The molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection isolates in a non-outbreak setting.
This study aims to characterise the molecular relationship of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection isolates in the non-outbreak setting at a single tertiary healthcare facility. P. aeruginosa BSI isolates from patients who were admitted to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital over a 13 month period from November 2009 were identified retrospectively from the Pathology Queensland Clinical and Scientific Information System. The isolates were typed by iPLEX MassARRAY MALDI-TOF MS genotyping. The Diversilab® automated rapid strain typing platform (bioMérieux Australia Pty Ltd) was used to assess the genotypic relat...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: McCarthy KL, Kidd TJ, Paterson DL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Xpert ® MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX™ MRSA XT for MRSA screening in a routine diagnostic setting in a low prevalence area.
Evaluation of Xpert® MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX™ MRSA XT for MRSA screening in a routine diagnostic setting in a low prevalence area. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Dec 19;: Authors: Nielsen XC, Madsen TV, Engberg J Abstract Screening and pre-emptive isolation of at-risk patients is an important aspect of the Danish approach to the prevention of MRSA infection, but screening with conventional culture can take up to th days for results to become available with attendant costs and disadvantages of prolonged isolation. We sought to evaluate the accuracy, time to availability of results, and potential economi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nielsen XC, Madsen TV, Engberg J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multiple cag genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolates colonize the oesophagus in individual hosts in a Venezuelan population.
li F, Contreras M Abstract Multiple Helicobacter pylori strains colonize and coexist in the stomach of one single patient, carrying heterogeneous distributions of cag genotypes. The oesophagus provides a niche for H. pylori colonization; however, little is known about its adaptive role. Using PCR for cagA, cagE and virB11 genes from cag-PAI, and Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility test, we determined cag-PAI genotypes associated to H. pylori virulence, when positive cultures were matching in both the stomach and the oesophagus (96 isolates; 8 out of 80 dyspeptic patients). The stomach showed complete cag-PAI is...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peña J, Rojas H, Reyes N, Fernández-Delgado M, García-Amado MA, Michelangeli F, Contreras M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Culture-dependent and Culture-Independent Molecular Methods for Characterisation of Vaginal Microflora.
Abstract To date, molecular methods that circumvent the limitations of traditional culture methods have not been used to describe the vaginal microflora in India. Here, we compared culture and culture-independent molecular methods in characterising the vaginal microbiota in Indian women. Culture methods involved traditional cultivation on Rogosa and sheep-blood agar, whereas culture-independent methods bypassed a culturing step by performing broad-range 16S rDNA PCR on DNA isolated directly from vaginal swabs. A total of 13 women were included in the study, of which five were characterised as healthy, two were BV-...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pandya S, Ravi K, Srinivas V, Jadhav S, Khan A, Arun A, Riley LW, Madhivanan P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species to liposomal amphotericin B, determined using CLSI broth microdilution, and amphotericin B deoxycholate, measured using the E-test.
Abstract The antifungal susceptibilities of 598 isolates of Candida spp. (bloodstream, other sterile sites) to liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) versus amphotericin B (AmB) were determined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution (BMD; M27-A3) method for L-AmB and the E-test method for AmB. The MIC50/MIC90 (µg ml-1) values for L-AmB BMD and AmB E-test were 0.25/1 and 0.19/0.5, respectively. The overall essential agreement (± 2 dilutions) was 91.5%, ranging from 37.5% (Candida lusitaniae) to 100% (Candida glabrata...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grazia L, Osvalda G, Serafina R, Giusy D, Giuseppina C, Montagna MT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

CRISPR based Genome Editing of Clinical Important E. coli SE15 Isolated from Indwelling Urinary Catheters of Patients.
In this study, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 mediated genome editing to generate luxS mutant strains from clinical isolate of E. coli SE15, which is one of major pathogens, and can cause colonization and biofilm formation in the catheter. A major regulatory pathway of such biofilm formation on medical devices is the quorum sensing mechanism via small molecule autoinducer-2 synthesized by LuxS enzyme. Here, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 system for precise deletion of luxS gene in clinical isolate E. coli SE15. To this end, we constructed a donor DNA for homologous recombination to del...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kang S, Kim J, Hur JK, Lee SS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells.
