Umbilical catheters as vectors for generalized bacterial infection in premature infants regardless of antibiotic use.
CONCLUSION: Umbilical catheters are vectors for skin microflora transmission to the bloodstream via biofilm formation, regardless of antibiotic use and the duration of catheterization, especially in preterm neonates. PMID: 31274401 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sobczak A, Klepacka J, Amrom D, Żak I, Kruczek P, Kwinta P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility and impact of macrolide antibiotics on Moraxella catarrhalis in the upper and lower airways of children with chronic endobronchial suppuration.
CONCLUSION: Despite the frequent use of macrolides, few macrolide-resistant isolates were detected. This suggests a fitness cost associated with macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis. Macrolide antibiotics remain an effective choice for treating M. catarrhalis lower airway infection in children with chronic endobronchial suppuration. PMID: 31274402 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hare KM, Seib KL, Chang AB, Harris TM, Spargo JC, Smith-Vaughan HC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Application of transdermal patches with new skin test reagents for detection of latent tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION: Transdermal application of defined purified antigens might be a promising method for LTBI screening. PMID: 31274404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kasempimolporn S, Areekul P, Thaveekarn W, Sutthisri R, Boonchang S, Sawangvaree A, Sitprija V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Candida auris: a comparison between planktonic and biofilm susceptibility to antifungal drugs.
guez J, Esteban J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candida auris is a pathogenic yeast that mainly affects immunosuppressed patients and those with implanted medical devices. This pathogen also displays elevated resistance to common antifungals and high survival and spreading capacities. Since no antifungal breakpoints have yet been defined for this pathogen, the data obtained here can be useful for further research concerning treatment or implementation of a prevention and disinfection protocol. Our aim was to study the antifungal resistance of C. auris to current antifungals in planktonic and sessile states. Using confoca...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Romera D, Aguilera-Correa JJ, Gadea I, Viñuela-Sandoval L, García-Rodríguez J, Esteban J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification and capsular serotype sequetyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies affirm the importance of applying reliable identification protocols for S. pneumoniae before serotyping; our protocols provide reliable diagnostic tools, as well as an improved workflow, for serotype identification of pneumococcus and differentiation of serogroup 6 types. PMID: 31268417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gonzales-Siles L, Salvà-Serra F, Degerman A, Nordén R, Lindh M, Skovbjerg S, Moore ERB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Validation of the Seegene RV15 multiplex PCR for the detection of influenza A subtypes and influenza B lineages during national influenza surveillance in hospitalized adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the detection of circulating subtypes of influenza A and lineages of influenza B by RV15 was similar to detection by real-time RT-PCR. Multiplex testing with RV15 allows for a more comprehensive respiratory virus surveillance in hospitalized adults, without significantly compromising the reliability of influenza A or B virus detection. PMID: 31264957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: LeBlanc JJ, ElSherif M, Mulpuru S, Warhuus M, Ambrose A, Andrew M, Boivin G, Bowie W, Chit A, Dos Santos G, Green K, Halperin SA, Hatchette TF, Ibarguchi B, Johnstone J, Katz K, Langley JM, Lagacé-Wiens P, Loeb M, Lund A, MacKinnon-Cameron D, McCarthy A, Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro bactericidal activity of levonadifloxacin (WCK 771) against methicillin- and quinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.
CONCLUSION: These results show that levonadifloxacin has an improved bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded quinolone-resistant S. aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus, and that it can be a promising treatment option for such infections. PMID: 31241446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tellis M, Joseph J, Khande H, Bhagwat S, Patel M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of group A rotavirus among children aged under 5 years in Tunisia, 2015-2017.
