Decoding the molecular epidemiology of group A streptococcus - an Indian perspective.
CONCLUSION: The coverage among the South Indian GAS isolates was 28.2 % which increased to only 46.6 % with the cross-opsonic effect, thus highlighting the importance of developing a specific multivalent vaccine including the prevalent emm types in India or considering the use of conserved C-repeat vaccines and non-M protein based vaccines. PMID: 31192782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abraham T, Sistla S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Slow growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei compared to other pathogens in an adapted blood culture system in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
CONCLUSIONS: Visual inspection for growth of commercial blood culture bottles in a low-resource setting provided satisfactory yield and time-to-detection. However, B. pseudomallei grew slowly and was mainly detected by blind subculture. The aerobic bottle outperformed the anaerobic bottle. PMID: 31188093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peeters M, Ombelet S, Chung P, Tsoumanis A, Lim K, Long L, De Smet B, Kham C, Teav S, Vlieghe E, Phe T, Jacobs J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Generation and selection of antibodies for a novel immunochromatographic lateral flow test to rapidly identify OXA-23-like-mediated carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.
CONCLUSION: With this rapid detection assay one can save 12-48 h of diagnostic time, which could help avoid inappropriate use of carbapenems and enable earlier intervention to control the transmission of OXA-23-producing carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolates to other patients and healthcare workers. PMID: 31188094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mertins S, Higgins PG, Rodríguez MG, Borlon C, Gilleman Q, Mertens P, Seifert H, Krönke M, Klimka A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Ibuprofen lacks direct antimicrobial properties for the treatment of urinary tract infection isolates.
Abstract The high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women and children, in combination with a lack of antibiotic efficacy with regard to pathogen eradication and recurrence prevention, as well as the negative side effects associated with antibiotics, has led researchers to explore the role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a primary management strategy. The aim of this study was to determine whether ibuprofen (IBU) or one of its major metabolites, 2-carboxyibuprofen (CIBU), could affect the growth and adhesion of the two most common uropathogens, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis....
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Whiteside SA, Dave S, Reid G, Burton JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Apparent performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis: a descriptive study.
CONCLUSION: mNGS is helpful for identifying Cryptococcus species. The application of mNGS, together with India ink staining, culture methods, and CrAg, may significantly improve the diagnostic precision in CM, thereby informing choice of appropriate antifungal treatment courses. PMID: 31184572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xing XW, Zhang JT, Ma YB, Zheng N, Yang F, Yu SY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of different testing tools for the identification of non-gonococcal Neisseria spp. isolated from Lebanese male semen: a strong and significant association with infertility.
CONCLUSION: This work predicted a strong and significant association between the presence of Neisseria spp. in semen and male infertility among the Lebanese population. For a better understanding of this association, it is recommended that more genomic and large-scale epidemiological investigations are undertaken to reach definitive conclusions. PMID: 31172907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khoder M, Osman M, Diene SM, Okdah L, Lalaoui R, Al Achkar M, Mallat H, Hamze M, Rolain JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro efficacy of sodium selenite in reducing toxin production, spore outgrowth and antibiotic resistance in hypervirulent Clostridium difficile.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that sodium selenite could potentially be used to control C. difficile and indicate that future in vivo studies are warranted. PMID: 31172910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pellissery AJ, Vinayamohan PG, Yin HB, Mooyottu S, Venkitanarayanan K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection and quantification of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in blood from infected chickens - addressing challenges with detection of DNA from infectious agents in host species with nucleated red blood cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ER bacteria undergo rapid phagocytosis in chicken blood and that analysis of a blood fraction enriched for phagocytic cells is necessary for reliable detection and quantification. The presented results explain the poor performance of PCR detection reported in previously published experimental ER infection studies, and the proposed solutions are likely to have broader implications for PCR-based veterinary diagnostics in non-mammalian host species such as poultry and fish. PMID: 31172912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wattrang E, Jäderblom V, Jinnerot T, Eriksson H, Bagge E, Persson M, Dalgaard TS, Söderlund R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Predominance of emm4 and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes in acute pharyngitis in a southern region of Korea.
CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of emm genotypes was quite different from those previously reported in Korea. emm4 accounted for more than 50  % of the genotypes. Macrolide resistance rates remained very low, but five of six ERY-resistant strains displayed the cMLSB phenotype. PMID: 31169483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim S, Lee S, Park H, Kim S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of miramistin against drug-resistant fungi.
CONCLUSION: These findings support further investigation of miramistin and suggest its possible use for treatment of superficial fungal infections. PMID: 31169488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Osmanov A, Wise A, Denning DW Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of Siphoviridae phage infecting extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: These studies suggest that phage AB1801 may be suitable for further development as an antimicrobial agent against XDR A. baumannii infection. PMID: 31169490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wintachai P, Naknaen A, Pomwised R, Voravuthikunchai SP, Smith DR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of mecillinam and nitroxoline against Neisseria gonorrhoeae - re-purposing old antibiotics in the multi-drug resistance era.
Abstract In 2018, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reported the first cases of extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Europe. Seeking new options for antimicrobial therapy we investigated the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to nitroxoline (NIT) and mecillinam (MCM), both of which are currently only indicated to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates with non-susceptibility to penicillin from two German medical centres were included (n =27). Most isolates were also non-susceptible to a range of other anti-gonococcal antimicrobial...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fuchs F, Wille J, Hamprecht A, Parcina M, Lehmann C, Schwarze-Zander C, Seifert H, Higgins PG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical significance of koala retrovirus in two South Australian koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations.
CONCLUSION: KoRV-A is a prevalent pathogen in wild South Australian koala populations. Future studies should continue to investigate KoRV and C. pecorum associations, as the relationship is likely to be complex and to differ between the northern and southern populations. PMID: 31162024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fabijan J, Miller D, Olagoke O, Woolford L, Boardman W, Timms P, Polkinghorne A, Simmons G, Hemmatzadeh F, Trott DJ, Speight KN Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multidrug- and colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica 4,[5],12:i:- sequence type 34 carrying the mcr-3.1 gene on the IncHI2 plasmid recovered from a human.
Abstract A colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica 4, [5],12:i:- sequence type (ST) 34 harbouring mcr-3.1 was recovered from a patient who travelled to China 2 weeks prior to diarrhoea onset. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of the mcr-3.1 gene located in the globally disseminated IncHI2 plasmid, highlighting the intercontinental dissemination of the colistin-resistant S. enterica 4, [5],12:i:- ST34 pandemic clone. PMID: 31162025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Monte DF, Nelson V, Cerdeira L, Keelara S, Greene S, Griffin D, Rath S, Hall R, Page N, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Thakur S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility tests for sepsis; the road ahead.
Abstract Current methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are too slow to affect initial treatment decisions in the early stages of sepsis, when the prescriber is most concerned to select effective therapy immediately, rather than finding out what will not work 1 or 2 days later. There is a clear need for much faster differentiation between viral and bacterial infection, and AST, linked to earlier aetiological diagnosis, without sacrificing either the accuracy of quantitative AST or the low cost of qualitative AST. Truly rapid AST methods are eagerly awaited, and there are several candidate technolog...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Inglis TJJ, Ekelund O Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Tigecycline and inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Terengganu, Malaysia.
This study aims to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of S. aureus obtained from the main tertiary hospital in Terengganu state, Malaysia, from July 2016 to June 2017. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 90 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 109 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were determined by disc diffusion with the iMLSB phenotype determined by D-test. Multidrug resistance (MDR) and the iMLSB phenotype were more prevalent in MRSA (84.4 and 46.7  %, respectively) compared to MSSA isolates. All five tigecycline-resistant isolates were MRSA. The high inci...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Che Hamzah AM, Yeo CC, Puah SM, Chua KH, A Rahman NI, Abdullah FH, Othman N, Chew CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activities of six antifungal agents and their combinations against Chaetomium spp.
CONCLUSION: Our study illustrated varying degrees of synergism between caspofungin or terbinafine and itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole or amphotericin B towards Chaetomium spp., which could be a reference for the clinical treatment of Chaetomium spp. infections. PMID: 31140972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun L, Wan Z, Li R, Yu J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Reduced vancomycin susceptibility and increased macrophage survival in Staphylococcus aureus strains sequentially isolated from a bacteraemic patient during a short course of antibiotic therapy.
