Heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum increases the immune responses through activation of natural killer cells and macrophages on in vivo and in vitro models.
CONCLUSION: We identified that hLp-nF1 has an immune-enhancing effect through the activation of NK cells and macrophages. Therefore, these findings suggest that hLp-nF1 would be helpful to enhance the immunity. PMID: 30724726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moon PD, Lee JS, Kim HY, Han NR, Kang I, Kim HM, Jeong HJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of new and classical point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from dyspeptic patients and their effects on phenotypic clarithromycin resistance.
CONCLUSION: We concluded that classical mutations of the 23 S rRNA gene resulted in higher clarithromycin MIC values than new mutations. These new point mutations caused moderate elevations in the MIC values of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains. PMID: 30724729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kocazeybek B, Sakli MK, Yuksel P, Demirci M, Caliskan R, Sarp TZ, Saribas S, Demiryas S, Kalayci F, Cakan H, Uysal HK, Gareayaghi N, Ergin S, Erzin YZ, Bal K, Tascı İ, Tokman HB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antifungal susceptibilities, biofilms, phospholipase and proteinase activities in the Candida rugosa complex and Candida pararugosa isolated from tertiary teaching hospitals.
This study was confined to studying the characteristics of clinical isolates of the C. rugosa complex and C. pararugosa species. METHODOLOGY: Seven isolates of the C. rugosa complex and one isolate of C. pararugosa were obtained from two tertiary referral hospitals in Malaysia. Their antifungal susceptibilities, biofilm, proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and haemolysin activities were characterized. Biofilms were quantified using crystal violet (CV) and tetrazolium (XTT) reduction assays at 1.5, 6, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h.Results/Key findings. The E-test antifungal tests showed that both species have elevated MIC...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peremalo T, Madhavan P, Hamzah S, Than L, Wong EH, Nasir MDM, Chong PP, Ng KP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of intestinal Escherichia coli isolated from calves with diarrhea due to rotavirus and coronavirus.
CONCLUSION: To sum up, E. coli isolates from calves with diarrhea showed differences in relation to the control group, confirming changes in commensal E. coli during virus intestinal infection. It can be emphasized that some care should be taken to manage diarrheic calves: the pathological agent must be diagnosed prior to treatment; antibacterial treatment should be with antimicrobials with a different mechanism of action; and finally, treated animals should be maintained separately from others because they can carry micro-organisms with a resistant profile. PMID: 30720419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maciel JF, Matter LB, Tasca C, Scheid DAR, Gressler LT, Ziech RE, Vargas AC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Minimum 5 years' follow-up after gentamicin- and clindamycin-loaded PMMA cement in total joint arthroplasty.
CONCLUSIONS: The local use of G+C bone cement during septic and aseptic revision arthroplasty, was associated with a high success rate for the eradication of infection following one-stage septic exchange, and with prevention of infection in high-risk patients. PMID: 30702418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abdelaziz H, von Förster G, Kühn KD, Gehrke T, Citak M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasal carriage of healthy Iranian children.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the genomic diversity was observed among the CA-MRSA. In addition, the current study demonstrates that pvl is not a reliable marker for CA-MRSA in our region. PMID: 30698518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mobasherizadeh S, Shojaei H, Azadi D, Havaei SA, Rostami S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic characterization of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among dogs and cats in an animal shelter.
CONCLUSION: We found several types of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae distributed among companion animals with a range of individual attributes and histories in Osaka, Japan. Companion animals may play a bridging role in the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from humans and from other origins. PMID: 30698519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Umeda K, Hase A, Matsuo M, Horimoto T, Ogasawara J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequencing of the rare Salmonella enterica serovar Anfo isolated from food handlers.
