First genetic evidence of Coxiella burnetii in cases presenting with acute febrile illness, India.
PMID: 28319680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kumar S, Gangoliya SR, Alam SI, Patil S, Ajantha GS, Kulkarni RD, Kamboj DV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Determination of antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from pigs and their genotypic characterization by method of amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting).
CONCLUSION: Given the possibility of transmission to humans of the high-resistance/multidrug resistance enterococci and the significant role of pigs as food animals in this process, it is necessary to introduce a multilevel control strategy by carrying out research on the resistance and molecular characteristics of indicator bacterial strains isolated from animals on individual farms. PMID: 28260584 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nowakiewicz A, Ziółkowska G, Trościańczyk A, Zięba P, Gnat S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods for characterization of vaginal microflora.
CONCLUSION: We found little overlap between the species found using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. Rather, culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were found to be complementary in describing the vaginal microflora among South Indian women. Culture-independent methods were found to be superior in detecting clinically relevant vaginal flora. PMID: 28260585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pandya S, Ravi K, Srinivas V, Jadhav S, Khan A, Arun A, Riley LW, Madhivanan P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection isolates in a non-outbreak setting.
CONCLUSION: The non-clonal population structure suggests that there is ongoing environmental exposure of inpatients to P. aeruginosa. In clinical areas dealing with at-risk patients, routine attention to mechanism of environmental colonization is important and should be addressed even in the non-outbreak setting. PMID: 28260586 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: McCarthy KL, Kidd TJ, Paterson DL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from Miranda donkey (Equus asinus): an old problem from a new source with a different approach.
CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing antibiotic resistance among Escherichiacoli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from the Miranda donkey in Portugal, indicating possible antibiotic-resistant bacterial reservoirs. However, the detection of these resistances presents a low risk for other animals and human beings in that rural area. PMID: 28260587 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carvalho I, Campo RD, Sousa M, Silva N, Carrola J, Marinho C, Santos T, Carvalho S, Nóvoa M, Quaresma M, Pereira JE, Cobo M, Igrejas G, Poeta P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Utilization of size polymorphism in ITS1 and ITS2 regions for identification of pathogenic yeast species.
CONCLUSION: FSP method benefits from advantages such as lower cost, higher speed and wider range of species than some commercial yeast-identification methods. We consider this method as one of the easiest molecular approaches for identifying a wide range of human pathogenic yeast species, applicable to both diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. PMID: 28260588 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khodadadi H, Karimi L, Jalalizand N, Adin H, Mirhendi H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improved effect of amikacin-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles against planktonic and biofilm cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
CONCLUSION: The good antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of A-NPs, in addition to their ability to enter macrophages without any cytotoxicity for these cells, make them a potential candidate to treat P. aeruginosa infections. PMID: 28260589 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sabaeifard P, Abdi-Ali A, Gamazo C, Irache JM, Soudi MR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of ISAba1 in association with a novel allelic variant of the β-lactamase ADC-82 and class D β-lactamase genes mediating carbapenem resistance among the clinical isolates of MDR A. baumannii.
CONCLUSION: High incidence of IC-II clones, novel resistance determinants (ADC-82) and elevated resistance mediated by ISAba1 reported here will be of enormous importance while assessing the emergence of extremely resistant A. baumannii in India. PMID: 28260590 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saranathan R, Kumari R, Kalaivani R, Suresh S, Rani A, Purty S, Prashanth K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Resistotyping, phenotyping and genotyping of New Delhi metallo- β-lactamase (NDM) among gram negative bacilli from Iranian patients.
CONCLUSION: Here, high levels of antibiotic resistance and high frequency of MDR and XDR profiles as well as high prevalence of blaNDM-1 in investigated bacteria. PMID: 28150578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shokri D, Rabbani Khorasgani M, Fatemi SM, Soleimani-Delfan A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Biocompatible, biodegradable polymeric antibacterial nanoparticles for enhancing the effects of the third generation cephalosporin against resistant bacteria.
