Single fluorophore melting curve analysis for detection of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile.
This study demonstrates of a novel detection assay able to identify and subtype strains of Clostridium difficile. Primers carefully designed for melting curve analysis amplify DNA from three C. difficile genes, tcdB, tcdC and cdtB, during quantitative PCR (qPCR). The tcdB gene allows for confirmation of organism presence, while the tcdC and cdtB genes allow for differentiation of virulence status as deletions in the tcdC gene and the concurrent presence of the cdtB gene, which produces binary toxin, are associated with hypervirulence. Following qPCR, subtyping is then achieved by automated, inline melting curve analysis us...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 29, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Angione SL, Croote D, Leung JW, Mermel LA, Tripathi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of gram-positive and gram-negative food borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.
Abstract Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are among the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurred worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13) previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their abilities to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 27, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dutra V, Silva AC, Cabrita P, Peres C, Malcata X, Brito L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice.
Abstract Discoveries associated with antibacterial activity of hydrated clays necessitate assessments of in vivo efficacy, practical use, and safety. Surface properties of clays can lead to variations in the composition and abundance of bound compounds or ions, thus affecting antibacterial activity. Since exchangeable metal ions released from the clay surface are responsible for in vitro antibacterial activity, we evaluated the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of four natural clays (one illite clay, two montmorillonite clays, and one kaolinite clay) and three ion-exchanged, antibacterial clays against superficial, c...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 27, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Otto CC, Kilbourne J, Haydel SE Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improved blood culture identification by FilmArray in cultures from regional hospitals compared to teaching hospital cultures.
Abstract Rapid identification of bacteria isolated from blood cultures by direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer is now in widespread use in major centres but is not yet feasible in smaller hospital laboratories. A FilmArray multiplex PCR panel for identification of blood culture isolates (BCID) provides an alternative approach to near point-of-care microbial identification in regional hospitals. We assessed the accuracy and time to identification of the BCID FilmArray in a consecutive series of 149 blood cultures from 143 patients in teaching hospital and smaller regional hospitals, currently identified by direct MAL...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Inglis TJ, Bzdyl N, Chua IJ, Urosevic NM, Leung MJ, Geelhoed E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of use of risedronate as an antibiofilm agent.
Abstract Escherichia coli cra null mutants have been reported in literature to be impaired in biofilm formation. To develop E. coli biofilm-inhibiting agents for prevention and control of adherent behaviour, analogues of a natural Cra ligand, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, were identified based on two dimensional similarity to the natural ligand. Of the analogues identified, those belonging to the bisphosphonate class of drug molecules were selected for study, as these are approved for clinical use in humans and their safety is established. Computational and in vitro studies with purified Cra protein showed that rised...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reshamwala SM, Mamidipally C, Pissurlenkar RR, Coutinho EC, Noronha SB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A small-molecule compound belonging to a class of 2,4-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazine-5-ones inhibits intracellular growth and persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens in the world and often causes chronic inflammatory diseases that are insensitive to antibiotics. The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bacteria is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention aimed at bacterial virulence and can be an attractive alternative for the treatment of chronic infections.Recently, we have shown that a small molecule compound belonging to a class of 2,4-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazine-5-ones produced through the chemical modification of the thiohydrazides of oxamic acids, designated as C...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 21, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zigangirova NA, Kost EA, Didenko LV, Kapotina LN, Zayakin ES, Luyksaar SI, Morgunova EY, Fedina ED, Artyukhova OA, Samorodov AV, Kobets NV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multiplex characterisation of human pathogens including species and antibiotic resistance gene identification.
ayr H Abstract The efficient medical treatment of infections requires detailed information about the involved pathogens and potential antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Especially the dramatically increasing incidence of multidrug resistant bacteria highlights the importance of sophisticated diagnostic tests enabling a fast patient-customised therapy. However, the current molecular detection methods are limited either to the detection of species or only a few antibiotic resistance genes. In this work, we present a human pathogen characterisation assay using a 16S rRNA gene microarray identifying 75 species comprisi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 20, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Barišic I, Petzka J, Schoenthaler S, Vierlinger K, Noehammer C, Wiesinger-Mayr H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

CtxB1 outcompetes CtxB7 in Vibrio cholerae O1, Bangladesh.