Abstract Field investigations were conducted after a small cluster of food poisoning involving six cases was reported. While no stool samples were available from the cases for microbiological testing, Salmonella species was found to be present in the stools of food handlers with gastroenteritis symptoms. Four Salmonella isolates recovered from the food handlers were retrospectively investigated at the genome level using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). WGS showed that S. Anfo (antigenic formulae 39:y:1,2), a rarely isolated serovar, caused infections in the food handlers. S. Anfo analysed in this study contained vir...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Octavia S, Zulaina S, Seet SK, Tien WS, Thu M, Ooi PL, Cui L, Lin RTP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The clinical significance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae rectal colonization in critically ill patients: from colonization to bloodstream infection.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that hospitalized patients become infected with their colonizing strains, supporting the strong association between colonization and BSI. Limiting antianaerobic antimicrobial administration, reducing the duration of ICU stay and maintaining a low patient/nurse ratio are possible strategies to restrict rectal CRKP colonization in ICUs. PMID: 30688629 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kontopoulou K, Iosifidis E, Antoniadou E, Tasioudis P, Petinaki E, Malli E, Metallidis S, Vatopoulos A, Malisiovas N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Agmatine accumulation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates confers antibiotic tolerance and dampens host inflammation.
CONCLUSION: These data highlight a potential new role for bacterial-derived agmatine that may have important consequences for the long-term persistence of P. aeruginosa in the CF airways. PMID: 30688634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: McCurtain JL, Gilbertsen AJ, Evert C, Williams BJ, Hunter RC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The effects of iclaprim on exotoxin production in methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, due to its ability to suppress toxin production, iclaprim should be effective against severe staphylococcal infections caused by toxin-producing MRSA and VISA strains, especially given its ability to concentrate at sites of infection such as skin and skin structures and the lung. PMID: 30676310 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bryant AE, Gomi S, Katahira E, Huang DB, Stevens DL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genotypic and phenotypic variations in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from outpatient, inpatient and nursing homes.
CONCLUSION: This report contributes to the existing understanding of evolutionary epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in MRSA. The diversity of MRSA isolates and unique environmental preferences for each profile highlights the importance of epidemiological knowledge of MRSA distribution to determine the best treatment for patients in both community and hospital settings. PMID: 30667353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Delorme T, Dang D, Garcia A, Nasr P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Acquired qnrVC1 and blaNDM-1 resistance markers in an international high-risk Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST773 clone.
We report blaNDM-1 and qnrVC1 genes in P. aeruginosa ST773 international high-risk clone. PMID: 30667355 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kocsis B, Toth A, Gulyas D, Ligeti B, Katona K, Rokusz L, Szabo D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Utilizing genomic analyses to investigate the first outbreak of vanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in Australia with emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an outbreak of vanA VREfm in a haematology/oncology unit. Genomic analysis supports transmission of an ST203 vanA VRE clone within this unit. Daptomycin non-susceptibility in 5/24 patients left linezolid as the only treatment option. Daptomycin susceptibility cannot be assumed in vanA VREfm isolates and confirmatory testing is recommended. PMID: 30663951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Douglas AP, Marshall C, Baines SL, Ritchie D, Szer J, Madigan V, Chan HT, Ballard SA, Howden BP, Buising K, Slavin MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Stool PCR may not be a substitute for enrichment culture for the detection of salmonella.
CONCLUSION: Enrichment culture is significantly more sensitive than PCR using the BD MAX Enteric Bacterial Panel for detecting salmonella in stool. Where PCR testing is used for the detection of enteric pathogens, we recommend that enrichment culture for salmonella be continued in parallel, unless the PCR method is shown to be at least as sensitive as culture. PMID: 30663952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hapuarachchi CT, Jeffery KJM, Bowler ICJW Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a novel immunochromatographic lateral flow assay for rapid detection of OXA-48, NDM, KPC and VIM carbapenemases in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
CONCLUSION: As it is fast, easy to perform and has few technical requirements, the ICT represents a good opportunity to improve turnaround times and patient care for the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID: 30663953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rösner S, Kamalanabhaiah S, Küsters U, Kolbert M, Pfennigwerth N, Mack D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Synergistic activity of polymyxin B combined with vancomycin against carbapenem-resistant and polymyxin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: first in vitro study.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the PMB-VAN combination has a synergistic effect on A. baumannii, especially against PMB-resistant isolates. PMID: 30663954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shinohara DR, Menegucci TC, Fedrigo NH, Migliorini LB, Carrara-Marroni FE, Maria Dos Anjos M, Cardoso CL, Nishiyama SAB, Tognim MCB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Incorporation of CD40 ligand or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor into Hantaan virus (HTNV) virus-like particles significantly enhances the long-term immunity potency against HTNV infection.