CONCLUSION: The synergistic effect of ceftriaxone loaded CNPs can be useful finding for treatment of MRSA and E. coli infections. PMID: 28150580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mushtaq S, Khan JA, Rabbani F, Latif U, Arfan M, Yameen MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

First genotype identification of Trichosporon asahii in Sfax-Tunisia.
CONCLUSION: This is the first reported study of genotype identification of T. asahii in Tunisia and even in the African continent. PMID: 28141498 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 27, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sellami H, Trabelsi H, Neji S, Amouri I, Cheikhrouhou F, Makni F, Ayadi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Development, validation and testing costs of an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.
The objective of this study was to develop and assess the performance and costs of a new in-house real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the diagnosis of CT infection. Asymptomatic women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health services in Manaus, Brazil, were screened for CT using the Digene® Hybrid Capture II (HCII CT-ID) CT-ID DNA-test. A subset of cervical specimens were tested using an in-house qPCR and a commercial qPCR (Artus qPCR) as a reference test. A primer/probe based on the sequence of cryptic plasmid was designed. An economic evaluation was conducted from the provider's perspective. The ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 27, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dos Santos CG, Sabidó M, Leturiondo AL, Ferreira CO, da Cruz TP, Benzaken AS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiological survey of Treponema pallidum in pregnant women in the Zhabei District of Shanghai.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in the Zhabei District was higher than that in other areas in Shanghai and the genotype is variable. PMID: 28126049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 24, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lu Y, Wu Q, Wang L, Ji L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for Rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus - GBS) in vaginal swabs - A Proof of Concept Study.
CONCLUSION: The direct LAMP protocol described is easy to perform facilitating rapid, accurate detection of GBS in vaginal swabs. This test has potential for use at point of care. PMID: 28126051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 24, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: McKenna JP, Cox C, Fairley DJ, Burke R, Shields MD, Watt A, Coyle PV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High yield extraction of E. coli RNA from human whole blood.
This study provides a framework for the choice of the most suitable sample preparation method to study bacterial bloodstream infections. PMID: 28126043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brennecke J, Kraut S, Zwadlo K, Gandi SK, Pritchard D, Templeton K, Bachmann T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rv1458c: A new diagnostic marker for identification of M. tuberculosis complex in a novel duplex PCR assay.
Abstract We explored the efficiency of Rv1458c, a putative ABC drug transporter specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) as a diagnostic marker. A 190 bp region of Rv1458c and a 300bp region of hsp65 were targeted in a novel duplex PCR assay and compared with PCR restriction analysis (PRA) using restriction enzymes NruI and BamHI. Speciation of a subset of the isolates (n=50) was confirmed by sequencing. Clinical isolates (n=426) obtained from clinically suspected patients of pulmonary tuberculosis; and mycobacterial (n=13) and non-mycobacterial (n=8) reference strains were included in the study....
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shrivastava K, Garima K, Narang A, Bhattacharyya K, Vishnoi E, Singh RK, Choudhary A, Prasad R, Bose M, Varma-Basil M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of non-serotypeable Shigella spp.: Problems and Prospects.
PMID: 28113042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 22, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Muthuirulandi Sethuvel DP, Devanga Ragupathi NK, Anandan S, Walia K, Veeraraghavan B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic analyses of the fusion protein genes in human parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 among patients with acute respiratory infections in Eastern Japan from 2011 to 2015.
Abstract PURPOSE: To genetically explorer the fusion protein gene (F) in human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) and type 3 (HPIV3) strains, we analyzed them in the patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Eastern Japan from 2011 to 2015. METHODOLOGY: We constructed phylogenetic trees based on the HPIV and HPIV3 F gene using the maximum likelihood method and conducted p-distance, and selective pressure analyses. We also predicted the linear epitopes of the protein in the prototype strains. Furthermore, we mapped the amino acid substitutions of the proteins.Results/Key findings:Nineteen strains of ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tsutsui R, Tsukagoshi H, Nagasawa K, Takahashi M, Matsushima Y, Ryo A, Kuroda M, Takami H, Kimura H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular analysis and species diversity of Nocardia in hospital environment of a developing country, a potential health hazard.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that hospital environment can be the reservoir of a diverse range of Nocardia due to remarkable survival capability of these bacteria in adverse environment of hospitals. This in turn, might create a threat to the health of patients. PMID: 28100300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rahdar HA, Azadi D, Shojaei H, Daei Naser A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.
CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate technique, and may replace the conventional phenotypic method for routine identification of FRS fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID: 28100314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lu X, Huang Y, Zhang M, Zhu M, Wang M, Sun Y, Gu H, Cao J, Li X, Zhang S, Wang J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The Evaluation of Three Different Bottles in BACTEC 9240 Automated Blood Culture System and Direct Identification of Candida species to Shorten the Turnaround Time of Blood Culture.
Abstract Candida spp. are the most common causes of fungemia. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are very important for appropriate management of candidemia. At present, blood culture is the essential diagnostic test despite it has a long detection time and low sensitivity rate. We aimed to investigate the ways to shorten the turnaround time from blood culture collection to final identification in candidemia. Sixty clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida were included and the Plus Aerobic/F, Peds Plus/F and Mycosis IC/F (MICF) bottles were used with BACTEC 9240 blood culture instrument. Germ tube production, c...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gokbolat E, Oz Y, Metintas S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A large prolonged outbreak of hepatitis A associated with consumption of frozen berries, Italy, 2013-14.
Abstract In 2013/2014 Italy experienced one of the largest community-wide prolonged outbreak of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) through over the country. Enhanced human epidemiological and microbiological surveillance together with microbiological monitoring of HAV in food and trace-back investigation were conducted in order to give a comprehensive description of the outbreak investigation carried out in Italy by a multidisciplinary National Task Force in collaboration with regional and local public health authorities. Moreover, control strategies of foodborne HAV infection in both the human and food sectors are described...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Scavia G, Alfonsi V, Taffon S, Escher M, Bruni R, De Medici D, Di Pasquale S, Guizzardi S, Cappelletti B, Iannazzo S, Losio NM, Pavoni E, Decastelli L, Ciccaglione AR, Equestre M, Tosti ME, Rizzo C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Role and mechanism of the Hsp70 molecular chaperone machines in bacterial pathogens.
Abstract Heat shock proteins (HSP) are highly conserved, stress-inducible, ubiquitous proteins that maintain homeostasis in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Hsp70 proteins belong to the HSP family and enhance bacterial survival in hostile environments. Hsp70, known as DnaK in prokaryotes, supports numerous processes such as the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes, the refolding of misfolded and clustered proteins, membrane translocation, and the regulation of regulatory proteins. The chaperone-based activity of Hsp70 depends on dynamic interactions between its two domains known as the ATPase domain and t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghazaei C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improved effect of amikacin-loaded Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles against Planktonic and biofilm cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract Amikacin is one of the most effective antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections but, according to its high toxicity, the use of this antibiotic has been clinically limited. In the present study, amikacin was successfully loaded into a new formulation of nanoparticles based on PLGA 50:50. Amikacin-loaded nanoparticles showed desirable antibacterial and antibiofilm characteristics. Flow cytometric studies showed that these nanoparticles were able to interact with Planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells. Moreover, following one hour of incubation of amikacin-loaded nanoparticles with one-day-old b...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 11, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sabaeifard P, Abdi-Ali A, Gamazo C, Irache JM, Reza Soudi M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evolutionary and genetic analysis of human bocavirus genotype-1 strains reveals an evidence of intragenomic recombination.
Abstract Human bocavirus (HBoV) is divided into 4 genotypes: 1 to 4 with the HBoV-1 is the most commonly prevalent genotype. The current study intended to genetically analyze the full length genome of the HBoV-1 of recently detected Egyptian strains. Seven overlapping sets of primers were developed to amplify a nearly complete HBoV-1 genome from the clinical samples. The primer sets were tested on three recently identified Egyptian HBoV-1 strains with viral loads ≥105/ml. Sequencing was conducted using the same sets of primers. HBoV-1 virus strains were genetically analysed based on the sequences of their compl...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 11, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abdel-Moneim AS, Kamel MM, Hassan NM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Utilization of size polymorphism in ITS1 and ITS2 regions for identification of pathogenic yeast species.