CONCLUSION: We report an increasing resistance to vancomycin coupled with daptomycin that occurred within approximately 3 days of receiving vancomycin and steadily increased until the infection was cleared with an alternative antibiotic therapy. This study reiterates the need for rapid, efficient and accurate detection of hVISA and VISA infections, especially in high-bacterial load, metastatic infections like bacteraemia. PMID: 31136294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Basco MDS, Kothari A, McKinzie PB, Revollo JR, Agnihothram S, Azevedo MP, Saccente M, Hart ME Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of respiratory pathogens in clinical samples using metagenomic shotgun sequencing.
CONCLUSION: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that SMS is able to detect bacterial, fungal and viral organisms in BAL, including culture-negative cases. PMID: 31136295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qi C, Hountras P, Pickens CO, Walter JM, Kruser JM, Singer BD, Seed P, Green SJ, Wunderink RG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Expression of adhesin genes and biofilm formation among Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolates from patients with antibiotic-associated haemorrhagic colitis.
Abstract PURPOSE: Biofilm formation and resistance to last-line antibiotics have restricted chemotherapy options toward infection eradication. METHODOLOGY: Fifty K. oxytoca isolates were collected from patients with antibiotic-associated haemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted and phenotypic biofilm formation was assessed using microtitre tissue plate (MTP) assay. PCR was employed to amplify the adhesins, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemase and colistin resistance genes. The expression of adhesin genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (R...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghasemian A, Mahmood SS, Mohabati Mobarez A, Najar Peerayeh S, Talebi Bezmin Abadi A, Khodaparast S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: phenotypes, genotypes, transposons and pneumococcal vaccine coverage rates.
CONCLUSIONS: Multi-drug resistance among erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates mainly occurs due to the horizontal spread of the Tn916 family of transposons. The majority of the transposon-carrying isolates are covered by 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines. Since serotype distribution and transposons in S. pneumoniae isolates may change over time, close monitoring is essential. PMID: 31116101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Akdoğan Kittana FN, Mustak IB, Hascelik G, Saricam S, Gurler N, Diker KS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial peptides prevent bacterial biofilm formation on the surface of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement.
CONCLUSION: The results showed that the antibiofilm activity of these peptides was comparable to that of the antibiotics, but the peptides exhibited broader specificity than the antibiotics. Given the rapid development of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides show promise as a substitute for antibiotics for loading into bone cements. PMID: 31107198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Volejníková A, Melicherčík P, Nešuta O, Vaňková E, Bednárová L, Rybáček J, Čeřovský V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Diversity of strategies used by atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to induce attaching and effacing lesion in epithelial cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results reveal the diversity of strategies used by aEPEC isolates to interact with and damage epithelial host cells, thereby causing diarrheal diseases. PMID: 31107199 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vieira MA, Dias RCB, Dos Santos LF, Rall VLM, Gomes TAT, Hernandes RT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing of NDM-1-producing serotype K1 ST23 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae in China.
CONCLUSION: This study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of ST23 CR-hvKP isolate 3214. Our data highlights the potential risk of spread of NDM-1-producing ST23 hvKP. PMID: 31107201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu BT, Su WQ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Sequence similarity searches for morphine biosynthesis enzymes in bacteria yield putative targets for understanding associations between infection and opiate administration.
Abstract Exploiting the immunosuppressive, analgesic and highly addictive properties of morphine could increase the success of a bacterial pathogen. Therefore, we performed sequence similarity searches for two morphine biosynthesis demethylases in bacteria. For thebaine 6-O-demethylase and codeine O-demethylase, we found strong alignments to three (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii) of the six ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter species) that are commonly associated with drug resistance a...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhan SH, French L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Serum IgE and IgG reactivity to Aspergillus recombinant antigens in patients with cystic fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: The use of multiple recombinant antigens may improve the diagnostic accuracy in CF complicated with ABPA or AB. Asp f1 reactivity may relate to the presence of actively growing Aspergillus spp., which might be a useful marker for guiding antifungal therapy in ABPA. PMID: 31090534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alghamdi NS, Barton R, Wilcox M, Peckham D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Impact of the introduction of a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine on pneumococcal serotypes in non-invasive isolates from 2007 to 2016 at a teaching hospital in Japan.
