Vibrio cholerae GbpA elicits necrotic cell death in intestinal cells.
Abstract Vibrio cholerae N-acetylglucosamine binding protein GbpA is a secretory protein which facilitates the initial adherence of bacteria in the human intestine. Until now, considerable progress in the characterization of GbpA has been done, yet little is known about its role in host response. Our present studies demonstrated that, GbpA at the amount secreted in the intestine resulted in decreased cell viability, altered cell morphology, disruption of cell membrane integrity and damage of cellular DNA indicating necrotic cell death. We observed that GbpA exposure leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, characterize...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mandal S, Chatterjee NS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence and characterization of tigecycline resistance in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from blood samples of patients in intensive care units in northern China.
Abstract Serious infections in intensive care unit patients caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae represent a major threat worldwide due to increased mortality and limited treatment options. With the application of tigecycline for MDR pathogens, tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates have recently emerged in China. To identify the susceptibility profile of MDR K. pneumoniae to tigecycline and evaluate the molecular characterization of tigecycline resistance, 214 MDR K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from blood samples of patients in intensive care unit. Minimum inhibitory concen...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xu H, Zhou Y, Zhai X, Du Z, Wu H, Han Y, Huo C, Chen Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.
Abstract Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakajima A, Ikeda F, Kanayama S, Okamoto K, Matsumoto T, Ishii R, Fujikawa A, Takei K, Kawashima M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparing two polymeric biguanides: Chemical distinction, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity of Polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) and Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB).
In this study polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) was compared to the molecularly closely related polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) regarding chemical relationship, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity in-vitro. Cytotoxicity for human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and murine fibroblasts (L929) was determined according to ISO EN 10993-5 for both substances. Antimicrobial efficacy tests were performed via identification of the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), quantitative suspension method for substances and investigation of two PAPB or PHMB containing dressings against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, according to inte...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rembe JD, Fromm-Dornieden C, Schäfer N, Böhm JK, Stuermer EK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction therapy reduces surgical site infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats.
Abstract Surgical site infection (SSI) remains one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections, accounting for ~17% of all hospital-acquired infections. Although, short-term perioperative treatment with high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) has shown clinical benefits in reducing SSI in colorectal resection surgeries, the true clinical benefits of FiO2 therapy in reducing SSI remain unclear because randomized controlled trials on this topic have yielded disparate results and inconsistent conclusions. To date, no animal study has been conducted to determine the efficacy of short-term perioper...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kroin JS, Li J, Goldufsky JW, Gupta K, Moghtaderi M, Buvanendran A, Shafikhani SH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Use of whole genome sequencing for the public health surveillance of Shigella sonnei in England & Wales, 2015.
Use of whole genome sequencing for the public health surveillance of Shigella sonnei in England & Wales, 2015. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jun 14; Authors: Dallman TJ, Chattaway MA, Mook P, Godbole G, Crook PD, Jenkins C PMID: 27302408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dallman TJ, Chattaway MA, Mook P, Godbole G, Crook PD, Jenkins C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A study of genetic variability of Human Parainfluenza Virus type 1 in Croatia, 2011-2014.
This study provides data on molecular characterization and epidemic pattern of HPIV1 in Croatia. PMID: 27302417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kosutic-Gulija T, Slovic A, Ljubin-Sternak S, Mlinarić-Galinović G, Forčić D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

5-Fluorouracil sensitivity varies among oral microorganisms.
This study reports the effect of different concentrations of 5-FU (range 0.1-50 µM) on the growth and viability of bacterial monocultures that are present in the oral cavity and the possible role in the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), an enzyme involved in 5-FU resistance. Our data showed a differential sensitivity among the tested oral species towards physiological concentrations of 5-FU. Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus salivarius appeared to be highly resistant to all tested concentrations. In contra...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vanlancker E, Vanhoecke B, Smet R, Props R, Van de Wiele T Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

First evidence of polar flagella in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a patient with neonatal sepsis.
