Relevance of antifungal penetration in biofilm-associated resistance of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species.
This study aimed to determine the relevance of penetration limitation in the antifungal resistance of biofilms formed by C. albicans and NAC clinical isolates, using an agar disk diffusion assay. The penetration of posaconazole and amphotericin B through the biofilms was significantly reduced. Fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin showed a superior penetration capacity in C. albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, but exhibited inter-species and strain/isolate variation. Candida krusei biofilms were the most resilient to antifungal permeation. All of the antifungal drugs failed to kill the biofi...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Singh R, Kumari A, Kaur K, Sethi P, Chakrabarti A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Nalidixic acid surrogate test for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella. Revisiting the question.
Gutiérrez-Fernández J Abstract We investigated the reliability of nalidixic acid (NA) susceptibility as a marker of ciprofloxacin susceptibility in Salmonella, analysing 302 stool isolates. NC53 of the MicroScan system was used for NA susceptibility tests and the E-test was used for ciprofloxacin susceptibility tests. Among the isolates, 178 (58.9 %) were serogroup B, 74 (24.5 %) were serogroup D, 27 (8.9 %) were serogroup C and 23 (7.6 %) were from other minor serogroups. Globally, susceptibility to NA correctly predicted the susceptibility of Salmonella to ciprofloxacin, with a sensitivity ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guzmán-Martín JL, Navarro-Marí JM, Expósito-Ruiz M, Gutiérrez-Fernández J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of Acinetobacter seifertii isolated from Bolivian hospitals.
We present here the case of three A. seifertii clinical isolates which were initially identified as Acinetobacter sp. by phenotypic methods but no identification at the species level was achieved using semi-automated identification methods. The isolates were further analysed by whole genome sequencing and identified as A. seifertii. Due to the fact that A. seifertii has been isolated from serious infections such as respiratory tract and bloodstream infections, we emphasize the importance of correctly identifying isolates of the genus Acinetobacter at the species level to gain a deeper knowledge of their prevalence and clin...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cerezales M, Xanthopoulou K, Ertel J, Nemec A, Bustamante Z, Seifert H, Gallego L, Higgins PG Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of a novel single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against Neisseria meningitidis factor H-binding protein (fHbp).
CONCLUSION: The affinity of the selected scFv was ~8.65×109 M-1. The isolated scFv can provide the basis for developing a diagnostic kit. PMID: 29737965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yarian F, Kazemi B, Bandehpour M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Demographic, clinical and laboratory features of leptospirosis and dengue co-infection in Malaysia.
CONCLUSION: There is a considerable prevalence of LDCI in this country of which overlapping demographic, clinical and laboratory presentations pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Efforts to raise awareness regarding LDCI, better access to diagnostic services and further prospective studies are warranted. PMID: 29724267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hishamshah M, Ahmad N, Mohd Ibrahim H, Nur Halim NA, Nawi S, Amran F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Validation of a plasma metabolomics model that allows anticipation of the occurrence of cytomegalovirus DNAaemia in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.
e;ana JL, Solano C, Navarro D Abstract A plasma metabolomic model obtained by means of untargeted 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, to which taurine, choline, methylamine, total glutathione, trimethylamine N-oxide, lactate, lysine, isoleucine, total fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids contributed, was validated for the prediction of first episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAaemia in a cohort of 79 allogeneic stem haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. The predictive success rate was nearly 65 % for patients at both low and high risk of CMV-related complications according to their baseline ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Monleón D, Talaya A, Giménez E, Vinuesa V, Morales JM, Hernández-Boluda JC, Pérez A, Piñana JL, Solano C, Navarro D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Enterotoxin gene profile of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs, humans and the environment.
CONCLUSION: We show that isolates of MRSP vary in their virulence gene profiles, depending on the source from which they have been isolated. This insight should encourage the development of appropriate monitoring and mitigation strategies to reduce the transmission of MRSP in veterinary hospitals and households. PMID: 29724270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Phumthanakorn N, Fungwithaya P, Chanchaithong P, Prapasarakul N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance of OMNIgene •SPUTUM (DNA Genotek) and cetylpyridinium chloride for sputum storage prior to mycobacterial culture.
