Evaluation of the Alere-i Influenza A&B assay for Rapid Identification of Influenza A and Influenza B Viruses.
This study was conducted in order to study the performance of Alere-i Influenza A&B assay compared to molecular techniques, considered as gold standard methods to evaluate the results. A total of 119 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from inpatients with influenza-like illness were included in the study using both archived and prospectively collected samples from adults and children. Prospectively collected samples were also compared to Alere BinaxNOW® Influenza A & B Card. The overall sensitivity for detection of Influenza A and B viruses compared to those of molecular techniques were 65.96% and 53.33% respective...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 11, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chiarella FC, Culebras E, Fuentes-Ferrer ME, Picazo JJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improved sensitivity for methicillin-resistance detection in coagulase-negative staphylococci by moxalactam antibiotic disks or a cefoxitin investigation zone.
PMID: 26953118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jost G, Bloemberg GV, Hombach M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Resistance and virulence potential of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients hospitalized in urology departments: a French prospective multicenter study.
tto A Abstract We characterized antibiotic resistance and virulence of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients hospitalized in urology Departments. A prospective multicenter study was initiated from March 2009 and lasted through February 2010 in French urology units. All patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), acute cystitis, acute pyelonephritis or acute prostatitis in whom UPEC was detected, were included. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors were compared between the different groups. To identify independent associations between virulence mark...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lavigne JP, Bruyère F, Bernard L, Combescure C, Ronco E, Lanotte P, Coloby P, Thibault M, Cariou G, Desplaces N, Costa P, Sotto A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Temporal Flux in Beta-Lactam Resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae in Western Australia.
Abstract Our aim was to identify long term beta-lactam resistance trends in local K. pneumoniae isolates, which are a common cause of sepsis in Western Australia. We studied three collections of K. pneumoniae isolates from Western Australia between 1977 and 2015 comprising contemporary blood culture (98), multi-resistant (21) and historical (50) isolates. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by CLSI agar dilution methods. PCR DNA sequencing identified beta-lactamase variants and porin mutations contributing to beta-lactam resistance. Isolates were genotyped by PFGE, MLST and a variable number tandem repeat (VNT...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 4, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hall JM, Ingram PR, O'Reilly LC, Inglis TJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of two chromogenic media and enrichment broth for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae on screening rectal swabs from hospitalized patients.
M, Denis O PMID: 26944337 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 4, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Heinrichs A, Nonhoff C, Roisin S, De Mendonça R, Adam AS, Dodémont M, Denis O Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

HPV genotypes distribution in Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection in a large cohort of women from North-East Italy.
Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are pathogens with oncogenic potential associated with persistent infections. Epidemiological data on CT infection status, CT/HPV co-infection and relationship between HPV genotypes in Italian women are only preliminary.The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between HPV genotypes and CT in an extending cohort of asymptomatic immunocompetent women from North-East Italy geographic area. A retrospective study was conducted using Luminex technology, on cervical swabs from asymptomatic immunocompetent women, including 921 atte...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 3, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Seraceni S, Campisciano G, Contini C, Comar M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Investigations into methods to improve the antibacterial activity of Acticoat.
Abstract Multiple studies have shown that the antibacterial gauze Acticoat can inhibit growth of bacteria but is unable to completely clear a wound of infection, which could leave patients vulnerable to sepsis. Agar inoculated with four different Staphylococcus aureus strains and overlain with Acticoat showed growth inhibition beneath and within a 1 mm perimeter of the gauze after 24 h. When lifted from inoculated agar and briefly blotted onto fresh agar plates, Acticoat transferred viable bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of Acticoat that overlayed MRSA for 24, 48 and 72 h showed dense cluster...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 3, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ravensdale J, Wood F, O'Brien F, Gregg K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay to Detect the Major Clonal Complexes of Streptococcus suis Relevant to Human Infection.
In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay was developed to identify S. suis CCs that are relevant to human infections. The mPCR assay was capable of simultaneously distinguishing CC1, CC25, CC28, CC104, CC221/234, and CC233/379, which are related to human infections in Thailand, in a single reaction. The mPCR assay is useful for low-cost screening large numbers of isolates with rapid analytical capacity and could be utilized in most laboratories. PMID: 26932590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hatrongjit R, Kerdsin A, Gottschalk M, Hamada S, Oishi K, Akeda Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of an rmtB-carrying IncI1 ST136 plasmid in avian Escherichia coli isolates from chickens.