Abstract Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging food borne enteric pathogen causing diarrheal diseases in multiple epidemiological and clinical settings. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of EAEC is still suboptimal. Studies have indicated that enteric bacteria induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in host cells might have a vital role in the pathogenesis caused by these organisms. In the present study, we have found that EAEC could induce apoptosis in human small intestinal as well as colonic epithelial cell lines, which was assessed by the expression of phosphatidylserine on host cel...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 9, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Priya A, Kaur K, Bhattacharyya S, Chakraborti A, Ghosh S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Frequency of Antiseptic Resistance Genes and Reduced Susceptibility to Biocides in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
This study of may offer hospitals with important information about the control of nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii. PMID: 27930267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu WJ, Fu L, Huang M, Zhang JP, Wu Y, Zhou YS, Zeng J, Wang GX Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Recombinant Bacillus subtilis spores expressing cholera toxin B subunit and Helicobacter pylori urease B confers protection against H. pylori in mice.
In this study, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), a mucosal adjuvant, was used to enhance the immunogenicity of novel Bacillus subtilis spores vaccine that express CTB-UreB along with the B. subtilis spore coat protein CotC as a fusion protein. Oral administration of B. subtilis spores expressing CotC-UreB or CotC-CTB-UreB led to increased levels of UreB-specific IgG in serum and UreB-specific IgA in feces, as well as elevated levels of interleukin-10 and interferon-γ in splenocytes. In addition, oral administration of CotC-UreB or CotC-CTB-UreB spores induced significant reductions (80.0% and 90.5%, respectively) in sto...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhou Z, Dong H, Yao S, Huang Y, Liang B, Xie Y, Long Y, Mai J, Gong S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Individualized Antibiotic Therapy in Patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.
Abstract The optimal duration of treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is still the subject of debate. While 1-week treatment has been reported as possibly sufficient, patients generally receive antibiotic therapy for 10-14 days. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether length of treatment in patients with VAP can be reduced with an individualized therapeutic strategy. The study was performed prospectively with patients diagnosed with VAP in our hospital's intensive care units between 1 January and 31 December, 2015. Duration of antibiotic therapy was determined with 5-day clinical evaluati...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yilmaz G, Saylan S, Aksoy F, Koksal I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of Escherichia coli ST131 complex (ST705) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST15 among fecal carriage of extended-spectrum betalactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
In conclusion, the present study reveals that fecal carriage of ESBL is common among inpatients and outpatients whereas carbapenemases producers are only present in the hospital setting. Therefore, active surveillance will be useful to reduce transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and prevent the infection. PMID: 27902381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rios E, López MC, Rodríguez-Avial I, Culebras E, Picazo JJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Determination of antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from pigs and their genotypic characterization by method of amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (the ADSRRS-fingerprinting).
In this study, we analysed phenotypic resistance profiles and their reflection in the genomic profiles of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from pigs raised on different farms. Samples were collected from five pig farms (n=90 animals) and tested for Enterococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method, and epidemiological molecular analysis of strains belonging to selected species (E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. hirae) was performed using the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method with a few modifications. The highest percentage of strains were resistant to tetrac...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nowakiewicz A, Ziółkowska G, Trościańczyk A, Zięba P, Gnat S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clonal spread and accumulation of Beta-lactams resistance determinants in Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates from infection and colonization in patients at a public hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
This study has characterized phenotypically and genotypically 51 isolates of E. aerogenes and E. cloacae complex as originated from infection or colonization in patients admitted to public hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, by antimicrobial susceptibility profile, analysis of β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaSPM), PCR and DNA sequencing, plasmid profile and ERIC-PCR. In both species, the genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M and blaKPC were detected. The DNA sequencing confirmed the variants blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 and blaKPC-2 in isolates. It was observed more than one genes conferring r...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cabral AB, Maciel MA, Barros JF, Antunes MM, de Castro CM, Lopes AC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among Gram-negative bacteraemia isolates: A hidden threat.
