Staphylococcus aureus nasal isolates may have the same genetic profile in atopic dermatitis paediatric patients and their close contacts.
This study aimed to detect S. aureus from nares of AD patients and their family contacts, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, virulence and clonality of these isolates. Among the 48 family groups investigated, 30 groups were selected, as both the child and his/her respective contact had methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (24 cases; 54 MSSA isolates) or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates (6 cases; 13 MRSA isolates). All MRSA isolates carried SCCmec IV. S. aureus carrying PVL genes were detected in 60 % of patients. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed for 31 isol...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cavalcante FS, Alvarenga CVDCG, Saintive S, Dios Abad E, Carvalho Ferreira D, Netto Dos Santos KR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro inhibitory effect of statins on planktonic cells and biofilms of the Sporothrix schenckii species complex.
Conclusion. These results highlight the antifungal and antibiofilm potential of statins against S. schenckii complex species. PMID: 32427094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brilhante RSN, Fonseca XMQC, Pereira VS, Araújo GDS, Oliveira JS, Garcia LGS, Rodrigues AM, Camargo ZP, Pereira-Neto WA, Castelo-Branco DSCM, Cordeiro RA, Sidrim JJC, Rocha MFG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiology of yeast species causing bloodstream infection in Tehran, Iran (2015-2017); superiority of 21-plex PCR over the Vitek 2 system for yeast identification.
Conclusion. C. albicans was the main cause of yeast-derived fungaemia in this study. Future prospective studies are warranted to closely monitor the epidemiological landscape of yeast species causing BSIs in Iran. The superiority of 21-plex PCR over automated Vitek 2 indicates its potential clinical utility as an alternative identification tool use in developing countries. PMID: 32368996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kord M, Salehi M, Khodavaisy S, Hashemi SJ, Daie Ghazvini R, Rezaei S, Maleki A, Elmimoghaddam A, Alijani N, Abdollahi A, Doomanlou M, Ahmadikia K, Rashidi N, Pan W, Boekhout T, Arastehfar A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

IncN3 and IncHI2 plasmids with an In1763 integron carrying bla IMP-1 in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales clinical isolates from the UK.
Conclusion. Highly similar IncN3 plasmids were found in a range of Enterobacterales, mostly K. pneumoniae and the Enterobacter cloacae complex, from three of four London hospitals, with the same In1763 integron carrying bla IMP-1 also being found in IncHI2 plasmids and chromosomally. These plasmids carried multiple elements facilitating self-transmission. Strain typing alone was not sufficient to investigate cross-infection among this set of isolates, many of which appeared to be unrelated until plasmid analysis was undertaken, and vice versa. PMID: 32368998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Turton JF, Davies F, Taori SK, Turton JA, Smith SL, Sajedi N, Wootton M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Ability of quantitative PCR to discriminate Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia from colonization.
Abstract Introduction. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a severe disease affecting immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis is difficult due to the low sensitivity of direct examination and inability to grow the pathogen in culture. Quantitative PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) has high sensitivity, but limited specificity for distinguishing PCP from colonization.Aim. To assess the performance of an in-house quantitative PCR to discriminate between PCP and colonization.Methodology. This was a single-centre retrospective study including all patients with a positive PCR result for P. jirovecii in BAL ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Perret T, Kritikos A, Hauser PM, Guiver M, Coste AT, Jaton K, Lamoth F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Diversity of navel microbiome in young adults.
Conclusion. Our findings indicate that the navel skin microbiota of young adults has a core microbiota of Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus. We also noted the presence of a significant number of opportunistic pathogens. A minor gender difference in the abundance of individual organisms was also observed. PMID: 32369006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shah S, Donze-Reiner T, Shah V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Sodium salicylate interferes with quorum-sensing-regulated virulence in chronic wound isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in simulated wound fluid.
Conclusions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa from chronic wound infections showed different virulence properties. While very few strains showed no QS activity, approximately half were highly virulent and produced QS signals, suggesting that the targeting of QS is a viable and relevant strategy for infection control. NaSa showed activity as a QS-inhibitor by lowering the virulence phenotypes and QS signals at both transcriptional and extracellular levels. PMID: 32320374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gerner E, Almqvist S, Werthén M, Trobos M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Logic in the time of coronavirus.
