High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug resistant Salmonella in pigs, pork and humans in Thailand-Laos provinces.
In conclusion, MDR Salmonella were common in pigs, pork and human samples in this region. The bacteria carried mobile genetic elements and resistance genes on conjugative plasmids that could be readily transferred to other bacterial species. PMID: 27542886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sinwat N, Angkittitrakul S, Coulson KF, Pilapil FM, Meunsene D, Chuanchuen R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Yeasts from the microbiota of bats: a focus on the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of cryptic species of Candida.
ha MF PMID: 27542964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brilhante RS, Maia-Júnior JE, Oliveira JS, Guedes GM, Silva AL, Moura FB, Sales JA, Castelo-Branco DS, Sidrim JJ, Cordeiro RA, Pereira-Neto WA, Rocha MF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Circulating emm types of Streptococcus pyogenes in Scotland:2011-2015.
PMID: 27539121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 18, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lindsay DS, Brown AW, Scott KJ, Denham B, Thom L, Rundell G, Ure R, Jones B, Smith AJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cytokines and chemokines in mild/asymptomatic cases infected with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.
PMID: 27534748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang P, Lou X, Zheng Y, Shi W, Li Y, Dong Y, Han Y, Pang X, Liu S, Wang Q Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Distribution of PCR-ribotypes among recent Clostridium difficile isolates collected in two districts of Hungary using capillary gel electrophoresis and review of changes in the circulating ribotypes over time.
lerberger F Abstract Following the first description of a Clostridium difficile case caused by ribotype 027 in Hungary in 2007, the rapid spread of C. difficile infection in different hospitals within the country was observed. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the distribution of different PCR-ribotypes among inpatient and outpatient isolates obtained in two geographically different parts of Hungary. One hundred and ninety-two toxigenic C. difficile isolates collected between 1st October and 1st December, 2014 were PCR-ribotyped using capillary gel electrophoresis and the database of WEBRIBO (http://w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tóth J, Urbán E, Osztie H, Benczik M, Indra A, Nagy E, Allerberger F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical severity in forecasting platelet to lymphocyte ratio in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever patients.
ouml;zel MG Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a life-threatening disease that develops as a result of a member of the Nairovirus genus, of the Bunyaviridae family, and its initial symptoms are not specific. In patients with severe clinical progression, in particular the neutrophil rate is high, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte levels are low. A total of 149 patients, in whom the diagnosis was confirmed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, were included in the study. In order to compare patients clinical progressions severity we divided the patients into two groups. For group 1 Cevi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eren SH, Zengin S, Büyüktuna SA, Gözel MG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An overview of the bacterial contribution to Crohn disease pathogenesis.
Abstract Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition primarily affecting the gastro-intestinal tract, and is characterised by reduced bacterial diversity. The exact cause of disease is unknown; however, evidence suggests several components, including microbiota, may contribute to the underlying pathology and disease development. Perturbation of the host-microbe commensal relationship is considered the main driving force of tissue destruction and pathological changes seen in CD. Several putative bacterial pathogens including species from Mycobacteria, Campylobacter and Helicobacter, are postulated in the...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alhagamhmad MH, Day AS, Lemberg DA, Leach ST Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Is it true that plant-derived polyphenols are always beneficial for the human? In vitro study on Leonurus cardiaca extract properties in the context of the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine whether Leonurus cardiaca L. herb extract (LCE) used at subinhibitory concentration modifies the characteristics of S. aureus, important in the pathogenesis of invasive infections originating from the bloodstream, in a way favorable for the human host. Polyphenol rich LCE, a common ingredient in the pharmaceutical products used for various cardiovascular and nervous system disorders, had shown interesting antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties in our previous studies. Our current findings indicate that the following S. aureus characteristics were decreased, dependi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Micota B, Sadowska B, Podsedek A, Paszkiewicz M, Sosnowska D, Rozalska B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Control of quorum sensing and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using phenylalanine arginyl -naphthylamide.