Abstract Cholera toxin (CTX) is encoded by CTX prophage lysogenizing Vibrio cholerae causing severely dehydrating diarrhea, cholera. Of the two subunits of CTX (A and B), ctxB has alleles specific for El Tor and classical biotype strains, although 12 different ctxB genotypes (ctxB1-12)have been detected till now. In El Tor biotype strains responsible for endemic cholera in Bangladesh, ctxB1 was replaced recently with ctxB7. In the present study, we provide data showing competition between the ctxB1and ctxB7 and final outcome was replacement of ctxB7 with ctxB1. This is an important observation of possible epidemio...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 19, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rashid MU, Rashed SM, Islam T, Johura FT, Watanabe H, Ohnishi M, Alam M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Specific PCR, bacterial culture, serology and pharyngeal sampling to enhance the aetiological diagnosis of cellulitis.
We examined the utility of molecular techniques, skin and throat cultures, as well as serology in providing evidence of either Staphylococcus aureus or Group A streptococcus (GAS) presence in patients with cellulitis. Samples were collected from patients with a clinical diagnosis of cellulitis who were recruited into a prospective placebo controlled clinical trial (C4C study, EudraCT 2013-001218-14). Specific PCR, paired serology and culture for both organisms were carried out on a variety of samples where appropriate. Despite utilising a range of diagnostic methods, a bacteriological diagnosis was only achieved in 43% of ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 19, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Toleman MS, Vipond IB, Brindle R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Novel Targeting, lepB Gene, Using Polymerase Chain Reaction with Confronting Two Pair Primers (PCR-CTPP) for Simultaneous Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium bovis.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB), caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), is the leading cause of infectious disease-related mortality worldwide. The standard method for TB diagnosis usually requires long periods of mycobacteria cultivation, leading to delayed diagnosis, inefficient treatment, and widespread occurrence of the disease. Therefore, a rapid method for the detection and differentiation of MTC from other mycobacteria is essential for disease diagnosis. Here, we describe the potential of using Type I signal peptidase (lepB) gene as a novel target for TB diagnosis based on the confron...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 15, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tharinjaroen CS, Intorasoot S, Anukool U, Phunpae P, Butr-Indr B, Orrapin S, Sangboonruang S, Arunothong S, Chaiyasirinroj B, Kunyanone N, Kasinrerk W, Tragoolpua K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cross-transmission of Escherichia coli producing OXA-181 in hospitalised patients and failure of carbapenemase detection by commercial and in-house PCR assays.
PMID: 26467969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Boo TW, McGrath E, Davitt J, Grogan J, O'Sullivan N, Hopkins KL, Meunier D, Woodford N, Cormican M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Probiotic attributes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: In vitro and in vivo evidences.
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria play a vital role in modulating various aspects integral to health and well-being of humans. In the present study, probiotic attributes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory potential of Enterococcus faecium (EF) CFR 3003 were investigated by employing suitable model systems. EF exhibited robust resistance to gastro-intestinal stress conditions since it could withstand acid stress at pH 1.5, 2 and 3. The bacterium also survived at a bile salt concentration of 0.45% and better tolerance was observed towards pepsin and trypsin. EF produced...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 7, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Divyashri G, Krishna G, Muralidhara M, Prapulla SG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterisation of the extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli ST131 clone among isolates recovered from urinary and bloodstream infections in the United Kingdom.
