A comparative analysis of Phenol Soluble Modulin production and G. mellonella killing by community-associated and healthcare-associated MRSA strains.
Abstract Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have emerged globally and have been associated with more severe disease than healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether laboratory measures of virulence can distinguish dominant CA-MRSA clones from HA-MRSA clones. We compared the production of Phenol Soluble Modulins (PSM) and ability to kill Galleria mellonella caterpillars for a range of CA- and HA-MRSA strains. 22 HA-MRSA strains (ST22-IV (EMRSA-15), ST36-II (EMRSA-16), and ST239-III) and 26 CA-MRSA strains (ST1-IV (PVL+ USA400), ST1...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 26, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Boakes E, Marbach H, Lynham S, Ward M, Edgeworth J, Otter J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

MLVF as a method for rapid and cost-effective typing of animal-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains from lineages other than ST398.
The objective of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of MLVF for studying S. aureus strains isolated from households, farms and exotic animals in three regions of Poland. MLVF, RAPD, spa typing and diagnostic microarrays were compared to determine the most suitable combination of methods for veterinary purposes. MLVF generated results consistent with host and geographic origins, reflecting population structures with a high concordance to spa typing results. MLVF has been proven to be a rapid, highly discriminatory and cost-effective method suitable for molecular typing in veterinary settings. PMID: 2790...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kosecka-Strojek M, Ilczyszyn WM, Buda A, Polakowska K, Murzyn K, Panz T, Bialecka A, Kasprowicz A, Jakubczak A, Krol J, Wieliczko A, Wladyka B, Miedzobrodzki J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The oral cavities of healthy infants harbor high proportions of Streptococcus salivarius strains with phenotypic and genotypic resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics.
In this study, we investigated the role of S. salivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analyzing 95 S. salivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2 to 16 months of age). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined. ARG profiles were assessed in a sub-set of 21 strains by next-generation sequencing of genomes (Illumina MiSeq), followed by searches of assembled reads against the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Strains resistant to erythromycin, penicillins ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Palma TH, Harth-Chú E, Scott J, Stipp RN, Boisvert H, Salomão MF, Theobaldo JD, Possobon RF, Nascimento LC, McCafferty JW, Faller L, Duncan MJ, Mattos-Graner RO Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative Evaluation of the AdvanSure Mycobacteria GenoBlot Assay and the GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS Assay for the Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.
In conclusion, the AdvanSure assay shows comparable performance to the GenoType assay and can be useful as a routine method for NTM identification in the clinical setting, especially where MAC is the main cause of NTM infection. PMID: 27902391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang M, Huh HJ, Kwon HJ, Kim JY, Song DJ, Koh WJ, Ki CS, Lee NY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical Evaluation of Mucorales-specific Real-time PCR Assay in Tissue and Serum Samples.
r J Abstract Molecular diagnostic assays can accelerate the diagnosis of fungal infections and subsequently improve patient outcomes. In particular, the detection of infections due to Mucorales is still challenging for laboratories and physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate a probe-based Mucorales-specific real-time PCR assay (Muc18S) using tissue and serum samples from patients suffering from invasive mucormycosis (IMM). This assay can detect a broad range of clinically relevant Mucorales species and can be used to complement existing diagnostic tests or to screen high-risk patients. An advantage of th...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Springer J, Lackner M, Ensinger C, Risslegger B, Morton CO, Nachbaur D, Lass-Flörl C, Einsele H, Heinz WJ, Loeffler J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiota dysbiosis: a new piece in the understanding of carcinogenesis puzzle.
ía A Abstract Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cells in a host and it is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in its development and the involvement of microbial communities has also recently been recognized. The close relationship that characterizes the colonization of human commensal communities involves health risks particularly when the homeostasis is disturbed. It has been hypothesized that this process may lead to cancer by modulating the inflammatory response of the host, by the production of carcinogenic me...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 21, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: García-Castillo V, Sanhueza E, McNerney E, Onate SA, García A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Long-term persistence of sequence type 89 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a Korean community.
PMID: 27902366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jeon H, Ma SH, Jo HJ, Woo MS, An H, Park H, Kwon C, Kim Y, Lee JC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiological sentinel events at neurological hospital: a retrospective cohort study.
