Mechanism of resistance and antibacterial susceptibility in ESBL-phenotype Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolated between 2000 and 2010 in Japan.
Abstract Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca collected from 20 Japanese medical facilities between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed to evaluate the mechanisms of resistance and antibacterial susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobials. Overall, 8 of 484 (1.6%) K. pneumoniae and 19 of 359 (5.3%) K. oxytoca were determined to be extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-phenotype isolates, and the identified ESBLs among the K. pneumoniae isolates were CTX-M-2, -3, -14, and -15 and SHV-12. In contrast, overproduction of chromosomal β-lactamase OXY-2, which was due to a distinct mutation at -10...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sato T, Hara T, Horiyama T, Kanazawa S, Yamaguchi T, Maki H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and virulence characteristics of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in a case- control study among patients from Iran.
Abstract Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important agent of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The role of EAEC virulence factors in the clinical outcome of infection is not completely defined. This case-control study investigated the prevalence of EAEC, its virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of adult patients with and without diarrhea attending three different hospitals in Zanjan, Iran. A total of 550 individual stool specimens (350 from diarrheal patients and 200 from patients without diarrhea) were collected. One hundred forty one EAEC isolates identified by HEp-2 cell assay and PCR...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bafandeh S, Haghi F, Zeighami H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Effects of erythromycin on the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm expression in two clinical Staphylococcus capitis subspecies and a functional analysis of Ica proteins in S. capitis.
Abstract The ica operon encoding polysaccharide intercellular adhesion, which facilitates biofilm formation in staphylococci, has been extensively studied in Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus. Based on in silico analysis, we suggest the following functional model for Ica proteins in S. capitis. IcaA is responsible for polysaccharide synthesis. IcaA and IcaD complete transferring the growing sugar chain to the cell surface; IcaB is a deacetylase, with the same function as IcaB of S. epidermidis. IcaC mainly modifies the synthesized glucan by acetylation. We also examined the effects of sub-inhibitory concent...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cui B, Smooker PM, Rouch DA, Deighton MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Direct inoculation of positive blood cultures using the Phoenix system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
PMID: 25762745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 11, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Florio W, Barnini S, Morici P, Lupetti A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in south-east Brazil: Genetic diversity, resistance profile, and the first report of human and equine isolates belonging to the same MLST lineage.
In conclusion, the data indicate that the analysed collection of SDSE isolates displayed a clonal structure and that the isolates found in human colonization cases can also be involved in horse infections. PMID: 25752850 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Silva LG, Genteluci GL, de Mattos MC, Glatthardt T, Figueiredo AM, Ferreira-Carvalho BT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Analysis of the Relationship between Invasive Capability of Helicobacter pylori and Gastroduodenal Diseases.
This study aims to reveal the roles of internalized H. pylori in the bacterial pathopoiesis. Transmission electron microscopic was used to observe the invasion of H. pylori. Invasion rates of H. pylori ( 2 standard strains and 43 clinical strains) were examined by gentamicin invasion assay. The cagA, cagE and vacA genes of H. pylori were detected by PCR. And the cagA 3´region (cagA-EPIYA) of each strains was sequenced. The secretion of IL-8 from AGS and activity of NF-κB induced by intracellular H. pylori were tested by ELISA and the Dual-Luciferase reporter assay system, respectively. It was found that H. pylo...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang X, Zhang J, Lin Y, Xu K, Li N, Chen H, She F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Validation of Western Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody assays in Korean adults.
Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is endemic in Korea, and serology testing is widely performed. The aim of this study was to validate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of Korean and Western serologic assays for H. pylori detection in Korean adults. The 114 Korean adults who visited our center over a 6-month period for the evaluation of H. pylori infection using the urea breath test (UBT) were enrolled in this prospective study. Anti-H. pylori IgG was measured using three commercially available immunoassays: Genedia H. pylori ELISA (Green Cross Medical Science Co., Eumseong, Korea), Chorus helicobacter IgG ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lee SY, Moon HW, Hur M, Yun YM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence in Taiwan of Novel Norovirus GII.4 Variants Causing Acute Gastroenteritis and Intestinal Hemorrhage in Children.