This study aims to find out the impact of efflux pump inhibitor, PAN, on QS and virulence attributes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa isolates were purified from urine and wound samples and the antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by disc diffusion method. The multidrug resistant and the virulent isolates U16, U21, W19 and W23 were selected. PAN enhanced their susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents. PAN reduced QS signaling molecules N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) without affecting bacterial viability. Moreover, PAN eliminated t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: El-Shaer S, Shaaban M, Barwa R, Hassan R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in South America.
N, Famiglietti A Abstract One hundred and twenty-six sequential, epidemiologically unrelated carbapenem-resistant- Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from 9 hospitals of 6 countries of South America were collected between July 2013 and June 2014. Genes coding for Ambler class D and B carbapenemases were sought by PCR. All isolates were typed using the 3-locus sequence typing and blaOXA-51-like sequence based typing techniques. The blaOXA-23 gene was recovered in all the participating hospitals and in all the isolates of 7/9 medical centers. The blaOXA-72 gene was only recovered in the two medical centers from Guaya...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rodriguez CH, Balderrama Yarhui N, Nastro M, Nuñez Quezada T, Castro Cañarte G, Magne Ventura R, Ugarte Cuba T, Valenzuela N, Roach F, Mota MI, Burger N, Velázquez Aguayo G, Ortellado-Canese J, Bruni G, Pandolfo C, Bastyas N, Famiglietti A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Guar gum as a new antimicrobial peptide delivery system against diabetic foot ulcers Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
ira M Abstract Diabetic patients frequently develop diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), particularly vulnerable to Staphylococcus aureus opportunistic infections. It is urgent to find new treatments for bacterial infections. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) nisin is a potential candidate, mainly due to its broad spectrum of action against pathogens. Considering that AMP can be degraded or inactivated before reaching their target at therapeutic concentrations, it is mandatory to establish effective AMP delivery systems, being the natural polysaccharide guar gum one of the most promising. We analyzed the antimicrobial potenti...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Santos R, Gomes D, Macedo H, Barros D, Tibério C, Veiga AS, Tavares L, Castanho M, Oliveira M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterisation of new Salmonella serovars by whole genome sequencing and traditional typing techniques.
Abstract Serotyping forms the basis of all national and international surveillance networks for Salmonella. Public health microbiology is currently being transformed by high throughput DNA sequencing, which opens the door to serovar determination using this powerful technique. Twenty nine Salmonella isolates referred to Public Health England between 1994-2004 for serovar identification were selected for this study, and they all presented with novel antigenic formulae. Results from a combination of traditional phenotypic and molecular assays were compared. Twenty two isolates (76%) were subsequently independently c...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bale J, Meunier D, Weill FX, dePinna E, Peters T, Nair S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Phenotypic detection of AmpC β-lactamases, extended-spectrum- β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae using a resazurin microtitre assay with inhibitor-based methods.
Phenotypic detection of AmpC β-lactamases, extended-spectrum- β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae using a resazurin microtitre assay with inhibitor-based methods. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Aug 1; Authors: Teethaisong Y, Eumkeb G, Chumnarnsilpa S, Autarkool N, Hobson J, Nakouti I, Hobbs G, Evans K Abstract Dissemination of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae mediated by AmpC, ESBL and MBL β-lactamases is clinically significant. A simple, relatively quick method for the detection of these resistance phenotypes would greatly improve chemotherapeutic recomme...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Teethaisong Y, Eumkeb G, Chumnarnsilpa S, Autarkool N, Hobson J, Nakouti I, Hobbs G, Evans K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Virulence and resistance profile of MRSA isolates in pre and post-liver transplantation patients using microarray.
