OXA-48 and CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in raw milk in Lebanon: epidemic spread of dominant Klebsiella pneumoniae clones.
Abstract Raw milk has recently been reported as a source of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase genes. We thus investigated the prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in raw milk in Lebanon in order to assess the risk of transfer of these bacteria to humans. A high prevalence (30.2 %) of CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae was detected in raw bovine milk. Three main K. pneumoniae clones were identified by PFGE and MLST typing. Southern blot experiments revealed that one of these clones carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene chromosomally. Moreover, one OXA-48-producing K. pne...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Diab M, Hamze M, Bonnet R, Saras E, Madec JY, Haenni M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Changing epidemiology of Pneumocystis pneumonia, Northern Ireland, UK and implications for prevention, 1 July 2011-31 July 2012.
CONCLUSION: The greatest burden of PCP is now in the non-HIV group, particularly cancer patients. We recommend increasing clinician awareness of PCP risk and strengthening prevention guidelines in non-HIV patients, and promoting the consideration of prophylaxis on a case-by-case basis. PMID: 29039305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Patterson L, Coyle P, Curran T, Verlander NQ, Johnston J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of direct-plating and broth-enrichment culture methods for detection of potential bacterial pathogens in respiratory secretions.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We compared the recovery of potential respiratory bacterial pathogens and normal flora from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from children during health and at the onset of acute otitis media (AOM) by selective direct-plating and overnight broth-enrichment. METHODS: Overall, 3442 nasal wash (NW) samples collected from young children were analysed from a 10-year prospective study. NWs were cultured by (1) direct-plating to TSAII/5 % sheep blood agar and chocolate agar plates and (2) overnight broth-enrichment in BacT/ALERT SA-broth followed by plating. Standard microbiology techniques w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaur R, Wischmeyer J, Morris M, Pichichero ME Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of two automated instruments for Epstein-Barr virus serology in a large adult hospital and implementation of an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-based testing algorithm.
This study compared two automated platforms (BioPlex 2200 and Architect i2000SR) to test three EBV serological markers: viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulins of class M (IgM), VCA immunoglobulins of class G (IgG) and EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Using sera from 65 patients at various stages of EBV disease, BioPlex demonstrated near-perfect agreement for all EBV markers compared to a consensus reference. The agreement for Architect was near-perfect for VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG, and substantial for VCA IgM despite five equivocal results. Since the majority of testing in our hospital was from adults with EBNA-1 IgG ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Al Sidairi H, Binkhamis K, Jackson C, Roberts C, Heinstein C, MacDonald J, Needle R, Hatchette TF, LeBlanc JJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of two commercial real-time PCR assays for detection of carbapenemase genes in Enterobacteriaceae.
Abstract The implementation of PCR for the detection of carbapenemase genes enables rapid results with significant epidemiological implications. Two commercial real-time PCR assays, the Hylabs Hy-CRE and Sacace MDR MBL+KPC/OXA, were evaluated for the detection of the genes blaKPC, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaIMP and blaOXA-48-carbapenemasein a collection of 96 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains with different resistant mechanisms. Both assays exhibited excellent diagnostic performance, with 100 % sensitivity and specificity. PMID: 29034864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ashkenazi Hoffnung L, Burdelova E, Adler A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Lymphogranuloma venereum rates increased and Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes changed among men who have sex with men in Sweden 2004-2016.
This study aimed to determine the incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Sweden since 2004 and to study in detail a consecutive number of Chlamydia trachomatis cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) during a 10 month period (September 2014 to July 2015). LGV increased from sporadic import cases in 2004 to comprise a spread within Sweden in 2016. Initially, only the L2b ompA genotype was detected, but in 2015 half of the genotyped LGV cases were L2 genotype. The changing genotype distribution in Sweden is linked to increased LGV spread in Europe. High-resolution multilocus sequence typing of 168 C. trachoma...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Isaksson J, Carlsson O, Airell Å, Strömdahl S, Bratt G, Herrmann B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Streptococcus gordonii pheromone s.g.cAM373 may influence the reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants of Enterococcus faecalis origin in the oral metagenome.