CONCLUSION: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report demonstrating the long-term potency of HTNV VLP vaccines against HTNV infection and offers new insights into HTNV vaccine development. PMID: 30657443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dong Y, Ma T, Zhang X, Ying Q, Han M, Zhang M, Yang R, Li Y, Wang F, Liu R, Wu X Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

LAMP-based assay can rectify the diagnosis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections otherwise missed by serology.
CONCLUSION: Although second to serology in sensitivity, the LAMP-based method proved its utility in making rapid diagnosis, and serving a complementary role to serology. PMID: 30648936 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kato A, Miyata I, Tanaka Y, Oishi T, Teranishi H, Akaike H, Ohno N, Nakajima H, Kouguchi Y, Ouchi K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The rise of pneumonic plague in Madagascar: current plague outbreak breaks usual seasonal mould.
Abstract Madagascar has just emerged from the grip of an acute urban pneumonic plague outbreak, which began in August 2017, before the usual plague season of October-April and outside the traditional plague foci in the northern and central highlands. The World Health Organization reported a total of 2417 confirmed, probable and suspected cases, including 209 deaths between 1 August and 26 November 2017. The severity and scope of this outbreak, which has affected those in higher socioeconomic groups as well as those living in poverty, along with factors including the potential for use of multi-drug-resistant strain...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rabaan AA, Al-Ahmed SH, Alsuliman SA, Aldrazi FA, Alfouzan WA, Haque S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection and Identification of Bacterial Pathogens Directly from Sputum Samples by Pyrosequencing.
CONCLUSION: The PCR-pyrosequencing technique developed in this study is an accurate, fast, and high throughput method for the direct detection and identification of bacterial pathogens from sputum. PMID: 30632958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lyu J, Zhang J, Ren X Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Investigation of fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in Mycoplasma hominis isolated from urogenital samples in a Chinese hospital.
CONCLUSION: The resistance of M. hominis to fluoroquinolones in Southwest China is mainly related to mutations in QRDRs of either gyrA or parC. High-level resistance is associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. PMID: 30632961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang H, Zheng L, Zhao J, Ding S, Xia Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacteriophage-associated genes responsible for the widely divergent phenotypes of variants of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain MSHR5848.
CONCLUSION: Bacteriophage-associated proteins have a major role in the phenotypic expression of MSHR5848. The goals are to determine the regulatory basis of this phenotypic variation and its role in pathogenesis and environmental persistence of B.pseudomallei. PMID: 30628877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: DeShazer D, Lovett S, Richardson J, Koroleva G, Kuehl K, Amemiya K, Sun M, Worsham P, Welkos S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Letter in Response to Evaluation of Xpert MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX MRSA XT for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening in a routine diagnostic setting in a low-prevalence area. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2017;66(1): 90-95.
Abstract The move towards pathology networks and hub-and-spoke models of medical laboratory service provision has significantly changed the flow of samples, and the impact of results on patients, over recent years. At the same time advances in technology, including rapid, simple to use molecular platforms, are changing the way microbiology results can be utilized. Like many other medical microbiology laboratories, we struggle with this balance for many different sample types and test requests. Work published by Neilson et al. in Journal of Medical Microbiology last year looked at this balance for methicillin-resis...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rabinowicz S, O'Hare M, Moore LSP, Mughal N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of the mechanism and impact of staphylokinase on the formation of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus polymicrobial biofilms.
CONCLUSION: The effect induced by Sak to C. albicans and S. aureus polymicrobial biofilms is caused by decreased biomass, biofilm integrity, metabolic activity and early stage growth rate. Alterations of gene expression levels were consistent with Sak-induced phenotypic change. Combined treatment strategies are essential for optimal activities against fungal-bacterial polymicrobial biofilms. PMID: 30628885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu H, Chen H, Sun Y, Zhang X, Lu H, Li J, Cao J, Zhou T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Examining diabetic heel ulcers through an ecological lens: microbial community dynamics associated with healing and infection.