This study aims to evaluate clonality, virulence and resistance of MRSA in pre and post-liver transplantation (LT) patients. Nasal and groin swabs of 190 patients were collected. PCR for virulence genes and SCCmec types, microarray, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were performed. MRSA carriers were detected in 20.5% (39/190) of the patients. However only three colonized patients developed infections post LT. Sixty-nine MRSA isolates were identified and the most frequent SCCmec type was type II (29/69, 42.0%). Most isolates (57/69, 82.6%) we...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 29, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Heijden IM, de Oliveira LM, Brito GC, Abdala E, Freire MP, Rossi F, D'Albuquerque LA, Levin AS, Costa SF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Defining the role of pneumococcal neuraminidases and O-glycosidase in pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome.
This study used 29 pHUS isolates from USA and 31 serotype matched controls. All isolates contained eng and observed no significant correlation between enzymatic activity and disease state (pHUS and blood non-pHUS isolates). A prior study from Taiwan suggested that neuraminidase NanC contributes to development of pHUS. However, we observed no difference in nanC distribution. Furthermore, similar to previously published data, we found no significant correlation between neuraminidase activity and disease state. Accurate quantification of these enzymatic activities from bacteria grown in whole blood is currently impossible, bu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 26, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Singh AK, Osman AS, Woodiga SA, White P, Mahan JD, King SJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the biosafety of recombinant lactic acid bacteria designed to prevent and to treat colitis.
In this study, the safety of the recombinant LAB (recLAB) Streptococcus thermophilus (S.) CRL807:CAT, S. thermophilus CRL807: SOD, Lactococcus (L.) lactis NCDO2118 pXILCYT:IL-10, L. lactis MG1363 pValac:IL-10 and L. lactis MG1363 pGroESL:IL-10 with proven beneficial effects were compared to their progenitor strains S. thermophilus CRL807, L. lactis NCDO2118 or L. lactis MG1363. The prolonged administration of genetically modified strains evaluated in the present work showed that they were just as safe as the administration of the native strains from which they derive as demonstrated by normal animal growth and relative org...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 26, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Del Carmen S, Chatel JM, Azevedo V, Bermudez-Humaran L, Langella P, LeBlanc JG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a collection of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from Croatia, June 2009 to January 2014.
We report the molecular characterization of meningococci causing IMD occurring from June 2009 to January 2014 in Croatia. Genomic DNA from 50 clinical isolates was analyzed for serogroup, MLST and allele type of the two outer membrane protein genes, porA and the iron-regulated fetA. Furthermore, 22 of them were characterized by using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to define the meningococcal vaccine 4CMenB antigen genes factor H binding protein (fHbp), Neisseria heparin-binding antigen (nhba) and Neisseria adhesin A (nadA) and the antimicrobial target resistance genes for penicillin (penicillin binding protein 2, penA), cip...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bukovski S, Vacca P, Anselmo A, Knezovic I, Fazio C, Neri A, Ciammaruconi A, Fortunato A, Palozzi AM, Fillo S, Lista F, Stefanelli P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An endolytic mutanase from novel strain, Paracoccus mutanolyticus: Its application potential in dentistry.
Abstract Mutanases (α-(1→3)-glucanases) belong to family Glucanohydrolases catalyzes mutan (α-(1→3)-glucan) synthesized by cariogenic Streptococci, hence has potential in caries prophylaxis. A novel bacterial strain (RSP-02) having potential to produce higher mutanase (glucanohydrolase) activity, was isolated from cellulose waste soils. One of the isolated strain (RSP-02) was characterized for biochemical and 16S rRNA molecular analysis and noticed that this belongs to Paracoccus genus. The mutanase production (800 to 1200 U/L) in this strain was growth associated; substrate induced and was c...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Buddana SK, Reddy Shetty P, Raja Surya Krothapalli SR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of multiplex real-time PCR and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for the direct and rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive culture bottles.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay and a PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of bacteria and identification of antibiotic resistance genes directly from blood culture bottles and to compare the results of these molecular assays with conventional culture methods. The molecular diagnostic methods were used to evaluate 593 blood culture bottles from patients with BSIs. The detection positivity of multiplex real-time PCR assay for gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and Candida spp. was equ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 21, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang HY, Kim S, Kim J, Park SD, Kim HY, Uh Y, Lee H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase genes in Enterobacteriaceae with the Cepheid Xpert Carba-R Assay.
