Callicarpa longissima extract, carnosol-rich, potently inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells
Abstract Cosmetic industries focus on developing materials and resources that regulate skin pigmentation. Melanin, the major pigment in human skin, protects the skin against damage from ultraviolet light. An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Callicarpa longissima inhibits melanin production in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells by suppressing microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene expression. Following purification and analysis using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), NMR, and biochemical assays, carnosol was determined to be responsible for the major inhibitory effect of th...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 12, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A simple and effective method for vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Salacia oblonga Wall
This study shows an easy, effective and simple method of conserving genetic identity and producing elite clones of S. oblonga through vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation was achieved using roots (R), stems with leaves (SL) and stems without leaves (S) with different concentrations (0–500 ppm) of indole butyric acid (IBA). Explants S and SL showed maximum shooting response with 300 ppm IBA and explant R showed maximum response with 200 ppm IBA. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 12, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemical analysis and effects of Pteris vittata extract on visual processes
Abstract The present study was designed to explore the possible effects of Pteris vittata on visual sensitivity, ERG waves, and other components of the visual system. Electrophysiological techniques including electroretinography (ERG) were used in the present study. The phytochemical composition of the extract was investigated using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) techniques. The results indicated that the extract significantly augmented dark- and light-adapted ERG b-wave amplitude. Furthermore, these findings showed that P. vittata extract does not have Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - August 2, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evodiamine suppresses capsaicin-induced thermal hyperalgesia through activation and subsequent desensitization of the transient receptor potential V1 channels
Abstract Evodiae fructus (EF), a fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham, has long been used as an analgesic drug in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its pharmacological action is unclear. Here, using calcium imaging, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, and behavioral analysis, we investigated the pharmacological action of EF and its principal compound, evodiamine, on the transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 channels. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and TRPV1- or TRPA1-transfected human embryonic kidney-derived (HEK) 293 cells were used for calci...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective effects of aloperine on neonatal rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons injured by oxygen–glucose deprivation and reperfusion
This study investigated the protective effects of ALO on neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons injured by oxygen–glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/RP). Treatment with ALO (25, 50, and 100 mg/l) attenuated neuronal damage (p 
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New norditerpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum vilmorinianum Komarov
Abstract Aconitum vilmorinianum Komarov is a local medicinal plant used in many well-known clinical preparations to treat rheumatism and pains in Yunnan Province, China. Phytochemical examination of the roots of A. vilmorinianum led to the isolation of three novel imine-type norditerpenoid alkaloids named vilmorrianines E–G (1–3), and a new natural alkaloid N-desethyl-N-formyl-8-O-methyltalatisamine (4), together with 14 known alkaloids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Vilmorrianine E is the first known norditerpenoid alkaloid containing both an ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oxomollugin, a potential inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production including nuclear factor kappa B signals
Abstract Mollugin, a naphthoquinone derivative, was reported to possess various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. Mollugin isolated from Rubia tinctorum roots inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. However, mollugin synthesized for further investigation of its anti-inflammatory mechanism showed weak activity in addition to unstable assay results. From the result of analysis on a degradation product of mollugin, oxomollugin was found to be the main active substance of mollugin degradation, showing a potent inhibitory activity...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - July 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hedgehog/GLI-mediated transcriptional activity inhibitors from Crinum asiaticum
Abstract The inhibition of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has emerged as an attractive anti-cancer strategy. As part of our continuing search for natural inhibitors of the Hh/GLI1 signaling pathway, we isolated three alkaloids (1–3) from Crinum asiaticum. Compounds 1 and 3 showed potent Hh/GLI1-mediated transcriptional inhibitory activity and exhibited cytotoxicity against human pancreatic (PANC1) and prostate (DU145) cancer cells. Our data revealed that compounds 1 and 3 clearly inhibited the Hh signaling pathway by down-regulating the expression of GLI-related proteins (PTCH and BCL2) in DU145 cells. ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 31, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cucurbitacin B induces DNA damage and autophagy mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