This report presents the first evidence for flagella-mediated motility in a K. pneumoniae clinical isolate, and represents an important finding related to its evolution and pathogenic potential. PMID: 27283194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carabarin Lima A, León-Izurieta L, Rocha Gracia RD, Castañeda Lucio M, Torres C, Gutiérrez-Cazarez Z, González-Posos S, Martínez de la Peña CF, Martinez Laguna Y, Lozano Zarain P Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Shigella sonnei isolated over 31 years suggest the circulation of two prevalent subtypes in the São Paulo State in Brazil.
In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the strains studied was highlighted by the presence of important virulence genes. The high rates of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline are alarming once those drugs can be used in the treatment of shigellosis. The PFGE and ERIC-PCR results suggest that there are two prevalent subtypes in the S. sonnei strains studied that differed little over 31 years and have been contaminating humans and causing diseases in the São Paulo State-Brazil. PMID: 27267912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 6, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Seribelli AA, Frazão MR, Medeiros MI, Falcão JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Major components of orange oil inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth and biofilms formation, and alter its virulence factors.
Abstract Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in the dairy industry that does not always respond to antibiotic treatment. The major components of terpeneless, cold-pressed Valencia orange oil, citral, linalool, decanal, and valencene, were examined as potential alternative treatments for Staphylococcus aureus associated mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all four components against S. aureus was determined after 24 h incubation. Growth inhibition assay was performed for all effective components on S. aureus for either a 3 h or 72 h treatment. These components were tested for the ability to disr...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 3, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Federman C, Ma C, Biswas D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic environment of the KPC gene in Acinetobacter baumannii ST2 clone from Puerto Rico and genomic insights into its drug resistance.
The objective of this study was to determine the whole genomic sequence of a KPC-producing A. baumannii in order to: (i) define its allelic diversity, (ii) identify the location and genetic environment of the blaKPC, and (iii) detect additional mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. Next-generation sequencing, Southern blot, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and bioinformatics analysis were performed. The organism was assigned to the international ST2 clone. The blaKPC-2 was identified on a novel truncated version of Tn4401e (tentatively named Tn4401h), located in the chromosome within an IncA/C...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 2, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Martinez T, Martinez I, Vazquez GJ, Aquino EE, Robledo IE Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying Haitian ctxB and attributes of classical and El Tor biotypes isolated from Silvassa, India.
Abstract Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the 7th pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates had attributes of b...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 27, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Das MM, Bhotra T, Zala D, Singh DV Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clonality, virulence and the occurrence of genes encoding antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus warneri isolates from bloodstream infections.
Abstract Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus warneri is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing several infections especially in patients with indwelling medical devices. We evaluated the virulence-associated properties of 23 clinical isolates, recovered from blood specimens. In addition, the carriage of biofilm associated genes, as well as antibiotic resistant genes, were identified. S. warneri isolates appeared to be clonally unrelated and revealed a high degree of genetic diversity. All isolates revealed adhesion to epithelial cells and 43.5% of strains conduct invasion of the cells. Moreover, 52% of isolate...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Szczuka E, Krzymińska S, Kaznowski A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of E test and agar dilution for testing activity of ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
PMID: 27221395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shende T, Sood S, Singh R, Kapil A, Kar HK, Sharma VK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Revisit of Fluoroquinolone and Azithromycin susceptibility breakpoints for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
In this study, the inhibition zone diameters and MICs of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and azithromycin were determined in S. Typhi Kolkata isolates (n=146) for 16 years period (1998 to 2013) and the data was compared with the available CLSI breakpoints. Very major error (VME) and major error (ME) of FQs were not observed in the study isolates, but the minor error (mE) of ciprofloxacin (15.8%) and ME of azithromycin (3.5%) exceeded the acceptable limit. A positive correlation between MICs of FQ and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) showed reliability of MIC results to dete...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Das S, Ray U, Dutta S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia using a combined three-hour short-Incubation-MALDI-ToF identification and the Alere culture colony PBP2a detection test.