Abstract AbstractThe purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological surveillance of microbiological sentinel events (SE) carried out between 2012-2014 at the Neurological Hospital Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy. The Setting is inpatient care with Multi- Drug-Resistance infections. The aim of the procedure is to formalize the management mode, the reporting and transmission of SE. Categorical variables were described by counts and percentages, those quantitatives as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile range. The Incidence Rates (IR) of SE were calculated per 1000 patient-day and for 100 adm...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Asti A, Marmondi E, Tinelli C, Corbella M, de Silvestri A, Bernardi G, Andreini F, Preti A, Bricchi M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Coagulase-negative staphylococci: Pathogenesis, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on biofilm-growing bacteria.
Abstract Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15%), aminoglycosides aac(6')/aph(2'') (11%), aph (3')-IIIa (15%), ant(4')-Ia (19%) and MLSB erm(A) (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Szczuka E, Jabłońska L, Kaznowski A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Virulence determinants in clinical Staphylococcus aureus from monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections of diabetic foot ulcers.
Abstract Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing was performed and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin, Leukotoxins DE and M were screened. Biofilm production was also quantified by tissue culture plate m...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shettigar K, Jain S, Bhat DV, Acharya R, Ramachandra L, Satyamoorthy K, Murali TS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Ultrastructural changes caused by polymyxin B and meropenem in multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaKPC-2 gene.
Abstract The ultrastructural alterations caused by polymyxin B, meropenem and by the association between polymyxin B and meropenem were investigated in 2 multiresistant isolates of K. pneumoniae (K3-A2 and K12-A2) carriers of blaKPC-2, coming from infection and colonization in patients of a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. The ultrastructural changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy and scanning. The susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobials was tested by the disk diffusion method and microdilution in broth. The analysis by electron microscopy showed that the isolates presented morphologi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Scavuzzi A, Alves LC, Veras DL, Brayner FA, Lopes AC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The Staff Education to Reducing Ventilator Associated Pneumonia.
Abstract Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving invasive procedure performed in intensive care units (ICUs) where critical patients are given advanced support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of personnel training on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The study, performed prospectively in the ICU, was planned in two periods. In both periods, patient's characteristics were recorded on patient data forms. In the second period, ICU physicians and assistant health personnel were given regular theoretical and practical training. Twenty-two cases of VAP developed in the pre-...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yilmaz G, Aydin H, Aydin M, Saylan S, Ulusoy H, Koksal I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Modulation of intestinal barrier function to ameliorate Salmonella infection in mice by oral administration of fermented milks produced with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 - a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin.
Abstract Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 -a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin as such and milk formulations produced with the same were explored in this sudy as biotherapeutics by evauating their functional efficacy against Salmonella infection in mice. The efficacy of milk formulations (fermented/unfermented) of MTCC 5690 for enhancement of intestinal barrier function was determined by monitoring the permeability and histopathology of intestine. The mice fed with probiotic Dahi (PD), Fermented Probiotic Drink (FD) and Sweetened fermented probiotic drink (SFD) maintained the health and integrity of...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rokana N, Singh R, Mallappa RH, Batish VK, Grover S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Viability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) after long term storage on Dorset Egg medium.
PMID: 27902369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sudo K, Elshibly M, Stirling J, Goldsmith C, Millar B, Misawa N, Moore J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improving time to optimal Staphylococcus aureus treatment using a penicillin-binding protein 2a assay.
Abstract The penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) assay is a quick, accurate and inexpensive test for determining methicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus. A pre-post study design was conducted using a PBP2a assay with and without the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship (AS) intervention to improve time to optimal therapy for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Our results demonstrate significantly improved time to optimal therapy and support the use of a PBP2a assay as part of an AS program for all healthcare facilities, especially those w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rao SN, Wang SK, Gonzalez Zamora J, Hanson AP, Polisetty RS, Singh K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Burkholderia pseudomallei resistance to antibiotics in biofilm induced conditions is related to efflux pumps.
Abstract Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, has been found to increase its resistance to antibiotics when growing as a biofilm. The resistances are related to several mechanisms. One of the possible mechanisms is the efflux pump. Using bioinformatics analysis, it was found that BPSL1661, BPSL1664 and BPSL1665 were orthologous genes of the efflux transporter encoding genes for biofilm related antibiotic resistance PA1874-PA1877 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1. Expressions of selected encoding genes for the efflux transporter system during biofilm formation were investigated. ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sirijant N, Sermswan RW, Wongratanacheewin S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Chinese Hospital, 2014-2015: Identification of NDM-producing Citrobacter werkmanii and Acquisition of blaNDM-1-carrying Plasmid in vivo in a Clinical Escherichia coli Isolate.
