Cronobacter sakazakii induces necrotizing enterocolitis by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome expression via TLR4.
Conclusion. We found that C. sakazakii upregulates NF-κB via TLR4/MyD88 to promote activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the up-regulation of downstream caspase-1, release of IL-1β, GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis and development of NEC. These findings clarify the mechanisms by which C. sakazakii contributes to NEC. PMID: 32209170 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen Z, Zhang Y, Lin R, Meng X, Zhao W, Shen W, Fan H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A pooled analysis of patients with wound infections in the Phase 3 REVIVE trials: randomized, double-blind studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iclaprim versus vancomycin for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
Conclusion. Based on early clinical response, iclaprim achieved non-inferiority to vancomycin with a similar safety profile in patients with wound infections suspected or confirmed as caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Iclaprim may be a valuable treatment option for wound infections. PMID: 32195649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Noviello S, Corey GR, Holland TL, Lodise T, O'Riordan W, Wilcox MH, File TM, Dryden M, Balser B, Scaramucci A, Torres A, Huang DB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Hydroxyethoxy phenyl butanone, a new cosmetic preservative, does not cause bacterial cross-resistance to antimicrobials.
Conclusion. Data produced on the propensity of a molecule to induce bacterial resistance is useful and appropriate when launching a new preservative. PMID: 32186482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wesgate R, Menard-Szczebara F, Khodr A, Cupferman S, Maillard JY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance prevalence in commensal Escherichia coli from broilers, fattening turkeys, fattening pigs and veal calves in European countries and association with antimicrobial usage at country level.
Abstract The aim of this article is to report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in commensal Escherichia coli from livestock from several European countries. The relationships with antimicrobial usage (AMU) at country level and harmonized indicators to cover the most relevant AMR aspects for human health in animal production were also investigated. E. coli were isolated in faeces from broilers and fattening pigs (from nine countries), and fattening turkeys and veal calves (from three countries) and screened against a fixed antimicrobial panel. AMU data were collected at farm and average treatment incidences strati...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ceccarelli D, Hesp A, van der Goot J, Joosten P, Sarrazin S, Wagenaar JA, Dewulf J, Mevius DJ, Effort Consortium OBOT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Repurposing bioactive compounds for treating multidrug-resistant pathogens.
Conclusion. Although these compounds' potential for repurposing is limited by their toxicity, our results contribute to this growing field and provide a simple road map for using C. elegans for preliminary testing of known bioactive compounds with predicted antimicrobial activity. PMID: 32163353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hummell NA, Kirienko NV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of macrolide resistance mechanisms among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Tunisia.
Conclusion. This study shows that macrolide resistance among S. pneumoniae isolated in Tunisia is mainly related to target site modification. Our observations demonstrate a high degree of genetic diversity and capsular types among strains resistant to macrolides. PMID: 32159507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Midouni Ayadi B, Mehiri E, Draoui H, Ghariani A, Essalah L, Raoult D, Fournier PE, Slim-Saidi LN Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid molecular testing for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia improves clinical management.
Conclusion. Rapid and accurate detection of S. aureus with the Xpert MRSA/SA BC assay in positive blood culture bottles allowed earlier targeted patient management. Negative Xpert results are suggestive of coagulase negative staphylococci, allowing de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy if clinically appropriate. PMID: 32141812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: McHugh MP, Parcell BJ, MacKenzie FM, Templeton KE, Scottish Microbiology And Virology Network Smvn Molecular Diagnostics Evaluation Group Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Low lineage diversity and increased virulence of group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.
Conclusion. These results suggest strongly that this predominance did not occur randomly but rather was due to adaptive mechanisms that culminated in increased colonization and other bacterial properties that might confer increased bacteria-host adaptability to cause disease. PMID: 32125264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Santos VL, Silva LG, Martini CL, Anjos IHV, Maia MM, Genteluci GL, Sant'Anna V, Ferreira AMA, Couceiro JNSS, Figueiredo AMS, Ferreira-Carvalho BT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Mutations in the two component regulator systems PmrAB and PhoPQ give rise to increased colistin resistance in Citrobacter and Enterobacter spp.
Conclusions. Stable colistin resistance may be acquired with no loss of fitness in these species. However, only select strains were able to adapt suggesting that acquisition of colistin resistance is dependent upon individual strain characteristics. PMID: 32125265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wand ME, Sutton JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Klebsiella variicola causing nosocomial transmission among neonates - an emerging pathogen?