Performance of OMNIgene•SPUTUM (DNA Genotek) and cetylpyridinium chloride for sputum storage prior to mycobacterial culture. J Med Microbiol. 2018 May 02;: Authors: Affolabi D, Sanoussi N, Sossou A, Nys T, Bodi O, Esse M, Houeto S, Massou F, de Jong BC, Rigouts L Abstract PURPOSE: The aim was to assess the performance of both cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and OMNIgene•SPUTUM (OMNI) reagents for the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability in sputum prior to recovery by culture. METHODOLOGY: Using 312 sputa, we evaluated the performance of the two reagents using culture on L&...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Affolabi D, Sanoussi N, Sossou A, Nys T, Bodi O, Esse M, Houeto S, Massou F, de Jong BC, Rigouts L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Role of biofilm morphology, matrix content and surface hydrophobicity in the biofilm-forming capacity of various Candida species.
Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the role of biofilm morphology, matrix content and surface hydrophobicity in the biofilm-forming capacity of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. Biofilm formation was determined by microtitre plate assay and bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. The matrix carbohydrates, proteins and e-DNA were quantified by phenol-sulfuric acid, bicinchoninic acid and UV spectroscopy, respectively. Specific glycosyl residues were detected by dot blot. The cell-surface hydrophobicity was determined by hydrocarbon adhesion assay. Candida tropicalis was found to ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kumari A, Mankotia S, Chaubey B, Luthra M, Singh R Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Contribution of efflux to colistin heteroresistance in a multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that efflux activity contributes to colistin heteroresistance in an MDR A. baumannii clinical isolate. The use of efflux inhibitors as adjuvants of the therapy can resensitize A. baumannii to colistin and prevent the emergence of drug resistance. PMID: 29717972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Machado D, Antunes J, Simões A, Perdigão J, Couto I, McCusker M, Martins M, Portugal I, Pacheco T, Batista J, Toscano C, Viveiros M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from invasive cases in Brazil from 2009 to 2016.
Abstract PURPOSE: To describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of Neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease in Brazil from 2009 to 2016. METHODOLOGY: Among 3548 N. meningitidis isolates received, 2888 (81.4 %) were analysed for antimicrobial resistance using the broth microdilution technique, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Isolates were tested for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, penicillin G, ampicillin and rifampin. RESULTS: All the isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone, while 953 (33.0 %), 1307 (45.3 %) and 2 (0.07 %)...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gorla MC, Pinhata JMW, Dias UJ, de Moraes C, Lemos AP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Abundance of enterovirus C in RD-L20B cell culture-negative stool samples from acute flaccid paralysis cases in Nigeria is geographically defined.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the presence of EVs and consequently EV-Cs in AFP samples declared to be EV-free by the RD-L20B cell culture-based algorithm varies by geographical region in Nigeria. PMID: 29708482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Donbraye E, Olasunkanmi OI, Opabode BA, Ishola TR, Faleye TOC, Adewumi OM, Adeniji JA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Phylogenetic comparison of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli isolated from cases of diarrhoeal disease in England, 2005-2016.
Abstract We compared the genomes of 60 isolates of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) in order to better understand the step-wise evolutionary process from non-pathogenic to host-adapted pathogenic E. coli. All isolates belonged to either sequence type (ST) 6, ST99 or ST270. Each ST was located on different branches of the E. coli phylogeny and had invasion plasmids (pINVs) belonging to FII-21 (ST99, ST270), FII-27 (ST270) or FII-28 (ST6, ST270) incompatibility groups. A higher number of insertion sequence (IS) elements were identified in ST6 and ST270 than in ST99, and appeared to be driving the loss of funct...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cowley LA, Oresegun DR, Chattaway MA, Dallman TJ, Jenkins C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Urinary tract infection by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evolution of antimicrobial resistance and therapeutic alternatives.
CONCLUSION: In our setting, it is no longer possible to use carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam for empirical treatment of UTI due to A. baumannii or to use piperacillin-tazobactam for empirical treatment of UTI due to P. aeruginosa. Colistin was found to be the most active antibiotic in vitro. There was a marked increase in the consumption of piperacillin-tazobactam. PMID: 29693543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jiménez-Guerra G, Heras-Cañas V, Gutiérrez-Soto M, Del Pilar Aznarte-Padial M, Expósito-Ruiz M, Navarro-Marí JM, Gutiérrez-Fernández J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

A case of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) revealed an outbreak of Shiga toxin-2-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 infection in a nursery, with long-lasting shedders and person-to-person transmission, Italy 2015.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that Stx2-producing E. coli O26 represents an emerging public health problem. The occurrence of outbreaks of infection by Stx2-producing E. coli O26 in nurseries is of particular concern, given the high probability of infection progressing in severity and resulting in secondary cases. PMID: 29687765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Scavia G, Gianviti A, Labriola V, Chiani P, Maugliani A, Michelacci V, Minelli F, Tozzoli R, Caprioli A, Morabito S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification and prevalence of RND family multidrug efflux pump oqxAB genes in Enterococci isolates from swine manure in China.