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of PMQR genes in an unselected collection of bloodstream isolates recovered over an 18-month period in a laboratory affiliated to a University Hospital in Athens, Greece and to assess their impact on the in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Eight PMQR genes were screened by PCR and sequencing. All PMQR-positive isolates were submitted to isoelectric focusing for β-lactamase detection, conjugation or transformation, time-kill assays, MPC and inoculum effect evaluation. PCR and sequencing of gyrA and parC were performed for detectio...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Margaritis A, Galani I, Chatzikonstantinou M, Petrikkos G, Souli M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of ISAba1 in association with a novel allelic variant of the β-lactamase ADC-82 and class D β-lactamase genes mediating carbapenem resistance among the clinical isolates of MDR A. baumannii.
The objective of the present study is to investigate the diverse resistance determinants, their association with IS mobile elements and predilection of a particular clone for such associations in A. baumannii. Fifty-four consecutive isolates collected during 2011-2012 from a tertiary care hospital were subjected to susceptibility testing followed by PCR screening of commonly reported β-lactamases and 16S rRNA methyl transferase encoding genes. The integrity of RND efflux pump related genes in their respective operons was also investigated. β-lactamase genes such as blaADC (100%), blaOXA-23 (81%), blaPER-1 (81%), ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saranathan R, Kumari R, Kalaivani R, Suresh S, Rani A, Purty S, K P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Virulence characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates vary with the expression levels of omps.
Abstract We investigated the expression levels of virulence factors (ompA, omp33-36, and carO) in 5 clinical isolates and in a standard ATCC19606 strain of Acinetobacter baumannii to determine their effect on the virulence characteristics of the isolates. The mRNA levels of ompA in the clinical isolates were higher and similar compared with those in ATCC19606, whereas the mRNA levels of omp33-36 in the clinical isolates were lower and similar compared with those in ATCC19606. The mRNA levels of carO in the clinical isolates were significantly higher than those in ATCC19606. The number of human lung epithelial cell...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sato Y, Unno Y, Kawakami S, Ubagai T, Ono Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Involvement of cAMP receptor protein in biofilm formation, fimbria production, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis, and lethality in mouse of Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 causing pyogenic liver abscess.
Abstract The global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP) has been shown to be required for the full virulence and/ or for the expression of virulence determinants in a wide set of bacterial pathogens. In this work, the crp mutant as well as the complemented mutant was constructed from a wild-type Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotype K1 strain causing the primary pyogenic liver abscess. The phenotypes of wild-type strain, crp mutant, and complemented mutant were characterized systematically. It was disclosed that K. pneumoniae CRP was required for the in vitro growth, fimbria production, biofilm formation, and ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 16, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ou Q, Fan J, Duan D, Li X, Wang J, Zhou D, Yang H, Li B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Susceptibility to Azithromycin among Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A Isolates from India.
Abstract Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity is a significant therapeutic problem. Guidelines for azithromycin disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by CLSI in 2015.We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from blood stream infections from January 2013 to December 2015. Zone sizes were extrapolated aga...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 10, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Misra R, Prasad KN Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance profiling and molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from a Malaysian Teaching Hospital.
Abstract The annual prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malaysia has been estimated to be at 30-40% of all S. aureus infections. Nevertheless, data on the antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Malaysian MRSAs remain few. In 2009, we collected 318 MRSA strains from various wards of our teaching hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the strains. The strains were then molecularly characterized via SCCmec and virulence gene (cna, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, eta, etb, PVL and TSST-1) t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Noordin A, Sapri HF, Mohamad Sani NA, Leong SK, Tan XE, Tan TL, Mohamad Zin N, Neoh HM, Hussin S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The exploration of risk factors of concurrent bacteremia among critically ill patients with severe dengue.
Abstract We investigated the clinical features of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with a concomitant severe dengue infection and bacteremia to identify risk factors for this comorbidity. The records of all ICU dengue patients admitted during a July 31-November 31, 2015 were reviewed. Patients with "concurrent bacteremia" (positive bacterial blood culture within 72 hours of ICU admission) were identified. ICU admission was required for 142 patients; 22 (15.5%) had concurrent bacteremia. Streptococcus spp. was the most common pathogen, then Escherichia coli, and then Staphylococcus spp. Patients with a ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen CM, Chan KS, Cheng KC, Chou W, Chao HC, Yeh CY, Yu WL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Escherichia coli clonal group A (CGA) among uropathogenic infections in Mexico City.
