Agarotetrol: a source compound for low molecular weight aromatic compounds from agarwood heating
In this study, different fractions obtained from agarwood were analyzed to reveal the source compounds of LACs. Some LACs detected in the resinous agarwood were absent from the non-resinous parts and confirmed as characteristic of the resinous parts. The essential oil and hydrosol of agarwood obtained by distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography –mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Sesquiterpenes were detected in the essential oil, and sesquiterpenes and a variety of LACs were detected in the hydrosol. A hot water extract of agarwood remaining in the distillation flask after distillation was analyzed by high-perf...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Determination of ( E )-ferulic acid content in the root of Angelica acutiloba: a simple chemical evaluation method for crude drug quality control
AbstractThe root ofAngelica acutiloba Kitagawa is an important crude drug in Kampo medicines (traditional Japanese medicine). Chemical evaluation of crude drugs is crucial to ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine; however, there is currently no chemical standard for theA. acutiloba crude drug in Japanese pharmacopoeia. (E)-ferulic acid (FA) is an important active ingredient ofAngelica spp., includingA. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, and has been suggested as a marker for quality evaluation of those crude drugs. However, it has been controversial whether FA is a reliable marker constituent ofA. acutiloba. To achieve ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reinereins A and B, new onocerane triterpenoids from Reinwardtiodendron cinereum
AbstractBioactivity guided separation of Reinwardtiodendroncinereum barks methanol extract led to the isolation of two new onocerane triterpenoids, reinereins A and B (1 and2), together with three known onocerane triterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. In vitro cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against several type of cancer cells were evaluated. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methylquercetins stimulate melanin biosynthesis in a three-dimensional skin model
AbstractIn a previous study, we found that both synthetic 3-O-methylquercetin (3MQ) and 3,4 ′,7-O-trimethylquercetin (34 ′7TMQ) increased extracellular melanin content. 34′7TMQ increased the activity of melanogenic enzymes by stimulating the p38 pathway and the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In contrast, 3MQ increased the activity of melanogenic enzymes without the involvement of MITF, which suggests that 3MQ inhibits the degradation of melanogenic enzymes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3MQ and 34′7TMQ on melanogenesis in normal human mela...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-oral common pathogenic bacterial active acetylenic acids from Thesium chinense Turcz
AbstractDiscovery of agents for oral infectious diseases is always encouraged in natural products chemistry. A bioassay-guided isolation led to the isolation of two new acetylenic acids (1,2) along with seven known ones (3–9) from the ethanol extract ofThesium chinense Turcz, a commonly used oral anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory herb. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Exocarpic acid (3) demonstrated the most promising activity against three tested oral pathogenic bacterial strains,Porphyromonas gingivalis,Fusobacterium nucleatum, andStreptococcus mutans, with mi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area
In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classifyC. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accur...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Terpenoids from Vitex trifolia and their anti-inflammatory activities
AbstractA new diterpenoid glucoside, (3S,5S,6S,8R,9R,10S)-3,6,9-trihydroxy-13(14)-labdean-16,15-olide 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and a new iridoid glucoside, (1S, 5S,6R,9R)-10-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-5,6β-dihydroxy iridoid 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with six known compounds (3-8) were isolated fromVitex trifolia L.. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All these isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds2,4,5, and7 showed moderate inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 90.05...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cypripedin, a phenanthrenequinone from Dendrobium densiflorum , sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis
AbstractThe life-threatening potential of lung cancer has increased over the years due to its acquisition of chemotherapeutic resistance, especially to cisplatin, a first-line therapy. In response to this development, researchers have turned their attention to several compounds derived from natural origins, including cypripedin (CYP), a phenanthrenequinone substance extracted fromDendrobium densiflorum. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of CYP to induce apoptosis and enhance cisplatin-mediated death of human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells using cell viability and apoptosis assays. The induction of apo...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of bofutsushosan (fang feng tong sheng san) on glucose transporter 5 function in vitro
AbstractBofutsushosan (BTS; fang feng tong sheng san in Chinese) is a formula in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese medicine comprising eighteen crude drugs, and is used to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose is contained in refreshing beverages as high-fructose corn syrup, and is associated with obesity. Fructose is absorbed via glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) in the intestine. Therefore, the inhibition of GLUT5 is considered to be a target of obesity drugs. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of BTS extract and its constituents on fructose uptake using Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, i.e., cells sta...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rigenolides D –H, norsecoiridoid and secoiridoids from Gentiana rigescens Franch