In this study, we analysed the antimicrobial susceptibilities and capsular types of pneumococci isolated from non-invasive patient sites from 2007 to 2016 to assess the impact of the introduction of PCV13. METHODOLOGY: A total of 618 pneumococcal isolates collected at a teaching hospital from 2007 to 2016 were used. These isolates were characterized by capsular typing, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. RESULTS: Capsular typing indicated that, after the introduction of the PCV, the proportion of PCV13 serotypes decreased (P
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suzuki S, Osato R, Wajima T, Hasebe T, Ishikawa H, Mitsumori H, Nakaminami H, Noguchi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of risk factors for colistin resistance among uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case-control study.
CONCLUSIONS: K. pneumoniae show six times higher prevalence of colistin resistance than E. coli, and the emergence of resistant organisms has led to an increase in morbidity in infected patients. PMID: 31084700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaza P, Mahindroo J, Veeraraghavan B, Mavuduru RS, Mohan B, Taneja N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of otomycosis in Isfahan revealed a large diversity in causative agents.
CONCLUSION: Outcomes from this study showed a different picture of prevalence, where C. parapsilosis and A. tubingensis but not Aspergillus niger were the most species encountered from patients suffering from otomycosis. PMID: 31063125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aboutalebian S, Mahmoudi S, Mirhendi H, Okhovat A, Abtahi H, Chabavizadeh J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The importance of considering the neglected intestinal protozoan parasite Dientamoeba fragilis.
Abstract Dientamoebiasis is globally distributed and detected in a large number of subjects with diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, flatulence, fatigue and loss of appetite. The life cycle and transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis are poorly understood. Microscopic examination of permanent stained smears is traditionally employed to diagnose the infection. However, this approach is time-consuming and the success in detecting D. fragilis depends on the microscopist's experience. Hence, only a few laboratories routinely carry out tests for D. fragilis. Consequently, the prevalence of D. fragilis infection is probably un...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Intra J, Sarto C, Besana S, Tiberti N, Brambilla P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Highly sensitive parechovirus CODEHOP PCR amplification of the complete VP1 gene for typing directly from clinical specimens and correct typing based on phylogenetic clustering.
CONCLUSION: While enabling sensitive characterization of HPeVs directly from clinical samples, the HPeV CODEHOP PCR enables the characterization of RGD and non-RGD strains and correct HPeV typing based on the complete VP1. PMID: 31050627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cremer J, Morley U, Pas S, Wolthers K, Vennema H, Duizer E, Benschop K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The incidence and patient outcomes of ABSSSI by iclaprim MIC values in the phase 3 REVIVE trials for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
Abstract The incidence and patient outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus isolates by iclaprim MIC was determined among patients from two phase 3 studies for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), REVIVE-1 and -2. Iclaprim MIC90 values were 0.12 µg ml-1 for S. aureus (0.12 µg ml-1 against methicillin-sensitive and 0.25 µg ml-1 against methicillin-resistant S. aureus). The incidence of culture confirmed S. aureus isolates among patients with ABSSSI with an iclaprim MIC> 8 µg ml-1 was 2.0  % (16/790...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang DB, Charrier C, Le Bras C, Hawser S, Noviello S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of in vitro synergistic antibiotic interaction between fosfomycin and nonsusceptible antimicrobials in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
CONCLUSION: Fosfomycin synergy was commonly observed in vitro among CRP. These data may guide the selection of combination antibiotic therapy. The susceptibility to other antibiotics was restored in combination with fosfomycin, warranting further in vivo evaluation. PMID: 31050629 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Avery LM, Sutherland CA, Nicolau DP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Host- and pathogen-dependent susceptibility and predisposition to dermatophytosis.
Abstract Dermatophytes are a highly specialized group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic filamentous fungi causing a ringworm disease called dermatophytosis or superficial mycoses. Although dermatophyte infections do not threaten the host's life, they lower its quality in humans by causing discomfort related to cosmetic problems and through their epidemiological significance, whereas in farm animals they are responsible for economic losses and constitute a source of the spread of spores. Evidence from countless observational studies that have been conducted over the last 90 years indicates that dermatophyt...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gnat S, Nowakiewicz A, Łagowski D, Zięba P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Circulation of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ST10, ST2 and ST3 in a university teaching hospital from Tehran, Iran.
CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of MDR strains and the circulation of four limited clones, including ST10 (45/99), ST2 (41/99), ST3 (12/99) and ST513 (1/99), in the clinical setting highlights the importance of a rigorous infection control programme. The two-locus typing method has more discrimination than the application of each method separately and it could be applied for the rapid determination of the CC without performing MLST. PMID: 31050632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abhari SS, Badmasti F, Modiri L, Aslani MM, Asmar M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Fast-acting bactericidal activity of olanexidine gluconate against qacA/B-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract The qacA/B gene is one of the major determinants of resistance to antiseptics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we compared the fast-acting bactericidal activity of skin antiseptics, including olanexidine gluconate (OLG), a new biguanide antiseptic agent introduced in Japan, against clinical qacA/B-positive MRSA strains by determination of minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill assay. Our findings provide, for the first time, data indicating that the fast-acting bactericidal activity of OLG against qacA/B-positive MRSA is higher than that of chlorhexidine gluconate, ev...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakaminami H, Takadama S, Okita M, Sasaki M, Noguchi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 isolates with carbapenem resistance in integrated and emergency intensive care units in a Chinese tertiary hospital.
CONCLUSION: The CRKP ST11 clone with co-production of CTX-M-65 and KPC-2 disseminated in ICUs of this tertiary teaching hospital in central China. The emergence of CRKP with a hypermucoviscosity phenotype in ICUs should be of particular concern. PMID: 31050634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yu F, Hu L, Zhong Q, Hang Y, Liu Y, Hu X, Ding H, Chen Y, Xu X, Fang X, Yu F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Nontuberculous mycobacterial and Nocardia infections mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis: a retrospective study of a general hospital patient population in China.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that a quarter of culture-positive 'suspected TB patients' harboured NTM or Nocardia infections. Notably, nearly all patients with non-TB infections presented with clinical syndromes mimicking pulmonary TB. Individuals receiving immunosuppressive therapy were at greater risk of acquiring Nocardia infections. PMID: 31021740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dong G, Chu P, Guo J, Xie Y, Lu J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Serum C-reactive protein relationship in high- versus low-virulence pathogens in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.
Abstract Little is known about the relationship between the virulence of pathogens in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. In this context, we assessed the performance of CRP for PJI. We collected the following data from 987 cases of total joint revision due to PJI and 386 cases of aseptic revision: age, gender, comorbidities, values for serum CRP, leukocytes, microbiology for preoperatively taken aspirations and at least 2 intraoperative biopsies, and presence or absence of a draining sinus. The mean CRP value in the PJI group was 50.2 mg l-1 (sd=62.2), while a lower CRP value...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Unter Ecker N, Suero EM, Gehrke T, Haasper C, Zahar A, Lausmann C, Hawi N, Citak M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Group B streptococcus prevalence, serotype distribution and colonization dynamics in Western Australian pregnant women.
CONCLUSION: This is the first cohort study to assess GBS colonization in Western Australian pregnant women and will be highly beneficial for guiding clinical practice and future therapeutic options, in particular, the selection of suitable vaccine candidates. PMID: 31013212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Furfaro LL, Nathan EA, Chang BJ, Payne MS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The potential of fosfomycin for multi-drug resistant sepsis: an analysis of in vitro activity against invasive paediatric Gram-negative bacteria.