In this study, the frequency of resistance to SXT used for UTI treatment was high (56-65%) and CGA isolates accounted for 9 of the 78 SXT-resistant isolates (11.5%). Although all of the CGA isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR), none of them were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms. The prevalence of CGA among the 45 MDR isolates that we identified was 20%, indicating that this clonal group moderately contributes to the antibiotic resistance of UPEC isolates in this region. Most of the 9 CGA isolates carried transferable large-size plasmids of approximately 80-100 kb, which were able...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manjarrez-Hernandez A, Molina-López J, Gavilanes-Parra S, Hernandez-Castro R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevention of Herpes Zoster and its complications: from the clinic to the real life experience with the vaccine.
Abstract The Herpes Zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash, with unilateral distribution, which can eventually cause severe complications, such as the post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), the ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. In Europe, an incidence between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 persons-year is estimated, with an increase after 50 years of age. Currently, the therapeutic options for HZ are only partially effective to limit the acute phase, while the management of complications is frequently complex and not satisfactory. The overall burden of the disease...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gabutti G, Valente N, Kuhdari P, Lupi S, Stefanati A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Murraya koenigii essential oil: a study in a Caenorhabditis elegans infectious model.
Abstract The global emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a major threat in hospital environments as well as in the community. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and it also infects a wide range of model organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Quorum sensing (QS) mediates cell-to-cell communication in bacteria and has an important role in regulating virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation which are crucial for establishment of the infection. Expression of many virulence factors such as pyocyanin and proteases in P. aeruginosa i...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 3, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ganesh PS, Rai RV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing and mecA sequencing in methicillin-resistant staphylococci from Algeria: a highly diversified element with new mutations in mecA.
ina C Abstract Genetic mechanisms of methicillin resistance are still relevant in staphylococci. The aims of this study are to assess the possible exchanges of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) among isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and to check for known or new mutations in mecA DNA. A total of 35 MRS non-repetitive isolates were recovered, including 20 Staphylococcushaemolyticus, 7 Staphylococcusaureus, 4 Staphylococcussciuri, 2 Staphylococcussaprophyticus and 1 isolate each of Staphylococcusxylosus and Staphylococcuslentus. Only 16 of the 35 strains were assigned to known SCCm...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Djoudi F, Bonura C, Touati A, Aléo A, Benallaoua S, Mammina C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Structures and serospecificity of threonine-containing O polysaccharides of two clinical isolates belonging to the genus Proteus and their classification into O11 subserogroups.
Abstract Two clinical isolates from Polish patients, Proteus mirabilis 9B-m and Proteus genomospecies 3J-r, were found to be serologically related to P mirabilis O11. However, serological studies involving ELISA and Western blotting methods, using lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from the strains as antigens and native or adsorbed rabbit polyclonal O antisera, specific to the studied strains, revealed slight differences in the cross-reactivity and specificity of the two studied Proteus isolates, when compared to P. mirabilis O11. Two different O polysaccharides containing N-(d-galacturonoyl)-l-threonine were i...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Drzewiecka D, Arbatsky NP, Kondakova AN, Shashkov AS, Knirel YA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of susceptibility patterns using commercially available susceptibility testing methods performed on prevalent Candida species.
Abstract The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014-March 2015 using broth microdilution (BMD) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institut...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cretella D, Barber KE, King ST, Stover KR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of emergent GII.17 norovirus variants from 2013 to 2015 in Nanjing, China.
In this study, epidemiological features and genotyping of noroviruses from 2013 to 2015 were depicted. Twenty-eight local GII.17 sequences of capsid N-terminus originating from July 2013 to August 2015 were aligned, among which complete genome of seven strains obtained from two outbreaks and five sporadic cases was extensively characterized. The differences of local GII.17 variants led to at least two clusters, with strains from 2013/14 season and those from 2014/15 season grouped differently. Multiple nucleotide and amino acid variations between different clusters of GII.17 were elucidated, including residue substitutions...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang X, Du X, Yong W, Qiao M, He M, Shi L, Guo B, Hong L, Jiang Y, Xie G, Ding J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated at Tripoli Medical Centre, Libya between 2008 and 2014.