In conclusion, a NDM-1-producing isolate of C. werkmanii was identified. An E. coli strain acquired a blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid in vivo. IncX3 and IncA/C plasmids with various sizes might have emerged as the main platforms mediating the spread of the blaNDM genes in China. PMID: 27667823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: An J, Guo L, Zhou L, Ma Y, Luo Y, Tao C, Yang J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Serogenotyping and emergence of extended spectrum beta lactamase genes in non-typhoidal Salmonella: first report from Saudi Arabia.
This study describes the molecular characterization of NTS in Saudi Arabia by serogenotyping and identification of ESBL genes. Forty-eight multidrug resistant NTS identified at a tertiary care facility in Saudi Arabia from 2007-2014 were studied. Bacterial identification, antibiotic resistance and classical O-antigen serogrouping were performed using standard methods. Serogenotyping was carried out using the Salm-SeroGenoTyping AS-1 Kit (Alere Technologies GmbH, Jena, Germany). Characterization of ESBL and carbapenemase genes was carried out using the Check-MDR CT103 DNA microarray (CheckPoints BV, Wageningen, Netherlands)...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Garaween G, Somily A, Raji A, Braun S, Al-Kattan W, Shibl A, Ehricht R, Senok A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum- β-Lactamase, Plasmid-Mediated AmpC cephalosporinase, and Carbapenemase Genes among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Five Medical Centers of East and West Azerbaijan, Iran.
Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase, Plasmid-Mediated AmpC cephalosporinase, and Carbapenemase Genes among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Five Medical Centers of East and West Azerbaijan, Iran. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Sep 20; Authors: Sadeghi M, Ghotaslou R, Akhi MT, Hasani A, Asgharzadeh M Abstract Very little is known about the occurrence and various types of ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase in Iran. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs, AmpCs, and carbapenemases genes among Enterobacteriaceae in Azerbaijan, and to characterize the genetic composit...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sadeghi M, Ghotaslou R, Akhi MT, Hasani A, Asgharzadeh M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Structural and recovery mechanisms of 3D dental pulp cell microtissues challenged with Streptococcus mutans in extracellular matrix environment.
Abstract Cariopathogen Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) exists in infected dental pulp of deciduous teeth and is frequently linked with heart diseases. Organotypic (3D) dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) cultures/microtissues, developed to mimic the physiological conditions in vivo, were utilized to assess the bacterial impact on their (i) 3D structural configuration, and (ii) recovery mechanisms. The cultures, developed in extracellular matrix (ECM) bio-scaffold (MatrigelTM), interacted with Wild type and GFP-tagged bacterial biofilms by permitting their infiltration through the ECM. Challenged cell constructs were v...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaufman G, Skrtic D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cryptococcus neoformans population diversity and clinical outcomes of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis patients in Zimbabwe.
This study demonstrate that C. neoformans sensu stricto in Zimbabwe has a high level of genetic diversity when compared to other regional isolates. PMID: 27638836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nyazika TK, Hagen F, Machiridza T, Kutepa M, Masanganise F, Hendrickx M, Boekhout T, Magombei-Majinjiwa T, Siziba N, Chin'ombe N, Mateveke K, Meis J, Robertson VJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus and cellular gene expression during the early phases of EBV lytic induction.
Abstract AbstractIn order to develop novel host/pathogen real- time PCR assays for routine diagnostic use, early gene expression patterns from both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Raji cells were examined after inducing the lytic life cycle using 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol ester (TPA) and sodium butyrate. Real-time PCR identified several highly induced (>90-fold) EBV lytic genes over a 48 hr time-course during the lytic induction phase. Latent genes were induced at low levels during this phase. The cellular response to lytic viral replication is poorly understood. Whole human genome microarray analysis identifi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Auburn H, Zuckerman M, Smith M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Inability of H. haemolyticus to invade respiratory epithelial cells in vitro.