Abstract The multidrug-resistant ST131-O25b clone of Escherichia coli is well established as a significant cause of extra-intestinal infections worldwide. However, there have been only two small regional studies comparing ST131 isolates from the UK. Therefore, we characterised 143 ST131 E. coli (38 urinary, 105 bloodstream) collected between January 2011 and March 2012 from 38 centres located across the UK and Republic of Ireland. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of clonal isolates revealed high rates of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate (56 %), cefotaxime (32 %), ciprofloxacin (79 %), temocillin (69 ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ciesielczuk H, Doumith M, Hope R, Woodford N, Wareham DW Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacteriocin producing probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum inhibit adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to extracellular matrix (ECM): Quantitative insight and implications in antibacterial therapy.
Abstract In the present study, the adhesion of bacteriocin producing probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum onto extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and mucin and their potential to prevent pathogen invasion onto ECM was ascertained. Fluorescence-based in vitro assays indicated that the L. plantarum strains CRA21, CRA38 and CRA52 displayed considerable adhesion onto ECM molecules, which was comparable to the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. Flow cytometry-based quantitative assessment of the adhesion potential suggested that L. plantarum CRA21 exhibited superior adhesion onto ECM as compared to ot...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mukherjee S, Ramesh A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic resistant staphylococci.
Abstract Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital acquired infection. Nasal carriage of S. aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients, and coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis, and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count (TBC), Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: McMurray CL, Hardy KJ, Verlander NQ, Hawkey PM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Effect of honokiol on exotoxin proteins listeriolysin O and p60 secreted by Listeria monocytogenes.
Abstract Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is considered one of the most important foodborne pathogens. The virulence-related proteins listeriolysin O (LLO) and p60 are critical factors involved in Listeria pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of honokiol on LLO and p60 secreted from L. monocytogenes. A listeriolysin assay was used to investigate hemolytic activities of L. monocytogenes exposed to honokiol, and the secretion of LLO and p60 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Additionally, the influence of honokiol on the transcription of LLO and p60 encoded genes hly and iap, res...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Meng R, Zhao Z, Guo N, Liu Z, Zhao X, Li W, Li X, Shi C, Nie D, Wang W, Liu T, Ma W, Yu L, Li J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus ST121: A globally disseminated hypervirulent clone.
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacterial infections in hospitals and communities worldwide. With the development of typing methods, several pandemic clones have been well-characterized, including the extensively spreading hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) clone ST239 and the emerging hypervirulent community-associated (CA) MRSA clone USA300. The multilocus sequence typing method was set up based on seven housekeeping genes; S. aureus groups were defined by the sharing of alleles at ≥ 5 of the 7 loci. In many cases, the predicted founder of a group would also be ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rao Q, Shang W, Hu X, Rao X Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

No crucial amino acid changes in the predicted Histo Blood Group Antigen binding sites of the Norovirus GII.4 capsid between non-secretors and secretors origin might suggest an alternative route of infection or existence of coincidental molecules.
PMID: 26432289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yoda T, Suzuki Y, Aoyama I, Yamazaki K, Nakata S, Takahashi K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Efficacy of the FilmArray Blood Culture Identification panel for direct molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases from samples other than blood.
us F, Mirelis B, Coll P Abstract Molecular-based techniques reduce the delay in diagnosing infectious diseases and therefore contribute to better patient outcomes. We assessed the FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (Biofire Diagnostics Inc. bioMérieux) panel directly on clinical specimens other than blood: cerebrospinal, joint, pleural and ascitic fluids, bronchoscopy samples, and abscesses. We compared the results from 88 samples obtained by culture-based techniques. The percentage of agreement between the two methods was 75% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.51. Global sensitivity and specificity using the Fi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Micó M, Navarro F, de Miniac D, González Y, Brell A, López C, Sánchez-Reus F, Mirelis B, Coll P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptide Fallaxin Analogue, FL9, affects Virulence Gene Expression and DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract The rapid rise in antibiotic resistant pathogens is causing increased health concerns and consequently, there is an urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that have been isolated from a wide range of organisms represent a very promising class of novel antimicrobials. In the present study, the analogue FL9, based on the amphibian AMP fallaxin, was studied to elucidate its mode of action and antibacterial activity against the human pathogen, S. aureus. Our data showed that FL9 may have a dual mode of action against S. aureus. At concentrations around MIC, FL9 bound DNA, in...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 28, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gottschalk S, Gottlieb CT, Vestergaard M, Hansen PR, Gram L, Ingmer H, Thomsen LE Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic Susceptibility and Molecular Mechanisms of Macrolide Resistance in Streptococci Isolated from Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients.
