Caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid contents in genus Perilla
This study investigated the caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid contents of several pure strains in genusPerilla. Perilla plants cultivated under a certain set of conditions had different caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid contents. For example, their contents were higher inP. setoyensis ( “Setoegoma”), suggesting that the genetic background of the species greatly affects caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid contents. Several strains ofP. frutescens var.crispa were cultivated at the Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University and differences in their caffeic ac...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - June 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of ergosterol on bladder carcinogenesis is due to androgen signaling inhibition by brassicasterol, a metabolite of ergosterol
In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which ergosterol inhibits bladder carcinogenesis. Rats were given an N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BHBN) solution ad libitum, and then a promoter [saccharin sodium (SS), DL-tryptophan, or BHBN] was administered together with ergosterol or its metabolite, brassicasterol. The bladders were removed from rats, and the inhibitory effect on carcinogenesis promotion was evaluated by an agglutination assay with concanavalin A (Con A). Although the oral administration of ergosterol inhibited the promotion of bladder carcinogenesis with SS, the intraperitoneal administration of b...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Physical and chemical characteristics of soils in Ephedra gerardiana and E. pachyclada habitats of Kali Gandaki Valley in Central Nepal
AbstractIn the Kali Gandaki Valley in Central Nepal,Ephedra gerardiana andE. pachyclada show species specificity for physical and chemical characteristics of soils. Here, the relationship between soil characteristics and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine contents was examined.E. gerardiana grew in moist alpine scrub and upper alpine meadow from 3735 to 4156  m a.s.l., whileE. pachyclada grew in the lowerCaragana steppe and dry alpine scrub from 2629 to 3671  m a.s.l. The soil texture ofE. gerardiana andE. pachyclada collection sites were classified as loam or sandy loam mainly composed of sand and silt. Loss on ignit...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Resveratrol oligomer structure in Dipterocarpaceaeous plants
AbstractOligostilbenoids are a group of natural products derived from the oxidative coupling of C6–C2–C6 units found in some plant families. A structurally diverse chemical pool is produced after the successive regioselective and stereoselective oligomerization of resveratrol. This review describes the current status and knowledge of the structure of resveratrol oligomers (ROs) in Dipterocarpaceaeous plants (DPs). Beginning with the recently validated formation of ROs in DPs, each downstream conversion is described from the perspective of the resveratrol coupling mode. Particular emphasis is placed upon the reg...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Five new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives from agarwood
In this study, five new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (2,13–16) and eleven known compounds (1,3–12) were isolated from the agarwood. The structures of the new compounds were determined by1H-,13C-, and two-dimensional NMR together with electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. All isolated compounds were evaluated for the phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A and 5A1 inhibitory activity by the fluorescence polarization method. Dimeric 2-(2-phenylehyl)chromones (13,14,16) had potent inhibitory activity to PDE 5A1 with IC50 values of micro molar range (13: 4.2  μM,14: 7.9  μM,16: 4.3  μM), wherea...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identifying the compounds that can distinguish between Saposhnikovia root and its substitute, Peucedanum ledebourielloides root, using LC-HR/MS metabolomics
AbstractPreviously, we established a1H NMR metabolomics method using reversed-phase solid-phase extraction column (RP-SPEC), and succeeded in distinguishing wild from cultivated samples of Saposhnikoviae radix (SR), and between SR and its substitute,Peucedanum ledebourielloides root (PR). Herein, we performed LC-HR/MS metabolomics using fractions obtained via RP-SPEC to identify characteristic components of SR and PR. One and three characteristic components were respectively found for SR and PR; these components were isolated with theirm/z values and retention times as a guide. The characteristic component of SR was identi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Three new quassinoids isolated from the wood of Picrasma javanica and their anti-Vpr activities