Conclusion. K. variicola can cause hospital outbreaks of colonization and infection similar to other Klebsiella spp.Preliminary results from this study were presented at the 27th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, April 22-25, 2018, Vienna, Austria. PMID: 32125266 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Piepenbrock E, Higgins PG, Wille J, Xanthopoulou K, Zweigner J, Jahn P, Reuter S, Skov R, Eichhorn J, Seifert H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Purification and characterization of nisin P produced by a strain of Streptococcus gallolyticus.
Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first production, purification and characterization of nisin P. Further study of nisin P may reveal its potential for treating or preventing infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, or those evading vaccination regimens. PMID: 32125268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aldarhami A, Felek A, Sharma V, Upton M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Delivery of antibacterial silver nanoclusters to Pseudomonas aeruginosa using species-specific DNA aptamers.
Conclusion. Using P. aeruginosa as a model, we show that targeting of DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters with an aptamer has effective fast-acting antimicrobial activity in vitro and in an in vivo animal model. PMID: 32125966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Soundy J, Day D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the performance of the Panther Fusion respiratory virus panel to R-Gene and laboratory developed tests for diagnostic and hygiene screening specimens from the upper and lower respiratory tract.
Conclusion. PF performed similar to R-Gene and LDTs not only for its intended use but also for LRT and hygiene screening specimens with shorter hands-on and turnaround times. PMID: 32118531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ganzenmueller T, Kaiser R, Baier C, Wehrhane M, Hilfrich B, Witthuhn J, Flucht S, Heim A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than serotype O157  : H7 in England, 2014-2016.
Conclusion. This analysis provided an indirect assessment of the risk of transmission of AMR gastrointestinal pathogens from animals to humans, and revealed a subset of human isolates of the zoonotic pathogen STEC were resistant to the antimicrobials used in animal husbandry. However, this proportion has not increased over the last three decades, and thismay provide evidence that guidancepromoting responsible practice has been effective. PMID: 32101158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gentle A, Day MR, Hopkins KL, Godbole G, Jenkins C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Thermonuclease test accuracy is preserved in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
Conclusions. In the era of increasing use of molecular-based microbiology assays, the thermonuclease test remains a simple, inexpensive and robust test for the presumptive identification of S. aureus cultured from blood, irrespective of methicillin sensitivity. PMID: 32101159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Canning B, Mohamed I, Wickramasinghe N, Swindells J, O'Shea MK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of protective immunity responses against pneumococcal PhtD and its C-terminal in combination with outer-membrane vesicles as adjuvants.
Conclusion. The combination of PhtD and PhtD-C with alum produced optimal results, but the combination of PhtD and PhtD-C with OMVs produced minimal results by comparison. The survival rates were also measured, and these corresponded with the results of the immunological assessments. Our findings showed that mice receiving PhtD and PhtD-C plus OMV and alum had higher survival rates than the mice in the other groups. PMID: 32100705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malekan M, Siadat SD, Aghasadeghi M, Shahrokhi N, Afrough P, Behrouzi A, Ahmadi K, Mousavi SF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Blue light emitting diodes enhance the antivirulence effects of Curcumin against Helicobacter pylori.
We examined the effect of Curcumin with and without irradiation with blue LEDs on the viability of H. pylori and four key factors important for colonization and establishment of H. pylori infection, namely urease production, motility, adhesion and biofilm formation.Results. We found that a combination of Curcumin and blue LEDs caused significant reductions in viability, urease production, motility, haemagglutination activity, as well as increased disruption of mature preformed biofilms of H. pylori, in comparison to Curcumin alone (P
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Darmani H, Smadi EAM, Bataineh SMB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Highly multidrug-resistant Morganella morganii clinical isolates from Nepal co-producing NDM-type metallo- β-lactamases and the 16S rRNA methylase ArmA.
This study describes the emergence of highly multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of M. morganii from Nepal co-producing NDM-type metallo-β-lactamases, including NDM-1 and NDM-5, and the 16S rRNA methylase ArmA. This is the first report of M. morganii clinical isolates from Nepal co-producing NDM-1/-5 and ArmA. It is important to establish infection control systems and effective treatments against multidrug-resistant M. morganii. PMID: 32100711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shrestha S, Tada T, Sherchan JB, Uchida H, Hishinuma T, Oshiro S, Morioka S, Kattel H, Kirikae T, Sherchand JB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

N-terminal region of Helicobacter pylori CagA induces IL-8 production in gastric epithelial cells via the β1 integrin receptor.