Abstract Rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is pivotal for adequate antibiotic therapy and infection control. The Cepheid Xpert Carba-R Assay detects and identifies the most prevalent carbapenemases (KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM and OXA-48), using automated real-time PCR. The test performance of the Xpert Carba-R was evaluated with 129 well-characterized non-repeat Enterobacteriaceae isolates, suspected for carbapenemase production, i.e. with meropenem MICs> 0,25 mg/L. The isolate collection contained 100 carbapenemase producing isolates (36 KPC-2 or KPC-3, 20 VIM-1, 4 KPC-2 plus V...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Smith M, Diederen B, Scahrringa J, Leversteijn-van Hall M, Fluit AC, Cohen Stuart J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance of four different agar plate methods for rectal swabs, synergy disk tests, and MBL-Etest for clinical isolates in detecting carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.
ou M Abstract The aim of the study was to compare four different agar plate methods in the identification of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) from rectal samples and to assess the role of phenotypic methodologies in the identification of carbapenemase type from clinical K. pneumoniae isolates. Two chromogenic agars (Brilliance CRE, CHROMagar KPC) were compared to MacConkey agar plates with ertapenem or imipenem disks for the identification of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) from 912 rectal swabs. CP-Kp was detected in 329 samples by either agar methodology (299 KPC-positi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Papadimitriou-Olivgeris M, Vamvakopoulou S, Spyropoulou Α, Bartzavali C, Marangos M, Anastassiou ED, Spiliopoulou I, Christofidou M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Assessment of the antibacterial, cytotoxic, and mutagenic potential of the phenolic-rich hydroalcoholic extract from Copaifera trapezifolia Hayne leaves.
Abstract Copaifera trapezifolia Hayne occurs in the Atlantic Rainforest, which is considered one of the most important and endangered tropical forests on the planet. Although literature works have described many Copaifera species, their biological activities remain little known. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate (1) the potential of the hydroalcoholic extract from C. trapezifolia leaves (CTE) to act against the causative agents of tooth decay and apical periodontitis and (2) the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of CTE to ensure that it is safe for subsequent application. Concerning the tested bacteria, the m...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 18, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Leandro LF, Moraes TS, de Oliveira PF, Alves JM, Senedese JM, Ozelin SD, Resende FA, De Grandis RA, Varanda EA, Bastos JK, Tavares DC, Martins CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 in northern Vietnam (2007-2009), using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis.
Abstract Cholera is an infectious disease of major concern in Vietnam and other Asian countries. In 2009, there was a large outbreak of cholera in northern Vietnam. To investigate relationships among isolates of the causative pathogen Vibrio cholerae in this region since 2007, we carried out a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of 170 isolates collected between 2007 and 2009. A total of 24 MLVA types were identified using seven loci. Five clones (#1-5) were identified using five loci of the large V. cholerae chromosome; clones 1 and 2 were major and the others were minor. Clone 1 isolates wer...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 18, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nguyen DT, Ngo TC, Le TH, Nguyen HT, Morita M, Arakawa E, Ohnishi M, Nguyen BM, Izumiya H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a multi-antigen peptide ELISA for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis related infertility in women.
This study aimed to develop a highly specific serological assay for chlamydial tubal factor infertility in women that could be used to recommend direct progression to IVF treatment for women who are positive. Women were recruited from a variety of settings including; women seeking fertility treatment, sexual health and GP consults, or antenatal care (n=259). The serological assay was developed using sera from a large group of women by using infertile MIF positive women with tubal damage as the positives compared to infertile, or acute infection, and/or fertile controls (negatives). The new multi-peptide ELISA was highly sp...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Menon S, Stansfield SH, Logan B, Hocking JS, Timms P, Rombauts L, Allan J, Huston WM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Class 1 integrons in non-clonal multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from Iran, description of the new blaIMP-55 allele in In1243.