The objective of the study was to delineate the clinical manifestations and complications associated with these new norovirus GII.4 variants in children. We investigated norovirus infections from the community outbreak in October 2011-September 2012 and an earlier outbreak in 2006-2007 in northern Taiwan. Norovirus genotypes and their variants were validated using molecular methods. A norovirus outbreak started in mid-2011 and continued through 2012 in northern Taiwan. Hospitalized children infected by norovirus in 2012 showed a significantly higher incidence of intestinal hemorrhage, as indicated by grossly bloody feces (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen SY, Feng Y, Chao HC, Lai MW, Huang WL, Lin CY, Tsai CN, Chen CL, Chiu CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Coinfection of the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.
We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the cecum of the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus. Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to H. ganmani. In addition we report the coinfection of the Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second helicobacter with 99% sequence similarity to H. sp. flexispira taxon 8 (H. bilis), a species previously isolated from patients with bacteremia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter infections. This is the...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nagamine CM, Shen Z, Luong RH, McKeon GP, Ruby NF, Fox JG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

White and blue light induce reduction in susceptibility to minocycline and tigecycline in Acinetobacter sp. and other bacteria of clinical importance.
F, Golic AE, Mussi MA Abstract Minocycline (MIN) and tigecycline (TIG) are antibiotics currently used for treatment of multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogens. In this work, we show that blue light, as well as white light, modulate susceptibility to these antibiotics in a temperature-dependent manner. The modulation of susceptibility by light depends on the content of iron, resulting an increase in iron in a reduction in antibiotic susceptibility both under light as well as in the dark, though the effect was more pronounced in the latter condition. We further provide insights into the mechanism by showing that r...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ramírez MS, Traglia GM, Pérez JF, Müller GL, Martínez F, Golic AE, Mussi MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Longitudinal monitoring for respiratory pathogens in broiler chickens reveals co-infection of Chlamydia psittaci and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.
Abstract Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) is prevalent in chicken broiler production. However, the role of C. psittaci in the respiratory disease complex needs to be clarified. It was our purpose to identify the time point when a C. psittaci infection appeared on a broiler farm and to examine the presence of other respiratory pathogens at that time. We focused on the 'major' respiratory pathogens occurring in Belgian broilers namely Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (O. rhinotracheale), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (M. gallisepticum) and Mycoplasma synovia...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 27, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: De Boeck C, Kalmar I, Dumont A, Vanrompay D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A Multi Locus VNTR Analysis assay provides high discrimination for genotyping Leptospira santarosai strains.
In conclusion, this novel MLVA provides a high level of discrimination between L. santarosai isolates and this new typing tool can be used to investigate leptospirosis in regions where L. santarosai predominates. PMID: 25721051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hamond C, Pinna M, Medeiros MA, Bourhy P, Lilenbaum W, Picardeau M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of Two Universal Transport Media Designed for Preservation and Transport of Chalmydiae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma.
Abstract The ability of a non-propagating transport device (test device) to maintain the viability of clinically relevant bacteria was compared to a similar commercial device (predicate device) to establish performance equivalence. Test bacteria, namely Chlamydia trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, M. pneumoniae and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were inoculated into the test (Puritan® Medical Products Company Universal Transport Medium [UTM-RT]) and predicate (BDTM Universal Viral Transport System [UVT]) devices and incubated at 4°C and room temperature (RT) for up to 72h. Bacterial viability was ass...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jones SL, Madhusudhan KT, Agans K, Dearen K, Knight J, Brasel T, Karamchi M, Sherwood RL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbial Aetiology of Acute Diarrhoea in Children Under Five Years of Age in Khartoum, Sudan.
In conclusion, bacteria proved to be the main cause of diarrhea in young children in this study, followed by Rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID: 25713206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saeed A, Abd H, Sandstrom GE Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

pattern of Candida Biofilm on Intrauterine Devices (IUDs).
Abstract Biofilms (BF) are colonies of microbial cells encased in a self-produced organic polymeric matrix and represent a common mode of microbial growth. Microbes growing as biofilm are highly resistant to commonly used antimicrobial drugs. We aimed to screen and characterize biofilm formation by different isolates of Candida on removed IUDs, to perform experimental biofilm formation by isolated strains and to examine it by the crystal violet and the XTT reduction assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 56 IUDs were examined for biofilm formation using Sabouraud's dextrose chloramphenicol agar. Identificat...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zahran K, Agban MN, Ahmed SH, Hassan EA, Sabet MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of Siphoviridae phage Z and studying its efficacy against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm.