Abstract Streptococcus gordonii produces a pheromone heptapeptide, s.g.cAM373, which induces a conjugative mating response in Enterococcus faecalis cells carrying the responsive plasmid, pAM373. We investigated the extent of this intergeneric signaling on DNA acquisition by streptococcal species likely to cohabit oral biofilms. E. faecalis/pAM373/pAMS470 cells were incubated with synthetic s.g.cAM373, reverse peptide s.g.cAM373-R, or peptide-free medium and examined for their abilities to transfer plasmid DNA to streptococcal species in the presence of DNase. Preinduction of E. faecalis donors with s.g.cAM373 resu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mansfield JM, Herrmann P, Jesionowski AM, Vickerman MM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multiplex PCR for identification of six clinically relevant streptococci.
CONCLUSION: This mPCR can be applied to the rapid identification of pure cultures of these six streptococci. The test was shown to be rapid, simple and reliable for the identification of these streptococci at the species level. This assay should be useful for laboratory identification and surveillance of human infections by these bacterial species. PMID: 29022552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hatrongjit R, Akeda Y, Hamada S, Gottschalk M, Kerdsin A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clotrimazole is highly effective in vitro against feline Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates.
CONCLUSION: The strong activity of clotrimazole against feline S. brasiliensis isolates suggests that this drug is potentially a new alternative for the treatment of feline sporotrichosis, alone or in combination with itraconazole. PMID: 28984226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gagini T, Borba-Santos LP, Messias Rodrigues A, Pires de Camargo Z, Rozental S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Leprosy in pre-Norman Suffolk, UK: biomolecular and geochemical analysis of the woman from Hoxne.
CONCLUSIONS: The confirmation of a new pre-Norman leprosy case in East Anglia is of interest as this is where a high proportion of cases are located. Possible factors for this may include preservation and excavation biases, population density, but also connection and trade, possibly of fur, with the continent. Future research on other British LL cases should focus on exploring these aspects to advance understanding of the disease's history, here and on the continent. PMID: 28984227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Inskip S, Taylor GM, Anderson S, Stewart G Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Development of macrolide resistance-associated mutations after macrolide treatment in children infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
CONCLUSION: A macrolide-resistant population might develop in individual patients up to 24 days after initiation of macrolide treatment. However, the decrease in M. pneumoniae load after macrolide administration effectively reduces interpersonal transmission. PMID: 28984229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suzuki Y, Shimotai Y, Itagaki T, Seto J, Ikeda T, Yahagi K, Mizuta K, Hongo S, Matsuzaki Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

CHROMagar COL-APSE: a selective bacterial culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.
CONCLUSION: CHROMagar COL-APSE is a sensitive and specific medium for the growth of COL-resistant bacterial pathogens. Due to the low limit of detection (10(1) c.f.u.), it may be useful as a primary isolation medium in the surveillance and recovery of COL-resistant bacteria from complex human, veterinary and environmental samples, especially those with plasmid-mediated MCR-1 or novel mechanisms of polymyxin resistance. PMID: 28984232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abdul Momin MHF, Bean DC, Hendriksen RS, Haenni M, Phee LM, Wareham DW Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Surface micropattern reduces colonization and medical device-associated infections.
CONCLUSION: Micropatterned surfaces exhibited significantly reduced colonization and transference in vitro, as well as lower bacterial burdens in animal models. These results indicate that introducing this micropattern onto surfaces has high potential to reduce medical device-associated infections. PMID: 28984233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xu B, Wei Q, Mettetal MR, Han J, Rau L, Tie J, May RM, Pathe ET, Reddy ST, Sullivan L, Parker AE, Maul DH, Brennan AB, Mann EE Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro detection of bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a preliminary study.
CONCLUSION: Detecting bacteria in platelet concentrates using the MALDI-TOF approach and analysing spectra with the Platelet software present the advantage of combining the precocity of results and sufficient sensitivity (10 c.f.u. ml(-1)). Further research will be conducted to compare this novel method with the current conventional method in order to validate our results, the objective being to reduce the risk of platelet transfusion-related bacterial contamination. PMID: 28984240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chetouane Y, Dubourg G, Gallian P, Delerce J, Levasseur A, Flaudrops C, Chabrière E, Chiaroni J, Raoult D, Camoin-Jau L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Biochanin A partially restores the activity of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against topoisomerase IV mutation-associated fluoroquinolone-resistant Ureaplasma species.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of biochanin A in combination with fluoroquinolones against a pathogenic mycoplasma, and opens up the possibility of using components of biochanin A as a promising therapeutic option for treating antibiotic-resistant Ureaplasma spp. infections. PMID: 28984242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jin H, Qi C, Zou Y, Kong Y, Ruan Z, Ding H, Xie X, Zhang J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Long-term health effects after resolution of acute Cryptosporidium parvum infection: a 1-year follow-up of outbreak-associated cases.