This study has been conducted to evaluate the detection of metallo-β-lactamase, characterization of class 1 integron and determination of clonal relatedness among A. baumannii hospital isolates. Sixty five clinical isolates of MDR-AB were recovered from two Iranian hospital's intensive care units (ICUs) from February to August 2013. Integrase (intI1) and blaIMP genes were detected in 70.8% (n = 46/65) and 9.23% (n = 6/65) of the isolates using PCR assay, respectively. No other MBL genes (blaVIM, blaSIM, blaNDM) were detected. PCR-sequencing of integron gene cassette revealed the following arrays: blaOXA10-aacA4-blaIMP...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Azizi O, Shakibaie MR, Badmasti F, Modarresi F, Ramazanzadeh R, Mansouri S, Shahcheraghi F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Improved multilocus sequence typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei and closely related species.
Abstract The Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) database (http://pubmlst.org/bpseudomallei/) contains the largest global sequence repository for B. pseudomallei and its closest genetic relatives. Using conventional MLST and in silico MLST data derived from publicly available whole-genome sequences, we first defined the phylogenetic relatedness of B. pseudomallei and its nearest neighbours. Based on this analysis, we propose that the recently described B. pseudomallei complex (Bpc) be expanded to encompass B. pseudomallei, B. humptydooensis (proposed), B. mallei, B. oklahomensis, B. thailan...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Price EP, MacHunter B, Spratt BG, Wagner DM, Currie BJ, Sarovich DS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli as etiologic agents of sporadic and outbreak-associated diarrhea in Brazil.
This study was designed to characterize 82 aEPEC isolates obtained from stool samples of diarrheic patients during the years of 2012 and 2013, in Brazil. The majority of the aEPEC were assigned to the phylo-group B1 (48.8%), and intimin subtypes theta (20.7%), beta1 (9.7%) and lambda (9.7%) were the most prevalent among the isolates. The nleB and nleE genes were concomitantly detected in 32.9% of the isolates, demonstrating the occurrence of the pathogenicity island O122 among them. The O157-plasmid genes (ehxA and/or espP) were detected in 7.3% of the isolates, suggesting that some aEPEC could be derived from Shiga toxin-...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vieira MA, Dos Santos LF, Dias RC, Camargo CH, Pinheiro SR, Gomes TA, Hernandes RT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid species identification and epidemiological analysis of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. by a PCR-based open reading frame typing method.
In this study, 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complexes, identified using a conventional biochemical method at our hospital during 2004 - 2013, were studied for species identification and epidemiological analyses. Species identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a partial sequence analysis of rpoB and a PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) method. The POT method can not only identify the species of ACB complexes but can also simultaneously determine the international epidemic clones and their g...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yamada Y, Endo K, Sawase K, Anetai M, Narita K, Hatakeyama Y, Ishifuji K, Kurota M, Suwabe A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Discrepancy between genotypic and phenotypic ESBL rates in E. coli from intra-abdominal infections in the United States.
This report describes discrepancies in E. coli genotypic and phenotypic ESBL rates observed in a surveillance study of 29 United States hospitals that participated in the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). The ESBL phenotype was determined with the CLSI confirmatory broth microdilution test using cefotaxime and ceftazidime with and without clavulanate. Genes encoding ESBLs, carbapenemases, and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamases were detected using a combination of microarray and multiplex PCR assays. Among 168 molecularly characterized phenotypically ESBL-positive E. coli isolates from intra-abdomi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lob SH, Biedenbach DJ, Badal RE, Kazmierczak KM, Sahm DF Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae associated genes rmpA and magA in two tertiary hospitals in Houston, Texas USA.
PMID: 27392968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chou A, Nuila RE, Franco LM, Stager CE, Atmar RL, Zechiedrich L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Preliminary evaluation of a new kit for differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species using (Speed-Oligo MTBC).