In this study, we assessed the antibiotic resistance in 413 streptococci isolates from adult CF patients against nine antibiotics relevant in CF treatment. We observed very low rates of cephalosporin resistance (cefepime and ceftriaxone,
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 25, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thornton CS, Grinwis ME, Sibley CD, Parkins MD, Rabin HR, Surette MG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical and Microbiological Outcomes in Patients with Streptococcus Anginosus Group Bacteremia Identified Through Use of a Rapid Microarray Assay.
Abstract Limited data exist evaluating outcomes in patients with serious S. anginosus group infections, particularly bacteremia. A retrospective, single-center cohort study was conducted to characterize potential risk factors along with clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with S. anginosus group bacteremia (SAGB). Adult inpatients with SAGB identified by Verigene Gram-Positive blood culture assay between 3/2013-4/2014 were included. Patients ≤ 18 or>89 years, those with SAGB identified at an outside facility, or incarcerated were excluded. The 34 patients who met inclusion criteria were 57&plus...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 25, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wenzler E, Chandrasekaran V, Salvador P, Anwar M, Pancholi P, McGwire BS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin as an adjuvant: The superiority of the conjugated form of flagellin versus the mixed one to an HIV-1 vaccine candidate in the induction of immune responses.
Abstract In the present study, the adjuvant activity of flagellin was compared in the conjugated and mixed forms, against a peptide vaccine from HIV-1 p24-Nef vaccine candidate. The mice were immunized with the HIV-1 p24-Nef peptide with flagellin in both conjugated and mixed forms. Lymphocyte proliferation, CTL activity, and IL-4 and IFN- cytokines was evaluated by Brdu, CFSE, and ELISA methods, respectively. At the same time, the frequency of IFN- producing T lymphocytes as well as total and isotype-specific antibodies were assessed by ELISPOT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Our experimental results show...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Delavari S, Sohrabi M, Shafiee Ardestani M, Faezi S, Tebianian M, Taghizadeh M, Shajiei A, Hosseini SY, Moghaddampour M, Mahdavi M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Miltefosine is effective against Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum nail biofilms in vitro.
Abstract Onychomycosis is a nail fungal infection that represents ~50% of all nail disease cases worldwide. Clinical treatment with standard antifungals frequently requires long-term systemic therapy, to avoid chronic disease. Onychomycosis by non-dermatophyte molds (NDMs), such as Fusarium spp., and yeasts, such as Candida spp., is particularly difficult to treat, possibly due to the formation of drug-resistant fungal biofilms on affected areas. Here, we show that the alkylphospholipid miltefosine, clinically used against leishmaniasis and cutaneous breast metastases, has potent activity against biofilms of F. ox...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vila TV, Quintanilha NS, Rozental S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Respiratory bacterial culture from two sequential bronchoalveolar lavages of the same lobe in children with chronic cough.
Abstract Identification of bacteria causing lower airway infections is important to determine appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is used to obtain lower airway specimens in young children. The first lavage (lavage-1) is typically used for bacterial culture. However, no studies in children have compared the detection of cultivable bacteria from sequential lavages of the same lobe. BAL fluid was collected from two sequential lavages of the same lobe in 79 children enrolled in our prospective studies of chronic cough. The respiratory bacteria Streptococcus pneum...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 22, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hare KM, Marsh RL, Smith-Vaughan HC, Bauert P, Chang AB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Black Aspergillus species isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Iran.