Abstract PURPOSE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is of increasing global concern, threatening to undermine recent progress in reducing child and neonatal mortality. Repurposing older antimicrobials is a prominent strategy to combat multidrug-resistant sepsis. A potential agent is fosfomycin, however, there is scarce data regarding its in vitro activity and pharmacokinetics in the paediatric population. METHODOLOGY: We analysed a contemporary, systematically collected archive of community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) paediatric Gram-negative bacteraemia isolates for their susceptibility to fosfomcy...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Williams PCM, Waichungo J, Gordon NC, Sharland M, Murunga S, Kamau A, Berkley JA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Inadequate diagnostics: the case to move beyond the bacilli for detection of meningitis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) meningitis is extremely difficult to diagnose due to its pauci-bacillary disease nature and new techniques are needed. Improved test sensitivity would allow for greater clinician confidence in diagnostic testing and has the potential to improve patient outcomes. Traditional microbiologic and molecular tests for TB meningitis focus on detection of TB bacilli and are inadequate. Smear microscopy is rapid but only ~10-15  % sensitive. Culture has 50-60  % sensitivity but is slow. Xpert MTB/Rif Ultra is a rapid, automated PCR-based assay with ~70  % sensitivity versus cli...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bahr NC, Meintjes G, Boulware DR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Existence of multiple SCCmec elements in clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
CONCLUSION: The existence of multiple SCCmec types in individual MRSA isolates resulted in our inability to categorize many of these isolates as either CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA as defined by the SCCmec type criterion. LIMITATION: The major limitation of the study was that the SCC mec element of MRSA isolates exhibiting multiple types was not sequenced and hence this finding could not be confirmed. PMID: 30994438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nagasundaram N, Sistla S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Outcome of a screening program for the prevention of neonatal early-onset group B Streptococcus infection: a population-based cohort study in Inner Mongolia, China.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate that this perinatal screening (including preterm births) for prevention of EOGBS infection can be implemented in the Inner Mongolian area. PMID: 30994439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ji Y, Zhao C, Ma XX, Peppelenbosch MP, Ma Z, Pan Q Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The epidemiology of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the South East of England: November 2013-March 2017 and significance for clinical and public health.
CONCLUSIONS: HUSEC including serogroup O157 were uncommon and more likely to cause bloody diarrhoea than other STEC. The routine use of stx PCR testing can influence clinical management. Understanding the local epidemiology facilitates a proportionate public health response to STEC, based on clinical and microbiological characteristics including stx subtype(s). PMID: 30994441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carroll KJ, Harvey-Vince L, Jenkins C, Mohan K, Balasegaram S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular detection of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum in 150-year-old foetal remains, southeastern France.
CONCLUSIONS: Individual SP332 is the first PCR-confirmed palaeopathological case of syphilis identified in France, and the youngest specimen ever to be diagnosed with certainty for congenital syphilis. Future research aimed at better characterizing this 150-year-old treponeme genome and exploring new archaelogical cases of syphilis in the very young should contribute to a better comprehension of the disease's history. PMID: 30994442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Meffray A, Perrin M, Richier A, Schmitt A, Ardagna Y, Biagini P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identifying indoor air Penicillium species: a challenge for allergic patients.
CONCLUSION: Complete coherence between MALDI-TOF MS and sequence-based identification was found for P. chrysogenum, P. expansum, P. glabrum, Penicillium italicum and Penicillium corylophilum. The main drawback was observed for Penicillium crustosum, which included 21 strains (7.6 %) that could not be identified using MALDI-TOF MS. PMID: 30990400 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reboux G, Rocchi S, Vacheyrou M, Millon L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in water-borne pathogens: threat detection and risk assessment.
Abstract Antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are regarded as emerging environmental pollutants and pose a serious health risk to the human population. Integrons are genetic elements that are involved in the spread of ARGs amongst bacterial species. They also act as reservoirs of these resistance traits, further contributing to the development of multi-drug resistance in several water-borne pathogens. Due to inter- and intra-species transfer, integrons are now commonly reported in important water-borne pathogens such as Vibrio, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli and other opportunistic pathogens. T...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaushik M, Kumar S, Kapoor RK, Gulati P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Synthesis of conjugated PIA-rSesC and immunological evaluation against biofilm-forming Staphylococcuse epidermidis.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the proposal that the immunization of mice with PIA-rSesC conjugate vaccine could protect against S. epidermidis infection. PMID: 30990402 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mirzaei B, Mousavi SF, Babaei R, Bahonar S, Siadat SD, Shafiee Ardestani M, Shahrooei M, Van Eldere J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improvement in serological diagnosis of pertussis by external quality assessment.
CONCLUSION: The three EQA rounds have resulted in greater harmonization in methods among different laboratories, showing a significant improvement of the ELISA methods used for serodiagnosis of pertussis. PMID: 30990403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Markey K, Douglas-Bardsley A, Asokanathan C, Fry NK, Barkoff AM, Bacci S, Ködmön C, He Q Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research