Aryl-1H-imidazole[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline Cu(II) complexes: Electrochemical and DNA interaction studies.
Abstract The reaction of aryl imidazo[4,5f] [1,10]phenanthrolines with Cu(NO3)2 lead to the formation of Cu(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L)(NO3)2] where L=PIP, 2-(phenyl) [4,5f] imidazo phenanthroline; HPIP=2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo [4,5f] phenanthroline and NIP=2-(naphthyl) [4,5f] imidazo phenanthroline. The interaction of these complexes with calf thymus DNA has been studied using viscosity measurements, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical nuclease activity of these complexes has also been investigated. All complexes cleave DNA via oxidative pathway involving singlet oxygen. Molecular docking st...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 23, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rajebhosale BS, Dongre SN, Deshpande SS, Kate AN, Kumbhar AA Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

The influence of functional groups on the permeation and distribution of antimycobacterial rhodamine chelators.
Abstract We formerly hypothesized a mechanism whereby the antimycobacterial efficiency of a set of rhodamine labelled iron chelators is improved via the rhodamine fluorophore which enhances the chelators' permeation properties through membranes. To validate our hypothesis in a cellular context and to understand the influence of the structure of the fluorophore on the chelator's uptake and distribution within macrophages we now report comparative confocal microscopy studies performed with a set of rhodamine labelled chelators. We identify the functional groups of the chelator's framework that favor uptake by macrop...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 22, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Moniz T, Leite A, Silva T, Gameiro P, Gomes MS, de Castro B, Rangel M Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

PML-RAR α stabilized by zinc in human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells.
PML-RARα stabilized by zinc in human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells. J Inorg Biochem. 2017 Jul 19;175:92-100 Authors: Zhu B, Wang JY, Zhou JJ, Zhou F, Cheng W, Liu YT, Wang J, Chen X, Chen DH, Luo L, Hua ZC Abstract Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized and driven by the promyelocytic leukemia protein-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα) fusion gene. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of PML-RARα degradation in the treatment against APL. Considering the presence of two zinc fingers in the PML-RARα fusion protein, we explored the function o...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 19, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhu B, Wang JY, Zhou JJ, Zhou F, Cheng W, Liu YT, Wang J, Chen X, Chen DH, Luo L, Hua ZC Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Characterizing activation mechanisms and binding preferences of ruthenium metallo-prodrugs by a competitive binding assay.
Abstract The activation mechanisms and reactivity of ruthenium metallo-prodrug lead structures were investigated in detail using capillary zone electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) in a time-dependent manner and by exposing to a protein/oligonucleotide mixture. The competitive assays were performed with sodium trans-[RuCl4(HInd)2] where Hind=indazole (NKP-1339), [(η(6)-p-cymene)RuCl2(pta)], where pta=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) and [(η(6)-biphenyl)RuCl(1,2-ethylenediamine)]PF6 (RM175). Molecular and quantitative information on binding preferences was obtained by coupling CZE to electro...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 16, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Artner C, Holtkamp HU, Hartinger CG, Meier-Menches SM Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

New dinuclear palladium(II) complexes: Studies of the nucleophilic substitution reactions, DNA/BSA interactions and cytotoxic activity.
ić B Abstract Six new dinuclear Pd(II) complexes, [{Pd(2,2'-bipy)Cl}2(μ-pz)](ClO4)2 (Pd1), [{Pd(dach)Cl}2(μ-pz)](ClO4)2 (Pd2), [{Pd(en)Cl}2(μ-pz)](ClO4)2 (Pd3), [{Pd(2,2'-bipy)Cl}2(μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO4)2 (Pd4), [{Pd(dach)Cl}2(μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO4)2 (Pd5) and [{Pd(en)Cl}2(μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO4)2 (Pd6) (where 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridyl, pz=pyrazine, dach=trans-(±)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane, en=ethylenediamine, 4,4'-bipy=4,4'-bipyridyl) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental microanalysis, IR, (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The pKa values of corresponding diaqua complexes were d...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 16, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ćoćić D, Jovanović S, Nišavić M, Baskić D, Todorović D, Popović S, Bugarčić ŽD, Petrović B Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Synthesis and anti-diabetic activity of new N,N-dimethylphenylenediamine-derivatized nitrilotriacetic acid vanadyl complexes.