This study describes for the first time sequelae reported by patients up to 12 months after infection with C. parvum, which appear to be similar to those described with C. hominis. PMID: 28984243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stiff RE, Davies AP, Mason BW, Hutchings HA, Chalmers RM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Risk factors for and role of OprD protein in increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
CONCLUSION: This difference in the resistance mechanism of P. aeruginosa indicates a critical breakpoint at an imipenem MIC of 8 µg ml(-1), in accordance with EUCAST criteria. Reducing carbapenem use will prevent P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from developing resistance to carbapenems. PMID: 28984565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hirabayashi A, Kato D, Tomita Y, Iguchi M, Yamada K, Kouyama Y, Morioka H, Tetsuka N, Yagi T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.
This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought. PMID: 28984566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Principi N, Litt D, Terranova L, Picca M, Malvaso C, Vitale C, Fry NK, Esposito S, The Italian Pertussis Group For Persistent Cough In Children Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis in the general population of Granada and co-infections with Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida species.
CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize the need for the routine application of diagnostic procedures to avoid the spread of this sexually transmitted infection. PMID: 28972465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carrillo-Ávila JA, Serrano-García ML, Fernández-Parra J, Sorlózano-Puerto A, Navarro-Marí JM, Stensvold CR, Gutiérrez-Fernández J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of vaginal lactobacilli from HIV-negative and HIV-positive Indian women and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding.
Abstract One of the crucial determinants for successful administration of lactobacilli to the vaginal niche is the use of appropriate Lactobacillus species. In this cross-sectional study 54 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and 76 HIV-positive antiretroviral treatment-naïve women were evaluated for culturable vaginal lactobacilli and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding. Lactobacillus species were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing while cervical and plasma HIV-1 viral load was determined by Abbott real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were isolated in 77.8 % HIV-negative and 73.7 % HIV-positive w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mane A, Angadi M, Vidhate P, Bembalkar S, Khan I, Bichare S, Ghate M, Thakar M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile colonization and infection in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (CDC, colonization with toxigenic C. difficile but without symptoms) and C. difficile infection (CDI, active C. difficile infection resulting in disease symptoms) in hepatic cirrhosis patients, identify the risk factors of CDC, and determine the correlation between CDC and CDI. METHODOLOGY: The strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from patients with hepatic cirrhosis within 48 h after admission, followed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Patients were divided into toxigenic CDC g...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yan D, Chen Y, Lv T, Huang Y, Yang J, Li Y, Huang J, Li L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clonality, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from Mirzapur, Bangladesh.
CONCLUSION: In Bangladesh, there are multiple clonal complexes of EAEC harbouring a variety of virulence and resistance genes. The emergence of two of the most successful clones appeared to be linked to either increased virulence (CC40) or antimicrobial resistance (CC38), but increased resistance and virulence were not found in the same clonal complexes. PMID: 28945190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chattaway MA, Day M, Mtwale J, White E, Rogers J, Day M, Powell D, Ahmad M, Harris R, Talukder KA, Wain J, Jenkins C, Cravioto A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Innate and adaptive immune response to chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus in a new murine model.
CONCLUSION: We established a new murine model of chronic infection of hyphae to mimic the formation of CPA, and provide a new marker for different immune responses to hyphae and conidia. PMID: 28923131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang F, Zhang C, Jiang Y, Kou C, Kong Q, Long N, Lu L, Sang H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa using multilocus sequence typing scheme.
CONCLUSION: The current theses that distinguish isolates originating from different sources are questionable; environmental P. aeruginosa can be a potential risk to public health and cannot be excluded as an external (non-nosocomial) source of infections, especially in patients with CF. Further studies such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the determination of other clinically important virulence factors are needed to confirm these findings. PMID: 28923132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Radó J, Kaszab E, Petrovics T, Pászti J, Kriszt B, Szoboszlay S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic evidence for a novel variant of the pilus island 1 backbone protein in group B Streptococcus.
CONCLUSION: We describe a relatively frequent occurrence of a novel PI-1 BP that cannot be detected by a commonly used multiplex PCR scheme, which could lead to strains being mistyped as PI-1 negative. We present PCR primers that can easily be incorporated into the multiplex PCR assay to identify strains with novel BP-1b variant. PMID: 28923133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Teatero S, Neemuchwala A, Yang K, Gomes J, Athey TBT, Martin I, Demczuk W, McGeer A, Fittipaldi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Modified use of real-time PCR detection of group B Streptococcus in pregnancy.