CONCLUSION: This is the first time that the oqxAB genes have been identified in Enterococcus faecalis from swine manure. The genetic linkage of oqxAB-aph(3')-IIa in Enterococcus has not been described before. The high prevalence of oqxAB genes in Enterococcus suggests that it may constitute a reservoir for oqxAB genes and pose a potential threat to public health. PMID: 29687766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuan L, Zhai YJ, Wu H, Sun HR, He ZP, Wang YB, Pan YS, Kuang NN, Hu GZ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Growth characteristics of liquid cultures increase the reliability of presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
In conclusion, the growth characteristics of mycobacteria in MGIT, when considered along with cord formation, increased the reliability of the presumptive identification, which has a great impact on the laboratory budget and turnaround times. PMID: 29687767 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pinhata JMW, Felippe IM, Gallo JF, Chimara E, Ferrazoli L, de Oliveira RS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Diagnostics and antibiotic therapy for spondylodiscitis.
The objective of this retrospective study was to characterise these patients and identify factors for a favourable healing process - with an emphasis on antibiotic therapy. METHODOLOGY: Findings/treatment regimens for all patients with spondylodiscitis treated at a tertiary care hospital in 2012/2013 were recorded. The patients were classified into two groups, depending on the healing process. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients met the clinical/radiological criteria for spondylodiscitis. The main symptom was massive back pain, combined with a moderate CRP elevation (median 96 mg l-1), and occasionally fever (39 %). ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lestin-Bernstein F, Tietke M, Briedigkeit L, Heese O Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of SCCmec type IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones increased in Japanese hospitals.
Abstract Recently, the prevalence of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV isolates, which are the major community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have increased in Japanese hospitals. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed molecular epidemiological features of the SCCmec type IV clones in Japanese hospitals. When 2589 MRSA isolated from four hospitals in Tokyo, Japan between 2010 and 2014 were analysed, the proportion of SCCmec type IV overtook that of type II, which was the major type of hospital-acquired MRSA in 2014. Multilocus sequence typing showed ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakaminami H, Takadama S, Ito A, Hasegawa M, Jono C, Noguchi M, Shoshi M, Wajima T, Fujii T, Maruyama H, Sakamoto H, Ito Y, Okamoto S, Masaki Y, Tsuchiya K, Nishinarita S, Noguchi N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method.
CONCLUSION: By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women. PMID: 29676728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhai Y, Liu J, Zhou L, Ji T, Meng L, Gao Y, Liu R, Wang X, Li L, Lu B, Cao Z Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The BceABRS four-component system that is essential for cell envelope stress response is involved in sensing and response to host defence peptides and is required for the biofilm formation and fitness of Streptococcus mutans.
CONCLUSION: The BceABRS four-component system in S. mutans is involved in sensing, response and resistance to host defence peptides, and is required for the biofilm formation and fitness of S. mutans. PMID: 29671721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tian XL, Salim H, Dong G, Parcells M, Li YH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Staphylococcus aureus eradication therapy in orthopaedic surgery.
CONCLUSION: Current MRSA decolonisation regimens are well tolerated and effective for MSSA decolonization for the anterior nares and groin. The decolonization effect is preserved for at least 10 days following treatment. PMID: 29671723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tsang STJ, McHugh MP, Guerendiain D, Gwynne P, Boyd J, Laurenson IF, Templeton KE, Lewis S, Simpson AHRW, Walsh TS Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in selected hospitals of the Gulf Cooperation Council States: dominance of high-risk clones in the region.