AbstractThree new quassinoids, javanicinols A and B (1 and2) and 4-keto-(16S)-methoxyjavanicin B (3), together with three known quassinoids (4 –6) were isolated from the chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of thePicrasma javanica wood. The structures of1 –3 were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and CD. The anti-HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) assay revealed that1 and2 exhibited potent anti-Vpr activities at 1.25  μM. Furthermore, the assay also revealed the potent anti-Vpr activities of (16R)-methoxyjavanicin B (7) and (16S)-methoxyjavanicin B (8), whic...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Quassilactones A and B, structural characterization of a new class of norquassinoids from Brucea javanica
AbstractTwo novel norquassinoids possessing a unique ketal skeleton, designated quassilactones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the fruits ofBrucea javanica (Simaroubaceae). Their structures were established by extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of1 was determined through single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and that of2 was assigned by comparing the calculated electronic and experimental circular dichroism with compound1. In addition, their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines and their antimicrobial activities were evaluated.Graphic abstract (Source: J...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity of six limonoids
AbstractSix limonoids [kotschyienone A and B (1,2), 7-deacetylgedunin (3), 7-deacetyl-7-oxogedunin (4), andirobin (5) and methyl angolensate (6)] were investigated for their trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities using bloodstream forms ofTrypanosoma brucei and promastigotes ofLeishmania major. Whereas all compounds showed anti-trypanosomal activity, only compounds1 –4 displayed anti-leishmanial activity. The 50% growth inhibition (GI50) values for the trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity of the compounds ranged between 2.5 and 14.9  μM. Kotschyienone A (1) was found to be the most active compound wit...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Search of anti-allodynic compounds from Plantaginis Semen, a crude drug ingredient of Kampo formula “Goshajinkigan”
The article Search of anti-allodynic compounds from Plantaginis Semen, a crude drug ingredient of Kampo formula “Goshajinkigan”. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: The structure –activity relationship review of the main bioactive constituents of  Morus genus plants
The article The structure –activity relationship review of the main bioactive constituents of Morus genus plants, written by Jiejing Yan, Jingya Ruan, Peijian Huang, Fan Sun, Dandan Zheng, Yi Zhang and Tao Wang was originally published Online First without Open Access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Cycloartane triterpenoid (23 R , 24 E )-23-acetoxymangiferonic acid inhibited proliferation and migration in B16-F10 melanoma via MITF downregulation caused by inhibition of both β-catenin and c-Raf–MEK1–ERK signaling axis
The article Cycloartane triterpenoid (23R, 24E)-23-acetoxymangiferonic acid inhibited proliferation and migration in B16-F10 melanoma via MITF downregulation caused by inhibition of both β-catenin. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Sesquiterpenes with new carbon skeletons from the basidiomycete Phlebia tremellosa
The article Sesquiterpenes with new carbon skeletons from the basidiomycetePhlebia tremellosa, written by Ken ichi Nakashima, Junko Tomida, Takao Hirai, Yoshiaki Kawamura and Makoto Inoue was originally published Online First without Open Access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Antiinflammatory constituents of Atractylodes chinensis rhizome improve glomerular lesions in  immunoglobulin A nephropathy model mice
The article Antiinflammatory constituents of  Atractylodes chinensis rhizome improve glomerular lesions in  immunoglobulin A nephropathy model mice, written by Toshinari Ishii, Tetsuya Okuyama, Nao Noguchi, Yuto Nishidono, Tadayoshi Okumura, Masaki Kaibori, Ken Tanaka, Susumu Terabayashi, Yukinobu Ikeya and Mikio Nishizawa was originally published Online First without Open Access. After publication in volume 74 issue 1, page 51–64 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an Open Access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s)...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Inhibition of melanin production by anthracenone dimer glycosides isolated from Cassia auriculate seeds
The article Inhibition of melanin production by anthracenone dimer glycosides isolated from  Cassia auriculata seeds, written by Weicheng Wang, Yi Zhang, Souichi Nakashima, Seikou Nakamura, Tao Wang, Masayuki Yoshikawa and Hisashi Matsuda (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Induction of secondary metabolite production by fungal co-culture of Talaromyces pinophilus and Paraphaeosphaeria sp.