Abstract Bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent a well-known public health problem affecting both healthcare-associated and community populations. Past studies have clearly shown the value of characterizing problem organisms including MRSA through the use of molecular techniques (i.e., strain typing), with the aim of informing local, regional, and national efforts in epidemiological analysis and infection control. The country of Libya represents a challenge for such analysis due to limited historical infectious disease information and major political unrest culmina...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: BenDarif E, Khalil A, Rayes A, Bennour E, Dhawi A, Lowe JJ, Gibbs S, Goering RV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Frequency of Mycobacterium chimaera among Belgian patients, 2015.
This study reports the large presence of M. intracellulare/chimaera among Belgian patients infected by an NTM and the predominance of the species M. chimaera among this group. This study also stresses the public health importance of M. chimaera and demonstrates the inability of commonly used laboratory techniques to correctly diagnose these infections. PMID: 27902393 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Soetaert K, Vluggen C, André E, Vanhoof R, Vanfleteren B, Mathys V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Pathogenic properties of a Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain isolated from a case of osteomyelitis.
In this study, the characterization of a non-toxigenic Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae strain (designated BR-INCA5015) isolated from osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of a patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma was performed. Pathogenic properties of the strain BR-INCA5015 were tested in a Caenorhabditis elegans survival assay showing strong colonization and killing by this strain. Survival rates of 3.8±2.7 %, 33.6±7.3 % and 0 % were observed for strains ATCC 27010T, ATCC 27012 and BR-INCA5015, respectively, at day 7. BR-INCA5015 was able to colonize epithelial cells, showing elevated capacity ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peixoto RS, Hacker E, Antunes CA, Weerasekera D, Dias AA, Martins CA, Hirata R, Santos KR, Burkovski A, Mattos-Guaraldi AL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Development, Validation and Implementation of a Quadruplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Identification of Potentially Toxigenic Corynebacteria.
Abstract Toxigenic corynebacteria are uncommon in the UK, however laboratory confirmation by the national reference laboratory (NRL) can inform public health action according to national guidelines. Standard phenotypic tests for identification and toxin expression of isolates can take from ≥24 h to ≥48 h, from receipt. To decrease the time to result, a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for confirmation of both identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans/ Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and detection of the diphtheria toxin gene. Target genes were the RNA polymerase be...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: De Zoysa A, Efstratiou A, Mann G, Harrison TG, Fry NK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Validation of self-administered nasal swabs and postage for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus carriers are at higher risk of S. aureus infection and are a reservoir for transmission to others. Detection of nasal S. aureus carriage is important for both targeted decolonisation and epidemiological studies. Self-administered nasal swabbing has been reported previously, but the impact of posting swabs prior to culture on S. aureus yield has not been investigated. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in which healthy volunteers were recruited, trained in the swabbing procedure, and asked to take weekly nasal swabs for 6 weeks (median: 3 weeks, range 1 to 6 weeks). Two swabs w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 31, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Harrison E, Gleadall NS, Ba X, Danesh J, Peacock SJ, Holmes M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of two new Enterovirus types, EV-A114 and EV-A121.
Abstract Enteroviruses cause a variety of illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system as well as cardiovascular system. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences has identified 106 different human enteroviruses classified into four enterovirus species within genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. It is likely that not all enterovirus types have been discovered. Between September 2013 and October 2014, stool samples of 6274 apparently healthy children up to 5 years of age residing in Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India were screened for enteroviruses. Virus isolates obtained in RD and...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deshpande JM, Sharma DK, Saxena VK, Shetty SA, Qureshi TH, Nalavade UP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A comparative analysis of Phenol Soluble Modulin production and G. mellonella killing by community-associated and healthcare-associated MRSA strains.
Abstract Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have emerged globally and have been associated with more severe disease than healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether laboratory measures of virulence can distinguish dominant CA-MRSA clones from HA-MRSA clones. We compared the production of Phenol Soluble Modulins (PSM) and ability to kill Galleria mellonella caterpillars for a range of CA- and HA-MRSA strains. 22 HA-MRSA strains (ST22-IV (EMRSA-15), ST36-II (EMRSA-16), and ST239-III) and 26 CA-MRSA strains (ST1-IV (PVL+ USA400), ST1...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 26, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Boakes E, Marbach H, Lynham S, Ward M, Edgeworth J, Otter J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

MLVF as a method for rapid and cost-effective typing of animal-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains from lineages other than ST398.