Abstract The rmtB gene, one of the 16S rRNA methylase genes whose products confer high-level resistance to aminoglycosides, is most prevalent among Enterobacteriaceae strains. Here, eight non-duplicate rmtB-carrying avian Escherichia coli strains from a farm in China were isolated and characterized, and further examined by phylogenetic grouping, conjugation experiments, and PCR-based replicon typing. In addition, the genetic environment of rmtB was investigated by cloning and sequencing. Six rmtB-carrying E. coli were identified as A-ST156, with two assigned to D-ST117; however, all of them carried the same IncI1 ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fu T, Du XD, Cheng PP, Li XR, Zhao XF, Pan YS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.
Abstract Chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilising an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterised to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15%) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular s...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Legione AR, Patterson JL, Whiteley PL, Amery-Gale J, Lynch M, Haynes L, Gilkerson JR, Polkinghorne A, Devlin JM, Sansom FM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparing apples and oranges: considerations for quantifying candidal biofilms with XTT and the need for standardized testing.
PMID: 26916262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ramage G Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Understanding dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the lungs during primary infection.
Abstract Understanding how inhaled M. tuberculosis achieves dramatic replication and crosses the alveolar barrier to establish systemic latent infection before adaptive immunity is elicited in humans, is limited by the small infecting inoculum carried in aerosol droplets (1-5 m diameter) and the inability to identify time of infection. M. tuberculosis is believed to disseminate via infected macrophages. However, like other invasive bacterial pathogens, M. tuberculosis could also cross the barrier directly using adhesins and toxins. An in vitro alveolar-barrier mimicking gas-exchange regions of the alveolus was ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ryndak MB, Chandra D, Laal S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rin1 restores host phagocytosis activity during the invasion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses Type III secretion system to deliver toxic effector proteins directly into host cells and alter host protein functions. Exoenzyme S (ExoS), a Type III effector protein, ADP-ribosylates Rab5 GTPase and impair early phagocytic events in macrophage cells. In this current study, we tested the hypothesis that Rin1, a Ras effector protein and Rab5 guanine exchange factor (GEF), generates an intrinsic Rab5 activity cycle during phagocytosis of live P. aeruginosa thus allowing proper phagocytic killing. We found that Rab5 activity was attenuated at a very early time point (2.5 min) of ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mustafi S, Barbieri MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Modeling of Treatment Failure in Bacterial Vaginosis: Clinical Study of 289 Symptomatic Women.
PMID: 26887782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bostwick DG, Woody J, Hunt C, Budd W Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. and characterization of the prevalent T4 type along with T10 and unassigned genotypes from amoebic keratitis (AK) patients in India.
This study was designed to characterise the genotype of 20 Acanthamoeba spp. isolates obtained from corneal scrapings of 183 suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) patients reporting to the outpatient department/ causuality services of Dr RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India in the past 5 years. Corneal scrapings were inoculated onto 2% non-nutrient agar plates overlaid with Escherichia coli. and incubated at 30°C for 15 days. Among 183 suspected patients of Acanthamoeba keratitis 29 were found culture positive for Acanthamoeba spp. out of which 20 samples were established in axenic culture for mol...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 16, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Behera HS, Panda A, Satpathy G, Bandivadekar P, Vanathi M, Agarwal T, Nayak N, Tandon R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Positive effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in reversing the LPS induced infertility in mouse model.
Abstract Bacterial infections have high incidence among the female population at reproductive age and are widely known to cause infertility due to inflammation. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of the inflammatory agent, LPS, on fertility outcome and to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum in ameliorating the LPS mediated inflammation induced infertility. Female BALB/c mice infused intravaginally with a single dose of 20µl sterile normal saline containing 5, 10 or 20µg LPS were divided into two sets for evaluation of tissue histology and pregnancy outcome. In set...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bhandari P, Rishi P, Prabha V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Concomitant presence of Aspergillus fumigatus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in the respiratory tract: a new risk for patients with liver disease?
