Anti-melanin deposition activity and active constituents of Jatropha multifida stems
AbstractJatropha multifida is a medicinal plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. Our investigation revealed that the chloroform extract ofJ. multifida stems showed anti-melanin deposition activity against α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)- and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanogenesis in the mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F10). Further fractionation and purification of the major constituents led to the isolation of two coumarins (1 and2) and seven known lignoids (3 –9). All isolated compounds exhibited anti-melanin deposition activities against the mouse melanoma cell line (B...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Scrobiculosides A and B from the deep-sea sponge Pachastrella scrobiculosa
AbstractTwo new steroidal saponins, scrobiculosides A and B, were isolated from the deep-sea spongePachastrella scrobiculosa, collected at a depth of 200  m off Miura Peninsula, Japan. The aglycones of scrobiculosides A and B feature a vinylic cyclopropane and a ∆24,25 exomethylene on the side chains, respectively. Both saponins have a common sugar moiety composed of β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1  → 2)-6-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, with the exception of an acetyl group on C6 ″ in scrobiculoside A. Scrobiculoside A exhibited cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells, with IC50 values of 5...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems II: comparison of serum concentration of glycyrrhetinic acid serum concentration in mice
AbstractTo evaluate the safety and efficacy ofGlycyrrhiza uralensis root produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin (GL), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Hot water extracts obtained from the roots of the artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivatedGlycyrrhiza uralensis were orally administered at a dose of 100  mg/kg as GL in mice and, compared with a commercial crude drug, Glycyrrhizae Radix. The temporal changes in serum GA concentration was found to depend on the GL concentration of the hot-wa...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Salacia chinensis stem extract and its thiosugar sulfonium constituent, neokotalanol, improves HbA1c levels in ob / ob mice
AbstractThe antidiabetic effects of a hot water extract of the stems ofSalacia chinensis (SCE) were evaluated in vivo inob/ob mice (genetically obese hyperglycemic mice). Administration of dietary feed containing 0.20 and 0.50% of SCE for 23  days toob/ob mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels, without significantly changing body weight and food intake. To characterize the antidiabetic effects of the thiosugar sulfonium constituent neokotalanol (1), which has potentα-glucosidase inhibitory activity, we performed a similar in vivo study. HbA1c levels were significantly ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Three new alkaloids from the roots of Sophora tonkinensis
AbstractA new β-carboline alkaloid (1) and two new matrine-type alkaloids (2 and3), together with two known alkaloids (4 and5), were isolated from the roots ofSophora tonkinensis. The new structures were elucidated via extensive analyses of the spectroscopic data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, NMR) and X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of1 was established by electronic circular dichroism data. Herein, is the first report of β-carboline alkaloid in the plant of genusSophora. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells of compounds1–5 were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Agarotetrol: a source compound for low molecular weight aromatic compounds from agarwood heating
In the original publication of the article, under the paragraphs “Collection of volatile compound” and “Analysis of essential oil and hydrosol” holding time for the end of GC and GC–MS programs at 180 °C was incorrectly published as “10 min”. The correct time limit is “30 min”. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Determination of perillaldehyde in perilla herbs using relative molar sensitivity to single-reference diphenyl sulfone
In this study, we utilized an alternative quantitative method using on a single reference with relative molar sensitivity (RMS) based on the results of experiments performed in two laboratories. It was possible to calculate the exactRMS using an offline combination of1H-quantitative NMR spectroscopy (1H-qNMR) and an HPLC/photodiode array (PDA) detector (or an HPLC/variable-wavelength detector [VWD]). Using theRMS of PRL to the single-reference compound diphenyl sulfone (DFS), which is an inexpensive and stable compound, the PRL content in the perilla herb could be determined using HPLC/PDA or HPLC/VWD without the need for ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Development of a simple and rapid method for the detection of isomiroestrol in Pueraria candollei by an immunochromatographic strip test