CONCLUSION: Longitudinal profiling is an essential tool for improving our understanding of the microbiology of chronic wounds, as community dynamics associated with clinical events can only be identified by examining changes over multiple time points. The development of complex communities, particularly involving Enterobacteriaceae and strict anaerobes, may be contributing to poor outcomes in DFUs and requires further investigation. PMID: 30624175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sloan TJ, Turton JC, Tyson J, Musgrove A, Fleming VM, Lister MM, Loose MW, Sockett RE, Diggle M, Game FL, Jeffcoate W Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A rapid and simple detection method for phenotypic antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
CONCLUSION: These results showed that this LAMP-based AST has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting resistant strains and a significant time advantage compared with the conventional method. PMID: 30624176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ota Y, Furuhashi K, Nanba T, Yamanaka K, Ishikawa J, Nagura O, Hamada E, Maekawa M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical features and microbiological characteristics of hospital- and community-onset Escherichia coli bloodstream infection.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the clinical features of HO and CO E. coli BSI were different. STs and serotypes showed a great diversity in this region while VF genes of the isolates varied between clones. PMID: 30624177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen X, Zou Q, Zhang W, Wang R, Yu F, Chen Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Impact of HPV infection on gene expression and methylation in oral cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: We detected HPV infection in 31.92 % of oral cancer cases. HPV 16, along with HPV 43/44, were the most frequent subtypes. Knowledge of HPV [+] HNSCC biology may be useful in establishing the prognosis and developing novel therapies in future. PMID: 30624179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Prawdzic Seńkowska A, Kiczmer P, Strzelczyk JK, Kowalski D, Krakowczyk Ł, Ostrowska Z Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Leptospirosis.
PMID: 30605077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fry NK, La Ragione RM, Ready D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of analytical performances of the Roche Cobas 6800 CT/NG assay with the Abbott m2000 Real Time CT/NG assay for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Abstract The Roche Cobas 6800 CT/NG assay was compared to the Abbott m2000 Real Time CT/NG assay for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 714 specimens referred to the bacteriology laboratory at Geneva University Hospitals, between November 2017 and March 2018, and in nine external quality controls for molecular diagnostics (seven from QCMD Glasgow and two from UK NEQAS). For C. trachomatis, the sensitivity of C6800 compared to m2000 was 100 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 97.5 to 100 %), the specificity was 99.1 % (95 % CI, 98.0 to 99.7 %). For N. gonorrhoeae, the sensitivity...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cherkaoui A, Renzi G, Mombelli M, Jaton K, Yerly S, Vuilleumier N, Schrenzel J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of ciprofloxacin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: new approaches to an old problem.
Abstract The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used extensively to treat a wide range of infections caused by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to its extensive use, the proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates is rapidly increasing. Ciprofloxacin resistance can arise through the acquisition of mutations in genes encoding the target proteins of ciprofloxacin and regulators of efflux pumps, which leads to overexpression of these pumps. However, understanding of the basis of ciprofloxacin resistance is not yet complete. Recent advances using high-throughput screens and experimental...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rehman A, Patrick WM, Lamont IL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro activity of 12 antimicrobial peptides against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium clinical isolates.
In conclusion, AMPs could be alternatives for the treatment of mycobacterial infections. Further investigation of AMPs' activity in combination and associated with conventional antibiotics and their loading into drug-delivery systems could lead to their use in clinical practice. PMID: 30570475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Portell-Buj E, Vergara A, Alejo I, López-Gavín A, Monté MR, San Nicolás L, González-Martín J, Tudó G Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Limited efficacy of nontreponemal test combined with treponemal test in the initial syphilis screening algorithm.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the combination of NTT and TT for initial screening does not provide any diagnostic gain, but represents additional laboratory work time. PMID: 30570479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gambiez C, Garet C, Choquet M, Decroix V, Pluquet E, Guiheneuf R, Castelain S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Low prevalence of mupirocin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from a Chinese tertiary hospital.