AbstractFive new compounds, rigenolides D –H (1–5), were isolated from the aerial parts ofGentiana rigescens Franch. Their structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical conversions. Rigenolides D (1) and E (2) were elucidated to be a secoiridoid and a norsecoiridoid, respectively, possessing a dienone moiety in common. Rigenolides F –H (3–5) were assigned as acylated secoiridoid glucosides. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lanostane triterpenoids from Fomitopsis officinalis and their trypanocidal activity
AbstractFomitopsis officinalis is a medicinal fungus, known as ‘Agarikon’, and is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma and rheumatism in Mongolia. The investigation of the chemical constituents ofF.officinalis led to the isolation of 4 new lanostane triterpenoids together with 4 known triterpenoids. Inhibitory activity againstTrypanosoma congolense, which causes fatal diseases in animals including livestock, was estimated for the isolated compounds. Compounds2–5 and8 exhibited moderate inhibition activities with IC50 values ranging from 7.0 −27.1 µM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - February 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Laxative effect of repeated Daiokanzoto is attributable to decrease in aquaporin-3 expression in the colon
In this study, we analyzed the laxative effect of repeated DKT administration, focusing on AQP3 expression in the colon. After rats were treated for 7  days, decreased AQP3 expression and the onset of diarrhea were observed in the DKT group, but were not seen in the Daio group either. Although the relative abundance of gut microbiota after repeated DKT administration was similar to that after control treatment, Daio reducedLactobacillaceae,Bifidobacteriaceae, andBacteroidaceae levels and markedly increasedLachnospiraceae levels. In this study, we show that DKT has a sustained laxative effect, even upon repeated use, p...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oxyresveratrol prevents murine H22 hepatocellular carcinoma growth and lymph node metastasis via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of oxyresveratrol (Oxyres) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo. The MTT and Transwell assays were performed to investigate the effects of Oxyres on cell proliferation and migration of two HCC cell lines, QGY-7701 and SMMC-7721 cells. H22 cells were subcutaneously injected into hind foot pads of 70 male mice to establish a lymph node metastasis model. These mice were randomly divided into seven groups as follows, control group, HCC group, Oxyres 20  mg/kg group, Oxyres 40 mg/kg group, Oxyres 60 mg/kg group, Resv...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structure –activity relationships of flavanones, flavanone glycosides, and flavones in anti-degranulation activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells
AbstractThe incidence of type I allergies, which are associated with mast cell degranulation and local inflammation, is increasing, and new treatments are needed. To date, structure –activity relationships of flavonoids in their degranulation-inhibiting activity have not been systematically characterized. In the current study, the degranulation-inhibiting activity of a series of flavonoids was evaluated. The following three observations were made: (1) the activity disappears when a sugar moiety is introduced into the A ring of the flavanone; (2) the activity depends on the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring; (3)...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Characterization of ent -kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase involved in gibberellin biosynthesis from Scoparia dulcis
AbstractGibberellins (GAs) are ubiquitous diterpenoids in higher plants, whereas some higher plants produce unique species-specific diterpenoids. In GA biosynthesis,ent-kaurene synthase (KS) andent-kaurene oxidase (KO) are key players which catalyze early step(s) of the cyclization and oxidation reactions. We have studied the functional characterization of gene products of a KS (SdKS) and two KOs (SdKO1 andSdKO2) involved in GA biosynthesis inScoparia dulcis. Using an in vivo heterologous expression system ofEscherichia coli, we found that SdKS catalyzed a cyclization reaction froment-CPP toent-kaurene and that the SdKOs o...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Degranulation inhibitors from the arils of Myristica fragrans in antigen-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia cells
AbstractA methanol extract of mace, the aril ofMyristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), was found to inhibit the release of β-hexosaminidase, a marker of antigen-IgE-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3, IC50 = 45.7 μg/ml). From the extract, three new 8-O-4 ′ type neolignans, maceneolignans I–K (1–3), were isolated, and the stereostructures of1–3 were elucidated based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Among the isolates, maceneolignans A (5), D (6), and H (8), ( −)-(8R)- ∆8 ′-4-hydroxy-3,3 ′,5′-trimethoxy-8-O-4 ′-n...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The active glycosides from Urtica fissa rhizome decoction
This study revealed that glycosides played an important role in the therapeutic effects ofUrtica fissa rhizome. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of components from Salam leaf ( Syzygium polyanthum ) extract
AbstractIn order to identify a novel whitening agent, the methanol extract ofS. polyanthum leaf was focused on by the screening test using nine Indonesian medicinal plants for the inhibition of melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells. Three novel compounds [(1) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)hexane-1-one, (2) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy methylphenyl)octane-1-one, and (3) (4E)-1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one and one known compound [(4) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one were isolated from the methanol extract. Our study demonstrated thatS. polyanthum leaf methanol extract at 25 &nd...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites
AbstractThe article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites, written by Seiichi Sakamoto, Waraporn Putalun, Sornkanok Vimolmangkang, Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Yukihiro Shoyama, Hiroyuki Tanaka and Satoshi Morimoto, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 21 November 2017 without open access. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bioactive constituents from the whole plants of Leontopodium leontopodioides (Wild.) Beauv.