Conclusion. Residues 303-456 of the N-terminal region of CagA induce IL-8 production via a CagA303-456-ITGB1-p38-IL-8 pathway, and ERK1/2 is also involved in the release of IL-8. Extracellular CagA might induce IL-8 production before translocation into AGS cells. PMID: 32100714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zeng B, Chen C, Yi Q, Zhang X, Wu X, Zheng S, Li N, She F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology, in vitro susceptibility and exoenzyme screening of Malassezia clinical isolates.
Abstract Introduction. Malassezia folliculitis (MF) and pityriasis versicolor (PV) are common dermatoses caused by Malassezia species. Their molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and exoenzymes are rarely reported in China.Aim. To investigate the molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and enzymatic profile of Malassezia clinical isolates.Methodology. Malassezia strains were recovered from MF and PV patients and healthy subjects (HS) and identified by sequencing analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antifungals (posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole,...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li W, Zhang ZW, Luo Y, Liang N, Pi XX, Fan YM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure of staphylococcal enterotoxin B attenuates the development and function of blood regulatory T cells to repeated staphylococcal enterotoxin B exposure in adult offspring rats.
Abstract Introduction. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is an extensively studied super-antigen. A previous study by us suggested that SEB exposure during pregnancy could alter the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of neonatal offspring rats.Aim. It is unknown whether SEB exposure during pregnancy can influence the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood of neonatal offspring rats.Methodology. Pregnant rats at gestational day 16 were intravenously injected with 15 µg SEB. Peripheral blood was acquired from neonatal offspring rats on days 1, 3 and 5...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gao SX, Sun J, Li HH, Chen J, Kashif MR, Zhou P, Wei L, Zheng QW, Wu LG, Guan JC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Insights into plant-beneficial traits of probiotic Pseudomonas chlororaphis isolates.
Abstract Pseudomonas chlororaphis isolates have been studied intensively for their beneficial traits. P. chlororaphis species function as probiotics in plants and fish, offering plants protection against microbes, nematodes and insects. In this review, we discuss the classification of P. chlororaphis isolates within four subspecies; the shared traits include the production of coloured antimicrobial phenazines, high sequence identity between housekeeping genes and similar cellular fatty acid composition. The direct antimicrobial, insecticidal and nematocidal effects of P. chlororaphis isolates are correlated with k...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anderson AJ, Kim YC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the United States.
Abstract Introduction. Previous studies of viral encephalitis have focused on acute costs, estimating incidence at 7.3 per 100 000 and total US annual charges at $2 billion in 2010.Aim. We aim to quantify the most updated longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the USA from 2008 to 2015.Methodology. Data on patients diagnosed with viral encephalitis were obtained from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database. Patients with a primary diagnosis of viral encephalitis, from herpetic viruses and other viral aetiologies (e.g. West Nile fever) were included in the analysis. Data concerning h...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kiyani M, Liu B, Charalambous LT, Adil SM, Hodges SE, Yang S, Pagadala P, Perfect JR, Lad SP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Changes in epidemiologic characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated over 10 years from Japanese children with pharyngotonsillitis.
Conclusion. Our findings indicate that even in ambulatory care, antibiotic choice for these infections should be based on rapid identification and characterization of causative pathogens. PMID: 32011228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ubukata K, Wajima T, Morozumi M, Sakuma M, Tajima T, Matsubara K, Itahashi K, Iwata S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Presence of cagPAI genes and characterization of vacA s, i and m regions in Helicobacter pylori isolated from Alaskans and their association with clinical pathologies.
Conclusions. In this population with high rates of gastric cancer, we found that just over half of the H. pylori contained an intact cagPAI and 40 % had the vacA s1/i1/m1 genotype. Infection with these strains was associated with a more severe gastropathy. PMID: 32011229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miernyk KM, Bruden D, Rudolph KM, Hurlburt DA, Sacco F, McMahon BJ, Bruce MG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular identification of microsporidian species in patients with epithelial keratitis.
Conclusion. This study has reconfirmed that V. corneae causes epithelial keratitis in humans and that a newly detected Microsporidium species is also involved in microsporidial keratitis as one of the emerging pathogens in Thailand. Ophthalomologists should be aware of microsporidial keratitis in people from Thailand and those from neighbouring countries. PMID: 32011230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sanpool O, Thanathanee O, Laummuanwai P, Maleewong W, Intapan PM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Myoviridae phage PDX kills enteroaggregative Escherichia coli without human microbiome dysbiosis.