AbstractPueraria candollei (P. candollei) is a traditional Thai herb widely used for estrogen replacement therapy because it contains many unique chromenes that possess potent estrogenic activity, one of which is known as isomiroestrol. Since isomiroestrol is a promising compound that is solely present inP. candollei, it can be used as an identifying marker for standardization ofP. candollei. Here, we developed a lateral-flow immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test using a colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated anti-isomiroestrol monoclonal antibody (12C1-mAb) for the detection of isomiroestrol in plant samples and products...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Isolation and identification of two new compounds from the twigs and leaves of Cephalotaxus fortunei
AbstractTwo new compounds, namely 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylchromone (1), and sesquiterpene X (6), together with 21 known compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves ofCephalotaxus fortunei Hook. f. The structures of1 –23 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1D/2D NMR, HR-ESI –MS and IR) and comparison with literature. The absolute configuration of compound6 was determined by means of electronic circular dichroism calculation. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of all compounds were assayed in RAW 264.7 cells by assessing lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production. Comp...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Four limonoids from the seeds extract of Sandoricum koetjape
AbstractThree andirobin- and one trijugin-class limonoids, named koetjapins A-D (1–4), have been isolated from the seed extracts ofSandoricum koetjape. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive NMR and mass spectral data, and the chemotaxonomic significance of these limonoids in the family Meliaceae is highlighted. Preliminary biological activity showed that only compound4 has significant inhibitory activity against P-388 cells, while antibacterial tests showed that none of these compounds were active. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Neuroprotective effect of naturally occurring RXR agonists isolated from Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep. on amyloid- β-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells
In the original publication of the article, Table  1 and Fig. 1 were incorrectly published. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new alkaloids from Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum
AbstractA new crinine-type alkaloid crijaponine A (1), a new galanthamine-type alkaloid crijaponine B (2), and 11 known alkaloids —ungeremine (3), lycorine (4), 2-O-acetyllycorine (5), 1, 2-O-diacetyllycorine (6), ( −)-crinine (7), 11-hydroxyvittatine (8), hamayne (9), (+)-epibuphanisine (10), crinamine (11), yemenine A (12), and epinorgalanthamine (13) —were isolated from the rhizome and fruits ofCrinum asiaticum var.japonicum. The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HeLa a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphism of Japanese cultivated Rheum species in the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA
AbstractIn order to develop new domestic production of Rhei Rhizoma (RR) fromRheum specimens cultivated in the Sugadaira Medicinal Plant Cultivation Test Field (SMPCF), the ITS sequences of 12 SMPCF specimens and ChineseRheum specimens of four species, as well as RR samples produced in North Korea, China and Japan, were determined by subcloning and their sequences were compared. As the ITS sequences of 10 SMPCF specimens showed significant intra-individual polymorphism, identification of pseudogenes was conducted by detecting the three motifs of the 5.8S sequence and the stability of the 5.8S secondary structure. Approxima...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemical characterization of Rosa multiflora Thunb. (Rosaceae) in Japan and South Korea, with a focus on the bioactive flavonol glycoside ‘multiflorin A’
AbstractDried achene or anthocarpous accessory fruits ofRosa multiflora Thunb., Rosae fructus ( “Eijitsu” in Japanese), have been used in clinical practice to improve constipation within traditional Japanese medicine. Recently, it has been claimed that the efficacy of this crude drug is decreasing, and multiflorin A, the purgative component, was not detected within the tested samples. In o rder to clarify the causes of this issue, we investigatedRosa sectionSynstylae (Rosaceae), includingR.multiflora, growing in Japan and South Korea with a focus on the secondary metabolite, multiflorin A. We recognize that the...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Ceramicines M –P from Chisocheton ceramicus : isolation and structure–activity relationship study
The article Ceramicines M –P fromChisocheton ceramicus: isolation and structure –activity relationship study. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Laxative effect of repeated Daiokanzoto is attributable to decrease in aquaporin-3 expression in the colon
The article Laxative effect of repeated Daiokanzoto is attributable to decrease in aquaporin-3 expression in the colon, written by Risako Kon, Miho Yamamura, Yukari Matsunaga, Hiroshi Kimura, Moe Minami, Saki Kato, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 27 January 2018 without open access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Impact of different post-harvest processing methods on the chemical compositions of peony root
The article Impact of different post ‑harvest processing methods on the chemical compositions of peony root. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Appetite-enhancing effects of nutmeg oil and structure –activity relationship of habituation to phenylpropanoids