PMID: 26384733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zarei F, Mirhendi H, Motamedi M, Ahmadi B, Nouripour-Sisakht S, Zarrinfar H, Jalalizand N, Hashemi J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence of VIM-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a paediatric patient.
S, Gómez-Gil R, Mingorance J PMID: 26384861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sotillo A, Muñoz-Vélez M, López Santamaría M, Ruiz-Carrascoso G, García-Bujalance S, Gómez-Gil R, Mingorance J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: ecology and evolution of a human bacterium.
Abstract Some species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes human tuberculosis (TB), are the first cause of death linked to a single pathogen worldwide. In the last decades, evolutionary studies have much improved our knowledge on MTBC history and have highlighted its long co-evolution with humans. Its ability to remain latent in humans, the extraordinary proportion of asymptomatic carriers (1/3 of the entire human population), the deadly epidemics and the observed increasing level of resistance to antibiotics are proofs of its evolutionary success. M...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 17, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Banuls AL, Sanou A, Van Anh NT, Godreuil S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF MS following short-term incubation on solid media.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate MALDI-TOF MS after short incubation on solid media for rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles. MALDI-TOF MS was performed after 2.5 h and 5.5 h plate incubation of samples from positive blood cultures. Identification scores with values>1.7 were accepted as successful identification if the results were confirmed by conventional methods. Conventional methods included MALDI-TOF MS, Vitek 2 and diverse biochemical and agglutination tests after overnight culture. In total, 515 positive blood cultures with monomicrobial bacterial growth represent...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 10, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Altun O, Botero-Kleiven S, Carlsson S, Ullberg M, Özenci V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular types of Clostridium difficile isolates from fecal specimens of patients in a tertiary care center.
Abstract Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to considerable morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Fecal specimens from 1110 hospitalized patients suspected for CDI were cultured for isolation of C. difficile and characterization of virulence genes. PCR was carried out for toxigenic genes tcdA, tcdB, cdtA and cdtB genes and PCR-RFLP for fliC and slpA genes. Of 174 (15.7%) C. difficile isolates, 121 (69.5%) were toxigenic amongst which 68 (56.2%) also had both tcdA and tcdB genes. The remaining 53 (43.8%) of the isolates also had at least one of the toxin genes. Binary toxin genes (cdtA and c...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 10, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vaishnavi C, Singh M, Mahmood S, Kochhar R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Human parechovirus infections and child myositis cases associated with genotype 3 in Osaka City, Japan, 2014.
Abstract Human parechovirus (HPeV) infects humans early in life and typically causes asymptomatic or mild diseases such as gastrointestinal and respiratory illness, but sometimes leads to more serious consequences in neonates and young infants. In 2014, we detected HPeV from 38 patients by real-time RT-PCR in Osaka City, Japan, and 33 HPeV strains were genotyped based on their VP1 sequences. HPeV genotype 3 (HPeV-3) was the most prevalent and accounted for 22 cases (66.7%) followed by 9 HPeV-1 (27.3%), 1 HPeV-2 (3.0%), and 1 HPeV-4 (3.0%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that detected HPeV-3 strains were divided in...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yamamoto SP, Kaida A, Naito T, Hosaka T, Miyazato Y, Sumimoto SI, Kohdera U, Ono A, Kubo H, Iritani N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Association of Clostridium difficile ribotype 078 with detectable toxin in human stool specimens.
Abstract Using a C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) immunoassay and a sensitive C. difficile toxin A/B immunoassay, human stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea (n=1085) were classified as either GDH-positive / toxin-negative, or GDH-positive / toxin positive. 528/725 (73%) of the GDH-positive / toxin-negative specimens contained viable C. difficile, and 433/528 (82%) of these C. difficile isolates were PCR positive for the toxin gene pathogenicity locus. Overall, 867/1078 (80%) of the GDH-positive specimens contained viable C. difficile, and 433/725 (60%) of the GDH-positive / toxin-negative specime...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 8, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fairley DJ, McKenna JP, Stevenson M, Weaver J, Gilliland C, Watt A, Coyle PV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Resistance to clarithromycin and genotypes in Helicobacter pylori strains, isolated in Sicily.