Abstract Vanadium compounds are promising anti-diabetic agents. However, reducing the metal toxicity while keeping/improving the hypoglycemic effect is still a big challenge towards the success of anti-diabetic vanadium drugs. To improve the therapeutic potency using the anti-oxidative strategy, we synthesized new N,N-dimethylphenylenediamine (DMPD)-derivatized nitrilotriacetic acid vanadyl complexes ([VO(dmada)]). The in vitro biological evaluations revealed that the DMPD-derivatized complexes showed improved antioxidant capacity and lowered cytotoxicity on HK-2 cells than bis(maltolato)oxidovanadium (IV) (BMOV)....
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 8, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Niu X, Yang J, Yang X Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Biotin-Pt (IV)-indomethacin hybrid: A targeting anticancer prodrug providing enhanced cancer cellular uptake and reversing cisplatin resistance.
Abstract A Pt(IV) prodrug (2) composed of cancer-targeting biotin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in the axial positions of the six-coordinated octahedral geometry derived from cisplatin was developed, which could be highly accumulated in cancer cells more than normal ones and activated by endogenous reducing molecules to release cisplatin and indomethacin moieties simultaneously to inhibit tumor progression synergistically. In vitro assays revealed that 2 exhibited significantly selective inhibition to the tested cancer cell lines and sensitivity to cisplatin resistant cancer cells. Moreover,...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 4, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hu W, Fang L, Hua W, Gou S Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Improve the anticancer potency of the platinum(II) complexes through functionalized leaving group.
Abstract Two platinum(II) complexes with 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate as a leaving group were synthesized and spectrally characterized. In vitro cytotoxicity study on these complexes indicated that complex 2 showed considerable cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. Notably, the higher antiproliferative activity of complex 2 relative to the corresponding parent compound [Pt(dach)(CBDCA)] demonstrated that the introduction of two methoxy groups in the 1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylate (CBDCA) can improve the anticancer activity of the resulting platinum(II) complexes. Moreover, cellular accumulations ...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 2, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhao J, Wang D, Xu G, Gou S Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Roles of a mitochondrial AccSCO2 gene from Apis cerana cerana in oxidative stress responses.
Abstract In eukaryotes, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a multimeric protein complex that is the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of mitochondria. Syntheses of cytochrome c oxidase (SCO) proteins are copper-donor chaperones involved in metalation of the CuA redox center of COX. However, its other precise actions are not yet understood. Here, we report the characterization of AccSCO2 from Apis cerana cerana (Acc). Our data showed that AccSCO2 expression was induced by cold (4°C), CdCl2, HgCl2, ultraviolet (UV) light, and H2O2 and was inhibited by different pesticide treatments. In addition,...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - July 2, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jia H, Ma M, Zhai N, Liu Z, Wang H, Guo X, Xu B Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Anti-cancer gold(I) phosphine complexes: Cyclic trimers and tetramers containing the P-Au-P moiety.
We report the application of cationic tri- and tetra-nuclear gold(I) phosphine complexes [Au3(μ-dppen)3]X3 and [Au4(μ-dppa)4]X4 (X=OTf, PF6) [OTf=trifluoromethanesulfonate, dppen=trans-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethene, dppa=bis(diphenylphosphino)acetylene] for cancer treatment. The results of cytotoxicity tests on four different cancer cells [prostate (DU145), cervical (HeLa), breast (MDAMB-231) and fibro sarcoma (HT1080)] indicate these complexes possess remarkable tumor cell growth inhibitory effects and high selectivity towards cancer cells. The anti-tumor mechanism of the tri- and tetra-nuclear gold(I) complexes ...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 28, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Reddy TS, Privér SH, Mirzadeh N, Bhargava SK Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Controlling gold nanoparticle seeded growth in thermophilic ferritin protein templates.
In this study, we explore whether using a gold complex with electrostatic complementarity to the anionic ferritin cavity can promote efficient seeded nanoparticle growth. We also compare wt AfFtn and a closed pore mutant AfFtn to explore whether the ferritin pores influence final AuNP size. PMID: 28683348 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry)
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pulsipher KW, Honig S, Deng S, Dmochowski IJ Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

High resolution crystal structure of a fluoride-inhibited organophosphate-degrading metallohydrolase.