The objective of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of MLVF for studying S. aureus strains isolated from households, farms and exotic animals in three regions of Poland. MLVF, RAPD, spa typing and diagnostic microarrays were compared to determine the most suitable combination of methods for veterinary purposes. MLVF generated results consistent with host and geographic origins, reflecting population structures with a high concordance to spa typing results. MLVF has been proven to be a rapid, highly discriminatory and cost-effective method suitable for molecular typing in veterinary settings. PMID: 2790...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kosecka-Strojek M, Ilczyszyn WM, Buda A, Polakowska K, Murzyn K, Panz T, Bialecka A, Kasprowicz A, Jakubczak A, Krol J, Wieliczko A, Wladyka B, Miedzobrodzki J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The oral cavities of healthy infants harbor high proportions of Streptococcus salivarius strains with phenotypic and genotypic resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics.
In this study, we investigated the role of S. salivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analyzing 95 S. salivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2 to 16 months of age). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined. ARG profiles were assessed in a sub-set of 21 strains by next-generation sequencing of genomes (Illumina MiSeq), followed by searches of assembled reads against the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Strains resistant to erythromycin, penicillins ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Palma TH, Harth-Chú E, Scott J, Stipp RN, Boisvert H, Salomão MF, Theobaldo JD, Possobon RF, Nascimento LC, McCafferty JW, Faller L, Duncan MJ, Mattos-Graner RO Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative Evaluation of the AdvanSure Mycobacteria GenoBlot Assay and the GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS Assay for the Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.
In conclusion, the AdvanSure assay shows comparable performance to the GenoType assay and can be useful as a routine method for NTM identification in the clinical setting, especially where MAC is the main cause of NTM infection. PMID: 27902391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang M, Huh HJ, Kwon HJ, Kim JY, Song DJ, Koh WJ, Ki CS, Lee NY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical Evaluation of Mucorales-specific Real-time PCR Assay in Tissue and Serum Samples.
r J Abstract Molecular diagnostic assays can accelerate the diagnosis of fungal infections and subsequently improve patient outcomes. In particular, the detection of infections due to Mucorales is still challenging for laboratories and physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate a probe-based Mucorales-specific real-time PCR assay (Muc18S) using tissue and serum samples from patients suffering from invasive mucormycosis (IMM). This assay can detect a broad range of clinically relevant Mucorales species and can be used to complement existing diagnostic tests or to screen high-risk patients. An advantage of th...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Springer J, Lackner M, Ensinger C, Risslegger B, Morton CO, Nachbaur D, Lass-Flörl C, Einsele H, Heinz WJ, Loeffler J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiota dysbiosis: a new piece in the understanding of carcinogenesis puzzle.
ía A Abstract Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cells in a host and it is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in its development and the involvement of microbial communities has also recently been recognized. The close relationship that characterizes the colonization of human commensal communities involves health risks particularly when the homeostasis is disturbed. It has been hypothesized that this process may lead to cancer by modulating the inflammatory response of the host, by the production of carcinogenic me...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 21, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: García-Castillo V, Sanhueza E, McNerney E, Onate SA, García A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Long-term persistence of sequence type 89 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a Korean community.
PMID: 27902366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jeon H, Ma SH, Jo HJ, Woo MS, An H, Park H, Kwon C, Kim Y, Lee JC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiological sentinel events at neurological hospital: a retrospective cohort study.
Abstract AbstractThe purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological surveillance of microbiological sentinel events (SE) carried out between 2012-2014 at the Neurological Hospital Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy. The Setting is inpatient care with Multi- Drug-Resistance infections. The aim of the procedure is to formalize the management mode, the reporting and transmission of SE. Categorical variables were described by counts and percentages, those quantitatives as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile range. The Incidence Rates (IR) of SE were calculated per 1000 patient-day and for 100 adm...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Asti A, Marmondi E, Tinelli C, Corbella M, de Silvestri A, Bernardi G, Andreini F, Preti A, Bricchi M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Coagulase-negative staphylococci: Pathogenesis, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on biofilm-growing bacteria.