In this study we have reported: the prevalence of the resistance of H. Pylori, isolated in Sicily, to clarithromycin; the principal point of mutation associated with this resistance; and the more frequent association between resistance to clarithromycin and cagA, motif EPIYA, and the vacA and oipA genes. Resistance to clarithromycin was detected in 25% of cases, the main genetic mutation involved being A2143G. The cagA gene was present in 48% of cases and the distribution of the EPIYA motif was: ABC in 35 cases; ABCC in 8 cases; ABCCC in 2 cases; ABC-ABCC in 2 cases; and ABC-ABCC-ABCCC in 1 case. Regarding the vacA allele,...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 2, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fasciana T, Calà C, Bonura C, Di Carlo E, Matranga D, Scarpulla G, Manganaro M, Camilleri S, Giammanco A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum specimens using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in Korea.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), remains one of the leading causes of death in the world. In Korea, the current prevalence of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) poses a major problem. The most common method for diagnosing TB in developing countries is sputum smear microscopy; however the sensitivity of this test is relatively low, and it usually requires well-trained laboratory staff. Cultures of MTC require up to several weeks in sophisticated facilities, such as Bio Safety Level-3. Effective diagnostic techniques are necessary to control ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 2, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moon SH, Kim EJ, Tomono J, Miyamoto S, Mitarai S, Kim DW, Seki M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genes encoding ten newly designated OXA-63 Group class D β-lactamases identified in strains of the pathogenic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli.
Genes encoding ten newly designated OXA-63 Group class D β-lactamases identified in strains of the pathogenic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli. J Med Microbiol. 2015 Aug 26; Authors: La T, Neo E, Phillips ND, Hampson DJ Abstract The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli colonises the large intestine of birds and mammals, including human beings, and may induce colitis and diarrhoea. B. pilosicoli has a recombinant population structure, and strains show extensive genomic rearrangements and different genome sizes. The resident chromosomal gene blaOXA-63 in B. pilosicoli encodes O...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: La T, Neo E, Phillips ND, Hampson DJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Trichosporon inkin biofilms produce extracellular proteases and exhibit resistance to antifungals.
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine experimental conditions for in vitro biofilm formation of clinical isolates of T. inkin - an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Biofilms were formed in microtiter plates in three different media (RPMI, Sabouraud and Cled), with inocula of 104, 105 or 106 cells/mL, at pH 5.5 and 7.0, at 35°C and 28°C, under static and shaking conditions for 72 h. Growth kinetics of biofilms were evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Biofilm milieu analysis were assessed by counting viable cells and quantification of nucleic acids released into biofilm s...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 25, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cordeiro RA, Serpa R, Alexandre CF, Marques FJ, de Melo CV, Franco JD, Evangelista AJ, de Camargo ZP, Brilhante RS, Rocha MF, Moreira JL, Bandeira TJ, Sidrim JJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiological characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi, South Africa, 2003-2014.
PMID: 26306409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Smith AM, Tau N, Sooka A, Keddy K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) For Rapid Molecular Detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Faecal Specimens.
In conclusion, the LAMP assay showed to be useful as a simplified, rapid, sensitive and specific alternative molecular screening tool in the diagnosis of E. bieneusi in faecal specimens. PMID: 26307076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nasarudin SN, Zainudin NS, Bernadus M, Mohd Nawi A, Hanafiah A, Osman E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The β-Lacta test for rapid detection of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins from positive blood cultures using briefly incubated solid medium cultures.
