Molecular evidence for the absence of an association between Simkania negevensis and respiratory diseases.
This study aimed to unveil the aetiological role of this bacterium in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and bronchitis in Jordanian adults. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 98 CAP or bronchitis patients and 96 control individuals, and tested for Simkania nucleic acids using a PCR assay. The overall prevalence of the bacterial DNA in patients was markedly high and reached 57.1 %. Intriguingly, Simkania DNA was detected in 62.5 % of the nasopharyngeal swabs collected from apparently healthy controls (P>0.05). The DNA positivity in the bronchitis and CAP subgroups was 57.7 and 56.9 %, respectively, percent...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Al-Younes HM, Al-Zereini W, Obeidat NM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Low incidence of coaggregation amongst bacteria isolated from the upper respiratory tract in health and disease.
Abstract The nasal cavity harbours a commensal microbiota that reportedly provides colonization resistance against respiratory pathogens. Following the onset of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), a change in sinus microbiota composition is frequently reported in which atypical anaerobic and/or Gram-negative bacteria predominate. We have investigated pairwise interactions between respiratory bacteria isolated from healthy adults (n=3) and individuals exhibiting CRS (n=3). Antagonism was determined using a spot plate methodology and coaggregation scores were determined using a quantitative spectrophotometric assay. Oblig...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Humphreys GJ, Kumar N, McBain AJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of high levels of resistance to linezolid and vancomycin in Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract Both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) are rapidly overcoming the current array of drugs. One hundred and fifty isolates from a hospital were studied for resistance towards linezolid and vancomycin. Fifty-four (36.0 %) isolates were MRSA. Both MRSA and MSSA showed high resistance towards linezolid when using the disc diffusion method, with the figures being 48.1 and 29.2 %, respectively. The figures for the E-test were 46.3 and 27.0 %, respectively. The vancomycin resistance was remarkable in MRSA (14.8 %), but relatively low in MSSA (3.1...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Azhar A, Rasool S, Haque A, Shan S, Saeed M, Ehsan B, Haque A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Association of codon 72 polymorphism of p53 with the severity of cervical dysplasia, E6-T350G and HPV16 variant lineages in HPV16-infected women.
CONCLUSION: The oncogenic potential of the virus is increased by the presence of the p53 arg/arg genotype in the Greek population in such a way that the specific protein interaction E6 (L83V)-p53 (Arg-72) can modify an individual's susceptibility to cervical disease. PMID: 28857739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moschonas GD, Tsakogiannis D, Lamprou KA, Mastora E, Dimitriou TG, Kyriakopoulou Z, Kottaridi C, Karakitsos P, Markoulatos P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Adhesion and invasion to epithelial cells and motility of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli reveal ST131 superiority: a comparative in vitro study of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli lineages.
Adhesion and invasion to epithelial cells and motility of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli reveal ST131 superiority: a comparative in vitro study of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli lineages. J Med Microbiol. 2017 Aug 22;: Authors: Kondratyeva K, Wollman A, Gerlitz G, Navon-Venezia S Abstract PURPOSE: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) sequence type ST131 is pandemic, and it is the major contributor to antibiotic resistance in E. coli. Despite its epidemiological superiority, the physiological reasons t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 22, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kondratyeva K, Wollman A, Gerlitz G, Navon-Venezia S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence study of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible ampC from Saudi hospitals.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study determining the prevalence of pAmpC β-lactamases and their association with PMQR and/or AME genes in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States. CMY-2 is the most prevalent pAmpC β-lactamase in this study. These data emphasize the importance of surveillance studies and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes to reduce infections caused by such resistant organisms. PMID: 28820112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abdalhamid B, Albunayan S, Shaikh A, Elhadi N, Aljindan R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Treatment failure of bacterial vaginosis is not associated with higher loads of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis.
CONCLUSION: Although G. vaginalis produces several virulence factors and its loads correlate positively with those of A. vaginae, higher cervicovaginal quantities of these bacteria are not associated with treatment failure of BV after oral metronidazole. PMID: 28792372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ferreira CST, Donders GG, Parada CMGL, Tristão ADR, Fernandes T, da Silva MG, Marconi C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of an automated quantitative latex immunoturbidimetric non-treponemal assay for diagnosis and follow-up of syphilis: a prospective cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and accuracy of the RPR-S test requires improvement before it can be used to diagnose syphilis and evaluate treatment efficacy in clinical practice. PMID: 28792374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Osbak K, Abdellati S, Tsoumanis A, Van Esbroeck M, Kestens L, Crucitti T, Kenyon C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Construction of an inactivated typhoid vaccine candidate expressing Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and evaluation of its immunogenicity in a murine model.