Abstract Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15%), aminoglycosides aac(6')/aph(2'') (11%), aph (3')-IIIa (15%), ant(4')-Ia (19%) and MLSB erm(A) (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Szczuka E, Jabłońska L, Kaznowski A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Virulence determinants in clinical Staphylococcus aureus from monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections of diabetic foot ulcers.
Abstract Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing was performed and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin, Leukotoxins DE and M were screened. Biofilm production was also quantified by tissue culture plate m...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shettigar K, Jain S, Bhat DV, Acharya R, Ramachandra L, Satyamoorthy K, Murali TS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Ultrastructural changes caused by polymyxin B and meropenem in multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaKPC-2 gene.
Abstract The ultrastructural alterations caused by polymyxin B, meropenem and by the association between polymyxin B and meropenem were investigated in 2 multiresistant isolates of K. pneumoniae (K3-A2 and K12-A2) carriers of blaKPC-2, coming from infection and colonization in patients of a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. The ultrastructural changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy and scanning. The susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobials was tested by the disk diffusion method and microdilution in broth. The analysis by electron microscopy showed that the isolates presented morphologi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Scavuzzi A, Alves LC, Veras DL, Brayner FA, Lopes AC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The Staff Education to Reducing Ventilator Associated Pneumonia.
Abstract Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving invasive procedure performed in intensive care units (ICUs) where critical patients are given advanced support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of personnel training on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The study, performed prospectively in the ICU, was planned in two periods. In both periods, patient's characteristics were recorded on patient data forms. In the second period, ICU physicians and assistant health personnel were given regular theoretical and practical training. Twenty-two cases of VAP developed in the pre-...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yilmaz G, Aydin H, Aydin M, Saylan S, Ulusoy H, Koksal I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Modulation of intestinal barrier function to ameliorate Salmonella infection in mice by oral administration of fermented milks produced with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 - a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin.
Abstract Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 -a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin as such and milk formulations produced with the same were explored in this sudy as biotherapeutics by evauating their functional efficacy against Salmonella infection in mice. The efficacy of milk formulations (fermented/unfermented) of MTCC 5690 for enhancement of intestinal barrier function was determined by monitoring the permeability and histopathology of intestine. The mice fed with probiotic Dahi (PD), Fermented Probiotic Drink (FD) and Sweetened fermented probiotic drink (SFD) maintained the health and integrity of...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rokana N, Singh R, Mallappa RH, Batish VK, Grover S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Viability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) after long term storage on Dorset Egg medium.
PMID: 27902369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sudo K, Elshibly M, Stirling J, Goldsmith C, Millar B, Misawa N, Moore J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improving time to optimal Staphylococcus aureus treatment using a penicillin-binding protein 2a assay.
Abstract The penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) assay is a quick, accurate and inexpensive test for determining methicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus. A pre-post study design was conducted using a PBP2a assay with and without the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship (AS) intervention to improve time to optimal therapy for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Our results demonstrate significantly improved time to optimal therapy and support the use of a PBP2a assay as part of an AS program for all healthcare facilities, especially those w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rao SN, Wang SK, Gonzalez Zamora J, Hanson AP, Polisetty RS, Singh K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Burkholderia pseudomallei resistance to antibiotics in biofilm induced conditions is related to efflux pumps.
Abstract Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, has been found to increase its resistance to antibiotics when growing as a biofilm. The resistances are related to several mechanisms. One of the possible mechanisms is the efflux pump. Using bioinformatics analysis, it was found that BPSL1661, BPSL1664 and BPSL1665 were orthologous genes of the efflux transporter encoding genes for biofilm related antibiotic resistance PA1874-PA1877 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1. Expressions of selected encoding genes for the efflux transporter system during biofilm formation were investigated. ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sirijant N, Sermswan RW, Wongratanacheewin S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Chinese Hospital, 2014-2015: Identification of NDM-producing Citrobacter werkmanii and Acquisition of blaNDM-1-carrying Plasmid in vivo in a Clinical Escherichia coli Isolate.
In conclusion, a NDM-1-producing isolate of C. werkmanii was identified. An E. coli strain acquired a blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid in vivo. IncX3 and IncA/C plasmids with various sizes might have emerged as the main platforms mediating the spread of the blaNDM genes in China. PMID: 27667823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: An J, Guo L, Zhou L, Ma Y, Luo Y, Tao C, Yang J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research