Abstract Biofilm is involved in many serious consequences for public health and is a major virulence factor contributing to the chronicity of infections. The aim of the current study was to isolate and characterize a bacteriophage that inhibit multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (M) in palnktonic form as well as biofilm. This phage designated as bacteriophage Z was isolated from waste water. Its adsorption rate to its host bacterium was significantly enhanced by MgCl2 and CaCl2. It has a wide range of pH and heat stability. From its one step growth, latent time and burst size was determined that were 24 min ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jamal M, Hussain T, Das CR, Andleeb S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and Miramistin (MST) as antiseptic substances in chronic wound management - prospects and limitations.
rmer EK Abstract The antimicrobial activity of Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and Miramistin (MST) solutions in different concentrations (5 x 10-5 to 0.4%) and a fleece, containing 0.15% CPC, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after 30 minutes (solutions) and 60 minutes (fleece) of incubation, respectively. Furthermore, cytotoxic effects of CPC and MST were examined in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and murine fibroblast (L929) cell lines. A dose of 3 x 10-3% CPC or MST was sufficient to entirely eradicate S. aureus after 30 minutes of incubation. To achieve the same...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fromm-Dornieden C, Rembe JD, Schäfer N, Böhm J, Stuermer EK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Miltefosine is active against Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates with in vitro low susceptibility to amphotericin B or itraconazole.
Abstract Sporotrichosis is a common mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In recent years, sporotrichosis incidence rates have increased in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, where Sporothrix brasiliensis is the species more frequently isolated from patients. The standard antifungals itraconazole and amphotericin B are recommended as first-line therapy for cutaneous/lymphocutaneous and disseminated sporotrichosis, respectively, although decreased sensitivity to these drugs in vitro was reported for clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis. Here, we evaluated the activity of the p...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Borba-Santos LP, Gagini T, Ishida K, de Souza W, Rozental S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

HCAI, Medical Devices and Biofilms: Risk, Tolerance and Control.
Abstract Biofilms are of great importance in infection control and healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) due to their inherent tolerance and 'resistance' to antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms have been shown to develop on medical device surfaces and dispersal of single and clustered cells imply a significant risk of microbial dissemination within the host and increased risk of infection. Although routine microbiological testing assists with the diagnosis of a clinical infection, there is no 'gold standard' available to reveal the presence of microbial biofilm from samples collected within clinical settings. Furth...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 10, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Percival SL, Suleman L, Vuotto C, Donelli G Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Western blotting as a tool for the serodiagnosis of farmer's lung disease: validation with Lichtheimia corymbifera protein extracts.
Abstract Electrosyneresis and double diffusion are immunoprecipitation techniques commonly used in the serological diagnosis of Farmer's lung disease (FLD). These techniques are reliable but lack standardization. The aim of this study was to evaluate western blotting for the serodiagnosis of FLD. We carried out western blotting with an antigenic extract of Lichtheimia corymbifera, an important etiologic agent of the disease. The membranes were probed with sera from 21 patients with FLD and 21 healthy exposed controls to examine the IgG antibody responses against purified somatic antigens. Given the low prevalence ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rognon B, Reboux G, Roussel S, Barrera C, Dalphin JC, Fellrath JM, Monod M, Millon L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The effect of probiotics on the expression of Barrett's oesophagus biomarkers.
This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibition effect of probiotics on the expression of biomarkers in in vitro model. Two different Barrett's oesophageal cell lines were selected to co-culture with Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus to measure expression of IL18 (interleukin 18), TNFα (tumour necrosis factor-α), p53 (tumour suppressor gene), COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2), and CDX1 (caudal type homeobox 1) genes. In addition, two different aspects of probiotic administration, therapeutic and prophylactic test was also examined. Results showed that microorganisms could inhibit expression of biom...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Namin BM, Daryani NE, Mirshafiey A, Yazdi MK, Soltan Dallal MM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacteriological characteristics of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum isolated from seven patients with skin and soft tissue infections.