In this study, an S. Typhi ghost was developed and its capacity as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever was assessed. METHODOLOGY: An asd+ plasmid pJHL187 harbouring a ghost cassette comprising the PhiX 174 Elysis gene tightly controlled under the convergent promotor system was transformed into an asd gene-deleted mutant S.Typhi strain (STG). The eltB gene encoding the E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) protein was subcloned into a foreign antigen delivery cassette of pJHL187 to increase mucosal immunity. RESULTS: The stringent repression and expression of the lethal E lysis gene in the system allowed sta...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim B, Won G, Lee JH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Streptococcus pneumoniae and lytic antibiotic therapy: are we adding insult to injury during invasive pneumococcal disease and sepsis?
Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), otherwise known as 'the pneumococcus', is a fascinating microbe that continues to pose a significant problem to public health. Currently there are no specific National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) or British Thoracic Society (BTS) clinical guidelines referring to the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infection. NICE clinical guidelines suggest the use of lytic β-lactam antibiotic regimens for the management of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis; infections for which S. pneumoniae is a likely causative organism. Lytic antibiotic...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brown LA, Mitchell AM, Mitchell TJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that the BD MAX EPP is suitable for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and G. duodenalis from clinical specimens with reduced hands-on time and complexity compared to microscopy. Results for the detection of E. histolytica were promising although further work is required to evaluate the assay for the detection of this pathogen. PMID: 28792380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Perry MD, Corden SA, Lewis White P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Effects of tea extracts on the colonization behaviour of Candida species: attachment inhibition and biofilm enhancement.
Abstract PURPOSE: We assessed the effects of four different types of tea extracts (green, oolong, black and pu-erh tea) on cellular surface properties (hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation) and the colonization attributes (attachment and biofilm formation) of four strains of Candida albicans and three strains of Candida krusei. METHODOLOGY: The cellular surface properties were determined using spectrophotometry. The colonization activities were quantified using colorimetric viability assays and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). RESULTS: The ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Y, Bandara HMHN, Mikkelsen D, Samaranayake LP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis from fresh tissue samples.
CONCLUSION: The molecular technique was able to identify Mucorales species in 26 (42 %) cases that were negative by culture. Mucorales-specific semi-nested PCR targeting the 18S region is a better technique than ITS2 PCR for diagnosis. PCR-RFLP of the 18S region helps in identification to genus level. PMID: 28792370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 9, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zaman K, Rudramurthy SM, Das A, Panda N, Honnavar P, Kaur H, Chakrabarti A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High prevalence of clonally diverse spa type t026 Staphylococcus aureus contaminating rural eggshells.
CONCLUSION: Continuous monitoring of staphylococci is needed also in rural or natural settings. Increasing the number of samples and expanding the geographical region will be needed to further extend the significance of the study. PMID: 28786785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bencardino D, Vitali LA, Petrelli D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Carvacrol reduces Clostridium difficile sporulation and spore outgrowth in vitro.
This study investigated the efficacy of a food-grade, plant-derived compound, carvacrol (CR), in reducing C. difficile spore production, germination and spore outgrowth. METHODOLOGY: Two hyper-virulent C. difficile isolates (ATCC BAA 1870 and 1805) were grown with or without a sub-inhibitory concentration (SIC) of CR. Total viable counts and heat-resistant spore counts were determined at different time intervals. Moreover, spores and vegetative cells were visualized using phase-contrast microscopy. To determine the effect of CR on C. difficile germination and spore outgrowth, C. difficile spores were seeded in germina...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mooyottu S, Flock G, Venkitanarayanan K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors for MRSA nasal colonization among persons experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA.
ta JM Abstract Homeless individuals face an elevated risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Identifying the prevalence and risk factors for MRSA nasal colonization may reduce infection risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a health clinic for homeless persons in Boston, MA, USA (n=194). In-person interviews and nasal swab specimens were collected. MRSA isolates were genotyped using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and assessed for antibiotic susceptibility. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization was 8.3 %. Seventy-five percent of isolates reflected clonal similari...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Leibler JH, León C, Cardoso LJP, Morris JC, Miller NS, Nguyen DD, Gaeta JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation-associated infections: implication of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli clones.