Abstract Much has happened here since the local news media trumpeted the first Australian COVID-19 fatality, and stirred up a medieval fear of contagion. We now need to take a step back to examine the logic underlying the use of our limited COVID-19 countermeasures. Emerging infectious diseases by their nature, pose new challenges to the diagnostic-treatment-control nexus, and push our concepts of causality beyond the limits of the conventional Koch-Henle approach to aetiology. We need to use contemporary methods of assessing causality to ensure that clinical, laboratory and public health measures draw on a ration...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Inglis TJJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular identification of Nocardia species causing endophthalmitis using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA): a 10-year perspective.
Conclusions. N. farcinica is the major pathogen, and this is the first report to identify N. otitidiscaviarum, N. amikacinitolerans and N. higoensis as causing endophthalmitis. Overall, visual outcomes were mostly poor even after aggressive management. PMID: 32310744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gnanam H, Rajapandian SGK, Gunasekaran R, Roshni Prithiviraj S, Ravindran RS, Sen S, Prajna L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Point of care testing of Influenza A/B and RSV in an adult respiratory assessment unit is associated with improvement in isolation practices and reduction in hospital length of stay.
Abstract Introduction. Every winter seasonal influenza and other viral respiratory infections increase pressure on the health services and are associated with nosocomial infection and morbidity.Aim. To compare provision of point-of-care (POC) testing with laboratory-based testing for influenza and RSV detection on an adult respiratory assessment unit to assess the impact on isolation practices and length of stay (LOS).Methodology. Prospective interrupted 'on-off' study in adults admitted to the respiratory unit between December 2018 and April 2019 with a suspected respiratory tract infection. Nasopharyngeal sample...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Berry L, Lansbury L, Gale L, Carroll AM, Lim WS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

LPS stimulation during HCV infection induces MMP/TIMP1 imbalance in macrophages.
Conclusion. Increased LPS stimulation of macrophage during HCV antigen-induced endotoxin cross-tolerance contributes to MMP/TIMP1 imbalance and collagen I deposition. PMID: 32242792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fan C, Zhang X, Zhang P, Zhao J, Shen H, Zhang Y, Wu X, Jia Z, Wang Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Extracellular DNA controls expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genes involved in nutrient utilization, metal homeostasis, acid pH tolerance and virulence.
Abstract Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa grows in extracellular DNA (eDNA)-enriched biofilms and infection sites. eDNA is generally considered to be a structural biofilm polymer required for aggregation and biofilm maturation. In addition, eDNA can sequester divalent metal cations, acidify growth media and serve as a nutrient source.Aim. We wanted to determine the genome-wide influence on the transcriptome of planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in the presence of eDNA.Methodology. RNA-seq analysis was performed to determine the genome-wide effects on gene expression of PAO1 grown with eDNA. Transcriptional lu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lewenza S, Johnson L, Charron-Mazenod L, Hong M, Mulcahy-O'Grady H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial quantification in tissue homogenates from in vivo pharmacodynamic studies using growth curves.
Abstract Introduction. Quantification of bacterial load in tissue homogenates in in vivo pharmacodynamic studies is cumbersome and time-consuming.Aim. We therefore developed a new method for quantifying bacterial load in tissue homogenates of animals treated with a β-lactam and β-lactamase inhibitor using growth curves.Methods. The log10 colony-forming units (c.f.u.) ml-1 of 184 thigh and lung homogenates from female CD-1 mice infected intranasally and intramuscularly with 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Enterobacter cloacae and 2 Escherichia coli strains treated with a β-lactam...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Georgiou PC, Mouton JW, Pournaras S, Meletiadis J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro antivirulence activity of baicalin against Clostridioides difficile.
Conclusion. Our results suggest that baicalin could potentially be used to control C. difficile, and warrant future studies in vivo. PMID: 32216868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pellissery AJ, Vinayamohan PG, Venkitanarayanan K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Enterobacter cloacae strains producing a carbapenemase or metallo-beta-lactamase in Vietnamese clinical settings in 2014-2017.
Conclusions. Several prevalent clones of carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae have circulated within Vietnamese hospitals. Adequate measures are needed to prevent their further spread. PMID: 32216869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miyoshi-Akiyama T, Ohmagari N, Phuong TT, Huy NQ, Anh NQ, Van Thanh D, Thuy PTP, Kirikae T, Nhung PH, Takemoto N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The bacterial neurometabolic signature of the gut microbiota of young children with autism spectrum disorders.
Conclusion. For the first time, the neurometabolic signature of the gut microbiota of young children with ASD is presented. The data can help to provide a comparative assessment of the transcriptional and metabolomic activity of the identified genes. PMID: 32213246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Averina OV, Kovtun AS, Polyakova SI, Savilova AM, Rebrikov DV, Danilenko VN Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cronobacter sakazakii induces necrotizing enterocolitis by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome expression via TLR4.