Abstract Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), a natural compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, demonstrated potent anticancer activities, while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the anticancer effect of Cuc B on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cuc B drastically decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Cuc B treatment caused DNA damage, as shown by long tails in the comet assay and increased γH2AX protein expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Cuc B treatment induced nuclear γH2AX foci. Cuc B activated DNA damage pathways by phosphorylation of ATM/ATR [two...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ninjin’yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells
In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 27, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenolic compounds from the bark of Oroxylum indicum activate the Ngn2 promoter
Abstract A reporter gene assay that detects neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) promoter activity was utilized to identify compounds that induce neuronal differentiation. Ngn2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates transcription of pro-neural genes. Using this assay system and an activity-guided approach, seven phenolic compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of Oroxylum indicum: 1 oroxylin A, 2 chrysin, 3 hispidulin, 4 baicalein, 5 apigenin, 6 baicalin, and 7 isoverbascoside. Compounds 1 and 2 induced an estimated 2.7-fold increase in Ngn2 promoter activity, whereas 3 increased the activi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 27, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Manadodioxans A−E: polyketide endoperoxides from the marine sponge Plakortis bergquistae
Abstract Five new polyketide endoperoxides, manadodioxans A−E, were isolated from the marine sponge Plakortis bergquistae. Manadodioxan E showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli at 10 μg/disk, while its oxo congener, manadodioxan D, was inactive. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A novel nucleoside from the edible mushroom, Tricholoma japonicum
Abstract A novel nucleoside, 9-β-d-ribopyranosylpurine (2), along with three known nucleosides, adenosine (1), uridine (3) and nebularine (4), were isolated from the edible mushroom, Tricholoma japonicum. The structure of 2 was determined as 9-β-d-ribopyranosylpurine by comparing the reported spectral data of 2 with that of a synthetic compound. Isolation of the glycoside, which contains the sugar ribopyranose, from natural resources is very unusual. There are reports on the synthesis of 9-β-d-ribopyranosylpurine (2), but this is the first report on the isolation from natural resources. The anti...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 15, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

2,3,5-Trimethoxy-4-cresol, an anti-metastatic constituent from the solid-state cultured mycelium of Antrodia cinnamomea and its mechanism
In this study, an anti-metastatic compound, 2,3,5-trimethoxy-4-cresol (TMC), was isolated from the solid-state cultured mycelium of A. cinnamomea. According to the results obtained from cell wound healing, cell migration and invasion assays, TMC effectively suppressed movement, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells at the dosage of 5–40 μM, which was non-toxic to A549 cells. In addition, TMC reduced protein expression of Akt, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and enhanced E-cadherin and TIMP-1 protein expression, which are known to regulate cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Taken together, TMC effectively suppresses...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 8, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

PTEN over-expression by resveratrol in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells along with suppression of AKT/PKB and ERK1/2 in genotoxic stress
Abstract The bioactive components of dietary phytochemicals are in the spotlight of research institutes, due to their significant antioxidant activities and health-promoting properties. Resveratrol is a polyphenol which is found abundantly in grapes and berries and has long been known as a chemo-preventive agent. The main purpose of this study was to provide a new mechanistic insight into the growth inhibition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by resveratrol along with a DNA damage agent. It was found that the treatment of pre-B ALL cells by resveratrol in the presence or absence of doxorubicin resulted in dec...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory activity of dimeric dihydrochalcone glycosides from flowers of Helichrysum arenarium
Abstract A methanol extract of everlasting flowers of Helichrysum arenarium L. Moench (Asteraceae) was found to inhibit the increase in blood glucose elevation in sucrose-loaded mice at 500 mg/kg p.o. The methanol extract also inhibited the enzymatic activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV, IC50 = 41.2 μg/ml), but did not show intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. From the extract, three new dimeric dihydrochalcone glycosides, arenariumosides V–VII (2–4), were isolated, and the stereostructures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic properties and c...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 29, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) inhibitors from natural sources: a medicinal chemistry perspective