In conclusion, we observed relatively low prevalence of mupirocin resistance among S. aureus with considerable heterogeneity in East China. Newly emerging MRSA clones with high-level mupirocin resistance should be of concern. PMID: 30570481 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen S, Jin Y, Lin C, Hao Z, Duan J, Guo Y, Wang S, Hu L, Wang L, Yu F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid detection of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli multi-locus sequence type 127 using a specific PCR assay.
CONCLUSION: We report the design and validation of a specific multiplex PCR for the rapid and reliable identification of ST127, which can be used for enhanced surveillance for this high-risk clone. PMID: 30561295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: O'Hara RW, Jenks PJ, Emery M, Upton M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Parechovirus A3 (PeV-A3)-associated myalgia/myositis occurs irrespective of its genetic cluster: a longitudinal molecular epidemiology of PeV-A3 in Yamagata, Japan between 2003 and 2016.
Abstract No longitudinal molecular epidemiology of parechovirus A3 (PeV-A3) over a decade is available and PeV-A3-associated myalgia/myositis has been reported only in Japan. Thus, we aimed to clarify the longitudinal molecular epidemiology of PeV-A3 with a major focus on the strains detected from PeV-A3-associated myalgia/myositis cases. We performed sequence and phylogenetic analysis for the VP1 region of PeV-A3 strains in Yamagata, Japan, between 2003 and 2016. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeV-A3 strains caused PeV-A3-associated myalgia/myositis as well as a variety of infectious diseases, ranging f...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mizuta K, Aoki Y, Komabayashi K, Tanaka S, Yamakawa T, Shimizu Y, Itagaki T, Katsushima F, Katsushima Y, Ikeda T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Subinhibitory concentrations of tedizolid potently inhibit extracellular toxin production by methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
CONCLUSION: Together, our data support that tedizolid has the potential to improve outcomes of infection due to its superior ability to inhibit S. aureus growth and attenuate exotoxin production. PMID: 30556803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katahira EJ, Davidson SM, Stevens DL, Bolz DD Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Sporothrix globosa in China According to 10 Novel Microsatellite Loci.
CONCLUSIONS: Our work is the first to develop a suite of highly discriminatory microsatellite markers and reveal the population parameters of S. globosa, and our results suggest that different lineages can coexist in two different clinical types. In addition, it was hypothesised that lineages with higher genetic diversity might have a wider distribution range. PMID: 30543318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gong J, Zhang M, Wang Y, Li R, He L, Wan Z, Li F, Zhang J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Exposure to N-chlorotaurine induces oxidative stress responses in Aspergillus fumigatus.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that NCT induces an oxidative stress response in A. fumigatus as evidenced by alterations in the proteome and inhibits conidial and mycelial growth. Clinical investigations of topical application of NCT to treat Aspergillus infections are encouraged. PMID: 30543319 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sheehan G, Nagl M, Kavanagh K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Experiences in fosfomycin susceptibility testing and resistance mechanism determination in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections in the UK.
CONCLUSION: Fosfomycin remains a viable option for the treatment of E. coli in uncomplicated UTIs; different susceptibility testing platforms can give very different results regarding the prevalence of fosfomycin resistance, with false positives being a potential problem that may unnecessarily limit the use of this agent. PMID: 30543320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cottell JL, Webber MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of aquatic mycobacteria based on sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region.
CONCLUSION: Overall, direct sequencing of this genetic element following PCR has been shown to be useful in the identification of aquatic mycobacteria species. With regard to the variability of the ITS region for different mycobacteria isolates, this may be a useful tool in epidemiological studies. PMID: 30540244 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pourahmad F, Adams A, Thompson KD, Richards RH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolates recovered from humans with diarrhoea in Turkey.