The β-Lacta test for rapid detection of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins from positive blood cultures using briefly incubated solid medium cultures. J Med Microbiol. 2015 Aug 24; Authors: Compain F, Bensekhri H, Rostane H, Mainardi JL, Lavollay M PMID: 26307077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Compain F, Bensekhri H, Rostane H, Mainardi JL, Lavollay M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genotypic diversity, pathogenic potential and the resistance profile of Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from humans and food from 1983-2013 in Brazil.
In this study, we genotyped 92 S. Typhimurium strains isolated from humans(43) and food(49) between 1983-2013 in Brazil using PFGE, MLVA and ERIC-PCR. Moreover, we assessed the frequency of 12 virulence markers by PCR and the resistance profile against 12 antimicrobials. More than 85.8% of the strains studied carried 11 of the virulence markers or more. Thirty-three (25%) strains were multi-drug resistant (MDR). The 92 S. Typhimurium studied were grouped by PFGE in PFGE-A, PFGE-B1 and PFGE-B2; by MLVA in MLVA-A, MLVA-B1 and MLVA-B2 and, finally, were grouped by ERIC-PCR in ERIC-A and ERIC-B. The strains isolated from human...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Almeida F, Medeiros MI, Rodrigues DD, Falcao JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Influence of pH on bile sensitivity among various strains of Listeria monocytogenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
In this study the survival of strains representing six serotypes were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following exposure to bile. Exposure to bile salts at acidic pH increased toxicity of bile, resulting in a significant reduction in survival for all strains tested. However, following this initial reduction, no significant reduction was observed for an additional two hours except for 10403S (P = 0.002). Anaerobic cultivation increased bile resistance, but a significant increase was only observed in virulent strains when exposed to bile at pH of 5.5. Exposure to pH 3.0 prior to bile decreased viability among...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: White SJ, McClung DM, Wilson JG, Roberts BN, Donaldson JR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Reduced Turnaround Time and Improved Diagnosis of Invasive Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections Using a Lyophilised Quadruplex qPCR.
Abstract Since 1996 the Meningococcal Reference Unit in Manchester has provided a national service for PCR confirmation of meningococcal and pneumococcal disease. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is predominant in the UK, accounting for greater than 60 % of cases. In response to this the Meningococcal Reference Unit has developed a quadruplex quantitative PCR that detects N. meningitidis capsule transporter (ctrA), serogroup B sialyltransferase (siaDB), Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin (ply) and an internal control. The assay was prepared in a ready-to-use lyophilised format by Applied Biosystems. Laboratory...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: McHugh MP, Gray SJ, Kaczmarski EB, Guiver M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Current concepts in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media.
Abstract Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear associated with infection. Despite appropriate therapy, acute OM (AOM) can progress to chronic suppurative OM (CSOM) associated with ear drum perforation and purulent discharge. The effusion prevents the middle ear ossicles from properly relaying sound vibrations from the ear drum to the oval window of the inner ear causing conductive hearing loss. In addition, the inflammatory mediators generated during CSOM can penetrate into the inner ear through the round window. This can cause the loss of hair cells in the cochlea leading to sensorineural hearing...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 5, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mittal R, Lisi CV, Gerring R, Mittal J, Mathee K, Narasimhan G, Azad RK, Yao Q, Grati M, Yan D, Eshraghi AA, Angeli SI, Telischi FF, Liu XZ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Frequent Topoisomerase IV Mutations Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Ureaplasma Species.
This study aimed to investigate the role of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (encoded by gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (encoded by parC and parE) associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. A total of 114 Ureaplasma spp. strains, isolated from clinical female patients with symptomatic infection, were determined for species distribution and susceptibility to four fluoroquinolones. Moreover, we analyzed the QRDRs and compared with 14 ATCC reference strains of Ureaplasma spp. serovars to identify mutations that caused antimicrobial resistance. Our study indicated that moxifloxacin was the m...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Song J, Qiao Y, Kong Y, Ruan Z, Huang J, Song T, Zhang J, Xie X Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Human toxoplasmosis: a comparative evaluation of the diagnostic potential of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii ROP5 and ROP18 antigens.