i A Abstract The aim of the present study was to report the molecular characterization of human group A rotaviruses (RVAs) circulating in Tunisia. Stool specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age who had been hospitalized or were consulting for gastroenteritis in Tunisian hospitals between 2015 and 2017. All samples were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of the VP6 gene specific for RVA. RVA-positive samples were further analysed for G/P genotyping by semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR. Among 454 tested samples, 72 (15.8 %) were positive for RVA. G1...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bennour H, Fodha I, Bouazizi A, Ben Hamida-Rebaï M, Jerbi A, Fredj MBH, Lakhal S, Dhiflaoui A, Abdelberi S, Abbassi F, Boujaafar N, Fathallah A, Abroug S, Khlifa M, Trabelsi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An identification protocol for ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria bloodstream infections using a MinION nanopore sequencer.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the potential of the MinION sequencer for the identification of GN bacteria from positive BC bottles and the confirmation of an ESBL phenotype. This innovative sequence technology and its application could lead to a breakthrough in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID: 31237534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sakai J, Tarumoto N, Kodana M, Ashikawa S, Imai K, Kawamura T, Ikebuchi K, Murakami T, Mitsutake K, Maeda T, Maesaki S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Surveillance cultures for detection of rectal and lower respiratory tract carriage of colistin-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in intensive care unit patients: comparison of direct plating and pre-enrichment step.
CONCLUSION: The colonization rate among our ICU patients was 9.4  %. Based on our findings, the pre-enrichment step is necessary for the determination of ColR GNB carriage - even though the time to result takes an additional day, fewer than half of ColR GNB carriers were detected using the direct plating protocol. PMID: 31237536 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Germ J, Cerar Kišek T, Kokošar Ulčar B, Lejko Zupanc T, Mrvič T, Kerin Povšič M, Seme K, Pirs M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Application of a nucleic acid-based multiplex kit to identify viral and atypical bacterial aetiology of lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized children.
CONCLUSION: The SureX13 respiratory pathogen multiplex kit has the ability to effectively detect a range of RTPs in hospitalized paediatric patients with LRTIs. PMID: 31225788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wen S, Lv F, Chen X, Zhu L, Li H, Lin L, Zhang H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation and readout optimization of the rapid polymyxin NP test for the detection of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
CONCLUSION: We reinforced the rapid polymyxin NP test as a rapid and valuable tool for detecting colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, although false-positive results were obtained for several colistin-susceptible Enterobacter spp. By using the optimized method, we were able to increase the sensitivity and specificity values to 94  % and 95  %, respectively. PMID: 31225790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Belda-Orlowski A, Pfennigwerth N, Gatermann SG, Korte-Berwanger M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Sub-MIC effects of a proline-rich antibacterial peptide on clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.
CONCLUSION: Bac7(1-35) is internalized into A. baumannii and is able to inhibit biofilm formation and bacterial motility, without inducing resistance. This study stresses the importance of considering possible effects that antimicrobials could have at sub-MICs, mimicking a common condition during antibiotic treatment. PMID: 31215857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dolzani L, Milan A, Scocchi M, Lagatolla C, Bressan R, Benincasa M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Earlier generation quinolones can be useful in identifying Haemophilus influenzae strains with low susceptibility to quinolone isolated from paediatric patients.
CONCLUSION: A disc diffusion test combining results from nalidixic acid and pipemidic acid can detect low-susceptibility strains harbouring amino acid substitutions without the need for genetic analysis. This test can help reduce inappropriate and unnecessary fluoroquinolone use. PMID: 31215858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanaka E, Wajima T, Noguchi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis from North Region of Brazil.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence for the circulation of most HBoV genotypes (except HBoV-4) in the North Region of Brazil at a considerable rate and further investigations are necessary to improve our knowledge in the context of HBoV infections and their role in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID: 31215861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Soares LS, Lima ABF, Pantoja KC, Lobo PS, Cruz JF, Guerra SFS, Bezerra DAM, Bandeira RS, Mascarenhas JDP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Investigation of a Pandoraea apista cluster common to adult and paediatric cystic fibrosis patients attending two hospitals in the same city.
CONCLUSION: Epidemiological analysis suggested that this cluster could not always be attributed to patient-to-patient transmission. The acquisition of ICE-related virulence factors may have had an impact on its prevalence. PMID: 31210630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kenna DTD, Coward A, Perry C, Pike R, Schaefer U, Turton J, Green H, Jones AM, Bright-Thomas RJ, Burns P, Narayan O, Wilkinson S, Turton JF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of bedaquiline against slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria.