Abstract Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a promising life-saving technique for critically ill patients. Bacterial infection is a frequent complication, and Escherichia coli the predominant causative pathogen, but little is known about the characteristics of E. coli strains in these infections. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of 33 E. coli strains responsible for 33 ECMO-related infections, in 30 subjects. Antimicrobial susceptibility, phylotyping, O-typing, clonal relatedness determination and the screening for four virulence factor genes were conducted. Polymicrobial infections were ev...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Messika J, Clermont O, Landraud L, Schmidt M, Aubry A, Sougakoff W, Fernandes R, Combes A, Denamur E, Ricard JD Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is highly prevalent among houseflies (Musca domestica).
In conclusion, houseflies may facilitate the spread of antimicrobial-resistant (including TMP/SMX-resistant) S. maltophilia from environmental sources to humans. PMID: 28771133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fukuda A, Usui M, Wakao H, Boonla C, Tamura Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Cobas u 701 microscopy analyser compared with urine culture in screening for urinary tract infection.
CONCLUSION: The Cobas u 701 microscopy analyser showed good diagnostic performance. It can be used for rapid screening for UTI and can reduce the number of cultures required. PMID: 28771134 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim SH, Song SA, Urm SH, Kook JK, Kim HR, Yong D, Choi JY, Shin JH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The Duffy null genotype is associated with a lower level of CCL2, leukocytes and neutrophil count but not with the clinical outcome of HTLV-1 infection.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that although the Duffy null genotype was associated with leukopenia, neutropenia and lower levels of CCL2, the data do not suggest the influence of Duffy genotypes on the neurologic outcome of HTLV-1 infection, but may be a confounding factor in comparison HTLV-1-infected populations with different ancestries, especially when defining inflammatory biomarkers. PMID: 28771137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: da Silva-Malta MCF, Sales CC, Guimarães JC, de Cássia Gonçalves P, Chaves DG, Santos HC, da Costa Pereira A, Ribas JG, de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti AB, Martins ML Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgM in neonatal respiratory tract infections in Hungary.
CONCLUSION: Vertically transmitted C. trachomatis must be regarded as a common pathogen among symptomatic neonates with RTIs in Hungary. Routine screening and treatment of pregnant women could be one option to help prevent these conditions. Focused laboratory testing based on raised clinical awareness should enable early diagnosis and appropriate therapy for symptomatic infants. PMID: 28771138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Balla E, Donders GGG, Petrovay F, Urbán E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High frequency of the combined presence of QRDR mutations and PMQR determinants in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates from nosocomial and community-acquired infections.
This study suggests that management of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the community are a possible source of genetic mobile elements that carry genes that confer resistance to fluoroquinolones. More attention should be paid to the surveillance of community-acquired infections. PMID: 28771139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Araújo BF, Campos PA, Royer S, Ferreira ML, Gonçalves IR, Batistão DWDF, Resende DS, Brito CS, Gontijo-Filho PP, Ribas RM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies.
ccedil;a PS Abstract The present study aimed to characterize cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies. It was evaluated 12 clinical isolates of C. albicans from vaginal samples: 4 from asymptomatic women (AS), 4 from women with a single episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 4 from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). We evaluated the ability of C. albicans to adhere to human cervical cancer cells (SiHa), the yeast-SiHa cell interactions and cell damage. All of the clinical isolates presented a high adhesion capacity on SiHa cells. H...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Faria DR, Sakita KM, Akimoto-Gunther LS, Kioshima ÉS, Svidzinski TIE, Bonfim-Mendonça PS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Risk factors and molecular mechanisms associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Mexico.
CONCLUSION: Given the high SXT resistance rate, SXT is not an effective first-line therapy for our patients; instead, levofloxacin could be used as an appropriate therapeutic option against S. maltophilia infections. PMID: 28771141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Herrera-Heredia SA, Pezina-Cantú C, Garza-González E, Bocanegra-Ibarias P, Mendoza-Olazarán S, Morfín-Otero R, Camacho-Ortiz A, Villarreal-Treviño L, Rodríguez-Noriega E, Paláu-Davila L, Maldonado-Garza HJ, Flores-Treviño S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of semi-automated commercial rep-PCR fingerprinting, spoligotyping, 12-locus MIRU-VNTR typing and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the embB gene as molecular typing tools for Mycobacterium bovis.