Conclusion. PDX killed EAEC isolate EN1E-0007 in vivo and in vitro, while not altering the diversity of normal human microbiota in anaerobic culture, and thus could be part of an effective therapy for children in developing countries and those suffering from EAEC-mediated traveller's diarrhoea without causing dysbiosis. PMID: 32011231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cepko LCS, Garling EE, Dinsdale MJ, Scott WP, Bandy L, Nice T, Faber-Hammond J, Mellies JL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Unexpected predominance of rotavirus G9P[8] strain in Tunisian adult diarrheal patients.
Abstract Introduction. Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is known to be a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children but its role as a potential pathogen in immunocompetent adults is probably underestimated.Aim. To compare RVA infections in patients from different age groups.Methodology. Fecal samples were collected from patients aged from birth to 65 years, hospitalized or consulting for AGE between 2015 and 2017. All samples were screened by RT-PCR for the detection of VP6 gene specific of RVA. RVA-positive samples were VP7 and VP4 genotyped using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR. Full-length VP7 gene of G9-positi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bennour H, Bouazizi A, Fodha I, Ben Hadj Fredj M, Ben Hamida-Rebai M, Jerbi A, Dhiflaoui A, Abdelberi S, Abbassi F, Abroug S, Khlifa M, Fathallah A, Boujaafar N, Trabelsi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid multiplex detection of the resistance genes mecA, vanA and vanB from Gram-positive cocci-positive blood cultures using a PCR-dipstick technique.
Conclusion. The results of the current study substantiate that PCR-dipstick can be used as an efficient detection system for MRSA and VRE directly from Gram-positive cocci-positive blood cultures. Its affordability and rapidity indicate that PCR-dipstick can be an effective tool for controlling nosocomial pathogens. PMID: 32003712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shanmugakani RK, Fujiya Y, Akeda Y, Hamaguchi S, Hamada S, Tomono K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus small intestinal infection.
Conclusion. This work presents a new mouse model of S. aureus gastrointestinal infection, while also providing insight into the pathogenesis of S. aureus in the gut. PMID: 32004137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Larcombe S, Jiang JH, Hutton ML, Abud HE, Peleg AY, Lyras D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Introduction of PCR testing reveals a previously unrecognized burden of yersiniosis in Hampshire, UK.
Abstract Introduction. Current testing practices for yersiniosis mean that its true incidence and epidemiology are not well understood. In mid-2016, the introduction of testing via a multiplex gastrointestinal PCR panel at Portsmouth hospital laboratory in Hampshire, UK, resulted in a marked increase in the number of Yersinia cases identified locally.Aim. Here we describe the epidemiology and microbiology of Yersinia cases identified at Portsmouth laboratory following the introduction of PCR testing.Methodology. A case was defined as a person with a stool specimen in which Yersinia was detected by PCR and/or cultu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Clarke M, Dabke G, Strakova L, Jenkins C, Saavedra-Campos M, McManus O, Paranthaman K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Dental floss impregnated with povidone-iodine coated with Eudragit L-100 as an antimicrobial delivery system against periodontal-associated pathogens.
Conclusion. It was concluded that Eudragit L-100 and PVP-I-coated dental floss represented a potential therapeutic agent to prevent periodontal diseases and dental caries and exhibited non-toxicity to periodontal ligament cells. PMID: 31976854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaewiad K, Nakpheng T, Srichana T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Friend or foe? Exploring the fine line between Pseudomonas brassicacearum and phytopathogens.
Abstract Pseudomonas brassicacearum is one of over fifty species of bacteria classified into the P. fluorescens group. Generally considered a harmless commensal, these bacteria are studied for their plant-growth promotion (PGP) and biocontrol characteristics. Intriguingly, P. brassicacearum is closely related to P. corrugata, which is classified as an opportunistic phytopathogen. Twenty-one P. brassicacearum genomes have been sequenced to date. In the current review, genomes of P. brassicacearum and strains from the P. corrugata clade were mined for regions associated with PGP, biocontrol and pathogenicity. We dis...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gislason AS, de Kievit TR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of imipenem-relebactam against resistant phenotypes of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from intraabdominal and urinary tract infection samples - SMART Surveillance Europe 2015-2017.
Conclusions. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and resistance mechanisms, including the study of imipenem-relebactam as it approaches regulatory approval, appears warranted. PMID: 31976856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lob SH, Karlowsky JA, Young K, Motyl MR, Hawser S, Kothari ND, Sahm DF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacteriophages of Klebsiella spp., their diversity and potential therapeutic uses.