We describe a rapid method to detect MRSA in blood cultures using a combined three hour short incubation BRUKER MALDI-ToF BioTyper protocol and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay, the Alere Culture Colony Test PBP2a detection test. We compared this combined method with a molecular method detecting the nuc and mecA gene currently performed in our laboratory. One hundred and seventeen S. aureus blood cultures were tested of which 35 were MRSA and 82 were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). The rapid combined test correctly identified 100 % (82/82) of the MSSA and 85.7 % (30/35) of the MRSA after three hours. There...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Delport JA, Mohorovic I, Burn S, McCormick JK, Schaus D, Lannigan R, John M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare associated infections.
PS, Lopes AC, Maciel MA Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in cancer patients infections, and the production of β-lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and search for the some β-lactamases genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, in Pernambuco/Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovere...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jácome PR, Alves LR, Jácome-Júnior AT, Silva MJ, Lima JL, Araújo PS, Lopes AC, Maciel MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

False non-susceptible results of tigecycline susceptibility testing against Enterobacteriaceae by an automated system: a multicentre study.
r K Abstract Tigecycline antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is challenging and an overestimation of tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by the Vitek 2 system has previously been reported. We therefore aimed to determine the rate of Vitek 2 false non-susceptible tigecycline results for Enterobacteriaceae and to find a practical AST method, which provides accurate finding. Enterobacterial isolates tested non-susceptible to tigecycline by Vitek 2 at four university hospitals in Germany (n=296) were sent to a coordinating centre. Isolates confirmed as non-susceptible by triplicate Vitek 2 test...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Idelevich EA, Büsing M, Mischnik A, Kaase M, Bekeredjian-Ding I, Becker K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clonal dissemination of Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus hemolyticus harboring G2576T mutation with cfr gene in an Indian hospital.
PMID: 27189831 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brijwal M, Dhawan B, Rawre J, Sebastian S, Kapil A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of mupirocin on global transcription in Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 and a model for escape from inhibition.
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in both hospital and community settings causing infections ranging from mild skin and wound infections to life-threatening systemic illness. Gene expression changes due to the stringent response have been studied in Staphylococcus aureus using lethal concentrations of mupirocin but no studies have investigated the effects of sub-lethal concentrations. S. aureus 8325-4 was exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of mupirocin. The production of ppGpp was determined via HPLC and the effects on global transcription were studied by RNAseq analysis. Growth inhibition h...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 16, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: AlHoufie ST, Foster HA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeting aphA: A new high throughput screening assay identifies compounds that reduce prime virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae.
e W Abstract A high throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed for identifying compounds with inhibitory effect on aphA, one of the key regulators positively controlling Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. An inhibitory effect on aphA was expected to lead to attenuation in the secretion of the major pathogenicity factors of V. cholerae, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP). The plasmid construct pAKSB was developed with a kanamycin resistance (KmR) gene under the control of the aphA like promoter for conferring KmR phenotype under aphA expressing conditions. The HTS assay was performed to identify c...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bolger G, Roy S, Zapol'skii VA, Kaufmann DE, Schnürch M, Mihovilovic MD, Nandy RK, Tegge W Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance of the FilmArray® blood culture identification panel utilized by non-expert staff compared with conventional microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance gene detection from positive blood cultures.
Performance of the FilmArray® blood culture identification panel utilized by non-expert staff compared with conventional microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance gene detection from positive blood cultures. J Med Microbiol. 2016 May 11; Authors: McCoy MH, Relich RF, Davis TE, Schmitt BH Abstract Utilization of commercially-available rapid platforms for microbial identification from positive blood cultures is useful during periods of, or in laboratories with, limited expert staffing. We compared the FilmArray® BCID Panel and conventional methods for organism identification and anti...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 11, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: McCoy MH, Relich RF, Davis TE, Schmitt BH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST) and procalcitonin for prediction of bacteremia and bacterial DNAemia in patients with suspected sepsis.