The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of BDQ on SGM by assessing their MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The MIC of BDQ against 17 clinical isolates including Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium simiae species was determined by the resazurin microtitre assay and the MBC by the c.f.u. determination on 7H10 agar plates. BDQ has a bacteriostatic activity on all SGM tested with a MIC range from 0.03 to 0.007 µg ml-1 and surprisingly a good bactericidal activity on the majority of the isolates teste...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Martin A, Godino IT, Aguilar-Ayala DA, Mathys V, Lounis N, Villalobos HR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Analysis of the effect of smoking on the buccal microbiome using next-generation sequencing technology.
CONCLUSION: The results of the current study indicate that smoking is a factor influencing buccal microbiome composition. In addition, sequencing of all seven hypervariable regions yielded more accurate results than those with any of the single variable regions. PMID: 31199220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karabudak S, Ari O, Durmaz B, Dal T, Basyigit T, Kalcioglu MT, Durmaz R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiology and genetic screening of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among symptomatic and asymptomatic children.
CONCLUSION: The occurrence of genetically similar diarrheagenic E. coli in both groups of children, likewise resistant to these agents, underscores the importance of establishing strategies for the prevention of outbreaks, especially among low-income households. PMID: 31199225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lima FM, de Paulo Daurelio F, Mucci ER, Ahagon CM, Dos Santos Carmo AM, Eterovic A, Fernando Dos Santos L, Tiba-Casas MR, Camargo CH, Cergole-Novella MC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Semisynthetic eugenol derivatives as antifungal agents against dermatophytes of the genus Trichophyton.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the semisynthetic eugenol derivatives (SEDs) show promising antifungal activity and selectivity against dermatophyte fungi. PMID: 31199226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pinto SML, Rivera Y, Herrera Sandoval LV, Lizarazo JC, Rincón JJ, Vargas Méndez LY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Invasive paediatric Elizabethkingia meningoseptica infections are best treated with a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or fluoroquinolone.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with combination therapy of piperacillin/tazobactam and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or a fluroquinolone was effective in this study, with low mortality rates being observed. PMID: 31199227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chan JC, Chong CY, Thoon KC, Tee NWS, Maiwald M, Lam JCM, Bhattacharya R, Chandran S, Yung CF, Tan NWH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Decoding the molecular epidemiology of group A streptococcus - an Indian perspective.
CONCLUSION: The coverage among the South Indian GAS isolates was 28.2 % which increased to only 46.6 % with the cross-opsonic effect, thus highlighting the importance of developing a specific multivalent vaccine including the prevalent emm types in India or considering the use of conserved C-repeat vaccines and non-M protein based vaccines. PMID: 31192782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abraham T, Sistla S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Slow growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei compared to other pathogens in an adapted blood culture system in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
CONCLUSIONS: Visual inspection for growth of commercial blood culture bottles in a low-resource setting provided satisfactory yield and time-to-detection. However, B. pseudomallei grew slowly and was mainly detected by blind subculture. The aerobic bottle outperformed the anaerobic bottle. PMID: 31188093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peeters M, Ombelet S, Chung P, Tsoumanis A, Lim K, Long L, De Smet B, Kham C, Teav S, Vlieghe E, Phe T, Jacobs J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Generation and selection of antibodies for a novel immunochromatographic lateral flow test to rapidly identify OXA-23-like-mediated carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.
CONCLUSION: With this rapid detection assay one can save 12-48 h of diagnostic time, which could help avoid inappropriate use of carbapenems and enable earlier intervention to control the transmission of OXA-23-producing carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolates to other patients and healthcare workers. PMID: 31188094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mertins S, Higgins PG, Rodríguez MG, Borlon C, Gilleman Q, Mertens P, Seifert H, Krönke M, Klimka A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Ibuprofen lacks direct antimicrobial properties for the treatment of urinary tract infection isolates.
Abstract The high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women and children, in combination with a lack of antibiotic efficacy with regard to pathogen eradication and recurrence prevention, as well as the negative side effects associated with antibiotics, has led researchers to explore the role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a primary management strategy. The aim of this study was to determine whether ibuprofen (IBU) or one of its major metabolites, 2-carboxyibuprofen (CIBU), could affect the growth and adhesion of the two most common uropathogens, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis....