Abstract The CDC recommends antenatal screening of vaginal/rectal samples for Streptococcus agalactiae at 35-37 weeks' gestation, with intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis for positive cases. We tested a modified use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS real-time PCR kit on enrichment cultures from 554 vaginal/rectal swabs compared to the current subculturing gold standard method. Swabs were inoculated on polymyxin nalidixic acid agar plates, and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth cultures were examined daily for growth. Todd-Hewitt broth culture was also used for Xpert GBS. There was 92.06 % agreement between the subcultur...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rabaan AA, Saunar JV, Bazzi AM, Soriano JL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of the IncX3 plasmid carrying blaKPC-3 in a Serratia marcescens strain isolated from a kidney-liver transplanted patient.
Abstract Dissemination of resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae through plasmids is an increasingly important concern in health care worldwide. Here we report the first description of an IncX3 plasmid carrying the blaKPC-3 gene in a strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a kidney-liver transplanted patient at the transplantation centre ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione, Palermo, Italy). To localize the transposable element containing the resistance-associated gene Next-Generation Sequencing of the bacterial DNA was performed. S. marcescens was positi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gona F, Caio C, Iannolo G, Monaco F, Di Mento G, Cuscino N, Fontana I, Panarello G, Maugeri G, Mezzatesta ML, Stefani S, Conaldi PG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparator agents against Gram-positive pathogens responsible for bone and joint infections.
Abstract Tedizolid, a second-generation oxazolidinone that displays a potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens, could be an interesting option for the treatment of bone and joint infections (BJIs). The aim of the study was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tedizolid against a collection of 359 clinical isolates involved in clinically-documented BJIs and to compare them to those of comparator agents used in Gram-positive infections. Of the 104 Staphylococcus aureus and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates, 99 and 92 % were categorized as susceptible to tedizolid,...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ract P, Piau-Couapel C, Compain F, Auzou M, Michon J, Cattoir V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Outcomes of patients with severe influenza infection admitted to intensive care units: a retrospective study in a medical centre.
CONCLUSION: The mortality rate of severe influenza patients admitted to the ICU was high, especially in middle-aged adults. The risk of mortality was associated with ≥2 organ failures. A negative fluid balance predicts survival. PMID: 28905701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 14, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chao CM, Lai CC, Chan KS, Cheng KC, Chou W, Yuan KS, Chen CM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Persistence of RSV promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells through Nodal signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that persistence of RSV promoted the proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and expression of oncogenes through Nodal signaling, which may be associated with the occurrence and development of lung cancers. PMID: 28901900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiang Z, Liang Z, Yanfeng H, Leitao K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum and L. reuteri display greater antiproliferative and antipathogenic activity than other Lactobacillus isolates.
CONCLUSION: Our results described that different Lactobacillus species isolated from normal fecal samples had different degrees of antiproliferative and anti-pathogenic/antibacterial/antimicrobial activities. However, no isolates showed all of the examined properties concurrently, suggestive that a combination of Lactobacillus species is needed for an active biological defense system. PMID: 28901907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hasannejad Bibalan M, Eshaghi M, Rohani M, Esghaei M, Darban-Sarokhalil D, Pourshafie MR, Talebi M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance of point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 plasma viral load assay at a tertiary HIV care centre in Southern India.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Sustainable suppression of HIV replication forms the basis of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medication. Thus, reliable quantification of HIV viral load has become an essential factor to monitor the effectiveness of the ART. Longer turnaround-time (TAT), batch testing and technical skills are major drawbacks of standard real-time PCR assays. METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system. A total of 96 plasma specimens ranging from 2.5 log10 copies ml-1 to 4.99 log10 copies ml-1 and proficiency testing...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Swathirajan CR, Vignesh R, Boobalan J, Solomon SS, Saravanan S, Balakrishnan P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Usefulness of à la carte antigens for bird fancier's lung serodiagnosis: total dropping extract and/or dropping's microflora antigens.