Abstract Despite the existence of a variety of available yeast identification strategies, easier and more cost-effective methods are required for routine use in clinical laboratories. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA genes exhibit variable sizes depending on the yeast species. In the present study, fragment size polymorphism (FSP) analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions for identification of the clinically most important yeast species was assessed. The ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 190 strains, including isolates of 31 standard strains and 159 clinical isolates, were separately PCR-amplified w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khodadadi H, Karimi L, Jalali-Zand N, Adin H, Mirhendi H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Manual curation and reannotation of the genomes of Clostridium difficile 630 Δerm and Clostridium difficile 630.
Manual curation and reannotation of the genomes of Clostridium difficile 630Δerm and Clostridium difficile 630. J Med Microbiol. 2017 Jan 09;: Authors: Dannheim H, Riedel T, Neumann-Schaal M, Bunk B, Schober I, Spröer C, Chibani CM, Gronow S, Liesegang H, Overmann J, Schomburg D Abstract We resequenced the genome of Clostridium difficile 630Δerm (DSM 28645), a model strain commonly used for the generation of insertion mutants. The genome sequence was obtained by a combination of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing technology. Detailed manual curation and compariso...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dannheim H, Riedel T, Neumann-Schaal M, Bunk B, Schober I, Spröer C, Chibani CM, Gronow S, Liesegang H, Overmann J, Schomburg D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of self-collected meatal swabs with urine specimens for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men.
Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are common bacterial causes of sexually transmitted infection. Self-taken meatal swabs are a possible alternative to urine samples in testing for infection; however the data surrounding their use are limited. We carried out a prospective service review in a large sexual health clinic comparing urine samples and self-taken meatal swabs in men presenting for sexual transmissible infection screening for CT and GC with the BD Viper XTR system. We found an overall prevalence of CT infections was 10.5% and 4.2% for GC in our patient population. Meatal sw...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Berry L, Stanley B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from Miranda Donkey (Equus asinus): an old problem from a new source with a different approach.
eta P Abstract The Miranda Donkey (Equus asinus) is an endangered asinine from Miranda do Douro region, located in North East of Portugal. We study the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genes in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from these animals. In March 2014, a total of 66 faecal samples were recovered from independent animals. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method. Carriage of genes codifying for antibiotic resistant and virulent factors was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 66 E. coli and 41 enterococci isolates were detected, being t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carvalho I, Del Campo R, Sousa M, Silva N, Carrola J, Marinho C, Santos T, Carvalho S, Nóvoa M, Quaresma M, Pereira JE, Cobo M, Igrejas G, Poeta P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
Abstract Multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) difficult the treatment of severe infections. We evaluated the in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against 71 carbapenem-resistant clonal diverse clinical Ab strains recovered from Brazilian hospitals. Minocycline and polypeptides presented activity against>98% of the isolates, indicating their potential against MDR or XDR carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from main clones circulating in Brazil. PMID: 28056222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vasconcellos FM, Casas MR, Tavares LC, Garcia DO, Camargo CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection and dissemination of the colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, from isolates and fecal samples in China.
In this study, we established a new real-time PCR method to detect the mcr-1 gene in a variety of isolates and fecal samples from 20 provinces and municipal cities in China. Of the 2330 isolates (from 10 species) screened, 54 (2.3%) isolates were positive for mcr-1. All of the mcr-1-positive isolates that were identified belonged to Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, among which 9, 1, and 44 were identified as enteropathogenic E. coli, enteroadherent E. coli, and non-pathogenic E. coli, respectively. The majority of the mcr-1-positive isolates were obtained from farm animals from eight provinces and municipal cities acros...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen X, Zhao X, Che J, Xiong Y, Xu Y, Zhang L, Lan R, Xia L, Walsh TR, Xu J, Lu J, Li J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Phylogenetic analysis of partial VP7 gene of the emerging Human group A rotavirus G12 strains circulating in Tunisia.