Abstract Concomitant lung colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was reported only in patients with cystic fibrosis. . The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of co-culture of A. fumigatus and S. maltophilia in respiratory samples of hospitalized patients, and to determine its associated factors. Between 2007 and 2011, all patients who had A. fumigatus in their respiratory samples were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Their clinical and laboratory data, including the presence of S. maltophilia in a respiratory sample, were collected within the same month. Of the 257 e...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cabaret O, Bonnal C, Canoui-Poitrine F, Emirian A, Bizouard G, Levesque E, Maitre B, Fihman V, Decousser JW, Botterel F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multiple antibiotic resistance index, fitness and virulence potential in respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Jamaica.
Abstract Respiratory infections are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sought to assess the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index, fitness, and virulence potential in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Isolates were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility, in vitro competitive fitness, pigment, elastase and rhamnolipid production. Oxidative stress tolerance was determined on both planktonic and biofilm cells and virulence potential was tested in a plant model. Mean MAR index for isolates was 0.34 (range, 0.17 - 0.50). While isolates exhibited g...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Davis R, Brown PD Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A comparison of Clostridium difficile diagnostic methods for identification of local strains in a South African centre.
Abstract Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection is essential for disease management. A clinical and molecular analysis of C. difficile isolated from symptomatic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa, was conducted to establish the most suitable clinical test for the diagnosis and characterisation of locally prevalent strains. C. difficile was detected in stool samples using enzyme-based immunoassays (EIA) and nucleic acid amplification methods, and their performance was compared to C. difficile isolation using direct selective culture combined with specific PCR to detect the C. difficile ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rajabally N, Kullin B, Ebrahim K, Brock T, Weintraub A, Whitelaw A, Bamford C, Watermeyer G, Thomson S, Abratt V, Reid S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

First Molecular Evidence of Coxiella burnetii in Patients with Atypical Pneumonia, India.
PMID: 26860433 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gangoliya SR, Kumar S, Alam SI, Devi DG, Guchhait P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Biofilm formation of Brazilian MRSA strains: Prevalence of biofilm determinants and clonal profiles.
This study aimed to determine the factors that influence adherence and biofilm production, as well as the relationship between strong biofilm production and genetic determinants in clinical isolates of MRSA. Fifteen strains carrying different chromosomal cassettes, recovered from patients hospitalized were selected: five SCCmecII, five SCCmecIII and five SCCmecIV. The SCCmec type, agr group and the presence of the virulence genes (bbp, clfA, icaA, icaD, fnbB, bap, sasC and IS256) were assessed by PCR. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techniques also were performed. The initial a...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Batistão DW, Campos PA, Camilo NC, Royer S, Araujo BF, Naves KS, Martins M, Pereira MO, Henriques M, Gontijo-Filho PP, Botelho C, Oliveira R, Ribas RM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiofilm efficacy of honey and bee-derived defensin-1 on multi-species wound biofilm.
In conclusion, our study reveals that honey and defensin-1 are effective against established multi-species biofilm; however, E. faecalis grown in multi-species biofilm was resistant to both antimicrobials. PMID: 26861950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sojka M, Valachova I, Bucekova M, Majtan J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation and modulation of gene expression by probiotic cells and supernatant.
In this study, combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum SD5870, L. helveticus CBS N116411, and Streptococcus salivarius DSM 14685 were assessed for their ability to inhibit the formation of, and disrupt C. albicans biofilms. Co-incubation with probiotic supernatants under hyphae-inducing conditions reduced C. albicans biofilm formation by over 75% in all treatment groups. Likewise, combinations of live probiotics reduced biofilm formation of C. albicans by over 67%. When live probiotics or their supernatants were overlaid on preformed C. albicans biofilms, biofilm size was reduced by over 63% and 65% respectively. Quantitat...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 3, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: James KM, MacDonald K, Chanyi RM, Cadieux P, Burton JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterisation of carbapenem resistance mechanisms and integrons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from blood samples in a French hospital.