This study provides a comparative assessment of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 T. gondii proteins in the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. We found that both ROP5 and ROP18 proteins allowed the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies with a relatively low sensitivity; however ROP18 IgM ELISA proved to be more sensitive than the SAG1 assay. This study also points to a relatively weak potential of the corresponding native ROP5 and ROP18 kinases in the generation of strong antibody response in humans. PMID: 26242602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grzybowski MM, Gatkowska JM, Dziadek B, Dzitko K, Długońska H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Inactivating effects of the lactoperoxidase system on bacterial lyases involved in oral malodor production.
Abstract The main components of oral malodor have been identified as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan. The lactoperoxidase (LPO) system (consisting of LPO, glucose oxidase, glucose, and thiocyanate) has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activities against oral bacteria in vitro and suppressive effects on VSCs in mouth air in a clinical trial. We herein examined the in vitro effects of the LPO system on the activities of the bacterial lyases involved in the production of VSCs by oral anaerobes. The exposure of crude bacterial extracts of Fusobacterium nucleatum a...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakano M, Shin K, Wakabayashi H, Yamauchi K, Abe F, Hironaka S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Biofilm synthesis and presence of virulence factors among enterococci isolated from patients and water samples.
Abstract The goal of this study was to compare biofilm synthesis among enterococci recovered from clinical samples (infection or colonization) of patients, as well as, environmental samples in order to determine possible virulence factors and clonal relationship. During a 2-year period, clinical samples (blood, catheter tips, bronchial secretions, wounds, peritoneal fluid, urine) and rectal swabs collected from hospitalized patients, as well as, environmental water samples were tested for the presence of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion met...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Papadimitriou-Olivgeris M, Filippidou S, Drougka E, Fligou F, Kolonitsiou F, Dodou V, Marangos M, Anastassiou ED, Vantarakis A, Spiliopoulou I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Role of the culture medium in porin expression and piperacillin-tazobactam susceptibility in Escherichia coli.
This study suggests that porin expression may be impacted by a susceptibility testing medium, which may modify the antibiotic diffusion into the bacteria thus affecting MIC results. PMID: 26242994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pinet E, Franceschi C, Davin-Regli A, Zambardi G, Pagès JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of minocycline alone or in combinations in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.
tti A Abstract Minocycline (MIN) usually shows good activity against Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The reintroduction to the market of intravenous MIN provides an additional agent to the limited options for the treatment of A. baumannii infections. The activity of MIN as single agent and in combination with rifampicin, colistin or imipenem was evaluated by means of killing curves and twenty-four-hour-time kill curves in five A. baumannii isolates which were selected on the basis of different antimicrobials resistance profiles. MIN showed bacteriostatic activity in 3 isolates (2XMIC or 16XMIC) and bactericidal i...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 31, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rodríguez CH, Nastro M, Vay C, Famiglietti A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Predominance of PCR-ribotypes, 018 (smz) and 369 (trf) of Clostridium difficile in Japan: A potential relationship with other global circulating strains?
In conclusion, PCR-ribotypes 018 (smz) and 369 (trf) were identified as major circulating strains in both outbreak and non-outbreak settings in Japan. Given their epidemiological relevance, molecular investigations are warranted to clarify potential evolutionary links with related strains found elsewhere, such as PCR-ribotypes 018 and 017 from Europe and North America. PMID: 26238868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 31, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Senoh M, Kato H, Fukuda T, Niikawa A, Hori Y, Hagiya H, Ito Y, Miki H, Abe Y, Furuta K, Takeuchi H, Tajima H, Tominaga H, Satomura H, Kato H, Morita S, Tanada A, Hara T, Kawada M, Sato Y, Takahashi M, Higuchi A, Nakajima T, Wakamatsu Y, Toyokawa M, Ueda A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research