Abstract Bacteriological examinations were conducted of seven Arcanobacterium haemolyticum strains isolated from elderly patients with skin and soft tissue infections, such as cellulitis and skin ulcers. Streptococcus dysgalactiae or Gram-positive cocci were isolated together with A. haemolyticum from all patients. The strains were identified as A. haemolyticum based their being on catalase negative, reverse CAMP positive, and phospholipase D gene positive in the respective tests. Moreover, API Coryne and MALDI-TOF MS confirmed the identification of A. haemolyticum. All strains showed good susceptibility to minocy...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miyamoto H, Suzuki T, Murakami S, Fukuoka M, Tanaka Y, Kondo T, Nishimiya T, Suemori K, Tauchi H, Osawa H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of fertility outcome as a consequence of intravaginal inoculation with sperm impairing microorganisms in mouse model.
Abstract The concept of infertility as a result of asymptomatic microbial colonization of female reproductive tract has been neglected till date. However, increasing incidence of infertility and advanced research has drawn attention towards this idea. Many of these microorganisms have been reported to bring adverse changes in sperm parameters in vitro, but their in vivo potential to cause infertility is still a controversy. The present study was carried out to observe what effect the intravaginal inoculation of spermagglutintaing Serratia marcescens and sperm immobilizing Candida albicans may have in reproductive ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vander H, Prabha V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Investigation of the effects of pH and bile on the growth of oral Campylobacter concisus strains isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and controls.
This study examined the impact of pH and bile on the growth of oral C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and controls. The growth of 58 C. concisus strains on horse blood agar (HBA) plates following exposure to media with various pH values for different time points were examined. Furthermore, the growth of C. concisus strains on HBA plates containing different concentrations of ox bile was investigated. Following exposure to pH 2 for 30 minutes, none of the 58 oral C. concisus strains grew on HBA plates. Following exposure to pH 3.5 for 30 minutes, only four of 20 oral strains examined grew on HBA plates, wi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 5, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ma R, Sapwell N, Chung HK, Lee H, Mahendran V, Leong RW, Riordan SM, Grimm MC, Zhang L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Histoplasma capsulatum in planktonic and biofilm forms: in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole and farnesol.
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum to the antifungal agents itraconazole and amphotericin B and farnesol, alone and combined, as well as to determine the in vitro antifungal activity of these compounds against biofilms of this pathogen. The results show that farnesol has antifungal activity against H. capsulatum in the yeast and filamentous phases, with MIC values ranging from 0.0078 to 0.00312 µM. A synergistic effect (FICI ≤ 0.5) between itraconazole and farnesol was found against 100% and 83.3% of the isolates in yeast and mycelial forms, respectively, whil...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 5, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brilhante R, de Lima RA, Marques FJ, Silva NF, Caetano EP, Castelo-Branco DS, Bandeira TJ, Moreira JL, Cordeiro RA, Monteiro AJ, Camargo ZP, Sidrim JJ, Rocha MF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae serotype f isolated from three Japanese children with invasive H. influenzae infection.
Abstract In Japan, publicly subsidized Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccines became available in 2011; consequently, the incidence of invasive H. influenzae infection in pediatric patients less than 5 years of age decreased dramatically. In 2013, the first case of H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) meningitis in a Japanese infant was reported, and another case of Hif meningitis in a Japanese infant was observed in 2013. We experienced a fatal pediatric case of Hif bacteremia in 2004; therefore, we conducted an analysis of three Hif strains isolated from these three Japanese children with invasive Hif infections. ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 5, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hoshino T, Hachisu Y, Kikuchi T, Tokutake S, Okui H, Kutsuna S, Fukasawa C, Murayama K, Oohara A, Shimizu H, Ito M, Takahashi Y, Ishiwada N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Digestive Tract Colonization of Carbapenem Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Hospitals in Saudi Arabia.
This study aims to detect the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of patients admitted to the intensive care units in two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. In addition, it aims to characterize the molecular mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in such isolates. From January to June 2014, 565 rectal swab specimens were screened for Acinetobacer strains and carbapenem resistance using chromagar Acinetobacter and chromagar KPC agar plates, respectively. Organism identification and susceptibility were detected using vitek2 system. A total of 47 Acinetobacter spp were detected and 35 of them...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 5, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aljindan R, Bukharie H, Alomar A, Abdalhamid B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

False positive influenza A and B detections in clinical samples due to contamination with live attenuated influenza vaccine.