CONCLUSION: In combination with spoligotyping and 12-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis, rep-PCR improved the discriminatory power for M. bovis typing. PMID: 28771142 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Armas F, Camperio C, Coltella L, Selvaggini S, Boniotti MB, Pacciarini ML, Di Marco Lo Presti V, Marianelli C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Risk factors and predictors of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii mortality in critically ill bacteraemic patients over a 6-year period (2010-15): antibiotics do matter.
CONCLUSION: KPC-Kp infection predisposes ICU patients to BSI by either A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa. The administration of at least one active antibiotic leads to better survival rates. PMID: 28758623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Papadimitriou-Olivgeris M, Fligou F, Spiliopoulou A, Koutsileou K, Kolonitsiou F, Spyropoulou A, Zotou A, Marangos M, Anastassiou ED, Christofidou M, Spiliopoulou I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

TolC2 is required for the resistance, colonization and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that TolC2 contributes to the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae by helping survival and maximal colonization in the host. PMID: 28758624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li Y, Cao S, Zhang L, Yuan J, Yang Y, Zhu Z, Wen Y, Wu R, Zhao Q, Huang X, Yan Q, Huang Y, Ma X, Wen X Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cluster-distinguishing genotypic and phenotypic diversity of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in solid-organ transplantation patients: a comparative study.
Abstract PURPOSE: Solid-organ transplant recipients may display high rates of colonization and/or infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria. We analysed and compared the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients in the Solid Organ Transplantation department of our hospital. METHODOLOGY: Between March 2012 and August 2013, 56 CR strains from various biological fluids underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing with VITEK 2, molecular analysis by PCR amplification and genotypic an...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karampatakis T, Geladari A, Politi L, Antachopoulos C, Iosifidis E, Tsiatsiou O, Karyoti A, Papanikolaou V, Tsakris A, Roilides E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Novel adenoviruses detected in British mustelids, including a unique Aviadenovirus in the tissues of pine martens (Martes martes).
Abstract Several adenoviruses are known to cause severe disease in veterinary species. Recent evidence suggests that canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) persists in the tissues of healthy red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which may be a source of infection for susceptible species. It was hypothesized that mustelids native to the UK, including pine martens (Martes martes) and Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), may also be persistently infected with adenoviruses. Based on high-throughput sequencing and additional Sanger sequencing, a novel Aviadenovirus, tentatively named marten adenovirus type 1 (MAdV-1), was detected in pine ma...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Walker D, Gregory WF, Turnbull D, Rocchi M, Meredith AL, Philbey AW, Sharp CP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro efficacy of 16 antimicrobial drugs against a large collection of β-lactamase-producing isolates of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from dogs and cats.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the susceptibility rates to PTZ, CMZ, LMX, AMK, FOM, FPM, NFT and FMX were similar to those to carbapenems (>90 %), implying that these drugs are available alternatives to carbapenems for the treatment of companion animals infected with ExPEC-producing CTX-M-type ESBLs. Further in vivo studies of the effective use of these antimicrobials are required. PMID: 28749329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shimizu T, Harada K, Tsuyuki Y, Kimura Y, Miyamoto T, Hatoya S, Hikasa Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of bedaquiline against rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of BDQ against rapidly growing mycobacteria by assessing the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against 18 NTM strains. For MIC determination we performed the resazurin microtitre assay broth dilution, and for the MBC the c.f.u. was determined. BDQ exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against most NTM tested; however, for some NTM strains the MBC was significantly higher than the MIC. A new finding is that Mycobacterium flavescens has a mutation in the gene atpE associated with natural resistance to BDQ. These...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aguilar-Ayala DA, Cnockaert M, André E, Andries K, Gonzalez-Y-Merchand JA, Vandamme P, Palomino JC, Martin A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from children with and without diarrhoea and their susceptibility to the antibacterial activity of extracts/fractions of fruits native to Mexico.
CONCLUSION: A high number of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli (especially to β-lactams and sulfonamides) and MDR isolates were detected in children under 5 years old, irrespective of diarrhoea symptoms; this is novel information for Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. Moreover, our results showed that the studied fruit extracts/fractions are potential alternative or complementary treatments for MDR E. coli strains. PMID: 28742000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 26, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Uribe-Beltrán MJ, Ahumada-Santos YP, Díaz-Camacho SP, Eslava-Campos CA, Reyes-Valenzuela JE, Báez-Flores ME, Osuna-Ramírez I, Delgado-Vargas F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Retention of virulence following colistin adaptation in Klebsiella pneumoniae is strain-dependent rather than associated with specific mutations.