Abstract Early diagnosis and prompt targeted therapy are essential for septic patient's outcome. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been shown to predict bacteremia and bacterial DNAemia. Presepsin, the circulating soluble form of CD14 subtype, increases in response to bacterial infections, and is considered a new, emerging, early marker for sepsis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in predicting bacteremia and bacterial DNAemia in 92 patients with suspected sepsis, and we compared it with that of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP). Presepsin median values were significantly higher in bacteremic vs non-bacterem...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 11, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Leli C, Ferranti M, Marrano U, Al Dhahab ZS, Bozza S, Cenci E, Mencacci A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Extra-hepatic infection of HCV in the colon tissue and its relationship with HCV pathogenesis.
Abstract Extra-hepatic compartments might contribute to HCV persistence and extra-hepatic manifestations. Therefore, we investigated HCV infection in colonic tissue in patients with chronic HCV (CHC) and its relationship with HCV pathogenesis. Colonic biopsies were collected from three groups with CHC infection; treatment naïve (TN; n=12), non-responders (NR; n=10) to anti-HCV therapy (Peg-IFN/Rib), sustained virologic response (SVR; n=10), and a fourth healthy control group (n=10). Liver biopsies were examined to assess inflammation and fibrosis. HCV infection and colonic Treg frequency were detected by immu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 10, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hetta HF, Mekky MA, Khalil NK, Mohamed WA, El-Feky MA, Ahmed SH, Daef EA, Medhat A, Nassar MI, Sherman KE, Shata MT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Endogenous interleukin-17 as a factor determining severity of Clostridium difficile infection in mice.
In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that endogenous IL-17 may be a factor determining severity of CDI in mice. Although the mechanism was fully unknown, IL-17-mediated inflammatory responses, such as cytokine/chemokine productions and neutrophil accumulation, may be plausible targets for future investigations. Key words: Clostridium difficile, Interleukin-17, neutrophils, mice model. PMID: 27166143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 10, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakagawa T, Mori N, Kajiwara C, Kimura S, Akasaka Y, Ishii Y, Saji T, Tateda K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Macrolide, glycopeptide resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolates from dairy cattle.
Abstract The genus Enterococcus is known to possess the capacity to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistant determinants alongside the ability to produce various virulence genes that enables it to establish infections. We assessed the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Enterococcus spp. in feacal samples of dairy cattle. Fecal swab samples were collected from 400 dairy cattle from two commercial cattle farms in two rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Confirmation of enterococci isolates was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the tuf gene. Species delineation was b...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 10, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Iweriebor BC, Obi LC, Okoh AI Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. in cats with non-hematopoietic intestinal carcinoma: a survey of 55 cases.
In this study, 55 non-hematopoietic feline intestinal carcinoma cases were histopathologically evaluated. In contrast with prior reports, large intestinal (LI) carcinoma was observed with greater frequency (61%) relative to small intestinal carcinoma. When considered by intestinal location and histopathologic classification, LI adenocarcinoma was associated with significantly advanced mean age (13) when compared to SI adenocarcinoma and LI mucinous adenocarcinoma (mean = 9 in both cases), which were also frequently encountered. To determine whether EHS might play a role in feline intestinal neoplasia, Helicobacter genus- a...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 10, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Swennes AG, Parry NM, Feng Y, Sawyer E, Lohr BR, Twedt DC, Fox JG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Curing vector for IncI1 plasmids and its use to provide evidence for a metabolic burden of IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmid pIFM3791 on Klebsiella pneumoniae.
In conclusion, the IncI1 curing vector successfully displaced multiple IncI plasmids. The IncI1 CTX-M1 plasmid conferred a growth disadvantage upon K. pneumoniae, possibly by imposing a metabolic burden the mechanism of which remains to be determined. PMID: 27166141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 9, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Freire Martín I, Thomas CM, Laing E, AbuOun M, La Ragione RM, Woodward MJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

SPM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277 in the UK.