PMID: 25657303 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 5, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bennett S, MacLean AR, Reynold A, von Wissmann B, Gunson RN Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin T induces potent cytotoxicity against a variety of murine and human cancer cell lines.
Abstract In patients with malignancy, the major barrier to achieving complete response is emergence of resistance to current chemotherapeutic agents. One of the major mechanisms by which tumour cells become resistant to therapies is by altering cellular drug targets through mutations and/or deletions. Resistance by this mechanism is achieved more easily if the drug has limited cellular targets and/or processes. We hypothesized that as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin T (ExoT) targets six proteins that are required for cancer cell survival and proliferation, it is highly unlikely for cancer cells to develop resistan...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 31, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Goldufsky J, Wood S, Hajihossainlou B, Rehman T, Majdobeh O, Kaufman HL, Ruby CE, Shafikhani SH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic and antigenic characterization of Canadian invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) case isolates in the post-MenC conjugate vaccine era, 2009-2013.
This study sought to confirm this trend by examining all culture-confirmed invasive MenC case isolates in Canada in the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013. Of the 50 MenC isolates, 18 belonged to ET-15, 28 belonged to ET-37 (but not ET-15), and four belonged to other clonal types. Analysis of the serotype and serosubtype antigens, porA and fetA gene sequences provided data to show that invasive MenC belonging to ET-15 and ET-37 were two very different subpopulations within the ST-11 clonal complex. Sequence analysis of the fHbp genes suggested that 12 different types of factor H-binding protein were found among...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 31, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tsang RS, Hoang L, Tyrrell G, Horsman G, Wylie J, Jamieson FB, Lefebvre B, Taha MK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro growth versus inhibition of growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in the presence of the antibacterial drug gentamicin.
In this study, we evaluated the growth capacity of nine M. pachydermatis strains on Sabouraud medium in the presence of a high concentration of gentamicin. Strains of M. pachydermatis cultured on Sabouraud medium in the presence of 50 and 100 µg gentamicin ml(-1) displayed different growth patterns such as growth or lack of growth. We hypothesized that this difference in growth of M. pachydermatis strains was correlated with the different genotypes of the strains. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates, derived from the external ears of house pet cat...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 31, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Buommino E, Baroni A, Parisi A, Borriello FE, Caputo P, Donnarumma G, Nizza S, Nocera FP, Fiorito F, De Martino L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clonal diversity of CTX-M-producing, multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli from rodents.
In conclusion, our results show that brown rats often carry potentially zoonotic clones of CTX-M producing, multidrug-resistant E. coli. The potential for rats to be a source of CTX-M producing E. coli for humans deserves further consideration. PMID: 25627207 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 31, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ho PL, Lo WU, Lai EL, Law PY, Leung SM, Wang Y, Chow KH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Non-inferiority of pulsed xenon UV light versus bleach for reducing environmental Clostridium difficile contamination on high-touch surfaces in Clostridium difficile infection isolation rooms.
Abstract The standard for Clostridium difficile surface decontamination is bleach solution at a concentration of 10 % of sodium hypochlorite. Pulsed xenon UV light (PX-UV) is a means of quickly producing germicidal UV that has been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination by C. difficile spores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PX-UV was equivalent to bleach for decontamination of surfaces in C. difficile infection isolation rooms. High-touch surfaces in rooms previously occupied by C. difficile infected patients were sampled after discharge but before and after cleaning ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 31, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghantoji SS, Stibich M, Stachowiak J, Cantu S, Adachi JA, Raad II, Chemaly RF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Streptococcus pneumoniae and staphylococcus aureus carriage in healthy school-age children and adolescents.
STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS CARRIAGE IN HEALTHY SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. J Med Microbiol. 2015 Jan 22; Authors: Esposito S, Terranova L, Ruggiero L, Ascolese B, Montinaro V, Rios WP, Galeone C, Principi N Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are common commensals of the upper respiratory tract in children and adolescents. Understanding the relationship between these two pathogens, including their potential for mutual interference, is needed to evaluate their epidemiological status as well as the impact of related preventative measures. We obtai...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 22, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Esposito S, Terranova L, Ruggiero L, Ascolese B, Montinaro V, Rios WP, Galeone C, Principi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multilocus sequence typing of Candida albicans isolates from Burn Intensive Care Unit (BICU) in Iran.