In this study, 189 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates from 2011 to 2014 were evaluated to determine the MTBC species. Most (174, 92%) of the strains were identified as M tuberculosis sensu stricto, 7 (3.7%) as M. bovis, 5 (2.6%) as M. bovis BCG, 2 (1.1%) as M. africanum, and 1 (0.5%) as M. caprae; no strains belonged to M. microtii and M. canneti sub-species. The concordance kappa coefficient obtained was 0.96 with the results of the Genotype MTBC assay. The SO-MTBC may represent a fast and easy-to-use alternative for differentiating among MTBC sub-species in laboratories with standard equipment. ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 6, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lara-Oya A, Rodriguez-Granger JM, Liébana-Martos MD, Mendoza-López P, Sampedro-Martínez A, Cobo F, Gutierrez-Fernández J, Martínez-Lirola MJ, Navarro-Marí JM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Naegleria fowleri after 50 Years: Is it a neglected pathogen?
, Serrano-Luna J, Shibayama M Abstract It has been 50 years since the first case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) an acute and rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) was reported in Australia. It is now known that the etiological agent of PAM is Naegleria fowleri, an amoeba that is commonly known as "the brain-eating amoeba". N. fowleri infects humans of different ages which are in contact with contaminated water with this microorganism. N. fowleri is distributed worldwide and is found growing in bodies of freshwater in tropical and subtropical environments. The number of P...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 4, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Martínez-Castillo M, Cárdenas-Zúñiga R, Coronado-Velázquez D, Debnath A, Serrano-Luna J, Shibayama M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Variability of Pasteurella multocida isolated from Icelandic sheep and detection of the toxA gene.
In this study, we compared 10 P. multocida isolates from Icelandic sheep with respiratory symptoms and 19 isolates from apparently healthy abattoir sheep. We examined capsule type, genetic variability and the presence of the toxA gene in the two groups. Surprisingly, we found that all ovine P. multocida isolates examined in this study carried the toxA gene, which markedly differs from what has been published from other studies. Interestingly, all isolates from abattoir animals were capsule type D, while bacteria isolated from animals with clinical respiratory symptoms had capsule types A, D or F. Examination of 7 housekeep...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 4, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Einarsdottir T, Gunnarsson E, Sigurdardottir OG, Jorundsson E, Fridriksdottir V, Thorarinsdottir GE, Hjartardottir S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Countrywide dissemination of a DHA-1-type plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 international high-risk clone in Hungary, 2009-2013.
Countrywide dissemination of a DHA-1-type plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 international high-risk clone in Hungary, 2009-2013. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jul 1; Authors: Kis Z, Tóth Á, Jánvári L, Damjanova I Abstract The first plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase producing K. pneumoniae (pAmpC KP) isolate was detected in December 2009 in Hungary. Hungarian microbiological laboratories were asked to send all KP strains showing cefoxitin resistance and decreased susceptibility or resistance to any 3rd generation cephalosporins to the Reference...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kis Z, Tóth Á, Jánvári L, Damjanova I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Effect of clpP and clpC deletion on persister cell number in Staphylococcus aureus.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of clpP and clpC deletion on S. aureus persister cell numbers following antibiotic treatment. Deletion of clpP resulted in a significant decrease in persister cells following treatment with oxacillin and erythromycin but not with levofloxacin and daptomycin. Deletion of clpC resulted in a decrease in persister cells following treatment with oxacillin. These differences were dependent on the antibiotic class and the CFU/ml in which the cells were treated. Persister revival assays for all the bacterial strains in these studies demonstrated a significant delay in resumption of ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Springer MT, Singh VK, Cheung AL, Donegan NP, Chamberlain NR Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Distribution of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genotypes circulating in Tunisia from 2009 to 2014: Emergence of the genotype G12.
i A Abstract Group A rotavirus (RVA) represents the most important etiologic agent of diarrhea in children worldwide. From January 2009 to December 2014, a multicenter study realized through 11 Tunisian cities was undertaken among children aged
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moussa A, Ben Hadj Fredj M, Fodha I, BenHamida-Rebaï M, Kacem S, Argoubi A, Bennour H, Boujaafar N, Trabelsi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro synergistic combinations of pentamidine, polymyxin B, tigecycline and tobramycin with antifungal agents against Fusarium spp.