AbstractFive new compounds, leontoaerialosides A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), and E (5) were obtained from the 70% EtOH extract of the whole plants ofLeontopodium leontopodioides (Wild.) Beauv. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Moreover, compounds4 and5 showed significant effects on stimulating the hepatic glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - January 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New diterpenes from Nigella damascena seeds and their antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type-1
AbstractNigella species are rich source of dolabellane diterpenes. During our study of Nigella species, new dolabellane diterpenes, damasterpenes V –VIII were isolated. The structural determination of new compounds damasterpenes V–VIII is described with consideration of their absolute configurations. The antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type-1 of the isolated compounds and their derivatives are also evaluated. Damasterpene V (inhibition 35.0%) and 2-phenylacetyl 13-benzoyl damasterpenol (32.0%) showed significant antiviral activity at 10 μM. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lignosulfonic acid attenuates NF- κB activation and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction induced by TNF-α/IFN-γ in Caco-2 cells
In this study, we investigated the effect of LM-lignin/lignosulfonic acid on intestinal barrier function. Lignosulfonic acid enhanced transepithelial membrane electrical resistance in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. In Caco-2 cells treated with lignosulfonic acid, expression of claudin-2, which forms high conductive cation pores in tight junctions (TJs), was decreased. Lignosulfonic acid also attenuated the barrier dysfunction that is caused by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α and interferon (IFN)-γ in Caco-2 cells. TNF-α- and IFN-γ-induced activation of NF-κB, such as translocation of ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory constituents from Ascomycetous fungi
AbstractOur screening project, namely, search for new immunomodulatory constituents from Ascomycetous fungi, was guided by the effects on mitogen-induced proliferations of mouse spleen lymphocytes. On the project, the defatted crude extracts fromGelasinospora multiforis,G.heterospora,G.longispora,G.kobi,Diplogelasinospora grovesii,Emericella aurantio-brunnea,Eupenicillium crustaceum, etc., submitted to the solvent partition followed by fractionation with repeated chromatography monitored by immunomodulatory activity to afford many active constituents, of which molecular structures including absolute configurations and immu...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenolic compounds from the leaves of Breynia officinalis and their tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities
AbstractFrom the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves ofBreynia officinalis, five new compounds (1–5) along with 11 known compounds (6–16) were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and compounds1–3 were found to be acylated hydroquinone apiofuranosylglucopyranosides, while compound4 was an acylated hydroquinone glucopyranoside. Compound5 was shown to be butylp-coumarate and this seems to be its first isolation from a natural source. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of all of the isolated compounds was assayed, and the activity was signi...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inner morphological and chemical differentiation of Boehmeria species
AbstractThe present study was designed to establish quality control parameters for pharmacognostic evaluation and differentiation of eight locally derivedBoehmeria species,B. gracilis,B. nivea,B. pannosa,B. platanifolia,B. quelpaertensis,B. spicata,B. splitgerbera,B. tricuspis, and two varieties namedB. japonica var.longispica,B. nivea var.concolor, which have been utilized as the folk medicine, ‘Mo-Si-Pool’ in Korea. Although the outer morphological study of these species had been reported, there is no pharmacognostical description yet. Therefore, inner morphological evaluation on leaf midrib, petiole and stem...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Berberine protects HK-2 cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation induced apoptosis via inhibiting SPHK1 expression
AbstractRenal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIRI) refers to the irreversible damage for renal function when blood perfusion is recovered after ischemia for an extended period, which is common in clinical surgeries and has been regarded as a major risk for acute renal failures (ARF) that is accompanied with unimaginably high morbidity and mortality. Hypoxia during ischemia followed by reoxygenation via reperfusion serves as a major event contributing to cell apoptosis, which has been widely accepted as the vital pathogenesis in RIRI. Preventing apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cell has been considered as effective metho...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enhanced ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of quinolizidine alkaloids from Sophora alopecuroides L. seeds