Conclusion. We found that C. sakazakii upregulates NF-κB via TLR4/MyD88 to promote activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the up-regulation of downstream caspase-1, release of IL-1β, GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis and development of NEC. These findings clarify the mechanisms by which C. sakazakii contributes to NEC. PMID: 32209170 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen Z, Zhang Y, Lin R, Meng X, Zhao W, Shen W, Fan H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A pooled analysis of patients with wound infections in the Phase 3 REVIVE trials: randomized, double-blind studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iclaprim versus vancomycin for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
Conclusion. Based on early clinical response, iclaprim achieved non-inferiority to vancomycin with a similar safety profile in patients with wound infections suspected or confirmed as caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Iclaprim may be a valuable treatment option for wound infections. PMID: 32195649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Noviello S, Corey GR, Holland TL, Lodise T, O'Riordan W, Wilcox MH, File TM, Dryden M, Balser B, Scaramucci A, Torres A, Huang DB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Hydroxyethoxy phenyl butanone, a new cosmetic preservative, does not cause bacterial cross-resistance to antimicrobials.
Conclusion. Data produced on the propensity of a molecule to induce bacterial resistance is useful and appropriate when launching a new preservative. PMID: 32186482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wesgate R, Menard-Szczebara F, Khodr A, Cupferman S, Maillard JY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance prevalence in commensal Escherichia coli from broilers, fattening turkeys, fattening pigs and veal calves in European countries and association with antimicrobial usage at country level.
Abstract The aim of this article is to report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in commensal Escherichia coli from livestock from several European countries. The relationships with antimicrobial usage (AMU) at country level and harmonized indicators to cover the most relevant AMR aspects for human health in animal production were also investigated. E. coli were isolated in faeces from broilers and fattening pigs (from nine countries), and fattening turkeys and veal calves (from three countries) and screened against a fixed antimicrobial panel. AMU data were collected at farm and average treatment incidences strati...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ceccarelli D, Hesp A, van der Goot J, Joosten P, Sarrazin S, Wagenaar JA, Dewulf J, Mevius DJ, Effort Consortium OBOT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Repurposing bioactive compounds for treating multidrug-resistant pathogens.
Conclusion. Although these compounds' potential for repurposing is limited by their toxicity, our results contribute to this growing field and provide a simple road map for using C. elegans for preliminary testing of known bioactive compounds with predicted antimicrobial activity. PMID: 32163353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hummell NA, Kirienko NV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of macrolide resistance mechanisms among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Tunisia.
Conclusion. This study shows that macrolide resistance among S. pneumoniae isolated in Tunisia is mainly related to target site modification. Our observations demonstrate a high degree of genetic diversity and capsular types among strains resistant to macrolides. PMID: 32159507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Midouni Ayadi B, Mehiri E, Draoui H, Ghariani A, Essalah L, Raoult D, Fournier PE, Slim-Saidi LN Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid molecular testing for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia improves clinical management.
Conclusion. Rapid and accurate detection of S. aureus with the Xpert MRSA/SA BC assay in positive blood culture bottles allowed earlier targeted patient management. Negative Xpert results are suggestive of coagulase negative staphylococci, allowing de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy if clinically appropriate. PMID: 32141812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: McHugh MP, Parcell BJ, MacKenzie FM, Templeton KE, Scottish Microbiology And Virology Network Smvn Molecular Diagnostics Evaluation Group Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Low lineage diversity and increased virulence of group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.
Conclusion. These results suggest strongly that this predominance did not occur randomly but rather was due to adaptive mechanisms that culminated in increased colonization and other bacterial properties that might confer increased bacteria-host adaptability to cause disease. PMID: 32125264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Santos VL, Silva LG, Martini CL, Anjos IHV, Maia MM, Genteluci GL, Sant'Anna V, Ferreira AMA, Couceiro JNSS, Figueiredo AMS, Ferreira-Carvalho BT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Mutations in the two component regulator systems PmrAB and PhoPQ give rise to increased colistin resistance in Citrobacter and Enterobacter spp.
Conclusions. Stable colistin resistance may be acquired with no loss of fitness in these species. However, only select strains were able to adapt suggesting that acquisition of colistin resistance is dependent upon individual strain characteristics. PMID: 32125265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wand ME, Sutton JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Klebsiella variicola causing nosocomial transmission among neonates - an emerging pathogen?