PMID: 27126265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 27, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hopkins KL, Meunier D, Findlay J, Mustafa N, Parsons H, Pike R, Wright L, Woodford N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Compensatory expression of multidrug-resistance genes encoding ABC transporters in dermatophytes.
Abstract Genomic sequencing of several dermatophyte species has revealed that they show small differences in genetic content and genome organization, although each fungus has adapted to specific niches. Thus, it seemed relevant to compare gene expression between species. Here, we examined the transcription modulation of three ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) transporters genes (pdr1, mdr2, and mdr4), which code for membrane transporter proteins in four species of Trichophyton, T. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, and T. equinum. These fungal species were challenged with sub-lethal doses of griseofulvin, itraconaz...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 26, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Martins MP, Franceschini AC, Jacob TR, Rossi A, Martinez-Rossi NM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Yaoundé HIV infected patients exhibited intra individual genetic diversity and variation in antifungal susceptibility profiles between isolates from the same patient.
This study investigated the intra individual genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolates from Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Twenty five clinical isolates were obtained during a prospective study. Five colonies were randomly collected from each initial sample. The 150 obtained isolates (125 colonies and 25 initial samples) were submitted to serotyping by multiplex PCR. Genotyping analyses were achieved by restriction fragment length polymorphism and mini- and microsatellite length polymorphism. The antifungal susceptibility testing was carried...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 20, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kammalac Ngouana T, Drakulovski P, Krasteva D, Kouanfack C, Reynes J, Delaporte E, Boyom FF, Mallié M, Bertout S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid and combined detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus using AllGlo quadruplex quantitative PCR.
Abstract Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The causes of ARI are dynamic, and co-infections of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are recently developing ARI causes. Here, we established a quadruplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to rapidly identify and simultaneously detect a single infection or co-infection of these three pathogens and an internal control in a single tube using AllGlo probes. The analysis demonstrated a wide linear range of detection from 101 to 108 copies/test and a low coefficient of variat...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen Y, He H, Pan P, He S, Dong X, Chen Y, Wang S, Yu D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia and titanium oral implant materials with low surface roughness - an in situ study.
In conclusion, oral implant zirconia surfaces with low surface roughness are comparable to titanium surfaces with regard to initial bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID: 27093630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Al-Ahmad A, Karygianni L, Schulze Wartenhorst M, Bächle M, Hellwig E, Follo M, Vach K, Han JS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evidence of increased circulation of Bordetella pertussis in the Italian adult population from seroprevalence data (2012-2013).
Abstract Incidence data on pertussis cases in Italy do not show pertussis resurgence, as recently described in other European countries. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT-IgG) in selected adult age groups, which can serve as a reservoir of B. pertussis and be responsible for onward transmission to vulnerable infants. The seroprevalence of PT-IgG was studied in sera collected in 2012-13 in age groups 20-29, 30-39 (reproductive age), and ≥ 60 years. These data were compared with those from sera collected in similar age groups in 1996-97. More than 8...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Palazzo R, Carollo M, Fedele G, Rizzo C, Rota MC, Giammanco A, Iannazzo S, Ausiello CM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In silico identification of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis antigenic targets and application in immunodiagnosis.
Abstract Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects mainly small ruminants and causes significant economic losses worldwide. Because symptoms are not immediately noticeable, CLA clinical diagnosis is not effective. Numerous serological tests are being developed to detect the disease in asymptomatic animals, but currently available immunoassays have problems with sensitivity. Current ELISA formats use native bacterial antigens, and recombinant proteins could be useful for improving the immunoassay parameters. The C. pseudotuberculosis proteins CP0126a, CP0369 a...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rezende AF, Brum AA, Reis CG, Angelo HR, Leal KS, Silva MT, Simionatto S, Azevedo V, Santos A, Portela RW, Dellagostin O, Borsuk S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Predominance of the ST143 and ST50 Leptospira Clones in the Urban Rat Populations of Peninsular Malaysia.