In this study, 61% of the IRPA isolates showed a multi-resistance phenotype. The MBL phenotype, detected in 3 isolates (5.4%), was linked to blaVIM-2 gene. The oprD gene was amplified in 55 IRPA (98.2%), and variations were observed in 54 of them. Insertion sequences (IS) truncating oprD was detected in 8 IRPA, being the new ISPa56 (GenBank KR258747) identified in two strains. Class 1 integrons were detected in 24 IRPA (42.9%). The blaVIM-2 gene was found inside the class 1 integron arrangements. The new integrons In1054 (intI1-aacA56-qacEΔ1-sul1) and In1160 (intI1-aacA4-aacC1d-ISKpn4-gcuE-qacEΔ1-sul1) were fir...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 2, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rojo-Bezares B, Cavalié L, Dubois D, Oswald E, Torres C, Sáenz Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Bloodstream Associated E. coli ST131 H30-Rx Subclone Infection in a Region with High Quinolone Resistance.
This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of ST131-Rx subclone and characterize the virulence properties of the Rx among the bloodstream E. coli isolates. A total of 297 non-duplicated E.coli bloodstream isolates were studied. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion method. PCR amplification and sequencing was used to identify ST131 and H30-Rx, the virulence gene, the betalactamase, and virotype. Quinolone resistance among bacteremic E.coli strains was 51%, and it was 98% among E.coli ST131. The ST131 accounted for 16% (49) of all isolates and all ST131 isolates belonged to the ExpEC. T...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Can F, Kurt-Azap O, Nurtop E, Ispir P, Seref C, Ergonul O Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Population structure of colonizing and invasive Staphylococcus aureus strains in northern Vietnam.
This study characterizes the diversity of S. aureus strains in northern Vietnam through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). 85 carriage isolates from community and 77 invasive isolates from the clinical setting were selected and tested for methicillin resistance and the presence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). MLST was performed on these isolates, of which CC59 (25.4%), CC188 (17.3%), and CC45 (16.7%) were the predominant clonal complexes (CC). CC59-carriage isolates were significantly lower in rates of MRSA than their corresponding clinical group isolates (32% vs. 83%). There were no significant differences in rates ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vu BN, Jafari AJ, Aardema M, Tran HK, Nguyen DN, Dao TT, Nguyen TV, Tran TK, Nguyen CK, Fox A, Bañuls AL, Thwaites G, Nguyen KV, Wertheim HF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and drug susceptibility profile of a Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium isolate from a dog with disseminated infection.
In conclusion, we molecularly identified the MAC pathogen and determined its drug susceptibility profile in a relatively short period of time (seven days). We also characterized new genetic mutations likely to have been involved in the observed ethambutol resistance. Our results confirm the usefulness of both the gyrB and the rpsA genes as biomarkers for an accurate identification and differentiation of MAC pathogens. PMID: 26758809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Armas F, Furlanello T, Camperio C, Trotta M, Novari G, Marianelli C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 ameliorates experimental colitis by modulating intestinal permeability, inflammatory response and clinical signs in a faecal transplantation model.
ns FS Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of inflammatory conditions of the gut that includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are live microorganisms that may be used as adjuvant therapy for patients with IBD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic ingestion of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in a murine model of colitis. For induction of colitis, mice were given a 3.5% Dextran Sodium Sulphate (DSS) solution for 7 days in drinking water. EcN administration to mice subjected to DSS-induced colitis resulted in significant reduction of clinical and hi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Souza ÉL, Elian SD, Paula LM, Garcia CC, Vieira AT, Teixeira MM, Arantes RM, Nicoli JR, Martins FS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex‎‏ isolates from nosocomial bloodstream infections in southern Iran.
Characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex‎‏ isolates from nosocomial bloodstream infections in southern Iran. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jan 8; Authors: Pourabbas B, Firouzi R, Pouladfar G Abstract A. baumannii is an important opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for serious infections in hospitalized patients. From a total of 78 consecutive non-repetitive Acinetobacter spp. isolates from patients with blood infections, 61 were carbapenem resistant which were positive for blaOXA-51-like (96.7%), blaOXA-23-like (77%), blaOXA-58-like (8.1%), and bl...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pourabbas B, Firouzi R, Pouladfar G Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Development and Application of Two Independent Real-time PCR Assays to Detect Clinically Relevant Mucorales Species.