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Whiteside SA, Dave S, Reid G, Burton JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Apparent performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis: a descriptive study.
CONCLUSION: mNGS is helpful for identifying Cryptococcus species. The application of mNGS, together with India ink staining, culture methods, and CrAg, may significantly improve the diagnostic precision in CM, thereby informing choice of appropriate antifungal treatment courses. PMID: 31184572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xing XW, Zhang JT, Ma YB, Zheng N, Yang F, Yu SY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of different testing tools for the identification of non-gonococcal Neisseria spp. isolated from Lebanese male semen: a strong and significant association with infertility.
CONCLUSION: This work predicted a strong and significant association between the presence of Neisseria spp. in semen and male infertility among the Lebanese population. For a better understanding of this association, it is recommended that more genomic and large-scale epidemiological investigations are undertaken to reach definitive conclusions. PMID: 31172907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khoder M, Osman M, Diene SM, Okdah L, Lalaoui R, Al Achkar M, Mallat H, Hamze M, Rolain JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro efficacy of sodium selenite in reducing toxin production, spore outgrowth and antibiotic resistance in hypervirulent Clostridium difficile.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that sodium selenite could potentially be used to control C. difficile and indicate that future in vivo studies are warranted. PMID: 31172910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pellissery AJ, Vinayamohan PG, Yin HB, Mooyottu S, Venkitanarayanan K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection and quantification of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in blood from infected chickens - addressing challenges with detection of DNA from infectious agents in host species with nucleated red blood cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ER bacteria undergo rapid phagocytosis in chicken blood and that analysis of a blood fraction enriched for phagocytic cells is necessary for reliable detection and quantification. The presented results explain the poor performance of PCR detection reported in previously published experimental ER infection studies, and the proposed solutions are likely to have broader implications for PCR-based veterinary diagnostics in non-mammalian host species such as poultry and fish. PMID: 31172912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wattrang E, Jäderblom V, Jinnerot T, Eriksson H, Bagge E, Persson M, Dalgaard TS, Söderlund R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Predominance of emm4 and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes in acute pharyngitis in a southern region of Korea.
CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of emm genotypes was quite different from those previously reported in Korea. emm4 accounted for more than 50  % of the genotypes. Macrolide resistance rates remained very low, but five of six ERY-resistant strains displayed the cMLSB phenotype. PMID: 31169483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim S, Lee S, Park H, Kim S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of miramistin against drug-resistant fungi.
CONCLUSION: These findings support further investigation of miramistin and suggest its possible use for treatment of superficial fungal infections. PMID: 31169488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Osmanov A, Wise A, Denning DW Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of Siphoviridae phage infecting extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: These studies suggest that phage AB1801 may be suitable for further development as an antimicrobial agent against XDR A. baumannii infection. PMID: 31169490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wintachai P, Naknaen A, Pomwised R, Voravuthikunchai SP, Smith DR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of mecillinam and nitroxoline against Neisseria gonorrhoeae - re-purposing old antibiotics in the multi-drug resistance era.
Abstract In 2018, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reported the first cases of extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Europe. Seeking new options for antimicrobial therapy we investigated the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to nitroxoline (NIT) and mecillinam (MCM), both of which are currently only indicated to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates with non-susceptibility to penicillin from two German medical centres were included (n =27). Most isolates were also non-susceptible to a range of other anti-gonococcal antimicrobial...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fuchs F, Wille J, Hamprecht A, Parcina M, Lehmann C, Schwarze-Zander C, Seifert H, Higgins PG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical significance of koala retrovirus in two South Australian koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations.
CONCLUSION: KoRV-A is a prevalent pathogen in wild South Australian koala populations. Future studies should continue to investigate KoRV and C. pecorum associations, as the relationship is likely to be complex and to differ between the northern and southern populations. PMID: 31162024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fabijan J, Miller D, Olagoke O, Woolford L, Boardman W, Timms P, Polkinghorne A, Simmons G, Hemmatzadeh F, Trott DJ, Speight KN Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multidrug- and colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica 4,[5],12:i:- sequence type 34 carrying the mcr-3.1 gene on the IncHI2 plasmid recovered from a human.