This study reports a novel ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis method for the extraction of these important alkaloids. Box –Behnken design, a widely used response surface methodology, was used to investigate the effects of process variables on ultrasound bath-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (UAEH) extraction. Four independent variables, pH, extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (min) and solvent-to-material rati o (mL/g), were studied. For the extraction of sophocarpine, oxysophocarpine, oxymatrine, matrine, sophoramine, sophoridine and cytisine, the optimal UAEH condition was found to be a pH of 5, ext...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two new aromatic glycosides, elengiosides A and B, from the flowers of Mimusops elengi
AbstractTwo new aromatic glycosides, elengiosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers ofMimusops elengi (Sapotaceae) together with 26 known compounds. Their stereostructures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic properties and chemical evidence. Among the isolates, a phenylethanoid glycoside, undatuside C (14), was found to exhibit hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In Memoriam
(Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Discrimination of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus based on fingerprint profiles of hydrophilic components by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection
AbstractHigh-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC –UV) using 20 mM phosphate mobile phase and an octadecylsilyl column (Triart C18, 150 × 3.0 mm i.d., 3 μm) has been developed for the analysis of hydrophilic compounds in the water extract of Schisandrae Fructus samples. The present HPLC–UV method permits the accurate and precise determin ation of malic, citric, and protocatechuic acids in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) Schisandrae Fructus, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus. The JP Schisandrae Fructus studied conta...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dehydropropylpantothenamide isolated by a co-culture of Nocardia tenerifensis IFM 10554 T in the presence of animal cells
AbstractA new amide, named dehydropropylpantothenamide (1), was obtained by a co-culture ofNocardia tenerifensis IFM 10554T in the presence of the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774.1 in modified Czapek-Dox (mCD) medium. Compound1 was synthesized fromd-pantothenic acid calcium salt in 6 steps. The absolute configuration of natural compound1 was determined by comparisons of the optical rotation and CD spectra of synthetic1. In the present study, a new method for producing secondary metabolites was demonstrated using a “co-culture” in which the genusNocardia was cultured in the presence of an animal cell line. ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Agelamasines A and B, diterpene alkaloids from an Okinawan marine sponge Agelas sp.
AbstractTwo new diterpene alkaloids having anN-methyladenine moiety, agelamasines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from an Okinawan marine spongeAgelas sp. The structures of1 and2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Agelamasine A (1) is the first diterpene alkaloid with a rearranged (4  → 2)-abeo-clerodane skeleton from a marine source, while agelamasine B (2) is a clerodane diterpene alkaloid. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - December 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Production of an emericellin and its analogues as fungal biological responses for Shimbu-to extract
AbstractThis research examined the production of fungal metabolites as a biological response to Kampo medicines. Shimbu-to (SMB) is a Kampo medicine composed of five herbal components: peony root (Shakuyaku), ginger (Shokyo), processed aconite root (Bushi),Poria sclerotium (Bukuryo), andAtractylodes lancea rhizomes (Sojutsu). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the fungusAspergillus nidulans CBS 112.46 incubated in potato dextrose broth supplemented with SMB extract revealed emericellin (2) as the major peak and new xanthone analogues 24-hydroxyshamixanthone (1), shamixanthone (3), epishamixanthone (4...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Botanical origin of Mei-gui Hua in Chinese markets
AbstractThe petals or buds ofRosa species have been used as an important Chinese crude drug called “Mei-gui Hua” and also an ingredient for herbal tea in China. The 15 flavonol glycosides in 34 commercially available “Mei-gui Hua” were quantitatively determined by UPLC, and the data were compared with those of knownRosa sp. belong toCinnamomeae,Gallicanae,Caninae andSynstylae by principal component analysis for the estimation of original plants of these “Mei-gui Hua”. Seven samples were classified into two groups (Types A and B) composed of species inGallicae andSynstilae and 11 samples ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane hexa- and hepta-glycosides from the roots of Asclepias tuberosa
AbstractPreviously, phytochemical investigation of the roots ofAsclepias tuberosa (Asclepiadaceae) led to the isolation of some 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane tri-, tetra-, and penta-glycosides. An additional eight new minor 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane glycosides were afforded in the recent investigation of this plant. These glycosides consisted of six or seven 2,6-dideoxy-hexopyranoses together with the aglycone, tuberogenin. The structures of each of these compounds were established using NMR, mass spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. As 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane-type glycosides were obser...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 25, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites
AbstractImmunoassays are antibody-based analytical methods for quantitative/qualitative analysis. Since the principle of immunoassays is based on specific antigen –antibody reaction, the assays have been utilized worldwide for diagnosis, pharmacokinetic studies by drug monitoring, and the quality control of commercially available products. Berson and Yalow were the first to develop an immunoassay, known as radioimmunoassay (RIA), for detecting endogenous pl asma insulin [1], a development for which Yalow was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1977. Even today, after half a century, immunoassays are ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

AU-1 from Agavaceae plants downregulates the expression of glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase
AbstractThe spirostanol saponin AU-1 from Agavaceae plants stimulates the expression of the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) in ACHN cells. We hypothesized that this may arise from the downregulation of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. In this article, we showed that, unlike in renal adenocarcinoma cells, AU-1 does not affect the expression of SIRT1 in the normal renal cell-derived cell line HK-2. Consistent with the lack of a downregulation of SIRT1, AU-1 did not upregulate, but rather decreased PGAM expression. Moreover, AU-1 inhibited the increase in PGAM levels that results from the knock-down of S...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New cyclic sulfides extracted from Allium sativum : garlicnins P, J 2 , and Q
AbstractTwo atypical cyclic-type sulfides, garlicnin P (1) and garlicnin J2 (2), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin Q (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic,Allium sativum, bulbs cultivated in the Kumamoto city area, and their structures characterized. Their production pathways are also discussed. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potent apoptosis-inducing activity of erypoegin K, an isoflavone isolated from Erythrina poeppigiana , against human leukemia HL-60 cells
AbstractErypoegin K is an isoflavone isolated from the stem bark ofErythrina poeppigiana. It contains a furan group at the A-ring of the core isoflavone structure and can inhibit the activity of glyoxalase I, an enzyme that catalyzes the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a by-product of glycolysis. In the present study, we found that erypoegin K has a potent cytotoxic effect on human leukemia HL-60 cells. Its cytotoxic effect was much stronger than that of a known glyoxalase I inhibitorS-p-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester. Conversely, erypoegin K demonstrated weak cytotoxicity toward normal human peripheral l...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Botanical origin and chemical constituents of commercial Saposhnikoviae radix  and its related crude drugs available in Shaanxi and the surrounding regions
AbstractSaposhnikoviae radix (SR) is described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia as a crude drug derived from the root ofSaposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin (Umbelliferae). According toFlora of China, the root ofPeucedanum ledebourielloides K. F. Fu is used as a regional substitute for  SR. Therefore, we surveyed the botanical origin of the drug used in China, especially Shaanxi and the surrounding regions, through nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. As a result, several samples from Shaanxi (陝西) and Shanxi (山西) provinces were i dentified asPeucedanum ledebourielloides. ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 17, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of saffron  and its constituents, crocin-1, crocin-2, and crocetin on α-synuclein fibrils
This study (part of this study was presented at the 137th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) examined the effects of saffron, its constituents (crocin-1, crocin-2, crocetin, and safranal), and crocetin structural analogs (hexadecanedioic acid, norbixin, andtrans,trans-muconic acid) on αS aggregation, and αS fibril dissociation. Saffron dose-dependently inhibited αS aggregation and dissociated αS fibrils by thioflavin T fluorescence assay. These effects were observed by transmission electron microscopy, which showed reduced and shortened αS fibrils. Crocin-1, crocin-2, and c...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 17, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Biological activity of Entada phaseoloides and Entada rheedei
AbstractThe aim of our study is to find functional compounds from natural resources. We focus on plants grown in tropical areas, especially Madagascar and Thailand, because they have unique flora and are expected to contain interesting compounds. We review the functional compounds of the seed kernels ofEntada phaseoloides andE. rheedei and their biological activities such as anti-proliferation and melanogenesis inhibitory properties, etc. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells via the ROS/PKC-α/ERK pathway