PMID: 27624822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Singh NK, Kunde D, Tristram S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Disparate prevalence of toxigenic and nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile among distinct adult patient populations in a single institution.
Abstract Clostridium difficile (CD) disease remains a costly and important hospital associated infection. Although nontoxigenic CD is detected by some CD testing methods, can interfere with some detection algorithms and has been suggested as a treatment for CD disease, little is known about the relative occurrence of toxigenic and nontoxigenic CD in a single institution. We used both chromogenic and selective agar medium to recover Clostridium difficile (CD) isolates and a molecular method to detect the toxin B gene from over 2400 fresh unformed stool specimens with isolates further tested for the toxin B gene. We...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 6, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Clarridge JE, Harrington A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular typing and genetic characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis isolates from humans and swine in Japan.
Abstract Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) causes disease in both humans and swine; however, the genetic variations in MAH isolates are unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the genetic variations in MAH isolates from humans and swine in Japan. We analyzed the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci, prevalence of ISMav6 and clarithromycin (CLA) resistance for MAH isolates from patients with pulmonary MAC (pMAC) disease (n = 69), HIV-seropositive and blood culture-positive (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 6, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Adachi T, Ichikawa K, Inagaki T, Moriyama M, Nakagawa T, Ogawa K, Hasegawa Y, Yagi T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic profiles and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae non-PCV10 serotype isolates recovered from meningitis cases in Salvador, Brazil.
This study underscores the importance of monitoring any changes among non-PCV10 cases after the introduction of PCV10. PMID: 27599851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 2, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Azevedo J, Dos Anjos ES, Cordeiro SM, Dos Santos MS, Escobar EC, Lobo PR, Carvalho MD, Reis MG, Reis JN, Campos LC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In Vitro Activities of Tedizolid Compared with Other Antibiotics against Gram-positive Pathogens Associated with Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP), Skin and Soft Tissue Infection (SSTI) and Bloodstream Infection (BSI) collected from Hospitals in China.
Abstract To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of tedizolid, linezolid and other comparators against clinically significant Gram-positive cocci isolates from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and bloodstream infection (BSI), 2140 non-duplicate isolates (23.7% isolated from HAP, 46.8% from SSTI and 29.5% from BSI) were consecutively collected in 26 hospitals in 17 cities across China during 2014. These pathogens included 632 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 867 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 299 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 2, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li S, Guo Y, Zhao C, Chen H, Hu B, Chu Y, Zhang Z, Hu Y, Liu Z, Du Y, Gui Q, Ji P, Zeng J, Cao B, Fu Q, Zhang R, Wang Z, Zhuo C, Feng X, Jia W, Jin Y, Xu X, Liao K, Ni Y, Yu Y, Xu X, Hu Z, Lei JE, Yang Q, Wang H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Small colony variants are more susceptible to copper-mediated contact killing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract Applying self-sanitising copper surfaces to commonly touched places within hospital facilities is an emerging strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). This is owing to the fact that bacterial pathogens are rapidly killed on copper, a process termed contact killing. However, the mechanisms of contact killing are not fully understood, and the potential of bacterial pathogens to develop resistance has rarely been explored. Here, we hypothesize that bacteria are predominantly killed by a burst release of toxic copper ions, resulting from chemical reactions between bacterial cell surface co...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 2, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu S, Zhang XX Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Determination of bacterial etiologic factor on tracheobronchial lavage in relation to clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease.
This study aimed the determination of the occurrence of M. haemolytica, P. multocida and Mycoplasma spp., in relation to clinical signs of respiratory disease. Tracheobronchial lavage samples were collected from 96 (healthy and unhealthy) cattle in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mycoplasma spp. (12.5%) and P. multocida (15.50%) were the most prevalent species. Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia were also isolated. Mollicutes (70.83%), M. bovis (2.94%), and M. dispar (38.23%) were identified using conventional PCR. Submassive sound ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 30, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: França Dias de Oliveira BA, Carrillo Gaeta N, Mendonça Ribeiro BL, Reyes Alemán MA, Miranda Marques L, Timenetsky J, Melville PA, Avansi Marques J, Marvulle V, Gregory L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rugose atypical Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor responsible for 2009 cholera outbreak in India.