In conclusion, combination of the two independent Mucorales assays described in this study, 18S and 28S, detected all clinical samples associated with proven Mucorales infection (n=10). Reliable and specific identification of Mucorales is a prerequisite for successful antifungal therapy as these fungi show intrinsic resistance to voriconazole and caspofungin. PMID: 26743820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Springer J, Goldenberger D, Schmidt F, Weisser M, Wehrle-Wieland E, Einsele H, Frei R, Loeffler J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Legionella longbeachae and Legionella pneumophila cases in Scotland; implications for diagnosis, treatment and public health response.
Abstract The reported incidence of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella longbeachae has increased since 2008 in Scotland. While microbiological and epidemiological studies have identified exposure to growing media as a risk factor for infection, little is known about the differences regarding disease risk factors, clinical features and outcomes of infection with L. longbeachae when compared with L. pneumophila. A nested case-case study was performed comparing 12 L. longbeachae cases with 25 confirmed L. pneumophila cases. Fewer L. longbeachae infected patients reported being smokers (27 % [95 % CI 2 %-52 %] ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cameron RL, Pollock KG, Lindsay DS, Anderson E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of meropenem against VIM producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates: Clinical implications.
Abstract VIM producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are usually associated with high MICs to carbapenems. Preclinical studies investigating the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) characteristics of carbapenems against these isolates are lacking. The in vitro antibacterial activity of meropenem against one wild-type and three VIM producing K. pneumoniae clinical isolates (median MICs 0.031, 8, 16 and 128 mg/L) was studied in a dialysis-diffusion PK-PD model and verified in a thigh infection neutropenic animal model by testing selected strains and exposures. The in vitro PK-PD target associated with bacterici...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tsala M, Vourli S, Kotsakis S, Daikos G, Tzouvelekis L, Zerva L, Miriagou V, Meletiadis J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.
Abstract Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognised as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of C. concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for C. concisus infected samples using real-time PCR. C. concisus was detected at high p...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Underwood AP, Kaakoush NO, Sodhi N, Merif J, Lee WS, Riordan SM, Rawlinson WD, Mitchell HM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Α ten year surveillance study of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a tertiary care Greek University hospital: predominance of KPC over VIM or NDM-producing isolates.
Α ten year surveillance study of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a tertiary care Greek University hospital: predominance of KPC over VIM or NDM-producing isolates. J Med Microbiol. 2015 Dec 23; Authors: Spyropoulou A, Papadimitriou-Olivgeris M, Bartzavali C, Vamvakopoulou S, Marangos M, Spiliopoulou I, Anastassiou ED, Christofidou M Abstract Resistance patterns and carbapenemase gene presence among K. pneumoniae isolates from the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece during a ten-year period were analysed under a surveillance programme for multi-drug resistant bacteria. ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Spyropoulou A, Papadimitriou-Olivgeris M, Bartzavali C, Vamvakopoulou S, Marangos M, Spiliopoulou I, Anastassiou ED, Christofidou M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from infected cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Thailand: Nine-year perspective.
Abstract Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) infection remains a major problem associated with high mortality of cultured tilapia worldwide. The present study report the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of GBS isolated from infected tilapia cultured in Thailand. One hundred and forty four GBS isolates were identified by biochemical, serological and molecular analyses. Of these 144 GBS isolates, 126 isolates were serotype Ia and 18 isolates were serotype III. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 144 GBS isolates were determined by disc diffusion method. Most GBS isolates w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 22, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dangwetngam M, Suanyuk N, Kong F, Phromkunthong W Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Low intestinal colonization of Escherichia coli clone ST 131 producing CTX-M-15 in Jordanian Infants.
This study demonstrates low prevalence rate of the highly virulent E. coli ST131 clone producing blaCTX-M-15 in the intestine of Jordanian infants. PMID: 26690259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 21, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Badran EF, Qamer Din RA, Shehabi AA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Effect of Piperacillin/tazobactam Restriction on Usage and Rates of Acute Renal Failure.