This study aimed to understand the impact on virulence and fitness of mutations in specific genes found after adaptation of Klebsiella pneumoniae to colistin. Isolates with an increase in their inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin of 32- to>128-fold were shown to have mutations in mgrB, phoPQ and pmrAB, all known regulators of pathways affecting membrane lipid content. When these strains were used in studies in Galleria mellonella there was no clear correlation between mutations in specific genes per se and loss of virulence. Strains which showed sequence duplication in the HAMP-domain of PmrB showed reduced virul...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wand ME, Bock LJ, Sutton JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evolutionary changes in the capsid P2 region of Australian strains of the norovirus GII.Pe_GII.4.
CONCLUSION: The current study helps establish the validity of previously proposed hypervariable sites in the P2 region as well as indicating new ones. It also provides quantitative and qualitative data on how these sites changed over the evolutionary history of a particular norovirus strain. PMID: 28742004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bruggink LD, Moselen JM, Roberts JA, Marshall JA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Combination of polymyxin B and meropenem eradicates persister cells from Acinetobacter baumannii strains in exponential growth.
PMID: 28721845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gallo SW, Ferreira CAS, de Oliveira SD Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of biofilm-specific antimicrobial resistance genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Farabi Hospital.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a considerable ability of biofilm production, as well as the occurrence of biofilm-specific antimicrobial resistance genes (ndvB and tssC1), in P. aeruginosa isolates from ocular infections in Farabi Hospital. PMID: 28721848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saffari M, Karami S, Firoozeh F, Sehat M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Effective protection of mice against Shigella flexneri with a new self-adjuvant multicomponent vaccine.
CONCLUSION: The convenient and safe manufacturing process, and the preliminary biological evaluation, support the use of the self-adjuvanted HT complex as a new vaccine candidate to face shigellosis. Further development is required, such as additional immune analyses, to evaluate whether this new subunit vaccine can be useful in achieving full protection against Shigella. PMID: 28721849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pastor Y, Camacho A, Gil AG, Ramos R, Ceráin AL, Peñuelas I, Irache JM, Gamazo C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis assay for subtyping Salmonella Typhi strains from sub-Saharan Africa.
CONCLUSION: The MLVA assay presented in this study is a simple, rapid and more accessible tool that serves as a good alternative to other molecular subtyping methods for S. Typhi. PMID: 28721851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tau NP, Smith AM, Wain JR, Tarupiwa A, Coulibaly KJ, Keddy KH, Germs-Sa Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cell surface physiology and outer cell envelope impermeability for hydrophobic substances in Burkholderia multivorans.
CONCLUSION: These data support the conclusion that EPS expression and the consistent mucoid phenotype are not necessarily associated with the ability of the outer cell surface to associate with non-polar substances or cellular capsulation. PMID: 28721855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ruskoski SA, Champlin FR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Quantitative and structural analyses of the in vitro and ex vivo biofilm-forming ability of dermatophytes.
CONCLUSION: This study sheds light on biofilms of different dermatophyte species, which will contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dermatophytosis. Further studies of this type are necessary to investigate the processes involved in the formation and composition of dermatophyte biofilms. PMID: 28708048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brilhante RSN, Correia EEM, Guedes GMM, Pereira VS, Oliveira JS, Bandeira SP, Alencar LP, Andrade ARC, Castelo-Branco DSCM, Cordeiro RA, Pinheiro AQ, Chaves LJQ, Pereira Neto WA, Sidrim JJC, Rocha MFG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Hyperinvasiveness and increased intercellular spread of Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 1 are independent of listeriolysin S, internalin F and internalin J1.
CONCLUSION: Our results underline the importance of using relevant clinical strains when investigating L. monocytogenes virulence. We show that despite the association with CC1, llsB, inlF and inlJ1 are not involved in the hyperinvasiveness and efficient intercellular spread of ST1 in various cell types. PMID: 28708050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rupp S, Bärtschi M, Frey J, Oevermann A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin assay.
CONCLUSION: Compared with AFB smear and solid culture, Xpert MTB/RIF assay has high sensitivities and short detection time, so could be used as an alternative for the rapid diagnosis of EPTB and rifampin resistance in clinical practice. PMID: 28708053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li Y, Pang Y, Zhang T, Xian X, Wang X, Yang J, Wang R, Chen M, Chen W Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A high prevalence of beak and feather disease virus in & nbsp;non-psittacine Australian birds.