In this study, twelve rugose (R-VC) and six smooth (S-VC) V. cholerae O1 Ogawa isolates were identified in a cholera outbreak that occurred in Hyderabad, India. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that all the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. In addition, R-VC isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (92%), streptomycin (92%), erythromycin (83%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (75%) and tetracycline (75%). Based on the ctxB gene analysis, all the isolates were identified as El Tor variant with mutation in two positions of ctxB, similar to the classical biotype. The R-VC isolate...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chowdhury G, Bhadra RK, Bag S, Pazhani GP, Das B, Basu P, Nagamani K, Nandy RK, Mukhopadyay AK, Ramamurthy T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Intracellular, biofilm-inhibitory and membrane-damaging activities of nimbolide isolated from Azadirachta indica A. juss (Maliaceae) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
This study was designed to evaluate the intracellular killing, membrane-damaging and biofilm-inhibitory activities of nimbolide isolated from Azadirachta indica against MDR MRSA. In vitro antibacterial activity of nimbolide was determined by performing MIC, MBC and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane damaging activity was determined by membrane perturbation and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. Biofilm-inhibitory activities were determined by SEM. Cellular drug accumulation and assessments of intracellular activities were performed using Vero cells culture. SEM revealed that nimbolide caused signifi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sarkar P, Acharyya S, Banerjee A, Patra A, Thankamani K, Koley H, Bag PK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro Ceftaroline Combinations against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
de;uela-Prieto JM Abstract We studied in vitro ceftaroline combinations against 61 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, 18 of them also resistant to linezolid, using overlapping E-test method. Daptomycin-Ceftaroline combination obtained lower Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) values, in comparison with those including vancomycin or linezolid against MRSA (p
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: García AB, Candel FJ, López L, Chiarella F, Viñuela-Prieto JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Whole-cell Proteus mirabilis urease inhibition by aminophosphinates for the control of struvite formation.
Abstract The study evaluated the in vitro impact of the series of aminophosphinic urease inhibitors upon Proteus mirabilis. The group of compounds comprised structurally diverse analogs of diamidophosphate built upon N-C-P scaffold. The influence of urease inhibition upon urea-splitting activity was assessed by the whole-cell pH-static kinetic measurements. The potential to prevent struvite formation was determined by monitoring changes in pH and ionic composition of artificial urine medium during P. mirabilis growth. The most active compounds exhibited stronger positive effect upon urine stability than acknowledg...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grela E, Dzieak A, Szydowska K, Mucha A, Kafarski P, Grabowiecka AM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization and Evaluation of Newly Developed Immune-Chromatographic Method Targeting Mycoplasma pneumoniae Ribosomal Protein L7/L12.
Abstract Point-of-care testing (POCT) for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection may be ideal and useful, because significant numbers of the cases will be seen as an outpatient. Recently, a new immune-chromatographic method (ICM) targeting M. pneumoniae ribosomal protein L7/L12 (RP-L7/L12) became available in Japan, although clinical data and basic information regarding efficacy and characterization of this ICM are limited. The present study examined the fate of M. pneumoniae ribosomal protein L7/L12 (RP-L7/L12) during the growth in-vitro and correlation between M. pneumoniae number in clinical samples and positivity in ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sano G, Itagaki T, Ishiwada N, Matsubara K, Iwata S, Nakamori Y, Matsuyama K, Watanabe K, Ishii Y, Homma S, Tateda K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in autopsy cases in Turkey.
Abstract Detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) and its DNA in clinically asymptomatic people is defined as colonization. The aim of this study was to reveal the colonization prevalence of P. jirovecii and affecting factors in an immunocompetent population. The study included 200 cases undergoing forensic autopsy between February 2015 and April 2015. The cause of death was non-medical conditions (group 1) in 111 cases (55.5%), medical conditions (group 2) in 73 cases (36.5%) and was undetermined (group 3) in 16 cases (group 3). Tissue specimens about 1 gr in weight were taken from the right upper pulmo...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ozkoc S, Koker M, Onder M, Delibas SB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in Wenzhou, Southern China.