Abstract Burn intensive care unit patients are specifically exposed to deep-seated nosocomial infections caused by Candida albicans. Superficial carriage of C. albicans is a potential source of infection and dissemination, and typing methods could be useful to trace the different isolates. Multilocus sequence typing is a powerful genotyping method for pathogenic microorganisms, including Candida albicans. Thirty clinical isolates of C. albicans obtained from 22 patients that admitted to the Burn Intensive Care Unit (BICU) from a burn hospital at Sari, Mazandaran state, Iran were epidemiologically studied by multil...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Afsarian MH, Badali H, Boekhout T, Shokohi T, Katiraee F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical significance of periodic detection of HBV YVDD mutation by ultrasensitive RT-ARMS-qPCR during lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Abstract Monitoring HBV mutants periodically during nucleoside analogues treatment is of great clinical significance, particularly in patients with persistent HBV DNA-positive. However, few studies have investigated the dynamic changes of HBV YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate) and YVDD (tyrosine-valine-aspartate-aspartate) populations in chronic hepatitis B patients while undergoing lamivudine treatment. We sought to investigate the dynamic changes of HBV YMDD and HBV YVDD variants by ultrasensitive real-time amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (RT-ARMS-qPCR) and evaluate its sign...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zeng Y, Yang B, Wu Y, Chen J, Shang H, Chen X, Su M, Wu S, Lin J, Ou Q Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiological survey in quinolone and carbapenem-resistant genotype and its association with Type III Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
This study evaluated the predictors of mortality and the impact of inappropriate therapy on patients outcomes with bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Additionally, it was evaluated the correlation among the Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) effector genotype with the resistance to carbapenems and fluoroquinolones, mutations in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Regions (QRDRs), Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (MBL) and virulence factors. A retrospective cohort was conducted at a tertiary hospital in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa bacteremia (157 patients) and VAP (60 patients). Genes bla...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lorraine Ferreira M, Dantas RC, Faria AL, Rossi Gonçalves I, Brito CS, Queiroz LL, Gontijo-Filho PP, Ribas RM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.
Abstract  There is limited information regarding molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated f...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shi XY, Yang YP, Zhang Y, Li W, Wang JD, Huang WM, Fan YM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Risk factors, outcomes, and epidemiology associated with Clostridium difficile infection in patients with hematologic malignancies in a tertiary care hospital in China.
Conclusion: The incidence of CDI did not differ between patients receiving chemotherapy and those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The only risk factor for chemotherapy patients was treatment with etoposide. PMID: 25596117 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gu SL, Chen YB, Lv T, Zhang XW, Wei ZQ, Shen P, Li LJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of loop-mediated isothermal amplification and real-time PCR for detecting Bordetella pertussis.
Abstract Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid, sensitive and specific technique for detecting various infectious diseases. In the present study, we developed a LAMP assay based on insertion sequence IS481 of Bordetella pertussis (IS481-LAMP). We performed a LAMP assay of the PT promoter region of B. pertussis (PT-LAMP), and the results were compared with those obtained using a conventional real-time PCR based on IS481. Compared with the real-time PCR assay, the specificity of PT-LAMP and IS481-LAMP were 94.1% and 92.9%, and sensitivity were 76.2% and 87.5%, respectively. Therefore, real-time PC...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Allahyar Torkaman MR, Kamachi K, Nikbin VS, Lotfi MN, Shahcheraghi F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Investigation of the population structure of Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains using a 17-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) and the further distinction of Mycobacterium massiliense hsp65 genotypes.
Abstract Mycobacterium abscessus complex has prevailed as a significant pathogen in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF). Nevertheless, there is little description of genetic diversity of this species. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of M. abscessus complex isolated from respiratory specimens by a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR). The results of 104 clinical isolates from 104 non-CF patients were compared between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), hsp65 genotypes and clarithromycin susceptibility. The allelic diversity (the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index) of the 17 exami...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yoshida S, Arikawa K, Tsuyuguchi K, Kurashima A, Harada T, Nagai H, Suzuki K, Iwamoto T, Hayashi S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Speed-Oligo® Mycobacteria assay for the identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria.