CONCLUSION: Overall our data show that 'high-risk' CRPA clones are now detected in the region and highlight the need for strategies to limit further spread of such organisms, including enhanced surveillance, infection control precautions and further promotion of antibiotic stewardship programmes. PMID: 29664716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zowawi HM, Syrmis MW, Kidd TJ, Balkhy HH, Walsh TR, Al Johani SM, Al Jindan RY, Alfaresi M, Ibrahim E, Al-Jardani A, Al Salman J, Dashti AA, Sidjabat HE, Baz O, Trembizki E, Whiley DM, Paterson DL Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibacterial activity and mode of action of ε-polylysine against Escherichia coli O157:H7.
CONCLUSION: The present study investigated the antimicrobial mechanism of ε-PL by measuring the content of cytoplasmic β-galactosidase, proteins and DNA. In addition, SEM and TEM were carried out to assess the mechanism. These results show that ε-PL has the ability to decrease the content of large molecules, cellular soluble proteins and nucleic acids associated with increasing the content of cytoplasmic β-galactosidase in supernatant by causing damage to the cell membranes. Consequently, the use of ε-PL as a natural antimicrobial agent should eventually become an appealing method in the f...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang X, Shi C, Liu Z, Pan F, Meng R, Bu X, Xing H, Deng Y, Guo N, Yu L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Occurrence of IMP-1 in non-baumannii Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Brazil.
In this study, we demonstrated that mobile elements carrying carbapenemase-encoding genes such as In86 may persist for a long period, allowing their mobilization from A. baumannii to other Acinetobacter spp. that are usually susceptible to multiple antimicrobials. PMID: 29624159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cayô R, Streling AP, Nodari CS, Matos AP, de Paula Luz A, Dijkshoorn L, Pignatari ACC, Gales AC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Influence of RNase E deficiency on the production of stx2-bearing phages and Shiga toxin in an RNase E-inducible strain of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7.
CONCLUSION: RNase E scarcity reduces stx2 phage production but not toxin. Normal concentrations of RNase E are likely required for correct phage morphogenesis. Our future work will address the mechanism of RNase E action on phage morphogenesis. PMID: 29620505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thuraisamy T, Lodato PB Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella Typhi carries an IncI1-ST31 plasmid encoding CTX-M-15.
CONCLUSIONS: The transmission of ceftriaxone resistance from E. coli to S. Typhi is of concern because of clinical resistance to ceftriaxone, the main stay of typhoid treatment. Whole genome sequencing, albeit several years after the isolation, demonstrated the success of containment but clinical trials with alternative agents are urgently required. PMID: 29616895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Djeghout B, Saha S, Sajib MSI, Tanmoy AM, Islam M, Kay GL, Langridge GC, Endtz HP, Wain J, Saha SK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

High-throughput sequencing identification and characterization of potentially adhesion-related small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed a multitude of novel putative adhesion-related sRNAs in S. mutans and contributed to a better understanding of information concerning the transcriptional regulation of adhesion in S. mutans. PMID: 29595415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhu W, Liu S, Liu J, Zhou Y, Lin H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Genotypic characterization of Haemophilus influenzae isolates from paediatric patients in Japan.
CONCLUSION: Non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi), mostly derived from pneumonia and AOM, were genetically diverse, in contrast to the predominance of H. influenzae type b (Hib) among meningitis cases. The associations between certain STs and β-lactam resistance among NTHi were confirmed. PMID: 29595417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Adachi Y, Ando M, Morozumi M, Ubukata K, Iwata S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the Cepheid Xpert HPV test and the HC2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test for detection of high-risk HPV infection in cervical smear samples in SurePath preservative fluid.
CONCLUSION: The Xpert HPV test is convenient to use on cervical cell samples collected for Pap smear specimens in BD SurePath preservative fluid within an hour and is a viable alternative to the HC2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test for HPV testing. PMID: 29580367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rabaan AA, Alfaraj SA, Alkhalifah MA Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Use of an immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates in routine diagnosis.
oli L Abstract Accurate identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates is essential for tuberculosis (TB) control, especially in a high-burden country such as Brazil. Conventional identification methods are laborious and time-consuming, while rapid molecular methods are expensive and require skilled personnel and appropriate physical laboratory infrastructure. Immunochromatographic assays (ICAs) have been shown to provide a rapid and reliable TB diagnosis at a low cost. The use of the SD Bioline TB Ag MPT64 ICA (MPT64 assay) for rapid identification of MTBC clinical isolates in the routine di...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Watanabe Pinhata JM, Lemes RA, Simeão FCDS, Souza AR, Chimara E, Ferrazoli L Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro evaluation of double-carbapenem combinations against OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates using time-kill studies.