CONCLUSION: The phenotypic susceptibility testing results were found to agree well with those obtained by genetic detection methods for the C. jejuni isolates tested. The findings of this study showed a very high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and to a lesser extent to tetracycline while resistance to erythromycin remained at a low level. Thus, erythromycin may be considered as the first choice for treatment of Campylobacter infections in this geographical region when indicated. PMID: 30540246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kayman T, Abay S, Aydin F, Şahin O Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates under conditions relevant to the host: relationship with macrolide resistance and clonal lineages.
CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus biofilm formation appears to be more efficient in ESSA than ERSA, associated with specific S. aureus lineages, mainly CC8 and CC15, and affected by atmosphere. Further studies investigating the relationship between antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation could prove useful in the development of new strategies for the management of S. aureus infections. PMID: 30540247 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Di Bonaventura G, Pompilio A, Monaco M, Pimentel de Araujo F, Baldassarri L, Pantosti A, Gherardi G Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Pertussis epidemiology in Tunisian infants and children and characterization of Bordetella pertussis isolates: results of a 9-year surveillance study, 2007 to 2016.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that pertussis is still present as a cyclical disease in Tunisia, despite high primo-vaccination coverage with a pertussis whole-cell vaccine. The predominant genotype of Tunisian B. pertussis isolates is similar to isolates circulating in countries using the acellular vaccine. PMID: 30526740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ben Fraj I, Kechrid A, Guillot S, Bouchez V, Brisse S, Guiso N, Smaoui H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An improved carbapenem inactivation method, CIMTrisII, for carbapenemase production by Gram-negative pathogens.
This study describes an improved carbapenem inactivation method, CIMTrisII, for detecting carbapenemase production by Gram-negative pathogens, including Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. CIMTrisII was different from CIMTris in the concentration of Meropenem disks (5-µg MEM disks vs. 10-µg MEM disks), the inoculum volume of the bacteria (a 5-µl loopful vs. a 10 µl loopful) and the incubation time (1 vs. 2 h). CIMTrisII showed an overall sensitivity of 99.3 % and an overall specificity of 95.0 % for tested isolates. In comparison, CIMTris showed a sensitivity...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Uechi K, Tada T, Kuwahara-Arai K, Sekiguchi JI, Yanagisawa I, Tome T, Nakasone I, Maeda S, Mya S, Zan KN, Tin HH, Kirikae T, Fujita J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

How actively should we screen for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM and other high-ST-prevalence populations as we enter the era of increasingly untreatable infections? A viewpoint.
Abstract A number of national and international organizations are advocating more intensive screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in high-prevalence populations as a way to reduce the prevalence of these infections. In this article, we review the available evidence and conclude that there is a paucity of evidence to support this approach. We further hypothesize that increasing screening intensity in high-prevalence populations will result in a considerable risk for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other pathobionts. PMID: 30520712 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kenyon C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum is associated with macrolide consumption.
Abstract We hypothesized that the large global variations in the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum are related to differences in population-level macrolide consumption. The hypothesis was tested by, at a country-level, regressing the peak prevalence of macrolide resistance against the national macrolide consumption in the year prior to this, controlling for the year of the resistance prevalence estimate. A strong association was found between the per capita consumption of macrolides and macrolide resistance (coefficient 0.7, 95 % confidence interval 0.2-0.12, P=0.009). PMID: 30520715 ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kenyon C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

DORA Editorial.
PMID: 30516466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Parish T, Harris M, Fry N, Mathee K, Trujillo ME, Bentley S, Thomson N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in two hospitals in Central Brazil: the role of ST730 and ST162 in clinical outcomes.
Abstract PURPOSE: Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections. The characteristics of A. baumannii at two hospitals in a city in Central Brazil are described by analysing the phenotypes and molecular profiles of isolates recovered from 87 patients. METHODOLOGY: The isolates were identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated using the the Bact/Alert 3D and Vitek2 methods. Patients' clinical data were obtained from medical files. Genes associated with resistance to carbapenems were analysed by multilocus sequence typing, clinical and bacteriological va...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Azevedo FKSF, Dutra V, Nakazato L, Mello CM, Pepato MA, de Sousa ATHI, Takahara DT, Hahn RC, Souto FJD Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research