This study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium against antifungal agents (amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and voriconazole) and antimicrobials (pentamidine, polymyxin B, tigecycline, and tobramycin) according to the broth microdilution method (M38-A2). The interactions between antifungal and antimicrobial agents were evaluated by the microdilution checkerboard method. Pentamidine and polymyxin B showed MIC values ≥ 4 µg ml-1 against Fusarium spp. The highest rates of synergism were observed when amphotericin B or voriconazole were combined with tobramycin (80% and 76...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pozzebon Venturini T, Rossato L, Chassot F, Tairine Keller J, Baldissera Piasentin F, Moraes Santurio J, Hartz Alves S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiologic analysis of three Hepatitis C virus outbreaks in the Jammu & Kashmir State, India.
We report here, 3 outbreaks of HCV infection from the Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) state of India which occurred over a period of 3 years and in which molecular epidemiological investigations identified a presumptive common source of infection, most likely a single healthcare venue. Representative blood samples, collected from cases of Hepatitis C were sent to the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) for molecular characterization. These samples were positive by HCV ELISA. Subsequently, specimens were also tested for the presence of HCV RNA by RT-PCR. Sequencing was carried out for all positive samples. A total of 8...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chadha S, Sharma U, Chaudhary A, Prakash C, Gupta S, Venkatesh S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid Detection of nusG and fadA in Fusobacterium nucleatum by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.
Abstract Fusobacterium nucleatum is associated with various human diseases such as periodontal disease and colorectal cancer (CRC); thus, F. nucleatum detection might serve as a novel diagnostic tool. Here, we describe the development of a sensitive and rapid molecular method for detecting two F. nucleatum genes: the highly conserved nusG and fadA, which encodes a critical host colonization factor. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets for the rapid detection of nusG and fadA were designed and optimized. The nusG primers yielded consistent negative results for 20 non- F. nucleatum bacterial str...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang S, Yang Z, Zou D, Dong D, Liu A, Liu W, Huang L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Vibrio cholerae GbpA elicits necrotic cell death in intestinal cells.
Abstract Vibrio cholerae N-acetylglucosamine binding protein GbpA is a secretory protein which facilitates the initial adherence of bacteria in the human intestine. Until now, considerable progress in the characterization of GbpA has been done, yet little is known about its role in host response. Our present studies demonstrated that, GbpA at the amount secreted in the intestine resulted in decreased cell viability, altered cell morphology, disruption of cell membrane integrity and damage of cellular DNA indicating necrotic cell death. We observed that GbpA exposure leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, characterize...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mandal S, Chatterjee NS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence and characterization of tigecycline resistance in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from blood samples of patients in intensive care units in northern China.
Abstract Serious infections in intensive care unit patients caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae represent a major threat worldwide due to increased mortality and limited treatment options. With the application of tigecycline for MDR pathogens, tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates have recently emerged in China. To identify the susceptibility profile of MDR K. pneumoniae to tigecycline and evaluate the molecular characterization of tigecycline resistance, 214 MDR K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from blood samples of patients in intensive care unit. Minimum inhibitory concen...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xu H, Zhou Y, Zhai X, Du Z, Wu H, Han Y, Huo C, Chen Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.
Abstract Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakajima A, Ikeda F, Kanayama S, Okamoto K, Matsumoto T, Ishii R, Fujikawa A, Takei K, Kawashima M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparing two polymeric biguanides: Chemical distinction, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity of Polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) and Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB).