Abstract A colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica 4, [5],12:i:- sequence type (ST) 34 harbouring mcr-3.1 was recovered from a patient who travelled to China 2 weeks prior to diarrhoea onset. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of the mcr-3.1 gene located in the globally disseminated IncHI2 plasmid, highlighting the intercontinental dissemination of the colistin-resistant S. enterica 4, [5],12:i:- ST34 pandemic clone. PMID: 31162025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Monte DF, Nelson V, Cerdeira L, Keelara S, Greene S, Griffin D, Rath S, Hall R, Page N, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Thakur S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility tests for sepsis; the road ahead.
Abstract Current methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are too slow to affect initial treatment decisions in the early stages of sepsis, when the prescriber is most concerned to select effective therapy immediately, rather than finding out what will not work 1 or 2 days later. There is a clear need for much faster differentiation between viral and bacterial infection, and AST, linked to earlier aetiological diagnosis, without sacrificing either the accuracy of quantitative AST or the low cost of qualitative AST. Truly rapid AST methods are eagerly awaited, and there are several candidate technolog...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Inglis TJJ, Ekelund O Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Tigecycline and inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Terengganu, Malaysia.
This study aims to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of S. aureus obtained from the main tertiary hospital in Terengganu state, Malaysia, from July 2016 to June 2017. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 90 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 109 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were determined by disc diffusion with the iMLSB phenotype determined by D-test. Multidrug resistance (MDR) and the iMLSB phenotype were more prevalent in MRSA (84.4 and 46.7  %, respectively) compared to MSSA isolates. All five tigecycline-resistant isolates were MRSA. The high inci...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Che Hamzah AM, Yeo CC, Puah SM, Chua KH, A Rahman NI, Abdullah FH, Othman N, Chew CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activities of six antifungal agents and their combinations against Chaetomium spp.
CONCLUSION: Our study illustrated varying degrees of synergism between caspofungin or terbinafine and itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole or amphotericin B towards Chaetomium spp., which could be a reference for the clinical treatment of Chaetomium spp. infections. PMID: 31140972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun L, Wan Z, Li R, Yu J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Reduced vancomycin susceptibility and increased macrophage survival in Staphylococcus aureus strains sequentially isolated from a bacteraemic patient during a short course of antibiotic therapy.
CONCLUSION: We report an increasing resistance to vancomycin coupled with daptomycin that occurred within approximately 3 days of receiving vancomycin and steadily increased until the infection was cleared with an alternative antibiotic therapy. This study reiterates the need for rapid, efficient and accurate detection of hVISA and VISA infections, especially in high-bacterial load, metastatic infections like bacteraemia. PMID: 31136294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Basco MDS, Kothari A, McKinzie PB, Revollo JR, Agnihothram S, Azevedo MP, Saccente M, Hart ME Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of respiratory pathogens in clinical samples using metagenomic shotgun sequencing.
CONCLUSION: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that SMS is able to detect bacterial, fungal and viral organisms in BAL, including culture-negative cases. PMID: 31136295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qi C, Hountras P, Pickens CO, Walter JM, Kruser JM, Singer BD, Seed P, Green SJ, Wunderink RG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Expression of adhesin genes and biofilm formation among Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolates from patients with antibiotic-associated haemorrhagic colitis.
Abstract PURPOSE: Biofilm formation and resistance to last-line antibiotics have restricted chemotherapy options toward infection eradication. METHODOLOGY: Fifty K. oxytoca isolates were collected from patients with antibiotic-associated haemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted and phenotypic biofilm formation was assessed using microtitre tissue plate (MTP) assay. PCR was employed to amplify the adhesins, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemase and colistin resistance genes. The expression of adhesin genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (R...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghasemian A, Mahmood SS, Mohabati Mobarez A, Najar Peerayeh S, Talebi Bezmin Abadi A, Khodaparast S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: phenotypes, genotypes, transposons and pneumococcal vaccine coverage rates.