In this study, we characterized the phenotypes and genetic features of nine XDR K. pneumoniae outbreak from a integrated hospital in Zhejiang province, China, during September 2014 to October 2014. These XDR K. pneumoniae possessed at least five resistance determinants, which contribute to highly resistance to -lactam, -lactam/inhibitor combinations, aminoglycosides, quinolones, carbapenems, chloroamphenicol and fosfomycin. All isolates carried blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-11, rmtB and several isolates also harbored blaTEM-1 and qnrS. Southern blot experiments confirmed that blaKPC-2, rmtB, blaCTX-M-9 were located on the s...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Du J, Cao J, Shen L, Bi W, Zhang X, Liu H, Lu H, Zhou T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug resistant Salmonella in pigs, pork and humans in Thailand-Laos provinces.
In conclusion, MDR Salmonella were common in pigs, pork and human samples in this region. The bacteria carried mobile genetic elements and resistance genes on conjugative plasmids that could be readily transferred to other bacterial species. PMID: 27542886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sinwat N, Angkittitrakul S, Coulson KF, Pilapil FM, Meunsene D, Chuanchuen R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Yeasts from the microbiota of bats: a focus on the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of cryptic species of Candida.
ha MF PMID: 27542964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brilhante RS, Maia-Júnior JE, Oliveira JS, Guedes GM, Silva AL, Moura FB, Sales JA, Castelo-Branco DS, Sidrim JJ, Cordeiro RA, Pereira-Neto WA, Rocha MF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Circulating emm types of Streptococcus pyogenes in Scotland:2011-2015.
PMID: 27539121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 18, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lindsay DS, Brown AW, Scott KJ, Denham B, Thom L, Rundell G, Ure R, Jones B, Smith AJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cytokines and chemokines in mild/asymptomatic cases infected with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.
PMID: 27534748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang P, Lou X, Zheng Y, Shi W, Li Y, Dong Y, Han Y, Pang X, Liu S, Wang Q Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Distribution of PCR-ribotypes among recent Clostridium difficile isolates collected in two districts of Hungary using capillary gel electrophoresis and review of changes in the circulating ribotypes over time.
lerberger F Abstract Following the first description of a Clostridium difficile case caused by ribotype 027 in Hungary in 2007, the rapid spread of C. difficile infection in different hospitals within the country was observed. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the distribution of different PCR-ribotypes among inpatient and outpatient isolates obtained in two geographically different parts of Hungary. One hundred and ninety-two toxigenic C. difficile isolates collected between 1st October and 1st December, 2014 were PCR-ribotyped using capillary gel electrophoresis and the database of WEBRIBO (http://w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tóth J, Urbán E, Osztie H, Benczik M, Indra A, Nagy E, Allerberger F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical severity in forecasting platelet to lymphocyte ratio in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever patients.
ouml;zel MG Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a life-threatening disease that develops as a result of a member of the Nairovirus genus, of the Bunyaviridae family, and its initial symptoms are not specific. In patients with severe clinical progression, in particular the neutrophil rate is high, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte levels are low. A total of 149 patients, in whom the diagnosis was confirmed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, were included in the study. In order to compare patients clinical progressions severity we divided the patients into two groups. For group 1 Cevi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eren SH, Zengin S, Büyüktuna SA, Gözel MG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An overview of the bacterial contribution to Crohn disease pathogenesis.
Abstract Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition primarily affecting the gastro-intestinal tract, and is characterised by reduced bacterial diversity. The exact cause of disease is unknown; however, evidence suggests several components, including microbiota, may contribute to the underlying pathology and disease development. Perturbation of the host-microbe commensal relationship is considered the main driving force of tissue destruction and pathological changes seen in CD. Several putative bacterial pathogens including species from Mycobacteria, Campylobacter and Helicobacter, are postulated in the...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alhagamhmad MH, Day AS, Lemberg DA, Leach ST Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Is it true that plant-derived polyphenols are always beneficial for the human? In vitro study on Leonurus cardiaca extract properties in the context of the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine whether Leonurus cardiaca L. herb extract (LCE) used at subinhibitory concentration modifies the characteristics of S. aureus, important in the pathogenesis of invasive infections originating from the bloodstream, in a way favorable for the human host. Polyphenol rich LCE, a common ingredient in the pharmaceutical products used for various cardiovascular and nervous system disorders, had shown interesting antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties in our previous studies. Our current findings indicate that the following S. aureus characteristics were decreased, dependi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Micota B, Sadowska B, Podsedek A, Paszkiewicz M, Sosnowska D, Rozalska B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Control of quorum sensing and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using phenylalanine arginyl -naphthylamide.