In this study polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) was compared to the molecularly closely related polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) regarding chemical relationship, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity in-vitro. Cytotoxicity for human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and murine fibroblasts (L929) was determined according to ISO EN 10993-5 for both substances. Antimicrobial efficacy tests were performed via identification of the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), quantitative suspension method for substances and investigation of two PAPB or PHMB containing dressings against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, according to inte...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rembe JD, Fromm-Dornieden C, Schäfer N, Böhm JK, Stuermer EK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction therapy reduces surgical site infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats.
Abstract Surgical site infection (SSI) remains one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections, accounting for ~17% of all hospital-acquired infections. Although, short-term perioperative treatment with high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) has shown clinical benefits in reducing SSI in colorectal resection surgeries, the true clinical benefits of FiO2 therapy in reducing SSI remain unclear because randomized controlled trials on this topic have yielded disparate results and inconsistent conclusions. To date, no animal study has been conducted to determine the efficacy of short-term perioper...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kroin JS, Li J, Goldufsky JW, Gupta K, Moghtaderi M, Buvanendran A, Shafikhani SH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Use of whole genome sequencing for the public health surveillance of Shigella sonnei in England & Wales, 2015.
Use of whole genome sequencing for the public health surveillance of Shigella sonnei in England & Wales, 2015. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jun 14; Authors: Dallman TJ, Chattaway MA, Mook P, Godbole G, Crook PD, Jenkins C PMID: 27302408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dallman TJ, Chattaway MA, Mook P, Godbole G, Crook PD, Jenkins C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A study of genetic variability of Human Parainfluenza Virus type 1 in Croatia, 2011-2014.
This study provides data on molecular characterization and epidemic pattern of HPIV1 in Croatia. PMID: 27302417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kosutic-Gulija T, Slovic A, Ljubin-Sternak S, Mlinarić-Galinović G, Forčić D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

5-Fluorouracil sensitivity varies among oral microorganisms.
This study reports the effect of different concentrations of 5-FU (range 0.1-50 µM) on the growth and viability of bacterial monocultures that are present in the oral cavity and the possible role in the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), an enzyme involved in 5-FU resistance. Our data showed a differential sensitivity among the tested oral species towards physiological concentrations of 5-FU. Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus salivarius appeared to be highly resistant to all tested concentrations. In contra...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vanlancker E, Vanhoecke B, Smet R, Props R, Van de Wiele T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

First evidence of polar flagella in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a patient with neonatal sepsis.
This report presents the first evidence for flagella-mediated motility in a K. pneumoniae clinical isolate, and represents an important finding related to its evolution and pathogenic potential. PMID: 27283194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carabarin Lima A, León-Izurieta L, Rocha Gracia RD, Castañeda Lucio M, Torres C, Gutiérrez-Cazarez Z, González-Posos S, Martínez de la Peña CF, Martinez Laguna Y, Lozano Zarain P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Shigella sonnei isolated over 31 years suggest the circulation of two prevalent subtypes in the São Paulo State in Brazil.
In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the strains studied was highlighted by the presence of important virulence genes. The high rates of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline are alarming once those drugs can be used in the treatment of shigellosis. The PFGE and ERIC-PCR results suggest that there are two prevalent subtypes in the S. sonnei strains studied that differed little over 31 years and have been contaminating humans and causing diseases in the São Paulo State-Brazil. PMID: 27267912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Seribelli AA, Frazão MR, Medeiros MI, Falcão JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Major components of orange oil inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth and biofilms formation, and alter its virulence factors.
Abstract Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in the dairy industry that does not always respond to antibiotic treatment. The major components of terpeneless, cold-pressed Valencia orange oil, citral, linalool, decanal, and valencene, were examined as potential alternative treatments for Staphylococcus aureus associated mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all four components against S. aureus was determined after 24 h incubation. Growth inhibition assay was performed for all effective components on S. aureus for either a 3 h or 72 h treatment. These components were tested for the ability to disr...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 3, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Federman C, Ma C, Biswas D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research