Abstract Klebsiella spp. are commensals of the human microbiota, and a leading cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections. The incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing serious infections is increasing, and Klebsiella oxytoca is an emerging pathogen. Alternative strategies to tackle infections caused by these bacteria are required as strains become resistant to last-resort antibiotics such as colistin. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that can infect and kill bacteria. They and their gene products are now being considered as alternatives or adjuncts to antimicrobial thera...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Herridge WP, Shibu P, O'Shea J, Brook TC, Hoyles L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Raoultella spp. - reliable identification, susceptibility to antimicrobials and antibiotic resistance mechanisms.
Conclusion. Although Raoultella spp. strains remain sensitive to antibiotics, there is a constant need to monitor the sensitivity of these bacteria to selected antimicrobials. Isolation of a multi-drug resistant R. ornithinolytica strain indicates that even the less frequently isolated species of Enterobacteriaceae family should be precisely identified because they might be of clinical importance and the particular strain can also produce enzymes that pose the greatest threat today. PMID: 31971501 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sêkowska A, Bogiel T, Woźniak M, Gospodarek-Komkowska E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Furanone quorum-sensing inhibitors with potential as novel therapeutics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract Micro-organisms use quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-dependent process, to communicate. This QS mode of interchange leads to the production of a variety of virulence factors, co-ordination of complex bacterial behaviours, such as swarming motility, degradation of host tissue and biofilm formation. QS is implicated in numerous human infections and consequently researchers have sought ways of effectively inhibiting the process in pathogenic bacteria. Two decades ago, furanones were the first class of chemical compounds identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS inhibitors (QSIs). P. aeruginosa is a ubiquito...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Proctor CR, McCarron PA, Ternan NG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

First isolation of human adenovirus type 85 by molecular analysis of adenoviruses in cases of urethritis.
Conclusion. The HAdV types detected from urethritis cases were related to respiratory and ocular HAdV infections, while a novel HAdV type identified as a cause of conjunctivitis also causes urethritis. Sexual contact should be avoided for 1 month after HAdV genital infection. PMID: 31971505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hiroi S, Kawahata T, Furubayashi K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Metabolic manipulation by Pseudomonas fluorescens: a powerful stratagem against oxidative and metal stress.
Abstract Metabolism is the foundation of all living organisms and is at the core of numerous if not all biological processes. The ability of an organism to modulate its metabolism is a central characteristic needed to proliferate, to be dormant and to survive any assault. Pseudomonas fluorescens is bestowed with a uniquely versatile metabolic framework that enables the microbe to adapt to a wide range of conditions including disparate nutrients and toxins. In this mini-review we elaborate on the various metabolic reconfigurations evoked by this microbial system to combat reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and metal ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: MacLean A, Bley AM, Appanna VP, Appanna VD Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Harnessing bacterial interactions to manage infections: a review on the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a case example.
i R Abstract During infections, bacterial pathogens can engage in a variety of interactions with each other, ranging from the cooperative sharing of resources to deadly warfare. This is especially relevant in opportunistic infections, where different strains and species often co-infect the same patient and interact in the host. Here, we review the relevance of these social interactions during opportunistic infections using the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a case example. In particular, we discuss different types of pathogen-pathogen interactions, involving both cooperation and competition, and elaborat...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rezzoagli C, Granato ET, Kümmerli R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

First outbreak of Haemophilus influenzae clone ST422 with low susceptibility to quinolones in paediatric patients in Japan.
Conclusion. In this study, we describe an outbreak of a quinolone low-susceptible ST422 clone in paediatric patients in Japan. Because ST422 isolates have already been reported in at least five other countries, it has the potential to spread worldwide. PMID: 31961789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanaka E, Wajima T, Hara N, Shirai A, Shibata M, Shiro H, Noguchi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Haitian-like genetic traits with creeping MIC of Azithromycin in Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Puducherry, India.
Conclusion. None of the isolates were the prototype El Tor biotype. All the isolates were a Haitian variant. The presence of SXT elements across all our isolates and their creeping MIC of azithromycin is a matter of concern. Further testing for other genetic determinants of resistance will be carried out in our future studies. PMID: 31961790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohanraj RS, Samanta P, Muhkopadhyay AK, Mandal J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Narrative of a versatile and adept species Pseudomonas putida.