This report could pave the road towards the design of novel semi-synthetic derivatives with enhanced anti-viral activities. Graphical Abstract (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 29, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Acyl flavonoids, biflavones, and flavonoids from Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. nana
Abstract A methanol extract of the leaves of Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. nana and its ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fraction demonstrated strong antitumor activity against A549 and HT-29 cell lines. The EtOAc-soluble fraction was purified by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reverse-phase column to yield three novel acyl flavonoids and a biflavonoid, along with 15 other known compounds that included flavonoids, biflavonoids, and other phenolics. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectral data from HR-MS and NMR, including two-dimensional NMR ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Shoot cultures of Hoppea fastigiata (Griseb.) C.B. Clarke as potential source of neuroprotective xanthones
Abstract Hoppea fastigiata, an annual medicinal herb belonging to the Gentianaceae, is mostly found in South Asian countries, and is used by local tribes for various brain-related ailments. The genus possesses a unique class of compounds, xanthones, which are known for their potential against Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Limited availability and the potential pharmacological significance of the plants has led to the establishment of in vitro cultures of H. fastigiata and study of its neuroprotective principles. In vitro plantlets were established from the apical meristem of the ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 22, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cholinesterase-inhibitory diterpenoids and chemical constituents from aerial parts of Caryopteris mongolica
Abstract A diterpenoid diglucoside (12,19-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-11-hydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-19-one), isoscutellarein 7-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, hypolaetin 7-O-[6″-O-(p-E-coumaroyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, hypolaetin 7-O-[6″-O-(E-caffeoyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, and 15 known compounds were isolated from aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Caryopteris mongolica. The cholinesterase-inhibitory activities of the constituents were estimated. The abietane dite...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 22, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Secoiridoid glycosides from the root of Gentiana crassicaulis with inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO and IL-6 production in RAW264 macrophages
Abstract The root of Gentiana crassicaulis has been widely used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthralgia, apoplexy, jaundice and diabetes in traditional medicines, and contains secoiridoid glycosides as the main active ingredients. In the present study, five new secoiridoid glycosides, 6′-O-β-d-xylopyranosylgentiopicroside (1) and gentiananosides A–D (2–5), together with 11 known ones were isolated from the MeOH extract of dried roots of G. crassicaulis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidence. Of them, gentiananosides A (2) and B (3) were conclud...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of myricetin 3- O -β-galactoside isolated from Davilla elliptica : involvement of the nitrergic system
This study examined male Swiss mice, inducible nitric oxide synthase C57B16/J knockout mice (iNOS−/−), and their corresponding wild type (WT). Formalin and tail-flick tests were used to evaluate the nociceptive threshold, and the carrageenan-induced paw edema test was used as a model for inflammation. The following drugs were administered to investigate the involvement of the nitrergic and opioidergic systems: l-NAME, a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor; l-arginine (l-Arg), a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO); d-arginine (d-Arg), an inactive isomer for the synthesis of NO; aminogu...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Targeting cancer with sesterterpenoids: the new potential antitumor drugs
Abstract Cancer remains a major cause of death in the world to date. A variety of anticancer drugs have been used in clinical chemotherapy, acting on the particular oncogenic abnormalities that are responsible for malignant transformation and progression. Interestingly, some of these anticancer drugs are developed from natural sources such as plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. Over the past decades, a family of naturally occuring molecules, namely sesterterpenoids, has been isolated from different organisms and they exhibit significant potential in the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro, while the mole...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Alyssum homolocarpum seeds: phytochemical analysis and effects of the seed oil on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation
In this study, ash and extractive values and high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints of Alyssum homolocarpum (Brassicaceae) seed extracts were investigated to elucidate its composition. Differential scanning calorimetry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis were employed to determine the components of A. homolocarpum seed oil (AHO). Neurosphere assay, in vitro differentiation and immunofluorescence analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of AHO (0.5 or 1 g/kg/day for 14 days) on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sinomenine and magnoflorine, major constituents of Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma , show potent protective effects against membrane damage induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in rat erythrocytes