AbstractFungal co-culture is a strategy to induce the production of secondary metabolites by activating cryptic genes. We discovered the production of a new compound, talarodone A (1), along with five known compounds2–6 in co-culture ofTalaromyces pinophilus andParaphaeosphaeria sp. isolated from soil collected in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Among them, the productions of penicidones C (2) and D (3) were enhanced 27- and sixfold, respectively, by the co-culture. The structure of3 should be represented as a γ-pyridol form with the reported chemical shifts, but not as a γ-pyridone form, based on DFT calcula...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Polydatin induces apoptosis and autophagy via STAT3 signaling in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells
In conclusion, these data demonstrated that polydatin induced MG-63 cell death through inducing apoptosis, and autophagy which was mediated via the STAT3 signaling. Therefore, polydatin might be a potential clinical drug in the remedy of osteosarcoma.Graphic abstract (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory activities of phenylpropanoids from Lycopus lucidus on amyloid aggregation related to Alzheimer ’s disease and type 2 diabetes
In this study, thioflavin-T assay and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of three phenylpropanoids isolated fromLycopus lucidus—schizotenuin A and lycopic acids A and B—on both Aβ and hIAPP fibrillization. All tested compounds exhibited similarly strong inhibitory activity toward amyloid aggregation. These results suggested that catechol moieties play important roles in the inhibition of amyloid plaque formation. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

5,6-Dihydro- α-pyrones from the leaves of Cryptocarya pulchinervia (Lauraceae)
AbstractThree new 5,6-dihydro- α-pyrones derivatives, named (S)-rugulactone (1) pulchrinervialactone A (2), and pulchrinervialactone B (4), along with one known pyrone, cryptobrachytone C (3), and three known amide derivatives (5 –7) have been isolated from the leaves ofCryptocarya pulchrinervia. The structures of1 –7 were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic data and comparison with literatures. The configurations of compounds3 and 4 were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. This is also the first report in finding (S)-rugulactone (1) as a natural product. In addition, the pre...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Arctigenin suppresses cell proliferation via autophagy inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells
In this study, we explored the effect of arctigenin (ARG), a bioactive lignan in both extracts, on cell proliferation and autophagy-related proteins in HepG2 cells. ARG inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Analysis of autophagy-related proteins demonstrated that ARG might block the autophagy that leads to sequestosome 1/p62 (p62) accumulation. The stage of inhibition in autophagy by ARG differed from those by the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ). ARG could also inhibit starvation-induced autophagy. Further analysis of apoptosis-related proteins indicated that ARG did not affect caspase...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Three new steroidal saponins from Aspidistra letreae plants and their cytotoxic activities
AbstractThree new steroidal saponins, aspiletreins A –C (1–3), together with 2H-chromen-2-one (4), andα-tocopherol (5), were isolated from wholeAspidistra letreae plants collected in Vietnam. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, and HRESIMS, and by comparison with the reported data in the literature. Compounds1–3 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against the LU-1, HeLa, MDA-MB-231, HepG2, and MKN-7 human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 7.69  ± 0.40 to 20.46 ± 3.11 &mi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The effects of inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells by lignan components from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis and the mechanism of schisanhenol
In this study, we compared the inhibiting effects of the seven lignan components fromS. chinensis on HSC activation. We found that the seven lignans inhibited the activation of human HSCs (LX-2) in various degrees. Among all lignans, schisanhenol showed the best effect in inhibiting the activation of LX-2 with a dose –effect relationship. Sal also inhibited the phosphorylations of Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), as well as downregulated Smad4. All these findings suggested that schisanhenol m...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enzymatic studies on aromatic prenyltransferases
AbstractAromatic prenyltransferases (PTases), including ABBA-type and dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase (DMATS)-type enzymes from bacteria and fungi, play important role for diversification of the natural products and improvement of the biological activities. For a decade, the characterization of enzymes and enzymatic synthesis of prenylated compounds by using ABBA-type and DMATS-type PTases have been demonstrated. Here, I introduce several examples of the studies on chemoenzymatic synthesis of unnatural prenylated compounds and the enzyme engineering of ABBA-type and DMATS-type PTases. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Honokiol suppresses the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage in mice
This article [1] has been retracted at the request of the corresponding author because an Investigation Committee established by Kobe Gakuin University (Kobe, Japan) has found numerous discrepancies between the raw data and the data presented in Figs.  6b, d. Statistical analysis of the raw data showed no significant difference between conditions. Authors S. Harada, K. Nakamoto, W. Fujita-Hamabe, H.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chan, and S. Tokuyama agree with this retraction. Authors M. Kishimoto and M. Kobayashi could not be reached for comment about this r etraction. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Two new xanthones from the roots of Cratoxylum cochinchinense and their cytotoxicity