i A Abstract Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the leading etiological agent of severe gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age. The most common G types in humans are G1-4 and G9. G12 genotype is currently emerging worldwide, becoming the sixth most prevalent RVA VP7 genotype causing severe childhood diarrhea. A total of 1127 fecal samples were collected from Tunisian children under 5 years of age consulting for gastroenteritis between 2009 and 2014. All samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of RVA antigen. RVA-positive samples were further used for the detection of G12 R...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moussa A, Ben Hadj Fredj M, BenHamida-Rebaï M, Fodha I, Boujaafar N, Trabelsi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence of a novel β-lactamase in food of animal origin: Characterisation of SHV-111, from a cheese isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, with an amino acid substitution in a strictly conserved position (P174S) in the Ω-loop.
Emergence of a novel β-lactamase in food of animal origin: Characterisation of SHV-111, from a cheese isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, with an amino acid substitution in a strictly conserved position (P174S) in the Ω-loop. J Med Microbiol. 2017 Jan 03;: Authors: Hammad AM, Shimamoto T, Shimamoto T PMID: 28051951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hammad AM, Shimamoto T, Shimamoto T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Gram-Negative ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated from Hospitalized Patients with Intra-Abdominal and Urinary Tract Infections in Asia-Pacific Countries: SMART 2013-2015.
Abstract Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) are responsible for increases in antimicrobial-resistant infections worldwide. We determined in vitro susceptibilities to eight parenteral antimicrobial agents using CLSI broth microdilution methodology for gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAI) (n = 3,052) and urinary tract infections (UTI) (n = 1,088) in 11 countries/regions from 2013-2015. Amikacin (98.3%, 96.4%), imipenem (97.1%, 95.5%), and ertapenem (95.3%, 93...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karlowsky JA, Hoban DJ, Hackel MA, Lob S, Sahm DF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Candida albicans biofilm heterogeneity does not influence denture stomatitis, but strongly influences denture cleansing capacity.
Abstract Approximately 20% of the UK population wear some form of denture prosthesis, resulting in denture stomatitis in half of these individuals. Candida albicans is primarily attributed as the causative agent, due to its biofilm forming ability. Recently, there has been increasing evidence of C. albicans biofilm heterogeneity and the negative impact it can have clinically; however, this phenomenon has yet to be studied in relation to denture isolates. The aims of this study were to evaluate C. albicans biofilm formation of clinical denture isolates in a denture environment, and assess antimicrobial activity of ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 29, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: O'Donnell LE, Alalwan HK, Kean R, Calvert G, Nile CJ, Lappin DF, Roberston D, Williams C, Ramage G, Sherry L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) genotyping analyses reveal a low prevalence of KoRV-A in Victorian koalas and an association with clinical disease.
Abstract Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is currently undergoing endogenisation into the genome of koalas in Australia, providing an opportunity to assess the effect of retrovirus infection on the health of a population. The prevalence of KoRV in north eastern Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) is 100%, whereas previous preliminary investigations in south eastern Australia (Victoria) suggested KoRV is present at a lower prevalence, although the values have varied widely. Here we describe a large study of free ranging koalas in Victoria to estimate the prevalence of KoRV and assess the clinical significance of KoRV...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Legione AR, Patterson JL, Whiteley P, Firestone SM, Curnick M, Bodley K, Lynch M, Gilkerson JR, Sansom FM, Devlin JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae deficient in Alpha-like protein encoding genes.
In conclusion, we have shown that non-Alp GBS differ from Alp GBS in the region surrounding the insertion site of Alp genes of Alp GBS as well as in their content of other surface proteins, and that PCR for the up-stream flanking region of the Alp gene may be useful for differentiation between Alp and non-Alp GBS. PMID: 28032541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gabrielsen C, Mæland JA, Lyng RV, Radtke R, Afset JE Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients in three hospitals in southern Vietnam.