PMID: 27058766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Benacer D, Mohd Zain SN, Ahmed AA, Mohd Khalid MK, Hartskeerl RA, Thong KL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rapid investigation of cases and clusters of Legionnaires' Disease in England and Wales using direct molecular typing.
We present here results from seven incidents that occurred between July 2012 and June 2015 where the use of this rapid approach provided preliminary characterisation of the infecting strain in an average 1.58 days (SD 1.01) after sample receipt in contrast to 9.53 days (SD 3.73) when standard protocols were applied. PMID: 27046155 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mentasti M, Afshar B, Collins S, Walker J, Harrison TG, Chalker V Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative functional properties of engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) consisting exclusively of tryptophan and either lysine or arginine.
In this study, we sought to examine the influence of arginine compared to lysine on antibacterial properties by direct comparison of the WR peptides (8-18 residues) with a parallel series of engineered peptides containing only lysine and tryptophan. WR and WK series were compared for antibacterial activity by bacterial killing and growth inhibition assays and for mechanism of peptide-bacteria interactions by surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometry. Mammalian cytotoxicity was also assessed by flow cytometry, hemolytic, and tetrazolium-based assays. The shortest arginine-containing peptides (8 and 10 mers) displayed a s...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deslouches B, Hasek ML, Craigo JK, Steckbeck JD, Montelaro RC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Utility of Direct Susceptibility Testing on Blood Cultures- Is It Still Worthwhile?
Abstract Earlier targeted therapy for bacteraemia optimises patient outcomes and reduces broad spectrum antibiotic use. Standardised susceptibility testing results are available at 36-48hrs. Direct disc susceptibility testing from blood culture broth reduces time to results but the inoculum is not standardised. No studies have looked at the clinical utility of direct susceptibility results. This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the correlation between direct and formal testing methods as well as the clinical utility of direct susceptibility results. 160 episodes of bacteraemia with paired direct and form...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Menon V, Lahanas S, Janto C, Lee A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Infective Endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva and Granulicatella sp. complicated by Infectious Intracranial Cerebral Aneurysms: A Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature.
We describe three patients with definite infective endocarditis due to these organisms seen at our hospital between 2005 and 2010, all of whom presented with neurologic symptoms due to infectious intracranial cerebral aneurysms. We recommend, for patients with left sided infective endocarditis due to the A.defetiva and Granulicatella spp., that clinicians have a low threshold for imaging the central nervous system. PMID: 27046228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rhodes HM, Hirigoyen D, Shabnam L, Williams DN, Hansen GT Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Chlamydia trachomatis infection prevalence and serovar distribution in a high-density urban area in the North of Italy.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection prevalence and serovar distribution in a high density urban area in the North of Italy, by comparing different groups of subjects divided on the basis of care providers they referred to (STI Clinic, gynecologists or general practitioners). From January 2011 to May 2014, all the specimens submitted to the Microbiology of St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna for CT detection, were tested by a PCR assay. In case of positivity, molecular genotyping based on RFLP analysis was performed. Total prevalence of CT infection was 8.1% with significant...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 5, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Foschi C, Nardini P, Banzola N, D'Antuono A, Compri M, Cevenini R, Marangoni A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Expression of prostaglandin receptors in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters.
Abstract Study was undertaken to quantify the expression of Prostaglandin (PG) receptors and find the effect of gestational age on expression of PG receptor genes in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected Recurrent Spontaneous Aborters (RSA). Endometrial Curettage Tissue (ECT) was collected from 130 RSA (Group-I) and 100 age-matched controls (Group-II) at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SJH, New Delhi (India). PCR was performed for diagnosis of C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid; mRNA expression of PG receptor genes was assessed by real-time PCR (q-PCR), while serum progesterone/ estrogen were determined by respectiv...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Singh N, Prasad P, Singh LC, Das B, Rastogi S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Lyophilization to improve the sensitivity of qPCR for bacterial DNA detection in serum: the Q fever paradigm.