In the original publication of the article, figure  1 was published incorrectly. The correct version of figure 1 is provided below, (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activities of isopimara-8(9),15-diene diterpenoids and mode of action of kaempulchraols B –D from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes
AbstractKaempulchraols B –D (2 –4), isopimara-8(9),15-diene diterpenoids isolated fromKaempferia pulchra rhizomes collected in Myanmar, were identified as potent NF- κB inhibitors. These compounds were also effective as NO inhibitory agents, with IC50 values of 47.69, 44.97, and 38.17  μM, respectively, without showing any cytotoxicity against LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Investigations of the mechanisms of action of2 –4 revealed that they inhibit the NF- κB-mediated transactivation of a luciferase reporter gene, IL-6 production, and COX-2 expression, with an effective dose of 25 &...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Secalonic acid D as a selective cytotoxic substance on the cancer cells adapted to nutrient starvation
AbstractCancer cells adapted to the microenvironment in tumor such as hypoxic and nutrient-starved conditions are now paid much attention as the therapeutic target of cancer. In the course of search for selective cytotoxic substances against cancer cells adapted to nutrient starvation, xanthone derivative of secalonic acid D (1) was isolated from culture extract of marine-derivedPenicillium oxalicum. Compound1 showed cytotoxic activity on the human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells adapted to glucose-starved conditions with IC50 value of 0.6  µM, whereas IC50 value of compound1 against PANC-1 cells under general...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Accelerative effects of carbazole-type alkaloids from Murraya koenigii on neurite outgrowth and their derivative ’s in vivo study for spatial memory
AbstractMurraya koenigii is a medicinal plant that contains several carbazole-type alkaloids as its characteristic constituents. Blood –brain barrier permeable constituents ofM. koenigii accelerated neurite outgrowth in PC-12 cells. Nine compounds were isolated fromM. koenigii and their effects on neurite outgrowth were examined. Murrayamine-E (8) at 10  μM showed significant effect. Focusing on the carbazole skeleton, we synthesized derivatives to attenuate cytotoxicity. 9-Benzyl-9H-carbazol-4-ol (15) exhibited strong neurite outgrowth accelerative effect. In addition, the novel object recognition test and t...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A diterpene derivative enhanced insulin signaling induced by high glucose level in HepG2 cells
This study explores the hypoglycemic effect ofent-3α-formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β-olide and studied its mechanism. The insulin response of HepG2 cells followingent-3α-formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β-olide treatment, as a model for liver cancer cells, was assessed. The results demonstrated that hyperglycemia resulted in a significant increase in the levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation and decrease in Akt phosphorylation. High glucose also inhibited the phosphorylation of insulin-dependent GSK3β.ent-3α-Formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of Sanoshashinto on left ventricular hypertrophy and gut microbiota in spontaneously hypertensive rats
In this study, we examined the vasorelaxant effects using helical strips of rat aorta pretreated with different activators or inhibitors. The results suggested that the KATP channel and the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC) were also involved in the vasorelaxant effects. Furthermore, we found that SHXXTM and the BB combination reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and altered gut microbiota. Together, the results indicated that Sanoshashinto might have comprehensive effects on ameliorating hypertension. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Gingerol inhibits cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis in rats and minks by regulating the central and peripheral 5-HT, SP, and DA systems
In the original publication of the article, Figures 2, 3, 5, 11 and 13 were published incorrectly. The corrections version of figures are given below. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of hot water extract of a glycyrrhizin-deficient strain of Glycyrrhiza uralensis on contact hypersensitivity in mice
AbstractTo evaluate the medicinal properties of a glycyrrhizin (GL)-deficient strain ofGlycyrrhiza uralensis, we investigated the anti-allergic effect of the hot water extract obtained from its roots on contact hypersensitivity in mice, and compared it with that of the hot water extract of a commercial crude drug, Glycyrrhiza Radix. The hot water root extract of the GL-deficient strain contained glucoglycyrrhizin (GGL) and rhaoglucoglycyrrhizin (RGL) instead of GL, and it showed anti-allergic activity against contact hypersensitivity in a fashion similar to that of the crude drug extract. We further confirmed the presence ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents from the roots of Lindera aggregata and their biological activities
AbstractThree new benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, (1 ′S)-12 ′-hydroxyl-linderegatine (1), (1S)-5 ′-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl norreticuline (2), (1R, 1 ′R)-11,11 ′-biscoclaurine (3), along with 18 known compounds were isolated from the roots ofLindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis (IR, UV, HR-ESI –MS, 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of three new compounds were determined by comparing their experimental and calculated ECD for the first time. Compounds (4) and (9) showed cytotoxic activities against human colon...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The structure –activity relationship review of the main bioactive constituents of Morus genus plants