Conclusion. K. variicola can cause hospital outbreaks of colonization and infection similar to other Klebsiella spp.Preliminary results from this study were presented at the 27th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, April 22-25, 2018, Vienna, Austria. PMID: 32125266 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Piepenbrock E, Higgins PG, Wille J, Xanthopoulou K, Zweigner J, Jahn P, Reuter S, Skov R, Eichhorn J, Seifert H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Purification and characterization of nisin P produced by a strain of Streptococcus gallolyticus.
Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first production, purification and characterization of nisin P. Further study of nisin P may reveal its potential for treating or preventing infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, or those evading vaccination regimens. PMID: 32125268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aldarhami A, Felek A, Sharma V, Upton M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Delivery of antibacterial silver nanoclusters to Pseudomonas aeruginosa using species-specific DNA aptamers.
Conclusion. Using P. aeruginosa as a model, we show that targeting of DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters with an aptamer has effective fast-acting antimicrobial activity in vitro and in an in vivo animal model. PMID: 32125966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Soundy J, Day D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the performance of the Panther Fusion respiratory virus panel to R-Gene and laboratory developed tests for diagnostic and hygiene screening specimens from the upper and lower respiratory tract.
Conclusion. PF performed similar to R-Gene and LDTs not only for its intended use but also for LRT and hygiene screening specimens with shorter hands-on and turnaround times. PMID: 32118531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ganzenmueller T, Kaiser R, Baier C, Wehrhane M, Hilfrich B, Witthuhn J, Flucht S, Heim A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than serotype O157  : H7 in England, 2014-2016.
Conclusion. This analysis provided an indirect assessment of the risk of transmission of AMR gastrointestinal pathogens from animals to humans, and revealed a subset of human isolates of the zoonotic pathogen STEC were resistant to the antimicrobials used in animal husbandry. However, this proportion has not increased over the last three decades, and thismay provide evidence that guidancepromoting responsible practice has been effective. PMID: 32101158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gentle A, Day MR, Hopkins KL, Godbole G, Jenkins C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Thermonuclease test accuracy is preserved in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
Conclusions. In the era of increasing use of molecular-based microbiology assays, the thermonuclease test remains a simple, inexpensive and robust test for the presumptive identification of S. aureus cultured from blood, irrespective of methicillin sensitivity. PMID: 32101159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Canning B, Mohamed I, Wickramasinghe N, Swindells J, O'Shea MK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of protective immunity responses against pneumococcal PhtD and its C-terminal in combination with outer-membrane vesicles as adjuvants.
Conclusion. The combination of PhtD and PhtD-C with alum produced optimal results, but the combination of PhtD and PhtD-C with OMVs produced minimal results by comparison. The survival rates were also measured, and these corresponded with the results of the immunological assessments. Our findings showed that mice receiving PhtD and PhtD-C plus OMV and alum had higher survival rates than the mice in the other groups. PMID: 32100705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malekan M, Siadat SD, Aghasadeghi M, Shahrokhi N, Afrough P, Behrouzi A, Ahmadi K, Mousavi SF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Blue light emitting diodes enhance the antivirulence effects of Curcumin against Helicobacter pylori.
We examined the effect of Curcumin with and without irradiation with blue LEDs on the viability of H. pylori and four key factors important for colonization and establishment of H. pylori infection, namely urease production, motility, adhesion and biofilm formation.Results. We found that a combination of Curcumin and blue LEDs caused significant reductions in viability, urease production, motility, haemagglutination activity, as well as increased disruption of mature preformed biofilms of H. pylori, in comparison to Curcumin alone (P
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Darmani H, Smadi EAM, Bataineh SMB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Highly multidrug-resistant Morganella morganii clinical isolates from Nepal co-producing NDM-type metallo- β-lactamases and the 16S rRNA methylase ArmA.
This study describes the emergence of highly multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of M. morganii from Nepal co-producing NDM-type metallo-β-lactamases, including NDM-1 and NDM-5, and the 16S rRNA methylase ArmA. This is the first report of M. morganii clinical isolates from Nepal co-producing NDM-1/-5 and ArmA. It is important to establish infection control systems and effective treatments against multidrug-resistant M. morganii. PMID: 32100711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shrestha S, Tada T, Sherchan JB, Uchida H, Hishinuma T, Oshiro S, Morioka S, Kattel H, Kirikae T, Sherchand JB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

N-terminal region of Helicobacter pylori CagA induces IL-8 production in gastric epithelial cells via the β1 integrin receptor.