Abstract Multidrug resistance (MDR) in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii limits therapeutic options and impacts on clinical care. Resistance against carbapenems, a group of last-resort antimicrobials for treating MDR A. baumannii infections, is associated with the expression (and over-expression) of carbapenemases encoded by the blaOXA genes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant A. baumannii associated with infection in three hospitals in southern Vietnam and to characterise the genetic determinants associated with resistance against carbapenems. We recover...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tuan Anh N, Nga TV, Tuan HM, Tuan NS, Y DM, Chau NV, Baker S, Duong HH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Noroviruses Detected in Vietnamese Children with Acute Gastroenteritis from 2012 to 2015.
In conclusion, a substantial burden due to norovirus gastroenteritis hospitalisations among Vietnamese children was associated with circulating co-dominant GII.Pe_GII.4 Sydney 2012 and GII.P21_GII.3 strains. Continued surveillance is necessary to monitor infection caused by GII.4 variants and that of GII.P17_GII.17 noroviruses in paediatric patients in Vietnam. PMID: 28032544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hoa-Tran TN, Nakagomi O, Dao AT, Nguyen AT, Agbemabiese CA, Vu HM, Nakagomi T, Nguyen TT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Saccharomyces boulardii improves humoral immune response to DNA vaccines against leptospirosis.
This study evaluated Saccharomyces boulardii capacity to improve the humoral and cellular immune responses using DNA vaccines coding for the leptospiral protein fragments LigAni and LigBrep. BALB/c mice were fed with rodent-specific feed containing 108 colony-forming units of Saccharomyces boulardii per gram. Animals were immunized three times intramuscularly with 100 µg of pTARGET plasmids containing the coding sequences for the above mentioned proteins. Control group animals received no probiotic feed but were immunized the same way. Antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-10,...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Silveira MM, Conceição F, Mendonça M, Da Cunha CE, Moreira G, Conrad N, Oliveira P, Hartwig D, De Leon P, Moreira  Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterisation of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from international human and veterinary surgeons.
This study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of 26 MRSA isolates cultured from the nares of an international cross-sectional study of 1,166 human and 60 veterinary surgeons. All isolates were subjected to agr-, spa- and MLST typing and the presence of 22 virulence factors were screened for by PCR. Additionally, biofilm-forming ability, haemolytic activity, staphyloxanthin production and antibiotic resistance were determined. The genome of a rifampicin resistant MRSA was sequenced. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to well-described clonal lineages, ST1, ST5, ST8, ST45 and ST59, ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 21, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Post V, Harris L, Morgenstern M, Richards RG, Sheppard SK, Moriarty F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of Mycobacteria by VOC analysis of in vitro cultures using differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS).
This study provides strong evidence that VOC-analysis of headspace over mycobacterial cultures in combination with appropriate data analysis has the potential to become a valuable method to identify positive samples much earlier than with current standard procedures. PMID: 27995864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Purkhart R, Becher G, Reinhold P, Köhler HU Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection isolates in a non-outbreak setting.
This study aims to characterise the molecular relationship of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection isolates in the non-outbreak setting at a single tertiary healthcare facility. P. aeruginosa BSI isolates from patients who were admitted to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital over a 13 month period from November 2009 were identified retrospectively from the Pathology Queensland Clinical and Scientific Information System. The isolates were typed by iPLEX MassARRAY MALDI-TOF MS genotyping. The Diversilab® automated rapid strain typing platform (bioMérieux Australia Pty Ltd) was used to assess the genotypic relat...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: McCarthy KL, Kidd TJ, Paterson DL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Xpert ® MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX™ MRSA XT for MRSA screening in a routine diagnostic setting in a low prevalence area.
