses of OLE for 14 consecutive days after the SPS procedure. The SPS procedure resulted in cognitive impairment in the object recognition task and the Morris water maze test, which was reversed by OLE (100  mg/kg, i.p). Additionally, as assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the administration of OLE significantly alleviated memory-ass...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oviposition inhibitor in umbelliferous medicinal plants for the common yellow swallowtail ( Papilio machaon )
AbstractUmbelliferous medicinal plants, such asAngelica acutiloba Kitagawa andAngelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker filius ex Franchet et Savatier, account for a large percentage of crude drug consumption in Japan. The most serious problem in the cultivation of umbelliferous medicinal plants is the feeding damage caused by the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon hippocrates C.& R. Felder, 1864). When we compared the numbers of eggs laid byP. machaon on six umbelliferous medicinal plants, the eggs onA. acutiloba,A. dahurica, andGlehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miquel were the most numerous, those onSaposhnikovia d...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Whitening and anti-wrinkle activities of ferulic acid isolated from Tetragonia tetragonioides in B16F10 melanoma and CCD-986sk fibroblast cells
AbstractFerulic acid isolated fromTetragonia tetragonioides was tested for its whitening effect on the B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line and its anti-wrinkle activity on the CCD-986sk human dermal fibroblast cell line. Ferulic acid, one of the primary phenolic compounds that can be isolated fromT.  tetragonioides, has been reported to show potential as a functional food, for its whitening effect and anti-wrinkle activity. To measure its whitening and anti-wrinkle activities, cells were treated with ferulic acid isolated fromT.  tetragonioides at concentrations between 5 and 20  μM. Ferulic acid showed no cy...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - September 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The anti-tumor effect of pachymic acid on osteosarcoma cells by inducing PTEN and Caspase 3/7-dependent apoptosis
This study provides evidence that PA might be useful in the treatment of human osteosarcoma. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 30, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research