Abstract Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on serum provides significant added value to the diagnosis of Q fever, mainly at the acute stage of the disease in seronegative patients and in patients with endocarditis. We evaluated the benefits of C. burnetii DNA concentration in serum by lyophilization to improve qPCR sensitivity. The detection limit of qPCR was determined by comparing six 10-fold dilutions of serum (calibrated with 104 bacteria/ml) with and without lyophilization. We also tested, after lyophilization, 73 sera from patients with acute Q fever and 10 sera from patients with endocarditis for which spec...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Edouard S, Raoult D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Clinical and Environmental Triazole Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Iran: Is It a Challenging Issue?
Abstract Triazole antifungal agents are the mainstay of aspergillosis treatment. As highlighted in numerous studies, the global increase in the prevalence of triazole resistance could hamper the management of aspergillosis. In the present three-year study, 513 samples (213 clinical and 300 environmental samples) from ten provinces of Iran were processed and screened in terms of azole resistance (4 and 1 mg/L of itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively), using selective plates. Overall, 150 A. fumigatus isolates (71 clinical and 79 environmental isolates) were detected. The isolates were confirmed by partial seq...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nabili M, Shokohi T, Moazeni M, Khodavaisy S, Aliyali M, Badiee P, Zarrinfar H, Hagen F, Badali H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Eugenol in combination with lactic acid bacteria attenuate Listeria monocytogenes virulence in vitro and in invertebrate model, Galleria mellonella.
This study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentration (SIC) of the plant-derived antimicrobial, eugenol, either alone, or in combination with five lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Bifidobacterium bifidum (NRRL-B41410), Lactobacillus reuteri (B-14172), L. fermentum (B-1840), L. plantarum (B-4496), and Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis (B-633) in reducing L. monocytogenes adhesion to and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Additionally, the effect of aforementioned treatments on L. monocytogenes listeriolysin production, epithelial E-cadherin binding, and expression of virulence genes ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Upadhyay A, Upadhyaya I, Mooyottu S, Venkitanarayanan K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

New variant of an imipenemase, IMP-32, in a Klebsiella pneumoniae from a fatal case of Thai patient.
PMID: 27002735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Prombhul S, Tribuddharat C, Laikijrung P, Aranya C, Bamrungsri N, Mekviwattanawong S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Risk factors for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: Watch out for surgery.
This study describes the molecular characteristics and risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains. Risk factors associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were investigated in this case-control study from May 2011 to May 2013. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Carbapenemase production was assessed by both modified Hodge test (MHT) and ertapenem hydrolysis using MALDI-TOF MS. The presence of β-lactamase-encoding gen...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: da Silva KE, Maciel WG, Sacchi FP, Carvalhaes CG, Rodrigues-Costa F, da Silva AC, Croda MG, Negrão FJ, Croda J, Gales AC, Simionatto SD Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clonal expansion of Escherichia coli ST38 carrying chromosomally-integrated OXA-48 carbapenemase gene.
Abstract Many isolates of Escherichia coli carrying blaOXA-48 referred to Public Health England's national reference laboratory during 2014 and 2015 shared similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, despite coming from patients in multiple hospitals and regions. Whole genome sequencing on an Illumina platform revealed that these belonged to sequence type (ST) 38. The OXA-48 gene is usually carried on a 62 kb IncL/M plasmid (pOXA48a), but those belonging to this ST appeared either to lack plasmid elements or had only a partial complement. Two isolates, one belonging to a main cluster sharing identica...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Turton JF, Doumith M, Hopkins KL, Perry C, Meunier D, Woodford N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Characterization of Resistance Genes with Genetic Clones among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates obtained from Various Sources in China.
PMID: 26978035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cao Y, Wang J, Wang R, Zhang X, Chao G, Wu Y Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research