Usefulness of à la carte antigens for bird fancier's lung serodiagnosis: total dropping extract and/or dropping's microflora antigens. J Med Microbiol. 2017 Sep 13;: Authors: Rouzet A, Reboux G, Dalphin JC, De Vuyst P, Laboissière A, Valot B, Millon L, Roussel S Abstract Bird fancier's lung (BFL) is a pulmonary disease caused by inhalation of avian proteins. The involvement of the microorganisms of droppings has been assumed in the past and this idea still persists today. Our study aimed to compare by immunoprecipitation assay the detection of antibodies against both droppings and microo...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rouzet A, Reboux G, Dalphin JC, De Vuyst P, Laboissière A, Valot B, Millon L, Roussel S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Similar virulence properties of infection and colonization associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
CONCLUSIONS: exoU positivity is associated with severe disease, as evidenced by the longer duration of hospital stay of these patients. However, the presence of virulence factors or multi-drug resistance in the cultured strain should not prompt the administration of anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy. PMID: 28893354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aditi, Shariff M, Chhabra SK, Rahman MU Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Fluoroquinolone resistance in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Japanese tertiary hospital: silent shifting to CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae.
CONCLUSION: Cumulatively, these results indicate that the epidemic strain, the CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae ST15, is covertly spreading even when ESBL producers are not prevalent. Monitoring these epidemic strains and ESBLs in general is important for quickly identifying health crises and minimizing future risks from FQ-r ESBL-Kpn. PMID: 28893357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Higashino M, Murata M, Morinaga Y, Akamatsu N, Matsuda J, Takeda K, Kaku N, Kosai K, Uno N, Hasegawa H, Yanagihara K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Discrepant susceptibility to gentamicin despite amikacin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae by VITEK 2 represents false susceptibility associated with the armA 16S rRNA methylase gene.
Abstract Because we experienced gentamicin failure in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia that was susceptible to gentamicin despite amikacin resistance, as determined by VITEK 2, we evaluated the true susceptibility and mechanism of resistance. We screened 2818 K. pneumoniae isolates during a 1-year period at a university hospital and reviewed anti-microbial susceptibility reports using the VITEK 2 system. The minimum inhibitory concentration was substantiated by broth microdilution (BMD), and the presence of 16S rRNA methylase genes and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes was also investigated. A total of 131 amikaci...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ko JH, Baek JY, Peck KR, Cho SY, Ha YE, Kim SH, Huh HJ, Lee NY, Kang CI, Chung DR, Song JH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) - a more common problem than expected?
Abstract Borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a quite poorly understood and inadequately defined phenotype of methicillin resistance. BORSA strains show low, borderline resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs), with oxacillin MICs typically equal to 1-8 µg ml-1, and in contrast to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), do not have an altered penicillin-binding protein, PBP2a, encoded by the mecA or mecC gene. Their resistance is typically associated with hyperproduction of beta-lactamases or, in some cases, point mutations in PBP genes. BORSA ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hryniewicz MM, Garbacz K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High levels of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Queensland, Australia.
Abstract The macrolide azithromycin is recommended for treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection; however, M. genitalium strains possessing macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) are increasingly being reported. Here, we used the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit, which provides simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and MRMMs, to assess MRMM carriage among M. genitalium infections in Queensland, Australia. Performance characteristics of the ResistancePlus MG kit for M. genitalium detection were compared to in-house PCR. Available M. genitalium PCR-positive (n=67) and negative (n=281) samples from the yea...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Trembizki E, Buckley C, Bletchly C, Nimmo GR, Whiley DM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Fidaxomicin reduces early toxin A and B production and sporulation in Clostridium difficilein vitro.
CONCLUSION: The ability of fidaxomicin to suppress early exotoxin production and endospore formation by historical and epidemic strains of C. difficile may explain its clinical success in treating severe and recurrent cases of CDI disease. PMID: 28893366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aldape MJ, Packham AE, Heeney DD, Rice SN, Bryant AE, Stevens DL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Inhibitory efficacy of geraniol on biofilm formation and development of adaptive resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A.
CONCLUSION: The present study highlights the potential of GE as a suitable candidate for the control of biofilm-mediated S. epidermidis infections. PMID: 28893370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kannappan A, Sivaranjani M, Srinivasan R, Rathna J, Pandian SK, Ravi AV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of fungal pathogens by a new broad range real-time PCR assay targeting the fungal ITS2 region.
CONCLUSION: The Fungi assay improved the targeted diagnosis of fungal infections allowing pathogen identification in samples that were histologically positive but culture negative. For reliable diagnosis, results have to be interpreted in context with conventional methods and clinical data. PMID: 28884671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zeller I, Schabereiter-Gurtner C, Mihalits V, Selitsch B, Barousch W, Hirschl AM, Makristathis A, Willinger B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In silico assessment of virulence factors in strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis isolated from patients with Infective Endocarditis.