We examined a total of 62 strains (9 type strains, 19 reference strains and 34 clinical isolates). Speed-Oligo® Mycobacteria assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Discrepant results between Speed-Oligo® Mycobacteria and the original identification were re-assessed by the Speed-Oligo® Mycobacteria and resolved by the GenoType Mycobacterium CM assay and by sequencing of 16S rRNA and protein encoding genes. We found 93.5% (58/62) of concordance for the identification of NTM as compared to the original identification. Three strains were erroneously identified by Speed-Oligo® Mycobact...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ramis IB, Cnockaert M, von Groll A, Mathys V, Simon A, Tortoli E, Palomino JC, da Silva PE, Vandamme P, Andre E, Martin A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Burden of Fungal Disease - Ireland.
Abstract To estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating its global burden.Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal infection. From Ireland's population of 6.4million, we estimate 117,000 patients develop significant fungal disease each year. By far t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dorgan E, Denning DW, McMullan R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and clinical characterization of Leptospira interrogans canine isolates.
Abstract Canine leptospirosis occurs worldwide; however, information on the relationship between Leptospira serotypes/genotypes and virulence in dogs remains limited. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans canine isolates belonging to three serogroups using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and the effects of each serotype/genotype on the clinical characteristics of leptospirosis in dogs. MLVA using 11 loci of the three major L. interrogans serogroups in Japan Australis (32 strains from 21 dogs), Autumnalis (12; 7), and Hebdomadis (66; 39), revealed more divergen...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Koizumi N, Mizutani Muto M, Izumiya H, Suzuki M, Ohnishi M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Is Polyhexamethylene-guanidine Hydrochloride (PHMGH) Sporicidal? - A Critical Review.
Abstract *not applicable* correspondance. PMID: 25596123 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brill FH, Gabriel H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of miltefosine in combination with voriconazole or amphotericin B against clinical isolates of Scedosporium spp.
oui E PMID: 25596124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Compain F, Botterel F, Sitterlé E, Paugam A, Bougnoux ME, Dannaoui E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiological characteristics of acute osteoarticular infections in children.
This study aimed to describe the microbiological characteristics of acute septic arthritis (SA) and osteomyelitis (OM) in children. Cases of children (0-15 years) with SA/OM were identified through a retrospective search of hospital discharge codes over a six-year period. In addition, a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of studies reporting culture results of children with SA/OM was performed. In our retrospective chart review, we identified 68 cases of OM and 46 cases of SA. The most frequently cultured organisms in both conditions were Gram positive cocci, primarily Staphylococcus aureus. On admission, most ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Russell CD, Ramaesh R, Kalima P, Murray A, Gaston MS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of the viral infections.
Abstract Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem.Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections.Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus.Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A r...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mladenova Z, Steyer A, Steyer AF, Ganesh B, Petrov P, Tchervenjakova T, Iturriza-Gomara M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Mouse models for assessing the cross-protective efficacy of oral non-typhoidal Salmonella vaccine candidates harboring in-frame deletions of the ATP-dependent protease lon and other genes.
Abstract In BALB/c mouse models of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infection, a single oral immunization with a mutant strain with an insertion of the chloramphenicol resistance gene into the ATP-dependent protease clpP or lon gene decreased the number of salmonellae in each tissue sample five days after oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium at weeks 26 and 54 postimmunization. These data suggest that an oral immunization with the ClpP- or Lon-disrupted S. Typhimurium strain can provide long-term protection against oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium. Accordingly, recombinant...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 14, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Matsui H, Fukiya S, Kodama-Akaboshi C, Eguchi M, Yamamoto T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Turnaround Time (TAT) and Time to Oseltamivir Discontinuation between Two Respiratory Viral Panel Testing (RVP) Methodologies.
Abstract Multiplex PCR is highly sensitive and provides a more rapid turnaround time (TAT) compared to other respiratory viral testing methodologies. Our microbiology laboratory switched from the Luminex xTAG® RVP (detects 12 respiratory viruses with an assay time of 8.5 hours) to the Biofire Diagnostics, Inc. FilmArray®-RP (detects 17 respiratory viral and 3 bacterial targets with an assay time of 1.2 hours). We sought to compare the TAT between the two respiratory viral panels (RVP) performed at different frequencies and determine time to discontinuation of empiric oseltamivir. All adult patients with an...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pettit N, Matushek S, Charnot-Katsikas A, Tesic V, Boonlayangoor S, Brielmaier B, Pisano J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research