AbstractMorus genus plants are mainly distributed in the temperate to tropical areas over the world and include 17 species and two subspecies. Due to their excellent pharmacological activity, security in food additives and high value in the national economy,Morus genus plants have drawn more and more attention in recent years. In the light of the references published over the last few decades, flavonoids, benzofurans, stilbenes, and Diels –Alder adducts have been reported to be the main bioactive constituents ofMorus genus plants. This review summarizes the compounds with excellent bioactivities isolated fromMorus ge...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cynandione A from Cynanchum wilfordii inhibits hepatic de novo lipogenesis by activating the LKB1/AMPK pathway in HepG2 cells
AbstractCynandione A (CA), isolated from ethyl acetate extract ofCynanchum wilfordii (CW), is a bioactive phytochemical that has been found to be beneficial for the treatment of several diseases. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis is one of the main causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is thought to be a hepatic manifestation of certain metabolic syndromes. However, it has not yet been reported if CA has any therapeutic value in these diseases. Here, we investigated whether CA can inhibit hepatic lipogenesis induced by liver X receptor α (LXRα) using an in vitro model. We found that the extract a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antihypertensive constituents in Sanoshashinto
AbstractIt has been reported that Sanoshashinto (SanHuangXieXinTang, 三黃瀉心湯), which is composed of Rhei Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Coptidis Rhizoma, exhibits vasorelaxant effects in vitro and lowers blood pressure of patients. Based on this discovery, in this study, a mixture containing those three materials and combinations of them were extracted with methanol, and the extracts were fractionated into different parts. Effects of all extracts and fractions on high concentration of potassium chloride (High K+)- or noradrenaline (NA)-induced contractions of isolated rat aortic rings or helical strips were exami...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cadinane sesquiterpenoids isolated from Santalum album using a screening program for Wnt signal inhibitory activity
AbstractUpon screening compounds having Wnt signal inhibitory activity through evaluating TCF/ β-catenin transcriptional (TOP) activity, eight cadinane sesquiterpenoids, including three new compounds (1–3), were isolated from wood extracts ofSantalum album (Santalaceae). Structures of compounds1–3 were elucidated by spectral data to have a cadinane skeleton with an aromatic ring. Of the eight compounds isolated, compound4, identified as mansonone I, was found to be active against TOP, having an IC50 of 1.2  μM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rosmarinic acid in Perilla frutescens and perilla herb analyzed by HPLC
This study describes a simple and reproducible method for quantifying rosmarinic acid. We elucidated the main causes for the different rosmarinic acid contents of plants by examining various samples of perilla using the proposed method. Significant differences in rosmarinic acid content between varieties and cultivators were observed. The rosmarinic acid content was higher in green perilla compared with red perilla, in wild species compared with cultivated species, and in plants cultivated in outdoor nurseries compared with in indoor nurseries. The proposed quantitative method was used to examine the rosmarinic acid conten...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New cytotoxic polyacetylene alcohols from the Egyptian marine sponge Siphonochalina siphonella
AbstractThree new polyacetylenic alcohols, siphonellanols A –C (1–3), together with two known polyacetylenic alcohols (4–5), were isolated from the CHCl3-soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the marine spongeSiphonochalina siphonella, collected in Egypt. The structures of1–3 were determined by spectroscopic analyses of their 1D-, 2D-NMR, and MS spectra and by comparisons with reported data. The cytotoxicity assay revealed that1–3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), and a human lung cancer ce...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Danshen formula granule and salvianic acid A alleviate ethanol-induced neurotoxicity
In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the Danshen formula granule and salvianic acid A provide a significantly protective effectiveness against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity, which might be a potential therapeutic drug for ethanol-induced neurological disorders. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new xanthones from the roots of Cratoxylum cochinchinense and their cytotoxicity
AbstractTwo new xanthones namely cratochinone A (1) and cratochinone B (2), along with 16 known xanthones, were isolated from the roots ofCratoxylum cochinchinense. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods, especially 1D and 2D NMR as well as comparison with those reported in the literature for known xanthones. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines (KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7 and Hep G2 cell lines). Compounds2,5, and7 showed significant cytotoxic effects against all cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.91 –9.93 μM, while1...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems III: anti-allergic effects of hot water extracts on IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity in mice
AbstractTo evaluate the safety and efficacy ofGlycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems, we investigated anti-allergic action in mice using IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity. Hot water extracts obtained from the roots ofGlycyrrhiza uralensis cultivated using two systems were orally administered at a dose of 100  mg/kg as glycyrrhizin (GL) and compared with the commercial crude drug, Glycyrrhizae Radix. Both the artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivated root extracts showed anti-allergic effects...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Isolation, structure elucidation, tyrosinase inhibitory, and antioxidant evaluation of the constituents from Angelica dahurica roots