Abstract A piperacillin/tazobactam (PT) restriction was initiated at our institution on 15 July 2012 requiring clinical pharmacy or infectious diseases approval for durations exceeding 72 hours. A retrospective review was undertaken to determine if this restriction decreased PT usage and/or rates of acute renal failure (ARF) (defined as a 50% increase or 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine from baseline). Patients prescribed at least 1 day of PT with a creatinine clearance (CrCl)>39 mL/min at the time of initiation in the 3 months prior to the restriction were compared to patients in the 5 months after restr...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 21, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lorenz MA, Moenster RP, Linneman TW Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbial profiling of dental plaque from mechanically ventilated patients.
Abstract Microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during mechanical ventilation (MV) have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and se...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 21, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sands KM, Twigg JA, Lewis MA, Wise MP, Marchesi JR, Smith A, Wilson MJ, Williams DW Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro biofilm production of Candida bloodstream isolates: any association with clinical characteristics?
e;n M, Kristóf K Abstract Candida spp. are a leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) associated with high mortality rates. Biofilm production is a virulence factor of Candida spp., and has been linked with poor clinical outcome. The aim of our study was to assess biofilm production of Candida bloodstream isolates at our institute, and to determine if in vitro biofilm production was associated with any clinical characteristics of infection. During the four-year study period, 93 cases of Candida BSI were analyzed. The most frequently isolated species was C. albicans (66.7 %), followed by C. glabrata (9.7...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 17, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pongrácz J, Benedek K, Juhász E, Iván M, Kristóf K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Novel engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides display broad-spectrum activity against Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.
Abstract Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are needed to effectively treat patients infected in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of a pathogen prior to confirmation of the pathogen's identity. Engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) display activity against a number of bacterial pathogens including multi-drug resistant strains. Two lead eCAPs, WLBU2 and WR12, were compared with human cathelicidin (LL-37) against three highly pathogenic bacteria: Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Both WLBU2 and WR12 demonstrated bactericidal activity greater than that of LL-...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 15, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abdelbaqi S, Deslouches B, Steckbeck J, Montelaro R, Reed DS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Human Serum Paraoxonase (hPON1).
Abstract The role of quorum sensing (QS) on the regulation of virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well established. Increased antibiotic resistance in this bacterium has led to the search for new treatment options, and inhibition of the QS system has been explored for potential therapeutic benefits. If the use of QS inhibitory agents were to lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence, new approaches in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections could be further developed. Accordingly, we examined whether human serum paraoxonase 1 (hPON1), which uses lactonase activity to hydrolyze acyl homoseri...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aybey A, Demirkan E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genotype analysis of varicella-zoster virus isolates from suburban Shanghai Municipal Province, China.
Abstract To determine the predominant genotype of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in suburban Shanghai Municipal Province, specimens were collected from the lesions of 95 outpatients clinically diagnosed with varicella or herpes zoster. Of these, 69 patients (72.6%) were positive for VZV DNA. The 69 isolates were all genotyped as the genotype J1/clade 2 according to the method of Barrett-Muir et al. Based on sequencing of the 447-bp sequence in ORF22, 66 isolates were identified as genotype J/clade 2 strains and three were identified as type M2/clade 4 strains. To confirm the classification of these three strains...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun Z, Guo Y, Li M, Yao Z Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser combined with sodium hypochlorite irrigation against Enterococcus faecalis deep inside dentinal tubules in experimentally infected root canals.
This study evaluated the bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation in treatment of Enterococcus faecalis deep inside dentinal tubules. Er:YAG laser was activated respectively at 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 W for either 20 or 30 seconds; 52.5 g L-1 NaOCl and normal saline were considered as the control groups. Root canals before and after treatments were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacterial reductions both on the root canal walls and at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm inside the dentinal tubules were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. SEM results sho...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 8, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cheng X, Chen B, Qiu J, He W, Lv H, Qu T, Yu Q, Tian Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A novel quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae using the competence regulator gene target comX.
In conclusion, we have developed a novel quantitative PCR assay with increased analytical sensitivity for the detection of S. pneumoniae, which may be used to develop a rapid bedside test for the direct detection of S. pneumoniae in clinical specimens. PMID: 26628261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 1, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Habets MN, Cremers AJ, Bos MP, Savelkoul P, Eleveld MJ, Meis JF, Hermans PW, Melchers WJ, de Jonge MI, Diavatopoulos DA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Oral delivery of Bifidobacterium longum expressing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to combat ulcerative colitis.