This study aims to find out the impact of efflux pump inhibitor, PAN, on QS and virulence attributes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa isolates were purified from urine and wound samples and the antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by disc diffusion method. The multidrug resistant and the virulent isolates U16, U21, W19 and W23 were selected. PAN enhanced their susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents. PAN reduced QS signaling molecules N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) without affecting bacterial viability. Moreover, PAN eliminated t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: El-Shaer S, Shaaban M, Barwa R, Hassan R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in South America.
N, Famiglietti A Abstract One hundred and twenty-six sequential, epidemiologically unrelated carbapenem-resistant- Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from 9 hospitals of 6 countries of South America were collected between July 2013 and June 2014. Genes coding for Ambler class D and B carbapenemases were sought by PCR. All isolates were typed using the 3-locus sequence typing and blaOXA-51-like sequence based typing techniques. The blaOXA-23 gene was recovered in all the participating hospitals and in all the isolates of 7/9 medical centers. The blaOXA-72 gene was only recovered in the two medical centers from Guaya...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rodriguez CH, Balderrama Yarhui N, Nastro M, Nuñez Quezada T, Castro Cañarte G, Magne Ventura R, Ugarte Cuba T, Valenzuela N, Roach F, Mota MI, Burger N, Velázquez Aguayo G, Ortellado-Canese J, Bruni G, Pandolfo C, Bastyas N, Famiglietti A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Guar gum as a new antimicrobial peptide delivery system against diabetic foot ulcers Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
ira M Abstract Diabetic patients frequently develop diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), particularly vulnerable to Staphylococcus aureus opportunistic infections. It is urgent to find new treatments for bacterial infections. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) nisin is a potential candidate, mainly due to its broad spectrum of action against pathogens. Considering that AMP can be degraded or inactivated before reaching their target at therapeutic concentrations, it is mandatory to establish effective AMP delivery systems, being the natural polysaccharide guar gum one of the most promising. We analyzed the antimicrobial potenti...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Santos R, Gomes D, Macedo H, Barros D, Tibério C, Veiga AS, Tavares L, Castanho M, Oliveira M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterisation of new Salmonella serovars by whole genome sequencing and traditional typing techniques.
Abstract Serotyping forms the basis of all national and international surveillance networks for Salmonella. Public health microbiology is currently being transformed by high throughput DNA sequencing, which opens the door to serovar determination using this powerful technique. Twenty nine Salmonella isolates referred to Public Health England between 1994-2004 for serovar identification were selected for this study, and they all presented with novel antigenic formulae. Results from a combination of traditional phenotypic and molecular assays were compared. Twenty two isolates (76%) were subsequently independently c...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bale J, Meunier D, Weill FX, dePinna E, Peters T, Nair S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Phenotypic detection of AmpC β-lactamases, extended-spectrum- β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae using a resazurin microtitre assay with inhibitor-based methods.
Phenotypic detection of AmpC β-lactamases, extended-spectrum- β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae using a resazurin microtitre assay with inhibitor-based methods. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Aug 1; Authors: Teethaisong Y, Eumkeb G, Chumnarnsilpa S, Autarkool N, Hobson J, Nakouti I, Hobbs G, Evans K Abstract Dissemination of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae mediated by AmpC, ESBL and MBL β-lactamases is clinically significant. A simple, relatively quick method for the detection of these resistance phenotypes would greatly improve chemotherapeutic recomme...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Teethaisong Y, Eumkeb G, Chumnarnsilpa S, Autarkool N, Hobson J, Nakouti I, Hobbs G, Evans K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Virulence and resistance profile of MRSA isolates in pre and post-liver transplantation patients using microarray.
This study aims to evaluate clonality, virulence and resistance of MRSA in pre and post-liver transplantation (LT) patients. Nasal and groin swabs of 190 patients were collected. PCR for virulence genes and SCCmec types, microarray, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were performed. MRSA carriers were detected in 20.5% (39/190) of the patients. However only three colonized patients developed infections post LT. Sixty-nine MRSA isolates were identified and the most frequent SCCmec type was type II (29/69, 42.0%). Most isolates (57/69, 82.6%) we...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 29, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Heijden IM, de Oliveira LM, Brito GC, Abdala E, Freire MP, Rossi F, D'Albuquerque LA, Levin AS, Costa SF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research