Conclusion. Residues 303-456 of the N-terminal region of CagA induce IL-8 production via a CagA303-456-ITGB1-p38-IL-8 pathway, and ERK1/2 is also involved in the release of IL-8. Extracellular CagA might induce IL-8 production before translocation into AGS cells. PMID: 32100714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zeng B, Chen C, Yi Q, Zhang X, Wu X, Zheng S, Li N, She F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology, in vitro susceptibility and exoenzyme screening of Malassezia clinical isolates.
Abstract Introduction. Malassezia folliculitis (MF) and pityriasis versicolor (PV) are common dermatoses caused by Malassezia species. Their molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and exoenzymes are rarely reported in China.Aim. To investigate the molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and enzymatic profile of Malassezia clinical isolates.Methodology. Malassezia strains were recovered from MF and PV patients and healthy subjects (HS) and identified by sequencing analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antifungals (posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole,...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li W, Zhang ZW, Luo Y, Liang N, Pi XX, Fan YM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure of staphylococcal enterotoxin B attenuates the development and function of blood regulatory T cells to repeated staphylococcal enterotoxin B exposure in adult offspring rats.
Abstract Introduction. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is an extensively studied super-antigen. A previous study by us suggested that SEB exposure during pregnancy could alter the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of neonatal offspring rats.Aim. It is unknown whether SEB exposure during pregnancy can influence the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood of neonatal offspring rats.Methodology. Pregnant rats at gestational day 16 were intravenously injected with 15 µg SEB. Peripheral blood was acquired from neonatal offspring rats on days 1, 3 and 5...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gao SX, Sun J, Li HH, Chen J, Kashif MR, Zhou P, Wei L, Zheng QW, Wu LG, Guan JC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Insights into plant-beneficial traits of probiotic Pseudomonas chlororaphis isolates.
Abstract Pseudomonas chlororaphis isolates have been studied intensively for their beneficial traits. P. chlororaphis species function as probiotics in plants and fish, offering plants protection against microbes, nematodes and insects. In this review, we discuss the classification of P. chlororaphis isolates within four subspecies; the shared traits include the production of coloured antimicrobial phenazines, high sequence identity between housekeeping genes and similar cellular fatty acid composition. The direct antimicrobial, insecticidal and nematocidal effects of P. chlororaphis isolates are correlated with k...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anderson AJ, Kim YC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the United States.
Abstract Introduction. Previous studies of viral encephalitis have focused on acute costs, estimating incidence at 7.3 per 100 000 and total US annual charges at $2 billion in 2010.Aim. We aim to quantify the most updated longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the USA from 2008 to 2015.Methodology. Data on patients diagnosed with viral encephalitis were obtained from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database. Patients with a primary diagnosis of viral encephalitis, from herpetic viruses and other viral aetiologies (e.g. West Nile fever) were included in the analysis. Data concerning h...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kiyani M, Liu B, Charalambous LT, Adil SM, Hodges SE, Yang S, Pagadala P, Perfect JR, Lad SP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Changes in epidemiologic characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated over 10 years from Japanese children with pharyngotonsillitis.
Conclusion. Our findings indicate that even in ambulatory care, antibiotic choice for these infections should be based on rapid identification and characterization of causative pathogens. PMID: 32011228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ubukata K, Wajima T, Morozumi M, Sakuma M, Tajima T, Matsubara K, Itahashi K, Iwata S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Presence of cagPAI genes and characterization of vacA s, i and m regions in Helicobacter pylori isolated from Alaskans and their association with clinical pathologies.
Conclusions. In this population with high rates of gastric cancer, we found that just over half of the H. pylori contained an intact cagPAI and 40 % had the vacA s1/i1/m1 genotype. Infection with these strains was associated with a more severe gastropathy. PMID: 32011229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miernyk KM, Bruden D, Rudolph KM, Hurlburt DA, Sacco F, McMahon BJ, Bruce MG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular identification of microsporidian species in patients with epithelial keratitis.
Conclusion. This study has reconfirmed that V. corneae causes epithelial keratitis in humans and that a newly detected Microsporidium species is also involved in microsporidial keratitis as one of the emerging pathogens in Thailand. Ophthalomologists should be aware of microsporidial keratitis in people from Thailand and those from neighbouring countries. PMID: 32011230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sanpool O, Thanathanee O, Laummuanwai P, Maleewong W, Intapan PM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Myoviridae phage PDX kills enteroaggregative Escherichia coli without human microbiome dysbiosis.