CONCLUSION: Further research to determine the infectivity and transmissibility of BFDV in non-psittacine species is indicated. Until such work is undertaken the findings from this study suggest that every bird should be considered a potential carrier of BFDV, regardless of species and clinical presentation. Veterinary clinics and wildlife rehabilitation facilities caring for birds that are susceptible to PBFD should reconsider biosecurity protocols aimed at controlling BFDV. PMID: 28703699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Amery-Gale J, Marenda MS, Owens J, Eden PA, Browning GF, Devlin JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative study of isolates from community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections with reference to biofilm-producing property, antibiotic sensitivity and multi-drug resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: BPP was found in both Com-UTI and CAUTI. When used together, the Safranin tube test and the CRA test increased the sensitivity of detecting BPP. MDR was higher in CAUTI than Com-UTI. MDR and BPP are not interrelated or associated, especially in settings where it is not certain that isolates were obtained from a well-formed biofilm. However, this does not rule out a higher incidence or prevalence of MDR in isolates with BPP taken directly from the biofilms. PMID: 28703700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bardoloi V, Yogeesha Babu KV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro synergistic effects of a short cationic peptide and clinically used antibiotics against drug-resistant isolates of Brucella melitensis.
Abstract PURPOSE: In the last few decades, increasing microbial resistance to common antibiotics has attracted researchers' attention to the development of new classes of antibiotics such as antimicrobial peptides. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to evaluate antimicrobial effects of the CM11 peptide alone and combined with common antibiotics against drug-resistant isolates of Brucella melitensis. METHODOLOGY: A total of 50 pathogenic samples of B. melitensis were isolated from patients and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was evaluated by E-test. Then, the synergistic reaction of the pept...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohammadi Azad Z, Moravej H, Fasihi-Ramandi M, Masjedian F, Nazari R, Mirnejad R, Moosazadeh Moghaddam M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Chemical composition and cytotoxicity of extracts of marjoram and rosemary and their activity against Sporothrix brasiliensis.
CONCLUSION: These findings support the potential usefulness of the HAE of marjoram in the treatment of sporotrichosis. PMID: 28699881 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Waller SB, Madrid IM, Hoffmann JF, Picoli T, Cleff MB, Chaves FC, Faria RO, Meireles MCA, Braga de Mello JR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Is SpxA2 involved in hydrogen peroxide production and competence development in Streptococcus sanguinis?
CONCLUSION: Although the intricate relationship between SpxA2, pox-mediated H2O2 production and competence development was clarified in S. sanguinis, it would be worthwhile to explore further whether H2O2 is involved in competence development through oxidizing the SpxA2 CXXC motif. PMID: 28693663 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li T, Xu M, Zheng L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of high level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci isolated from non-hospital sources.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report on the characterization of high level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant Enterococcus faecium among animals and vegetables in Nigeria. The results show that non-hospital sources can constitute a reservoir for potential dissemination of these strains and genes to humans via the food chain or by direct contact. PMID: 28693665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ngbede EO, Raji MA, Kwanashie CN, Kwaga JKP, Adikwu AA, Maurice NA, Adamu AM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of recombinant factor C assay for the detection of divergent lipopolysaccharide structural species and comparison with Limulus amebocyte lysate-based assays and a human monocyte activity assay.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that the rFC-based assay is a good replacement for conventional LAL assays and as it correlates significantly with IL-6 produced by a human monocyte cell line it could potentially be more useful for detecting LPS in a clinical setting. PMID: 28693666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abate W, Sattar AA, Liu J, Conway ME, Jackson SK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in neonatal conjunctivitis in Hungary.
The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and age distribution of different Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genotypes causing ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) in Hungary. Using CT specific PCR, we tested 76 conjunctival samples from symptomatic infants up to 3 months old in the National Centre for Epidemiology, Budapest between 2008 and 2016. CT tested positive in 30 of 76 conjunctival samples (39.5 %). The sequencing of the positive samples was successful in every case but one, and resulted in 48 % dominance for genotype E (14/29), followed by 24 % for genotype G (7/29), 10 % for J (3/29), 6.9 % for...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Balla E, Petrovay F, Erdősi T, Balázs A, Henczkó J, Urbán E, Donders GGG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research