Abstract Metal ion-dependent, organophosphate-degrading enzymes (OP hydrolases) have received increasing attention due to their ability to degrade and thus detoxify commonly used pesticides and nerve agents such as sarin and VX. These enzymes thus garner strong potential as bioremediators. The OP hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (OpdA) is one of the most efficient members of this group of enzymes. Previous studies have indicated that the choice of the hydrolysis-initiating nucleophile may depend on the pH of the reaction, with a metal ion-bridging hydroxide being preferred at lower pH (i.e. pH≤8.5), and...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Selleck C, Guddat LW, Ollis DL, Schenk G, Pedroso MM Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Mononuclear gold(III) complexes with phenanthroline ligands as efficient inhibitors of angiogenesis: A comparative study with auranofin and sunitinib.
an MI Abstract Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV-vis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In these complexes, 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthrolines are monodentatedly coordinated to the Au(III) ion through the N7 and N4 nitrogen atoms, respectively. In comparison to the clinically relevant anti-angiogenic compounds auranofin and sunitinib, gold(III)-phenanthroline complexes showed from 1.5- to 20-fold higher anti-angiogenic potential, a...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pavic A, Glišić BĐ, Vojnovic S, Warżajtis B, Savić ND, Antić M, Radenković S, Janjić GV, Nikodinovic-Runic J, Rychlewska U, Djuran MI Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of two pentagonal-bipyramidal Fe(III) complexes with dihydrazone of 2,6-diacetylpyridine and Girard's T reagent. Anticancer properties of various metal complexes of the same ligand.
ić B Abstract In this work synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of two isothiocyanato Fe(III) complexes with 2,2'-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(ethylidyne-1-hydrazinyl-2-ylidene)]bis[N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxoethanaminium] dichloride (H2LCl2) ligand, with composition [FeL(NCS)2]SCN·2H2O and [FeL(NCS)2]2[Fe(H2O)(NCS)5]·4H2O, has been reported. Both iron(III) complexes possess the same pentagonal-bipyramidal complex cation, while the nature of their anions depends on mole ratio of NH4SCN and FeCl3·6H2O used in reaction. Cytotoxic activity of new Fe(III) complexes, as well as of previously synth...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Anđelković K, Milenković MR, Pevec A, Turel I, Matić IZ, Vujčić M, Sladić D, Radanović D, Brađan G, Belošević S, Čobeljić B Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Zn(II) - pramlintide: Stability, binding sites and unexpected aggregation.
Abstract Pramlintide is an antidiabetic drug which mimics amylin - a small peptide co-secreted from pancreatic β-cells together with insulin, one of the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. In the course of the disease, amylin misfolds into small oligomers or to an aggregated β-sheet amyloid fiber. The misfolding mechanism is not yet quite understood, but it is clear that zinc ions play an important role in the process. This work sheds new light on the role of zinc and pramlintide in the course of the disease, giving a detailed description of the Zn(II)-pramlintide complex, in which the metal ion binds to the i...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 23, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Łoboda D, Rowińska-Żyrek M Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Covalent modifications of the amyloid beta peptide by hydroxynonenal: Effects on metal ion binding by monomers and insights into the fibril topology.
Abstract Amyloid β peptides (Aβ) and metal ions are associated with oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress, acting on ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains, produces diverse products, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), which can covalently modify the Aβ that helped to produce it. To examine possible feedback mechanisms involving Aβ, metal ions and HNE production, the effects of HNE modification and fibril formation on metal ion binding was investigated. Results indicate that copper(II) generally inhibits the modification of His side chains in Aβ by HNE, but ...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 20, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Grasso G, Komatsu H, Axelsen PH Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Effect of electronic and steric properties of 8-substituted quinolines in gold(III) complexes: Synthesis, electrochemistry, stability, interactions and antiproliferative studies.
C, Alemán J, Cabrera S Abstract In this work the synthesis and characterization of new gold(III) complexes with quinoline ligands are described. These complexes contain different steric and electronic properties of the donor atom at 8-position of the quinoline in order to modulate their stability and their biological activity. Their redox potential, stability in organic and aqueous solvents, and their biological activity in a panel of six different human tumor cell lines are also presented. In addition, interaction studies of the complexes with model biological molecules (pBR322 and L-acetyl-N-cysteine) wer...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 17, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Casado-Sánchez A, Martín-Santos C, Padrón JM, Mas-Ballesté R, Navarro-Ranninger C, Alemán J, Cabrera S Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Anticancer activity of hydroxy- and sulfonamide-azobenzene platinum(II) complexes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells.