CONCLUSION: Differences in the presence of virulence factors among the three S. oralis subspecies were observed. The virulence gene profiles of the 40 S. mitis and S. oralis (subsp. oralis, subsp. dentisani and subsp. tigurinus) contribute with important new knowledge regarding these species and new subspecies. PMID: 28874232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rasmussen LH, Højholt K, Dargis R, Christensen JJ, Skovgaard O, Justesen US, Rosenvinge FS, Moser C, Lukjancenko O, Rasmussen S, Nielsen XC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Predominance of clarithromycin-susceptible Mycobacterium massiliense subspecies: Characterization of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex at a tertiary acute care hospital.
Abstract To characterize members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, with an emphasis on the correlation between species identification and clarithromycin associated genetic polymorphisms that contribute to inducible and constitutive macrolide resistance. PCR and sequencing analysis was used to elucidate the subspecies, erm(41) genotypes and the presence of rrl mutations. M. abscessus subsp. massiliense was the dominant subspecies (70.2 %), followed by M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (23.8 %) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (5.9 %). The majority of M. abscessus and M. bolletii isolates possessed T28 erm(4...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chew KL, Cheng JWS, Hudaa Osman N, Lin RTP, Teo JWP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis.
In this study, two molecular typing methods including the conventional PCR-sequencing method and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis were used for staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing of 30 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered from clinical samples. Based on PCR-sequencing method results, 16 different spa types were identified among the 30 MRSA isolates. Among the 16 different spa types, 14 spa types separated by HRM method. Two spa types including t4718 and t2894 were not separated from each other. According to our results, spa typing based on HRM analysis method is very rapid, easy to...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fasihi Y, Fooladi S, Mohammadi MA, Emaneini M, Kalantar-Neyestanaki D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the Luminex NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel and a multiplex in-house real-time PCR panel for the detection of respiratory viruses in symptomatic patients.
CONCLUSION: The NxTAG RPP is a sensitive and specific test for the detection of respiratory viruses and the high sample throughput and low hands-on time make the NxTAG RPP assay suitable for screening clinical samples for respiratory pathogens. PMID: 28868996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sails AD, Eltringham G, Valappil M, Waugh S, Saunders D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

DNA microarray assay and real-time PCR as useful tools for studying the respiratory tract Mycoplasma populations in young dairy calves.
CONCLUSION: Our results expand our knowledge regarding the diversity of Mycoplasma populations in the respiratory airways of very young veal calves and add data regarding M. bovis prevalence in the Italian cattle population. However, the importance of these species in the respiratory diseases of calves still remains to be determined. PMID: 28868997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bottinelli M, Passamonti F, Rampacci E, Stefanetti V, Pochiero L, Coletti M, Rueca F, Hyatt DR, Schnee C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance assessment of urine flow cytometry (UFC) to screen urines to reflex to culture in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts.
CONCLUSIONS: UFC is a rapid and sensitive method to screen out urine samples that will subsequently be negative and to reflex urines to culture that will subsequently grow. UFC results are available within 1 h from receipt and enable the elimination of culture when the set threshold is not met. PMID: 28869004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stefanovic A, Roscoe D, Ranasinghe R, Wong T, Bryce E, Porter C, Lim A, Grant J, Ng K, Pudek M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A review of candidate therapies for Middle East respiratory syndrome from a molecular perspective.
Abstract There have been 2040 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 27 countries, with a mortality rate of 34.9 %. There is no specific therapy. The current therapies have mainly been adapted from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) treatments, including broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, interferons, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir or mycophenolate mofetil, and have not been subject to well-organized clinical trials. The development of specific therapies and vaccines is therefore urgently required. We examine existing and potential therapies a...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rabaan AA, Alahmed SH, Bazzi AM, Alhani HM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The function of probiotics on the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP): facts and gaps.
engiz D Abstract Probiotics have been used for centuries in making fermented dairy products. The health benefits related to probiotics consumption are well recognized and they are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Their therapeutic effects are due to the production of a variety of antimicrobial compounds, such as short-chain fatty acids, organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, formic, propionic and butyric acids), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection associated with high mortality in intensive care units. VAP can result from endotracheal intub...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karacaer F, Hamed I, Özogul F, Glew RH, Özcengiz D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and its association with antibiotics in the short term.
CONCLUSION: ALL induced structural changes of the gut microbiota, with the alpha diversity being significantly weakened by antibiotics, but not beta diversity. Bacteroidales and Enterococcaceae can be referred to as biomarkers for ALL. PMID: 28855025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bai L, Zhou P, Li D, Ju X Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research