Abstract The effects of the water extract of Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma (SCR-WE) and its major constituents, sinomenine (SIN) and magnoflorine (MAG), on moderate hemolysis induced by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) were investigated in rat erythrocytes and compared with the anti-hemolytic effects of lidocaine (LID) and propranolol (PRO) as reference drugs. LPC caused hemolysis at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), and the concentration of LPC producing moderate hemolysis (60 %) was approximately 10 μM. SCR-WE at 1 ng/mL–100 μg/mL significantly inhibited the...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (IV): phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids from Tylophora tanakae leaves
Abstract Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature peripheral T lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). There are an estimated 5 million to 20 million HTLV-1-infected individuals worldwide; their lifetime risk of developing ATL is 3–5 %, and high HTLV-1 proviral loads have been shown to be an independent risk factor. Although conventional chemotherapeutic regimens used against other malignant lymphomas have been administered to ATL patients, the prognosis is often poor. In previous studies, we screened 459 extracts from 344 plants to isolate components...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hinesol, a compound isolated from the essential oils of Atractylodes lancea rhizome, inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells
In this study, we describe the cytotoxic effects and molecular mechanisms of hinesol in HL-60 cells. The antitumor effect of hinesol was associated with apoptosis. When HL-60 cells were treated with hinesol, characteristic features of apoptosis, such as nuclear fragmentation and DNA fragmentation, were observed. These growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of hinesol in leukemia cells were much stronger than those of β-eudesmol, another compound isolated from the essential oil fraction. Furthermore, hinesol induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p38, prior to the onset of apoptosis. ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 2, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells
Abstract In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure–activity relations...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - April 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus globulus on cariogenic bacteria and its inhibitory effect on glucosyltransferase
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 29, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Jieduquyuziyin prescription suppresses IL-17 production and Th17 activity in MRL/lpr mice by inhibiting expression of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-4
Abstract Jieduquyuziyin prescription (JP) is a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) formula which has been demonstrated to be effective for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment as an approved hospital prescription for many years in China. But its mechanism of action in combating this disease is largely unknown. Our previous studies showed that JP can slow disease progression without producing significant toxic side effects. We treated MRL/lpr mice with JP to ascertain if JP could improve SLE by the suppression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-4 (CaMK4) expression. We investigated the role of JP i...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

(2 R ,3 S )-Pinobanksin-3-cinnamate improves cognition and reduces oxidative stress in rats with vascular dementia
This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of (2R,3S)-pinobanksin-3-cinnamate (PNC) in rats with occlusion-damaged bilateral common carotid arteries. Administration with PNC (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks significantly improved the behavioral performance of rats with vascular dementia, as showed in the Morris water maze test by shortening the escape latency and latency of crossing, completing more platform crossings, as well as spending more time in the target zone. Further evaluations found that PNC could markedly decrease malondialdehyde levels, enhance superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione l...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials of thymoquinone in HepG2 cells: mechanistic perspectives
In this study, thymoquinone (TQ), the most active biological ingredient of Nigella sativa Linn, was investigated for its antitumor activity. Mechanistic perspectives underlying this antitumor activity were explored by testing its effect on cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In addition, the chemopreventive effect of TQ was carried out by measuring its effect on phase I CYP1A1 and phase II glutathione S-transferase (GST) drug-metabolizing enzymes. The results of the present study revealed the effectiveness of TQ as an antitumor agent against different types of cancer including brain, colon, cervix and liver at both a ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 22, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents isolated from Juncus effusus induce cytotoxicity in HT22 cells
Abstract Effususol A (1), a new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, has been isolated from the medullae of Juncus effusus along with ten known compounds, effusol (2), dehydroeffusol (3), juncusol (4), dehydrojuncusol (5), juncuenin B (6), dehydrojuncuenin B (7), juncuenin D (8), luteolin (9), luteolin 5-methyl ether (10), and 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-2-nonen-4-olide (11). The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 have induced caspase-3-mediated cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 20, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of shakuyakukanzoto and its absorbed components on twitch contractions induced by physiological Ca 2+ release in rat skeletal muscle