Abstract Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a tridecapeptide derived from proopiomelanocortin that exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the production of inflammatory and mediators. This peptide has been well established in several inflammatory models, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the extremely short duration in vivo limits its application in clinics. To address this limitation, Bifidobacterium is used as a carrier to deliver α-MSH. We utilised α-MSH-engineered Bifidobacterium against IBD, which is closely linked to immune and intestinal ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wei P, Yang Y, Ding Q, Li X, Sun H, Liu Z, Huang J, Gong Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genotypic assessment of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Baghdad and other Iraqi provinces using low-cost and density (LCD) DNA microarrays.
We report on a molecular investigation carried out to ascertain the prevalence of drug resistant TB and the specific gene mutations responsible for resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) in Iraq. One hundred and ten clinical isolates from category II TB cases from Baghdad (58%) and several Iraqi provinces (42%) were analyzed using colorimetric, low-cost and density (LCD) microarrays (MYCODirect and MYCOResist LCD-array kits, Chipron GmbH, Germany) to identify the point mutations responsible for resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Seventy-six patients (69.1%) had resistant strains, of which 40 ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 10, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Al-Rubaye DS, Henihan G, Al-Abasly AK, Seagar AL, Al-Attraqchi AA, Schulze H, Hashim DS, Kamil JK, Laurenson IF, Bachmann TT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Nisin is an effective inhibitor of Clostridium difficile vegetative cells and spore germination.
Abstract Clostridium difficile is the most frequently identified enteric pathogen in patients with nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. Several clinically isolated C. difficile strains are resistant to antibiotics other than metronidazole and vancomycin. Recently, bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have been proposed as an alternative or complementary treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of nisin, a bacteriocin produced by several strains of Lactococcus lactis, against clinical isolates of C. difficile. Nisin Z obtained from culture of L. l...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Le Lay C, Dridi L, Bergeron MG, Ouellette M, Fliss I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genotyping of Campylobacter coli strains isolated in Brazil suggests possible contamination among environmental, human, animal and food sources.
;o JP Abstract Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are two of the most common causative agents of food-borne gastroenteritis in numerous countries worldwide. In Brazil, campylobacteriosis is under-diagnosed and under-reported, and few studies have molecularly characterized Campylobacter spp. in this country. The current study genotyped 63 C. coli strains isolated from humans (12), animals (21), food (10) and the environment (20) between 1995 and 2011 in Brazil. The strains were genotyped using PFGE, flaA-SVR sequencing and HRMA of the CRISPR locus to better understand C.coli genotypic diversity and compare...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 2, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gomes CN, Souza RA, Passaglia J, Duque SS, Medeiros MI, Falcão JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of Escherichia coli bloodstream isolates associated with mortality.
In this study, twenty E. coli isolates that were the causative agents of bacteraemia and subsequent mortality were characterised. Whole genome sequencing was used to define the predominant sequence types among the isolates and to identify virulence factors associated with pathogenicity of ExPEC. The ability of the isolates to resist killing by both serum and polymorphoneuclear leucocytes (PMNL) was also assessed. In line with global trends, sequence type (ST) 131 occurred most frequently among the bloodstream isolates and all isolates of this sequence type were multidrug resistant. Other common sequence types included ST73...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 30, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miajlovic H, Mac Aogáin M, Collins CJ, Rogers TR, Smith SG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Challenges facing the Drug Discovery pipeline for Non-tuberculous mycobacteria.
Abstract Non tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are increasingly being reported worldwide. It is a major concern for healthcare professionals due to the multiple reasons ranging from the intrinsic resistance of NTM to most conventionally utilized antimicrobials to inharmonious diagnostic criteria utilized for evaluation of NTM infected patients, leading to high morbidity. In this review, we have highlighted the paucity of drugs having potent anti-NTM activity amongst the new antimicrobials currently under various stages of development for anti-tubercular activity and begs a call for the establishment of a ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 29, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Soni I, De Groote MA, Dasgupta A, Chopra S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research