In this study, we showed that the inhalation of nutmeg oil, myristicin and methyl eugenol produced appetite-enhancing effects in mice. Methyl eugenol alone has shown appetite-enhancing effects and locomotor-reducing effects at the same dose. In a previous study, benzylacetone produced those two effects at the same dose and also increased the body weight of mice significantly; methyl eugenol, however, did not because the mice experienced olfactory habituation after repeated inhalations of methyl eugenol. A structure –activity study showed that a carbonyl group on the aliphatic chain prevented habituation to aroma comp...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Leucophyllinines A and B, bisindole alkaloids from Leuconotis eugeniifolia
AbstractTwo new bisindole alkaloids, leucophyllinines A (1) and B (2) consisting of eburnane and quebrachamine-type skeletons were isolated from the bark ofLeuconotis eugeniifolia, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Leucophyllinines A and B showed antiplasmodial activities againstPlasmodium falciparum 3D7. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cyclolinopeptide F, a cyclic peptide from flaxseed inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via downergulation of RANK expression
AbstractPreviously, we reported that cyclolinopeptides (CLs) extracted from flaxseed inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. However, mode of action involved in CLs-inhibited osteoclastogenesis has been yet unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the details of inhibitory activity of cyclolinopeptide-F (CL-F) in osteoclastogen esis, as a representative of CLs. CL-F dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (IC50 0.58  µM) without cytotoxic effects. The inhibition by CL-F was mainly obser...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A new 2 H -benzindazole compound from Alternaria alternata Shm-1, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fresh wild fruit of Phellinus igniarius
AbstractEndophytic fungi have been shown in recent years to produce a series of bioactive secondary metabolites. Several endophytic fungi were isolated from the fresh wild body ofPhellinus igniarius, and initially evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among which, Shm-1 extract showed moderate inhibitory activity againstClavibacter michiganense and the fungus was identified to beAlternaria alternata Shm-1 through the comparison of morphological characteristics and the sequence of the rDNA ITS with those of otherAlternaria species. A new 2H-benzindazole derivative, alterindazolin A (1), has been isolated from cultures...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ecological, phylogenetical, and pharmacognostical characteristics of Aconitum kiyomiense endemic to Hida highlands, Takayama city, Gifu Prefecture, Japan
We report the first detection of aconitine alkaloids in the tuberous roots, which exhibited aconitine alkaloid contents varying from 0.32 to 4.05  mg/g dry weight (mg/g) for aconitine, 0.02 to 4.12 mg/g for hypaconitine, undetectable to 0.05 mg/g for jesaconitine, and 0.42 to 3.76 mg/g for mesaconitine. The variation of aconitine alkaloid components and contents appeared to be random and did not vary with inflorescence phenotype,trnL –trnF haplotype, environmental habitat conditions, or the geographic region of the collection sites. Since most populations showed no genetic intra-variation, it will...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New vasorelaxant indole alkaloids, taberniacins A and B, from Tabernaemontana divaricata
AbstractTaberniacins A (1) and B (2), new indole alkaloids, were isolated from the stems ofTabernaemontana divaricata (Apocynaceae). Structure elucidation of1 and2 was based on spectroscopic methods and total synthesis. Each alkaloid showed vasorelaxant activity against phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibition of melanin production by anthracenone dimer glycosides isolated from Cassia auriculata seeds
AbstractThe methanol extract ofCassia auriculata seeds was found to inhibit melanogenesis in B16 melanoma 4A5 cells under conditions of theophylline stimulation. Two new phlegmacin-type anthracenone dimer glycosides, auriculataosides A and B, were isolated from the active methanol fraction, and their inhibitory effects were observed in the concentration range of 0.03 to 0.3  μM. Inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 protein expression was observed, suggesting that the inhibition of these factors is part of the mechanism of action unde...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mutagenetic and anti-allergic studies for evaluation of extracts of Coptis Rhizome produced by an artificial hydroponic system
AbstractAs a part of the investigation of the safety and efficacy of the cultivatedCoptis japonica rhizome extracts using an artificial hydroponic cultivation system, the mutagenetic and anti-allergic activities were evaluated. Some extracts of commercial crude drugs ofCoptis sp. were also evaluated for the comparison. None of the extracts showed a significant mutagenicity inSalmonella typhimurium TA102 by the Ames tests, but all the extracts showed inS. typhimurium TA98. The extracts of the hydroponically cultivated rhizomes showed anti-allergic activities against contact hypersensitivity as well as those of commercial cr...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Flavonoids isolated from the flowers of Pulsatilla flavescens and their anti-piroplasm activity