CONCLUSION: Dual combinations of carbapenems, including those containing sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, were synergistic against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) K. pneumoniae isolates harbouring blaOXA-48. PMID: 29561258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Galani I, Nafplioti K, Chatzikonstantinou M, Souli M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Immunization with pneumococcal neuraminidases NanA, NanB and NanC to generate neutralizing antibodies and to increase survival in mice.
CONCLUSION: We recommend the inclusion of three pneumococcal neuraminidases in future protein vaccine formulations to prevent invasive pneumococcal infection caused by various serotypes. PMID: 29557769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Janapatla RP, Chen CL, Hsu MH, Liao WT, Chiu CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of group B streptococcus isolated among pregnant women and newborns in Rabat, Morocco.
CONCLUSION: In Morocco, maternal GBS colonization is high. Penicillin can continue to be the cornerstone of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. A pentavalent GBS vaccine (Ia, Ib, II, III and V) would have been effective against the majority of the colonizing cases in this setting, but a trivalent one (Ia, Ib and III) would only prevent 28 % of the cases. PMID: 29543148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moraleda C, Benmessaoud R, Esteban J, López Y, Alami H, Barkat A, Houssain T, Kabiri M, Bezad R, Chaacho S, Madrid L, Vila J, Muñoz-Almagro C, Bosch J, Soto SM, Bassat Q Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Raw milk intake: beware of emerging brucellosis.
Abstract Brucellosis is a challenging zoonosis to diagnose and treat. The recent outbreaks of Brucella abortus RB51 in several states in the United States, including New Jersey and Texas, due to raw milk consumption has raised the concern of drug-resistant Brucella spp. This commentary highlights the importance of being on the lookout for this emerging infection. PMID: 29537364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sfeir MM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Field trials of blood culture identification FilmArray in regional Australian hospitals.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a reduction of 1.21 days in the time taken to produce a definitive BCID compared to the previous year, translating into earlier communication of more specific blood culture results to the treating physician. Reduced time to definitive blood culture results has a direct benefit for isolated Australian communities at great distances from specialist hospital services. PMID: 29533172 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bzdyl NM, Urosevic N, Payne B, Brockenshire R, McIntyre M, Leung MJ, Weaire-Buchanan G, Geelhoed E, Inglis TJJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile shows no trade-off between toxin and spore production within the human host.
This study aimed to describe the correlation between Clostridium difficile spore and toxin levels within the human host. In addition, we assessed whether overgrowth of Candida albicans modified this association. METHODOLOGY: We measured toxin, spore and Candida albicans levels among 200 successively collected stool samples that tested positive for C. difficile, and PCR ribotyped these C. difficile isolates. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test the association between spore and toxin levels. Kruskal-Wallis tests and t-tests were used to compare the association between spore or toxin levels and h...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Blanco N, Walk S, Malani AN, Rickard A, Benn M, Eisenberg M, Zhang M, Foxman B Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from invasive disease in adults following the introduction of PCV10 in Brazil.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a predominance of non-PCV10 serotypes among IPD in the elderly population in circulating strains ca. 3 to 5 years after the introduction of PCV10 in Brazil. PMID: 29533176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Christophe BL, Mott M, da Cunha G, Caierão J, D Azevedo P, Dias C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

N-acetyl-cysteine increases the replication of Chlamydia pneumoniae and prolongs the clearance of the pathogen from mice.
CONCLUSION: Based on our results, it might be recommended that a mucolytic agent other than NAC, such as Ax, be used in respiratory diseases suspected to be caused by C. pneumoniae. PMID: 29521616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kókai D, Mosolygó T, Virók DP, Endrész V, Burián K Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Retrospective study on clonal relationship of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp. indicates closed circulation and initiation of clonal divergence.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the consequences of antimicrobial agents exerting a silent and strong selective force on the evolution of Klebsiella spp. The expansion of such analyses is of great importance for addressing rapidly emerging antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogens. PMID: 29521617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohapatra DP, Singh SK, Sahoo M, Patole S, Mishra M, Debata NK, Mohapatra H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The protective effect and diagnostic performance of NOX-5 in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever patients.