Evaluation of Xpert® MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX™ MRSA XT for MRSA screening in a routine diagnostic setting in a low prevalence area. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Dec 19;: Authors: Nielsen XC, Madsen TV, Engberg J Abstract Screening and pre-emptive isolation of at-risk patients is an important aspect of the Danish approach to the prevention of MRSA infection, but screening with conventional culture can take up to th days for results to become available with attendant costs and disadvantages of prolonged isolation. We sought to evaluate the accuracy, time to availability of results, and potential economi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nielsen XC, Madsen TV, Engberg J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multiple cag genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolates colonize the oesophagus in individual hosts in a Venezuelan population.
li F, Contreras M Abstract Multiple Helicobacter pylori strains colonize and coexist in the stomach of one single patient, carrying heterogeneous distributions of cag genotypes. The oesophagus provides a niche for H. pylori colonization; however, little is known about its adaptive role. Using PCR for cagA, cagE and virB11 genes from cag-PAI, and Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility test, we determined cag-PAI genotypes associated to H. pylori virulence, when positive cultures were matching in both the stomach and the oesophagus (96 isolates; 8 out of 80 dyspeptic patients). The stomach showed complete cag-PAI is...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peña J, Rojas H, Reyes N, Fernández-Delgado M, García-Amado MA, Michelangeli F, Contreras M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Culture-dependent and Culture-Independent Molecular Methods for Characterisation of Vaginal Microflora.
Abstract To date, molecular methods that circumvent the limitations of traditional culture methods have not been used to describe the vaginal microflora in India. Here, we compared culture and culture-independent molecular methods in characterising the vaginal microbiota in Indian women. Culture methods involved traditional cultivation on Rogosa and sheep-blood agar, whereas culture-independent methods bypassed a culturing step by performing broad-range 16S rDNA PCR on DNA isolated directly from vaginal swabs. A total of 13 women were included in the study, of which five were characterised as healthy, two were BV-...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pandya S, Ravi K, Srinivas V, Jadhav S, Khan A, Arun A, Riley LW, Madhivanan P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species to liposomal amphotericin B, determined using CLSI broth microdilution, and amphotericin B deoxycholate, measured using the E-test.
Abstract The antifungal susceptibilities of 598 isolates of Candida spp. (bloodstream, other sterile sites) to liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) versus amphotericin B (AmB) were determined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution (BMD; M27-A3) method for L-AmB and the E-test method for AmB. The MIC50/MIC90 (µg ml-1) values for L-AmB BMD and AmB E-test were 0.25/1 and 0.19/0.5, respectively. The overall essential agreement (± 2 dilutions) was 91.5%, ranging from 37.5% (Candida lusitaniae) to 100% (Candida glabrata...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grazia L, Osvalda G, Serafina R, Giusy D, Giuseppina C, Montagna MT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

CRISPR based Genome Editing of Clinical Important E. coli SE15 Isolated from Indwelling Urinary Catheters of Patients.
In this study, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 mediated genome editing to generate luxS mutant strains from clinical isolate of E. coli SE15, which is one of major pathogens, and can cause colonization and biofilm formation in the catheter. A major regulatory pathway of such biofilm formation on medical devices is the quorum sensing mechanism via small molecule autoinducer-2 synthesized by LuxS enzyme. Here, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 system for precise deletion of luxS gene in clinical isolate E. coli SE15. To this end, we constructed a donor DNA for homologous recombination to del...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kang S, Kim J, Hur JK, Lee SS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells.
Abstract Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging food borne enteric pathogen causing diarrheal diseases in multiple epidemiological and clinical settings. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of EAEC is still suboptimal. Studies have indicated that enteric bacteria induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in host cells might have a vital role in the pathogenesis caused by these organisms. In the present study, we have found that EAEC could induce apoptosis in human small intestinal as well as colonic epithelial cell lines, which was assessed by the expression of phosphatidylserine on host cel...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 9, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Priya A, Kaur K, Bhattacharyya S, Chakraborti A, Ghosh S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Frequency of Antiseptic Resistance Genes and Reduced Susceptibility to Biocides in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
This study of may offer hospitals with important information about the control of nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii. PMID: 27930267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu WJ, Fu L, Huang M, Zhang JP, Wu Y, Zhou YS, Zeng J, Wang GX Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research