AbstractPulsatilla species are known as “Yargui”, and their flowers are traditionally used in Mongolia as a tonic and for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. By chemical investigation ofP.flavescens flowers, 21 flavonoids, including a new chalconeC-glucoside, chalconaringenin 2 ′-O- β-d-glucopyranosyl-5 ′-β-d-glucopyranoside, and two new flavanoneC-glucosides, (2R)- and (2S)-naringenin 8- β-d-glucopyranosyl-4 ′-O- β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated. The absolute configurations of the seven flavanone glucosides were elucidated by ECD spectra. For the isolated compounds, ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rhamnan sulfate extracted from Monostroma nitidum attenuates blood coagulation and inflammation of vascular endothelial cells
In this study, we compared the effect of RS with that of heparin on blood coagulation and vascular endothelial cells in the presence or absence of inflammatory factors, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We found that RS significantly enhances inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa in the presence of antithrombin as well as heparin, and that RS inhibits tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release from the endothelial cells treated with or without lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor- α, or thrombin. Heparin did not show any effects on endothelial cell inflammation. Our findings suggest th...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new quassinoids and other constituents from Picrasma javanica wood, and their biological activities
AbstractPicrasma javanica Blume (Simaroubaceae) is a medium-sized tree that is distributed widely in tropical Asia. In our previous study, we isolated quassinoids fromP. javanica bark collected in Myanmar, and reported their antiproliferative activities. In our ongoing research for the discovery of bioactive compounds from Myanmar medicinal plants, two new quassinoids, (16R)-methoxyjavanicin B (1) and (16S)-methoxyjavanicin B (2), along with seven known compounds (3–9), were isolated during the phytochemical investigation of the CHCl3 soluble portion of the MeOH extract ofP. javanica wood. The structures of the new c...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

B-ring-homo-tonghaosu, isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium capitulum, acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ agonist
AbstractThe capitula ofChrysanthemum morifolium andC. indicum are used to prepare Chrysanthemi Flos in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine. In our previous study, we reported on the agonistic effect of methanol extract ofC. indicum capitulum on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)- γ. We further isolated (E)-tonghaosu fromC. indicum capitulum as one of the active ingredients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the PPAR- γ agonistic activity of a methanol extract ofC. morifolium capitulum (MCM) in which (E)-tonghaosu could not be detected. MCM exhibited PPAR- γ agonistic activity in a ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New otonecine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Petasites japonicus
AbstractOne new otonecine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloid secopetasitenine (1), along with petasitenine (fukinotoxine,2), neopetasitenine (3), and senkirkine (4), was isolated from the whole plant ofPetasites japonicus. The structure of1 was determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical conversion from the known alkaloid petasitenine (2). (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sesquiterpenes with new carbon skeletons from the basidiomycete Phlebia tremellosa
AbstractThree new sesquiterpenes, phlebidiol, phlebioic acid, and phlebiolide, as well as the known compound tremetriol, were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycetePhlebia tremellosa. The structures of all isolated compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including those involving extensive two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The absolute configurations of phlebidiol, phlebioic acid, and phlebiolide were determined by comparisons of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Phlebidiol and phlebioic acid have previously unreported carbon skeletons, for which we pr...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of Mayan medicinal plant extracts against glutamate-induced toxicity
AbstractNeurological disorders are a public health problem worldwide for which there is currently no direct treatment of the cause of the disorder. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential in vitro neuroprotective property of plants used in Mayan traditional medicine. Plant ethanolic extracts were prepared and tested on models in which neuronal damage was induced by glutamate, i.e., a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) and rat cortical neurons. HPLC profiles from active extracts were also obtained. A total of 51 plant species were identified in the literature as plant species used in Mayan traditional m...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Natural CAC chemopreventive agents from Ilex rotunda Thunb.