Abstract Pseudomonas putida is a fast-growing bacterium found mostly in temperate soil and water habitats. The metabolic versatility of P. putida makes this organism attractive for biotechnological applications such as biodegradation of environmental pollutants and synthesis of added-value chemicals (biocatalysis). This organism has been extensively studied in respect to various stress responses, mechanisms of genetic plasticity and transcriptional regulation of catabolic genes. P. putida is able to colonize the surface of living organisms, but is generally considered to be of low virulence. A number of P. putida ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kivisaar M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance of the ResistancePlus MG diagnostic test for Mycoplasma genitalium using samples collected with Hologic Aptima Specimen Collection kits.
Abstract Introduction. Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted organism with high levels of resistance to the recommended first-line therapy, azithromycin. The ResistancePlus MG test concurrently detects M. genitalium, and the presence of macrolide-resistance mutations (MRM). European, UK and Australian guidelines recommend a diagnostic test that reports MRM to optimize treatment through resistance-guided therapy. Hence, for samples collected for use on other platforms, reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test would be beneficial.Aim . To validate the ResistancePlus MG assay using sample...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Murray GL, Danielewski J, Bradshaw CS, Williamson DA, Birnie J, Su JP, De Petra V, Tan LY, Wee R, Machalek DA, Read TRH, Garland SM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Encapsulated cyclosporine does not change the composition of the human microbiota when assessed ex vivo and in vivo.
Conclusion. SmPill minispheres with or without CyA at the clinically relevant doses tested here have negligible direct effects on the gut microbiota composition. Butyrate and acetate production increased, however, in the presence of the beads in an ex vivo model system as well as in vivo in healthy subjects. Importantly, this study also demonstrates the relevance and value of using ex vivo colon models to predict the in vivo impact of colon-targeted drugs directly on the gut microbiota. PMID: 31958048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: O'Reilly C, O'Sullivan Ó, Cotter PD, O'Connor PM, Shanahan F, Cullen A, Rea MC, Hill C, Coulter I, Ross RP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cefuroxime pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for intravenous dosage regimens with 750 mg or 1500 mg doses in healthy young volunteers.
t-Møller N Abstract Introduction. Cefuroxime is an important antibiotic to treat several serious infections. Rapid elimination through the kidneys and the variation in MICs of various susceptible pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae give rise to dosing issues, especially in otherwise healthy patients.Aim. To investigate the probability of target attainment (PTA) for obtaining the optimal dosage regimens for cefuroxime in healthy young people.Methodology. Two weeks apart 750 and 1500 mg cefuroxime were administered as an intraven...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thønnings S, Jensen KS, Nielsen NB, Skjønnemand M, Hansen DS, Lange KHW, Frimodt-Møller N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.
Conclusion . We have constructed shuttle plasmids carrying a CRISPR-Cas9 system that are maintained in both E. coli and P. syringae pv. actinidiae. We have used this gene editing system to eliminate features of the accessory genome (plasmids or ICEs) from Psa and to target a single chromosomal gene. PMID: 31935181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ho J, Zhao M, Wojcik S, Taiaroa G, Butler M, Poulter R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of chromogenic selective agar (CHROMagar STEC) for the direct detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from faecal specimens.
Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic pathogens that cause symptoms of severe gastrointestinal disease, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), in humans. Currently in England, STEC serotypes other than O157:H7 are not cultured at the local hospital laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of CHROMagar STEC for the direct detection of STEC from faecal specimens in a diagnostic setting, compared to the current reference laboratory method using PCR targeting the Shiga-toxin gene (stx) to test multiple colonies cultured on MacConkey agar. Of the 292 consecutiv...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jenkins C, Perry NT, Godbole G, Gharbia S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

There is no hiding if you Seq: recent breakthroughs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa research revealed by genomic and transcriptomic next-generation sequencing.
Abstract The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has revolutionized the field of prokaryotic genetics and genomics by allowing interrogation of entire genomes, transcriptomes and global transcription factor binding profiles. As more studies employing these techniques have been performed, the state of the art regarding prokaryotic gene regulation has developed from the level of individual genes to genetic regulatory networks and systems biology. When applied to bacterial pathogens, particularly valuable insights have been gained into the regulation of virulence-associated genes, their relative importanc...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Valli RXE, Lyng M, Kirkpatrick CL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An optimized algorithm with improved turnaround time for detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales using the NG Test CARBA 5 in a routine laboratory.
Conclusion . CARBA 5 performs well on colonies growing on CARBA Smart agar and significant improvements in TAT can be achieved without incurring additional costs or staff requirements. PMID: 31922949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ratnayake L, Ang HZ, Ong CH, Chan DSG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research