Abstract Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT) is a kampo medicine composed of equal proportions of Glycyrrhizae radix (G. radix) and Paeoniae radix (P. radix). A double-blind study reported that SKT significantly ameliorated painful muscle cramp in cirrhosis patients without the typical severe side effects of muscle weakness and central nervous system (CNS) depression. Previous basic studies reported that SKT and its active components induced relaxation by a direct action on skeletal muscle and that SKT did not depress CNS functions; however, why SKT has a lower incidence of muscle weakness remains unknown. In the present study...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Kaempferol-3- O -rutinoside from Afgekia mahidoliae promotes keratinocyte migration through FAK and Rac1 activation
Abstract The restoration of the epidermal epithelium through re-epithelialization is a critical process in wound healing. Directed keratinocyte migration to the wound is required, and the retardation of this process may result in a chronic, non-healing wound. The present study contributes to research aiming to identify promising compounds that promote wound healing using a human keratinocyte model. The effects of three kaempferol glycosides from an Afgekia mahidoliae leaf extract, kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, on keratinocyte migration were determined. Interes...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms essential oil (neroli): involvement of the nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate pathway
Abstract The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms essential oil (neroli) were investigated in mice and rats. The analgesic activity of neroli was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate methods, while acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects were investigated by inflammatory paw edema in rat and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue model, respectively. Mechanistic studies were conducted using L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Neroli significantly decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhes in mice ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 12, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Satureja khuzestanica prevents the development of morphine analgesic tolerance through suppression of spinal glial cell activation in rats
Abstract Glial cell activation and oxidative stress are important factors in the induction of opioid side effects such as tolerance and dependence. It has been demonstrated that Satureja khuzistanica extract (SKE) has antioxidative, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its influences on opioid analgesic tolerance have not yet been clarified. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered analgesic-tolerant by injection of 10 mg/kg morphine twice daily for 8 days. To determine the effect of SKE on the development of morphine tolerance, different doses of SKE (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) w...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 10, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The anti-inflammatory secoiridoid glycosides from Gentianae Scabrae Radix: the root and rhizome of Gentiana scabra
Abstract Gentianae Scabrae Radix is a well-known traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of hepatitis, cholecystitis and inflammatory diseases. It consists mainly of secoiridoid glycosides, with representatives of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarin. In the present study, a chemical investigation of the CHCl3 extract of Gentianae Scabrae Radix derived from Gentiana scabra Bunge yielded seven new (1–7) and ten known (8–17) secoiridoid glycosides. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. All 17 compounds were evaluated f...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - March 8, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

9-Oxo-(10 E ,12 E )-octadecadienoic acid, a cytotoxic fatty acid ketodiene isolated from eggplant calyx, induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer (HRA) cells
Abstract 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoic acid (9-EE-KODE), which is isolated from the calyx of eggplants, exhibits cytotoxic activity against human ovarian cancer (HRA) cells. The aim of the present study is to clarify the action mechanism of 9-EE-KODE leading to cell death. After the treatment of 9-EE-KODE in HRA cells, we found intracellular DNA fragmentation, surface-exposure of phosphatidylserine in the outer cell membrane, and increased caspase-3/7 activities in the HRA cells. The dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, down-regulation of Bcl-2, a...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of five phytohormones in medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis under abscisic acid stress
Abstract An efficient simplified method was developed to determine multiple classes of phytohormones simultaneously in the medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI–MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative mode was used for quantification. The five studied phytohormones are gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid (SA). Only 100 mg of fresh leaves was needed, with one purification step based on C18 solid-phase extraction. C...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new indole derivatives from a marine sponge Ircinia sp. collected at Iriomote Island