In this study, we report the CAC preventive effect of the ethyl acetate (EIR) ofIlex rotunda Thunb., a traditional Chinese herbal medicine being clinically used to treat intestinal disease. We also report the results of screening for CAC preventive agents from EIR via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κB) translocation model in Caco2 cells, since activated NF-κB can be used by tumor cells at the early stage of tumorigenesis. Twenty-four components were isolated from EIR and identified by multiple chromatography and spectral analysis. MTT experiments in IEC-6 and RAW264.7 cells showed that all 2 4 compounds were tox...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Luteolin decreases the yield of influenza A virus in vitro by interfering with the coat protein I complex expression
AbstractInfluenza is an acute transmissible respiratory infectious disease in humans and animals with high morbidity and mortality. It was reported that luteolin, extracted from Chinese herbs, could potently inhibit influenza virus replication in vitro. To assess the effect and explore the fundamental mechanism of luteolin, we infected several cell lines with two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), including A/Jiangxi/312/2006 (H3N2) and  A/Fort Monmouth/1/1947 (H1N1) and demonstrated that luteolin suppressed the replication of IAV by cytopathic effect reduction method, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Weste...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Analyses of the possible anti-tumor effect of yokukansan
In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of YKS. We used Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice that were fed food pellets containing YKS and then performed a fecal microbiota analysis, a microarray analysis for microRNAs (miRNAs) and an in vitro anti-tumor assay. The fecal microbiota analysis revealed that treatment with YKS partly reversed changes in the microbiota composition due to LLC implantation. Furthermore, a miRNA array analysis using blood serum showed that treatment with YKS restored the levels of miR-133a-3p/133b-3p, miR-1a-3p and miR-342-3p following LLC implantation to normal levels. A TargetSca...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Identification of β‑carboline and canthinone alkaloids as anti‑inflammatory agents but with different inhibitory profile on the expression of iNOS and COX‑2 in lipopolysaccharide‑activated RAW 264.7 macrophages
The article Identification of β‑carboline and canthinone alkaloids as anti‑inflammatory agents but with different inhibitory profile on the expression of iNOS and COX‑2 in lipopolysaccharide‑activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, written by Pan Liu, Huixiang Li, Ruiling Luan, Guiyan Huang, Yanan Liu, Mengdi Wang, Qiuli Chao, Liying Wang, Danna Li, Huaying Fan, Daquan Chen, Linyu Li, Keiichi Matsuzaki, Wei Li, Kazuo Koike, Feng Zhao, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 15 October 2018 without open access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lanostane-type triterpenes from the sclerotium of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushrooms) as proproliferative agents on human follicle dermal papilla cells
AbstractChaga mushrooms, the sclerotium ofInonotus obliquus, have been used in Mongolia as a traditional hair shampoo to maintain healthy hair. Bioassay-guided fractionations of the extract of Chaga mushrooms using a proliferation assay on human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) gave five lanostane-type triterpenes (1 –5), whose structures were identified by spectroscopic evidence. Among these, lanosterol (1), inotodiol (3), lanost-8,24-diene-3 β,21-diol (4), and trametenolic acid (5) demonstrated proproliferative effects on HFDPCs more potent than minoxidil, an anti-alopecia agent, used as the positive con...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effects of naturally occurring retinoid X receptor agonists isolated from Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep. via retinoid X receptor/liver X receptor heterodimers
AbstractRetinoid X receptor (RXR) ligands have a wide range of beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). Recently accumulated evidence suggests that early neuroinflammation may be a therapeutic target for AD treatment. We therefore investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the prenylated flavanoids SPF1 and SPF2, which were previously isolated from root ofSophora tonkinensis and identified as potent ligands for RXR, and potential mechanisms involved. SPF1 and SPF2 efficiently reduced interleukin (IL)-1 β messenger RNA (mRNA) and IL-6 mRNA levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated and tum...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-proliferative effect of auriculataoside A on B16 melanoma 4A5 cells by suppression of Cdc42 –Rac1–RhoA signaling protein levels