, Wilson JJ Abstract The syntheses of three platinum(II) complexes bearing sulfonamide- ( (E)-2-(4-methylphenylsulfonamido)-2',6'-difluoroazobenzene, HL1) and hydroxy-azo-2,6-difluorobenzene ((E)-2-((2,6-difluorophenyl)diazenyl)phenol, HL2) bidentate ligands is described. These complexes, [Pt(L1)(DMSO)Cl] (1), [Pt(L2)(DMSO)Cl] (2), and [Pt(L2)2] (3), were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Despite bearing azobenzene functional groups, none of the three complexes undergo photoisomerization. The anticancer activities of these complexes were evaluated in wild...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 17, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Samper KG, Marker SC, Bayón P, MacMillan SN, Keresztes I, Palacios Ò, Wilson JJ Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Recent development of transition metal complexes with in vivo antitumor activity.
Abstract The often severe side effects displayed by currently used platinum and ruthenium complexes have motivated researchers to design and develop transition metal-based anti-tumor agents with reduced toxicity. Distinct from organic anti-tumor drugs, transition metal complexes possess several properties that render them as promising scaffolds for anti-cancer drug discovery. While a vast number of metal complexes have been synthesized and reported to be promising and potent in vitro anticancer active compounds, fewer have shown efficacy in in vivo models. The demonstration of in vivo potency is an essential step ...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 16, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liang JX, Zhong HJ, Yang G, Vellaisamy K, Ma DL, Leung CH Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Evidence of promising biological-pharmacological activities of the sertraline-based copper complex: (SerH2)2[CuCl4].
, Ferrer EG Abstract In the current study the ability of copper complex to exert multiple biological activities is combined with the pharmacological action of sertraline (SerH2Cl, antidepressant drug). The hydrated and anhydrous forms of the tetrachlorocuprate(II) salts, namely (SerH2)2[CuCl4]·½H2O and (SerH2)2[CuCl4], were synthesized and characterized by physicochemical methods. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The hydrate complex crystallizes in the monoclinic P21 space group with a=8.0807(2) Å, b=36.2781(8) Å, c=12.6576(3) Å, β=95.665(2)&...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 1, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Martini N, Parente JE, Toledo ME, Escudero GE, Laino CH, Martínez Medina JJ, Echeverría GA, Piro OE, Lezama L, Williams PAM, Ferrer EG Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

New Cu(II) complexes with pyrazolyl derived Schiff base ligands: Synthesis and biological evaluation.
Abstract Since the discovery of cisplatin there has been a continuous pursuit for new metallodrugs showing higher efficacies and lower side effects. In this work, new copper(II) complexes (C1-C6) of Schiff bases derived from pyrazolyl were developed. Through condensation of 5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carbohydrazide with different aromatic aldehydes - pyridoxal, salicylaldehyde, 3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxynaphthene-1-carbaldehyde - a set of new pyrazole based "ONO" tridentate Schiff bases were obtained in moderate to good yields - L1-L6, as well as their Cu(II...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - June 1, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ribeiro N, Roy S, Butenko N, Cavaco I, Pinheiro T, Alho I, Marques F, Avecilla F, Costa Pessoa J, Correia I Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Unfolding biological properties of a versatile dicopper(II) precursor and its two mononuclear copper(II) derivatives.
Abstract Synthesis, inter-conversions and biological study of the dichloro bridged dicopper(II) compound [CuLCl]2 (1) and its two mononuclear derivatives [CuLCl(H2O)]·H2O (2) and [CuLCl(py)] (3) (HL=2-(2-pyridylmethyleneamino)benzenesulfonic acid) are described. The dimeric compound 1 collapses into monomers 2 and 3 in the presence of coordinating solvents, water and pyridine, respectively, and 1 is regenerated upon simple stirring of 2 or 3 in methanol. The reactions of 1 with neutral (present study) and charged (earlier studies) ligands result in monomeric and multimeric compounds, respectively, attesting...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 31, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Paul A, Hazra S, Sharma G, Guedes da Silva MFC, Koch B, Pombeiro AJL Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Negligible interaction of [Ru(Phen)3](2+) with human serum albumin makes it promising for a reliable invivo assessment of the tissue oxygenation.