MG, Engin A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease. Reactive oxygen species that are mainly generated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) enzyme family have a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. The serum levels of NOX isoforms in patients with CCHF have yet to be assessed. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Cumhuriyet University, Turkey. Only patients with CCHF confirmed by the National Reference Virology Laboratory were enrolled in the study. The study subjects comprised 67 CCH...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Büyüktuna SA, Doğan HO, Bakir M, Elaldi N, Gözel MG, Engin A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Human respiratory syncytial virus: prevalence, viral co-infections and risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age at a general hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HRSV is high among children visiting the PGHB for ARI. HRSV infection and lower age are independently associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as LRTI. PMID: 29509134 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kabego L, Balol'Ebwami S, Kasengi JB, Miyanga S, Bahati YL, Kambale R, de Beer C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Hypervirulence and biofilm production in KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae CG258 isolated in Brazil.
This report suggests a close relationship between ST437 and weak biofilm production, given that all weakly biofilm-producing strains belonged to this sequence type. This also supports the dissemination of KPC-KP containing numerous virulence determinants belonging to the biofilm-producing CG258 type in Brazil, including hv and hm strains. These factors allow this pathogen to cause infections, leading to its rapid expansion and persistence in hospital settings. PMID: 29509136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Araújo BF, Ferreira ML, Campos PA, Royer S, Gonçalves IR, da Fonseca Batistão DW, Fernandes MR, Cerdeira LT, Brito CS, Lincopan N, Gontijo-Filho PP, Ribas RM Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Artemisia apiacea H. and Scutellaria baicalensis G. extracts.
CONCLUSION: A treatment using a mixture of herbs such as THAN-1 would be useful in the suppression of the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. PMID: 29504922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Trinh H, Yoo Y, Won KH, Ngo HTT, Yang JE, Cho JG, Lee SW, Kim KY, Yi TH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Changes in antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii group isolated in Greece, 2010-2015.
Abstract In recent years, hospitals in southeastern Europe have faced dramatically high rates of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. We analysed the evolution of resistance among clinical isolates of A. baumannii group obtained from nine tertiary hospitals throughout Greece over 6 years (2010-2015). Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using Vitek 2 or Microscan walkaway automated systems. Between 2010 and 2015, resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam increased from 46.2 to 88.2 % (P=0.021), resistance to gentamicin increased from 69.3 to 86.4 % (P=0.014) and resistance t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dafopoulou K, Tsakris A, Pournaras S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

The inhibition of Caco-2 proliferation by astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.
CONCLUSION: The natural astaxanthin from X. dendrorhous, at an appropriate concentration, is effective in terminating the viability of, or retarding the proliferative activity of, Caco-2 cells, without harmful effects on NOKs. PMID: 29504932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wayakanon K, Rueangyotchanthana K, Wayakanon P, Suwannachart C Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Roles of pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in branched-chain membrane fatty acid levels and associated functions in Staphylococcus aureus.
CONCLUSION: The BCFA composition of the cell membrane in S. aureus seems to significantly impact cell growth, membrane fluidity and resistance to daptomycin. PMID: 29498620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Singh VK, Sirobhushanam S, Ring RP, Singh S, Gatto C, Wilkinson BJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Clotrimazole is highly effective in vitro against feline Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates.
PMID: 29493488 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gagini T, Borba-Santos LP, Rodrigues AM, de Camargo ZP, Rozental S Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Laboratory challenges in the diagnosis of hepatitis E virus.
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus that is an important cause of both acute and chronic hepatitis worldwide. To date, there are eight HEV genotypes that can infect mammals. HEV-1 and HEV-2 infect exclusively humans, while HEV-3 and HEV-4 infect humans and various animals, mainly pigs and deer. Additionally, two new genotypes (HEV-5 and HEV-6) infect mainly wild boar. Recently, newly discovered genotypes HEV-7 and HEV-8 were found to infect camels and possibly humans. Nevertheless, the epidemiological distribution of HEV-7 is not well established. HEV-8 is another newly discovered genotype that was id...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Al-Sadeq DW, Majdalawieh AF, Mesleh AG, Abdalla OM, Nasrallah GK Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of two commercial quantitative PCR assays for EBV DNA detection and their correlation with the first WHO International Standard for EBV.
CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative results of both assays showed reasonable correlation with each other and a good correlation with the WHO standard. PMID: 29480795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Engelmann I, Alidjinou EK, Lazrek M, Pouillaude JM, Ogiez J, Rose F, Duhamel A, Dewilde A, Hober D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research