Conclusion. PDX killed EAEC isolate EN1E-0007 in vivo and in vitro, while not altering the diversity of normal human microbiota in anaerobic culture, and thus could be part of an effective therapy for children in developing countries and those suffering from EAEC-mediated traveller's diarrhoea without causing dysbiosis. PMID: 32011231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cepko LCS, Garling EE, Dinsdale MJ, Scott WP, Bandy L, Nice T, Faber-Hammond J, Mellies JL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Unexpected predominance of rotavirus G9P[8] strain in Tunisian adult diarrheal patients.
Abstract Introduction. Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is known to be a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children but its role as a potential pathogen in immunocompetent adults is probably underestimated.Aim. To compare RVA infections in patients from different age groups.Methodology. Fecal samples were collected from patients aged from birth to 65 years, hospitalized or consulting for AGE between 2015 and 2017. All samples were screened by RT-PCR for the detection of VP6 gene specific of RVA. RVA-positive samples were VP7 and VP4 genotyped using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR. Full-length VP7 gene of G9-positi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bennour H, Bouazizi A, Fodha I, Ben Hadj Fredj M, Ben Hamida-Rebai M, Jerbi A, Dhiflaoui A, Abdelberi S, Abbassi F, Abroug S, Khlifa M, Fathallah A, Boujaafar N, Trabelsi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid multiplex detection of the resistance genes mecA, vanA and vanB from Gram-positive cocci-positive blood cultures using a PCR-dipstick technique.
Conclusion. The results of the current study substantiate that PCR-dipstick can be used as an efficient detection system for MRSA and VRE directly from Gram-positive cocci-positive blood cultures. Its affordability and rapidity indicate that PCR-dipstick can be an effective tool for controlling nosocomial pathogens. PMID: 32003712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shanmugakani RK, Fujiya Y, Akeda Y, Hamaguchi S, Hamada S, Tomono K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus small intestinal infection.
Conclusion. This work presents a new mouse model of S. aureus gastrointestinal infection, while also providing insight into the pathogenesis of S. aureus in the gut. PMID: 32004137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Larcombe S, Jiang JH, Hutton ML, Abud HE, Peleg AY, Lyras D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Introduction of PCR testing reveals a previously unrecognized burden of yersiniosis in Hampshire, UK.
Abstract Introduction. Current testing practices for yersiniosis mean that its true incidence and epidemiology are not well understood. In mid-2016, the introduction of testing via a multiplex gastrointestinal PCR panel at Portsmouth hospital laboratory in Hampshire, UK, resulted in a marked increase in the number of Yersinia cases identified locally.Aim. Here we describe the epidemiology and microbiology of Yersinia cases identified at Portsmouth laboratory following the introduction of PCR testing.Methodology. A case was defined as a person with a stool specimen in which Yersinia was detected by PCR and/or cultu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Clarke M, Dabke G, Strakova L, Jenkins C, Saavedra-Campos M, McManus O, Paranthaman K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Dental floss impregnated with povidone-iodine coated with Eudragit L-100 as an antimicrobial delivery system against periodontal-associated pathogens.
Conclusion. It was concluded that Eudragit L-100 and PVP-I-coated dental floss represented a potential therapeutic agent to prevent periodontal diseases and dental caries and exhibited non-toxicity to periodontal ligament cells. PMID: 31976854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaewiad K, Nakpheng T, Srichana T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Friend or foe? Exploring the fine line between Pseudomonas brassicacearum and phytopathogens.
Abstract Pseudomonas brassicacearum is one of over fifty species of bacteria classified into the P. fluorescens group. Generally considered a harmless commensal, these bacteria are studied for their plant-growth promotion (PGP) and biocontrol characteristics. Intriguingly, P. brassicacearum is closely related to P. corrugata, which is classified as an opportunistic phytopathogen. Twenty-one P. brassicacearum genomes have been sequenced to date. In the current review, genomes of P. brassicacearum and strains from the P. corrugata clade were mined for regions associated with PGP, biocontrol and pathogenicity. We dis...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gislason AS, de Kievit TR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of imipenem-relebactam against resistant phenotypes of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from intraabdominal and urinary tract infection samples - SMART Surveillance Europe 2015-2017.
Conclusions. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and resistance mechanisms, including the study of imipenem-relebactam as it approaches regulatory approval, appears warranted. PMID: 31976856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lob SH, Karlowsky JA, Young K, Motyl MR, Hawser S, Kothari ND, Sahm DF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research