AbstractAuriculataoside A, an anthracenone dimer glycoside isolated fromCassia auriculata seed, shows anti-proliferative effects on cell line B16 melanoma 4A5 cells with an IC50 value of 0.82  μM. However, it shows no such effect on normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. To evaluate the mode of action underlying the anti-proliferative effect of auriculataoside A on cells, we examined changes in whole protein expression after treatment with auriculataoside A and found that the expr ession Cdc42, RhoA, and Rac1, which are Rho family GTPases, was reduced. Auriculataoside A also arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Andrographolide impairs alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced cholestatic liver injury in vivo
AbstractTo investigate if andrographolide impairs cholestatic liver injury. All rats were randomly divided into six groups —(1) control (n = 6), (2) control + 200 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6), (3) alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-control (n = 6), (4) ANIT + 50 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6), (5) ANIT + 100 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6), and (6) ANIT + 200 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6). We gavaged 50 mg/kg ANIT to mimic cholestatic liver injury in rats....
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous quantitative analysis of 11 flavonoid derivatives with a single marker in persimmon leaf extraction and evaluation of their myocardium protection activity
AbstractAn improved, reliable and comprehensive method for assessing the quality of the ethyl acetate extract from persimmon leaves (EAPL) and its commercial preparation, Naoxinqing (Brain and Heart Clear capsules), has been developed and validated. Based on HPLC –DAD-ESI-Q-TOF–MS analysis, myricetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (1), myricetin-3-O-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-β-d-galactoside) (5), quercetin-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-β-d-glucoside) (6), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-galactoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-&be...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Endophyte composition and Cinchona alkaloid production abilities of Cinchona ledgeriana cultivated in Japan
AbstractNew eight endophytic filamentous fungi were isolated from the young stems ofCinchona ledgeriana (Rubiaceae) cultivated in Japan. They were classified into four genera based on phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), including the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region. Of the eight fungi isolated, there were five generaCladosporium, oneMeira sp., oneDiaporthe sp. and onePenicillium sp. Genus ofCladosporium andMeira were first isolated fungi fromCinchona plant. In a previous study, we applied the same process to the same plant cultivated in Indonesia. The endophyte c...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of potential genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in Gleditsia sinensis by transcriptome and metabolome analyses
AbstractGleditsia sinensis is widely used as a medicinal plant in Asia, especially in China. Triterpenes, alkaloids, and sterols were isolated fromGleditsia species. Among them, triterpenoid saponins are very important metabolites owing to their various pharmacological activities. However, the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway has not been well characterized. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for 14.3  Gbps of clean reads sequenced from nine tissues ofG.  sinensis. The results showed that 81,511 unique transcripts (unitranscripts) (47,855 unigenes) were constructed, of whic...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of crushed Schisandra Fruit on the content of lignans in Kampo decoction
In conclusion, when SF is used in Kampo prescription, crushing the fruits and seeds can increase its effectiveness. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cyclic sulfur-containing compounds from Allium fistulosum ‘Kujou’