CONCLUSIONS: Multi-drug resistance among erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates mainly occurs due to the horizontal spread of the Tn916 family of transposons. The majority of the transposon-carrying isolates are covered by 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines. Since serotype distribution and transposons in S. pneumoniae isolates may change over time, close monitoring is essential. PMID: 31116101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Akdoğan Kittana FN, Mustak IB, Hascelik G, Saricam S, Gurler N, Diker KS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial peptides prevent bacterial biofilm formation on the surface of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement.
CONCLUSION: The results showed that the antibiofilm activity of these peptides was comparable to that of the antibiotics, but the peptides exhibited broader specificity than the antibiotics. Given the rapid development of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides show promise as a substitute for antibiotics for loading into bone cements. PMID: 31107198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Volejníková A, Melicherčík P, Nešuta O, Vaňková E, Bednárová L, Rybáček J, Čeřovský V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Diversity of strategies used by atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to induce attaching and effacing lesion in epithelial cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results reveal the diversity of strategies used by aEPEC isolates to interact with and damage epithelial host cells, thereby causing diarrheal diseases. PMID: 31107199 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vieira MA, Dias RCB, Dos Santos LF, Rall VLM, Gomes TAT, Hernandes RT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing of NDM-1-producing serotype K1 ST23 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae in China.
CONCLUSION: This study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of ST23 CR-hvKP isolate 3214. Our data highlights the potential risk of spread of NDM-1-producing ST23 hvKP. PMID: 31107201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu BT, Su WQ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Sequence similarity searches for morphine biosynthesis enzymes in bacteria yield putative targets for understanding associations between infection and opiate administration.
Abstract Exploiting the immunosuppressive, analgesic and highly addictive properties of morphine could increase the success of a bacterial pathogen. Therefore, we performed sequence similarity searches for two morphine biosynthesis demethylases in bacteria. For thebaine 6-O-demethylase and codeine O-demethylase, we found strong alignments to three (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii) of the six ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter species) that are commonly associated with drug resistance a...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhan SH, French L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Serum IgE and IgG reactivity to Aspergillus recombinant antigens in patients with cystic fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: The use of multiple recombinant antigens may improve the diagnostic accuracy in CF complicated with ABPA or AB. Asp f1 reactivity may relate to the presence of actively growing Aspergillus spp., which might be a useful marker for guiding antifungal therapy in ABPA. PMID: 31090534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alghamdi NS, Barton R, Wilcox M, Peckham D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Impact of the introduction of a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine on pneumococcal serotypes in non-invasive isolates from 2007 to 2016 at a teaching hospital in Japan.
In this study, we analysed the antimicrobial susceptibilities and capsular types of pneumococci isolated from non-invasive patient sites from 2007 to 2016 to assess the impact of the introduction of PCV13. METHODOLOGY: A total of 618 pneumococcal isolates collected at a teaching hospital from 2007 to 2016 were used. These isolates were characterized by capsular typing, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. RESULTS: Capsular typing indicated that, after the introduction of the PCV, the proportion of PCV13 serotypes decreased (P
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suzuki S, Osato R, Wajima T, Hasebe T, Ishikawa H, Mitsumori H, Nakaminami H, Noguchi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of risk factors for colistin resistance among uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case-control study.
CONCLUSIONS: K. pneumoniae show six times higher prevalence of colistin resistance than E. coli, and the emergence of resistant organisms has led to an increase in morbidity in infected patients. PMID: 31084700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaza P, Mahindroo J, Veeraraghavan B, Mavuduru RS, Mohan B, Taneja N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of otomycosis in Isfahan revealed a large diversity in causative agents.
CONCLUSION: Outcomes from this study showed a different picture of prevalence, where C. parapsilosis and A. tubingensis but not Aspergillus niger were the most species encountered from patients suffering from otomycosis. PMID: 31063125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aboutalebian S, Mahmoudi S, Mirhendi H, Okhovat A, Abtahi H, Chabavizadeh J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research