In conclusion, this study revealed that 18β-GA inhibits migration and invasion via the ROS/PKC-α/ERK signaling pathway in g astric cancer cells. This suggests that 18β-GA has the potential to be used as an effective chemopreventive agent for the prevention of gastric cancer metastasis. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - November 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New cyclic sulfides, garlicnins I 2 , M, N, and O, from Allium sativum
AbstractOne atypical thiolane-type sulfide, garlicnin I2 (1), two 3,4-dimethylthiolane-type sulfides, garlicnins M (2) and N (3), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin O (4), were isolated from the acetone extracts of Chinese garlic bulbs,Allium sativum and their structures were characterized. Hypothetical pathways for the production of the respective sulfides were discussed. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 30, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives from the stems of Dendrobium officinale with their cytotoxic activities
AbstractTwo new phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives (1 –2) with six known congeners (3 –8) were isolated from the extraction of stems ofDendrobium officinale. Compounds1 and2 were based on carbon skeleton in which phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene moiety were linked with a phenylpropane unit through a dioxane bridge, respectively. Their structures were determined by comprehensive NMR spectroscopic data, the absolute configuration of new compounds were determined by comparing their experimental and calculated ECD for the first time. All the compounds were investigated contains two can...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of raw nepodin extraction from Rumex japonicus and R. obtusifolius and their DNA polymorphisms
In this study, all specimens on the Ryukyu Islands were identified asR. japonicus. Conversely, all specimens on mainland Japan wereR. obtusifolius. The DNA sequence of the chloroplasttrnL –trnF intergenic spacer region and partial nuclear internal transcribed spacer was consistent with the identification ofR. japonicus andR. obtusifolius by morphological characteristics of the perianth segments. Therefore, to avoid erroneous identification and misuse of the plant species used for extraction of raw materials, it is preferable to develop DNA markers for these two regions. The content of nepodin varied from undetectable...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Piperine-like alkamides from Piper nigrum induce BDNF promoter and promote neurite outgrowth in Neuro-2a cells
In this study, we investigated the effects of alkamides from white pepper (P. nigrum) on neuronal cells. Twelve alkamides were isolated from white pepper MeOH extracts, and their chemical structures were identified by NMR and MS analyses. The compounds were subjected to assays using the luciferase-reporter gene under the control of the BDNF promoter or cAMP response element in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells. In both assays, marked reporter-inducing activity was observed for piperine (1), piperettine (2) and piperylin (7), all of which have in common an (E)-5-(buta-1,3-dien-1-yl)benzo[d] [1,3] dioxole moiety. Piperettin...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A new cinnamoylphenethylamine derivative from a Mongolian Allium species, Allium carolinianum
AbstractA new cinnamoylphenethylamine derivative, compound1, was isolated as the main HPLC peak after partitioning the methanol extract of bulbs of a Mongolian onion species,Allium carolinianum DC. The chemical structure of this substance was determined by spectroscopic analysis including MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Compound1 showed weak cytotoxic activity in the murine leukemia cell line P388. (Source: Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Four new diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum japonicum subsp. subcuneatum
AbstractDiterpenoid alkaloids with remarkable chemical properties and biological activities are frequently found in plants of the generaAconitum,Delphinium, andGarrya. Accordingly, several diterpenoid alkaloid constituents ofAconitum andDelphinium plants as well as their derivatives exhibited cytotoxic activity against lung, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines. Four new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, 14-anisoyllasianine (1), 14-anisoyl-N-deethylaconine (2),N-deethylaljesaconitine A (3), andN-deethylnevadensine (4), together with 17 known C19- and C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, were ...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Different expression systems resulted in varied binding properties of anti-paclitaxel single-chain variable fragment antibody clone 1C2
AbstractThe binding properties of recombinant antibody fragments, such as affinity and specificity, determine their usefulness for therapeutic and analytical applications. Anti-paclitaxel single-chain variable fragment clone 1C2 (anti-PT scFv1C2) was expressed usingEscherichia coli cell andBombyx mori larvae expression systems. The binding characteristics of the scFvs were evaluated using indirect competitive ELISA. The linear range of binding between anti-PT scFv1C2 and paclitaxel was significantly different between the anti-PT scFv1C2s derived fromE. coli (1.056 –5.700 μg/ml) andB. mori (7.813 –1000&n...
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - October 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research