AbstractSulfur-containing compounds, allicin and ajoene, etc., were isolated fromAllium species. In a recent study, some sulfur-containing cyclic compounds were isolated fromA. sativum,A. cepa, andA. fistulosum. Four new compounds with multiple rings with methyl disulfide or propyl disulfide at the side chain of the 7-position, kujounins A3 (1), B1 (2), B2 (3) and B3 (4), and two new thiolane type compounds with methoxy and methyl sulfoxide moiety at the 2- and 5-positions, and allium sulfoxides A2 (5) and A3 (6), were isolated from the acetone extract of the fresh white parts ofAllium fistulosum‘Kujou’ with th...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Gastroprotective effect of araloside A on ethanol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in mice: involvement of H + /K + -ATPase and mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway
AbstractThe aim of this study was to elucidate the gastroprotective activity and possible mechanism of involvement of araloside A (ARA) against ethanol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. The experimental mice were randomly divided into control, model, omeprazole (20  mg/kg, orally) and ARA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, orally). Gastric ulcer in mice was induced by intragastric administration of 80% ethanol (10 mL/kg) containing 15 mg/mL aspirin 4 h after drug administration on day 7. The results indicated that ARA could significantly raise gastric juice volume and acidity; ameliorate gastric mucos...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Juzentaihoto hot water extract alleviates muscle atrophy and improves motor function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic oxidative stress mice
In this study, juzentaihoto hot water extract (JTT) was administered prophylactically to mice with diabetic oxidative stress, which was induced by an injection of streptozotocin, and the effects on skeletal muscle mass, motor function, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. In mice that were administered JTT, skeletal muscle atrophy and loss of motor function were suppressed. Additionally, the administration of JTT increased the mRNA expression level of Sirt1 and the activity of superoxide dismutase in the gastrocnemius. In addition to skeletal muscle atrophy, atrophy of the liver, spleen and thymus gland, and kidney hyp...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Caryopincaolide M, a rearranged abietane diterpenoid with new skeleton and a new iridoid from Caryopteris incana
AbstractCaryopincaolide M (1), a new rearranged abietane diterpenoid with an unusual pent-4-enoic acid group on a 6/6/5 tricyclic ring system, and 7-epi-8-dehydroxypatriscabrol (3), a new iridoid, together with 17 known compounds, have been isolated from the whole plant ofCaryopteris incana (Thunb.) Miq. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1-D and 2-D NMR, IR, and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds1 –5 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against enzymeα-glucosidase, and the results showed that only1 has moderate inhibitory activity against enzymeα-glucosidase with IC50 at 528.3 &th...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sakuranetin downregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by affecting interleukin-1 receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β
In this study, we extracted the bark ofPrunus jamasakura and purified it to isolate the pharmacologically active constituents by monitoring nitric oxide (NO) production in rat hepatocytes that were treated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1 β. Sakuranetin and (−)-naringenin, which were present in an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the bark extract, significantly inhibited NO induction and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. These two flavanones decreased the expression of type 1 IL-1 receptor gene and phosphorylatio n of Akt, also known as protein kinase B, which is regulated...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Flavonoid glucosides from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge
AbstractFour new flavonoid glucosides, 2 ″-O-(6 ‴-O-caffeoyl)-galactopyranosylvitexin (1), 2 ″-O-(6 ‴-O-veratroyl)-galactopyranosylvitexin (2), 2 ″-O-(6 ‴-O-feruloyl)-galactopyranosylorientin (3), 2 ″-O-(2 ‴-O-methylbutyryl)-glucopyranosylisoswertisin (4), along with three known compounds were isolated from the flowers ofTrollius chinensis Bunge. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research