AbstractTwo undescribed phenolic compounds, angelicols A (1) and B (2) and one undescribed coumarin rhamnoside, angelicoside A (3), together with 17 known compounds (4–20) were isolated from the roots ofAngelica dahurica. Their structures were characterized by physical data analyses such as NMR, HRESIMS, and X-ray diffraction. Compounds2,3,5,6 and L-ascorbic acid (positive control) exhibited obvious DPPH radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 0.36  mM, 0.43 mM, 0.39 mM, 0.44 mM, 0.25 mM, respectively. At a concentration of 25 μM, all compounds showed weaker tyrosinase inhib...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Gingerol inhibits cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis in rats and minks by regulating the central and peripheral 5-HT, SP, and DA systems
AbstractGingerol, a biologically active component in ginger, has shown antiemetic properties. Our study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of gingerol on protecting rats and minks from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The preventive impact of gingerol was evaluated in the pica model of rats and the vomiting model of minks induced by cisplatin at every 6  h continuously for a duration of 72 h. Animals were arbitrarily separated into blank control group, simple gingerol control group, cisplatin control group, cisplatin + metoclopramide group, cisplatin + three different ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Suppressive functions of collismycin C in TGFBIp-mediated septic responses
AbstractTransforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) is an extracellular matrix protein; its expression by several cell types is greatly increased by TGF-β. TGFBIp is released by primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and functions as a mediator of experimental sepsis. 2,2′-Bipyridine-containing natural products are generally accepted to have antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that a 2,2′-bipyridine containing natural product, collismycin C, could reduce TGFBIp-mediated severe inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells and mice. ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Umbelliferone modulates depression-like symptoms by altering monoamines in a rat post-traumatic stress disorder model
AbstractPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disease that is triggered by traumatic events. It is known to cause various complications, including anxiety and depression. Umbelliferone (UMB) is a natural product of the coumarin family. This substance has been reported to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and other biological effects. We used the open field test (OFT) and the forced swimming test (FST) to examine the effects of UMB on depression-like symptoms in rats after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), which led to dysregulated activation of the serotonergi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Improving quality control of yucca extracts used as food additives by screening antimicrobial activity using NMR metabolomics
AbstractYucca schidigera is mainly distributed in southwestern US and the northern desert of Mexico. Its extract is widely used as a food additive for its antimicrobial activity. However, this antimicrobial activity is subject to significant variability across production lots. Yucca extracts are natural products and their composition is affected by their cultivation area and weather. Manufacturer deal with natural products such as food additives pay particularly close attention to quality control. In the present study, NMR metabolomics methods were used to screen the antimicrobial activity of yucca extracts. Yucca extracts...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hypericum erectum alcoholic extract inhibits Toxoplasma growth and Entamoeba encystation: an exploratory study on the anti-protozoan potential
AbstractHypericum erectum is an important ethnobotanical medicine in East Asian tradition. To explore the anti-parasitic potential ofH. erectum, inhibitory effects on the growth of intracellular parasiteToxoplasma and on the encystation of intestinal parasiteEntamoeba were examined. The constituents inH. erectum alcoholic extracts and fractions separated by solvent-partitioning were analysed by high resolution LC –MS.Toxoplasma gondii growth inhibition assay was performed using GFP-labelledT. gondii strain PTG-GFP by measuring the fluorescence intensity. Anti-Toxoplasma drug pyrimethamine was used as a positive contr...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of heat processing on the chemical constituents and NO-suppressing activity of Bletilla Tuber
In this study, we compared the chemical constituents of well-processed Bletilla Tuber (BT1) and normally processed Bletilla Tuber (BT2) derived from the same origin. In addition, as an indicator of the hemostatic activity of Bletilla Tuber, the NO inhibitory activities of extracts obtained from BT1 and BT2 and the isolated compounds were examined. As a result of LC –MS analysis, three types of compounds, glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalates, bibenzyl derivatives and phenanthrene derivatives, were detected. Comparison of the chemical profiles of the extracts indicated that the relative contents of glucosyloxybenzyl 2-i...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

BBB-permeable aporphine-type alkaloids in Nelumbo nucifera flowers with accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth in PC-12 cells
AbstractBlood –brain barrier (BBB)-permeable components in the methanolic extract ofNelumbo nucifera flowers showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth in PC-12 cells. Among the constituents isolated fromN. nucifera flowers in our previous study, aporphine-type alkaloids, lirinidine, asimilobine,N-methylasimilobine, and pronuciferine, showed accelerative effects. Lirinidine,N-methylasimilobine, and an alkaloid-rich diethyl ether fraction at low concentrations increased the expression of mRNAs coding for TrkA, Vav3, and Rac1. In addition, good permeability of asimilobine andN-methylasimilobine was confirmed usin...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research