Abstract Two new indole derivatives, 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1) and 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-glyoxylate ethyl ester (2), and seven known indole alkaloids, dragmacidonamine B (3), gesashidine A (4), hyrtiosulawesine (5), hyrtiomanzamine (6), hyrtimomine D (7), hyrtiosine A (8), and 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (9), were isolated from a marine sponge Ircinia sp., Irciniidae, collected at Iriomote Island. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compound 1 has previously been reported as a synthetic intermediate and this is the first time th...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Binary chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Stemonae Radix from three Stemona plants and its applications
Abstract The dried root tubers of Stemona tuberosa, S. japonica and S. sessilifolia are the original sources of Stemonae Radix (SR) for antitussive and insecticidal activities. The products of SR which are available on the market are variable, and imitations exist. In order to characterize the overall chemical constituents of SR and evaluate its quality, a novel, binary high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprinting method, describing the pattern of alkaloids (fingerprint I) and non-alkaloids (fingerprint II) of SR was developed. It was also applied to determine whether the medicinal parts and the processi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 12, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris , Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa , against mitomycin C
Abstract DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) ag...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 10, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibition of the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 replication by Brasenia schreberi (Junsai) and Petasites japonicus (Fuki) components
In this study, we screened 43 edible plants and found that ethanol and water extracts of Brasenia schreberi and water extract of Petasites japonicus strongly inhibit not only the activity of DNA polymerase to incorporate dTTP into poly(rA)-p(dT)15 but also the activity of RNase H to hydrolyze the RNA strand of an RNA/DNA hybrid. In addition, these three extracts inhibit HIV-1 replication in human cells, with EC50 values of 1–2 µg/ml. These results suggest that Brasenia schreberi and Petasites japonicus contain substances that block HIV-1 replication by inhibiting the DNA polymerase activity and/or RNase H ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dysosesquiflorins A and B, sesquiterpenoids from Dysoxylum densiflorum
Abstract Two new aromadendrane sesquiterpenoids, dysosesquiflorins A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from Dysoxylum densiflorum bark, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. These dysosesquiflorins showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the siaresinolic acid, a triterpene isolated from the leaves of Sabicea grisea Cham. & Schltdl. var. grisea
Abstract In the present study, siaresinolic acid (siaresinol, SA) was isolated from the leaves of Sabicea grisea and studied to evaluate its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. The antinociceptive effect of SA was investigated in mice using different animal models to study pain. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of SA (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before a pain stimulus significantly reduced the nociceptive response (by 42.3, 68.2, and 70.9 %, respectively). Pretreatment with glibenclamide, but not with yohimbine, metoclopramide, ketanserin, or...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of curine in HL-60 leukemic cells: cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction
Abstract Curine is a natural alkaloid isolated from Chondrodendron platyphyllum and it has been reported that this alkaloid has vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study is to analyze the cytotoxic effects of curine in cancer cell lines HL-60, K562, and HT-29, and in primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Cells were treated with curine (from 3 to 15 µM) for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) assay. To assess the type of c...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida , Cryptococcus , Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Abstract The composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil (EO) of Angelica major and its main components α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene against clinically relevant yeasts and moulds were evaluated. EO from the plant’s aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil showed high contents of α-pinene (21.8 %) and cis-β-ocimene (30.4 %). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 10, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic interaction between Kaempferia parviflora extract and sildenafil in rats
This study investigated the effect of KP extract on the blood levels and pharmacokinetics of sildenafil co-administration in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were given sildenafil 20 mg/kg daily for 9 days. On days 4–9 of each treatment period, the treated rats received KP extract (250 mg/kg) and vehicle (groups 2 and 3, respectively). Group 4 received KP extract only (250 mg/kg daily for 9 days). Daily blood concentrations of sildenafil, PMF, TMF, and DMF were determined by HPLC to evaluate the daily blood level interactions. Additional blood samples were ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 8, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of Moutan Cortex aqueous fraction on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation
In conclusion, our results suggest that MCA has more potential in the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases compared to other major compounds of Moutan Cortex. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research