Abstract The interaction between a ruthenium - based water soluble oxygen probe ([Ru(Phen)3](2+), phen - phenanthroline) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated with the aim of describing the influence of HSA on the [Ru(Phen)3](2+) luminescence properties. Nowadays, several oxygen sensitive luminescent probes are used to determine the oxygen level in different compartments of living organisms. However, they can interact, depending on their hydrophilic/hydrophobic characters, with various serum proteins, and/or lipids, during their utilization for invivo oxygen measurement. Since HSA is the most abundant ser...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 31, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Belej D, Jurasekova Z, Nemergut M, Wagnieres G, Jancura D, Huntosova V Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Structural influences on the activity of bismuth(III) indole-carboxylato complexes towards Helicobacter pylori and Leishmania.
Abstract Seven new bismuth(III) complexes derived from indole-carboxylic acids have been synthesised: five are homoleptic; [Bi(IAA)3] B1, [Bi(IPA)3] B2, [Bi(IBA)3] B3, [Bi(MICA)3] B4, [Bi(IGA)3] B6, and two are heteroleptic [BiPh(MICA)2] B5 (where IAA-H=2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid, IPA-H=3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid, IBA-H=4-(1H-indol-3-yl)butanoic acid, IGA-H=2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetic acid, and MICA-H=1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid). All complexes were fully characterised by elemental analysis, infrared and mass-spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H, (13)C) spectroscopy. Complex [BiPh(I...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 31, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pathak A, Blair VL, Ferrero RL, Kedzierski L, Andrews PC Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Antitumoral effect of vanadium compounds in malignant melanoma cell lines.
In this study we evaluated the anticancer activity against malignant melanoma (MM) of four different vanadium species: the inorganic anion vanadate(V) (indicated with VN), and three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes, [V(IV)O(dhp)2] where dhp(-) is the anion 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS2), [V(IV)O(mpp)2] where mpp(-) is 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS3), and [V(IV)O(ppp)2] where ppp(-) is 1-phenyl-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS4). The antitumor effects of these compounds were studied against two different MM cell lines (A375 and CN-mel) and a fibro...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 22, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rozzo C, Sanna D, Garribba E, Serra M, Cantara A, Palmieri G, Pisano M Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Controlled self-assembling structures of ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates composed of Ala-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain.
Abstract Bioorganometallic ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates with the Ala-Pro-cysteamine chain, Fc-L-Ala-L-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH (2) and Fc-L-Ala-D-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH (4) (Fc=ferrocenoyl), were prepared by the reduction of the ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates, Fc-L-Ala-L-Pro-cystamine-L-Pro-L-Ala-Fc (1) or Fc-L-Ala-D-Pro-cystamine-D-Pro-L-Ala-Fc (3), respectively. Control of the self-assembling structures of the ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates was demonstrated by changing the chirality of the amino acid. The molecular structure of 2 composed of the L-Ala-L-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain confirmed the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bon...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 18, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Moriuchi T, Nishiyama T, Tayano Y, Hirao T Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Photochemical studies of cis-[Ru(bpy)2(4-bzpy)(CO)](PF6)2 and cis-[Ru(bpy)2(4-bzpy)(Cl)](PF6): Blue light-induced nucleobase binding.
Abstract The ruthenium(II) compounds cis-[Ru(bpy)2(4-bzpy)(CO)](PF6)2 (I) and cis-[Ru(bpy)2(4-bzpy)(Cl)](PF6) (II) (4-bzpy=4-benzoylpyridine, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The crystal structure of II was determined by X-ray diffraction. The photochemical behavior of I in aqueous solution shows that irradiation with ultraviolet light (365nm) releases both CO and 4-bzpy leading to the formation of the cis-[Ru(bpy)2(H2O)2](2+) ion as identified by NMR and electronic spectroscopy. Carbon monoxide release was confirmed with the myoglobin method ...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 15, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: de Sousa AP, Carvalho EM, Ellena J, Sousa EHS, de Sousa JR, Lopes LGF, Ford PC, Holanda AKM Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

A novel porphyrin-based molecular probe ZnTCPPSpm4 with catalytic, stabilizing and chiroptical diagnostic power towards DNA B-Z transition.
Abstract In this work we have designed a new zinc(II) porphyrin with four spermines conjugate in the meso positions, meso-tetrakis-(4-carboxysperminephenyl)porphyrin, ZnTCPPSpm4) with the aim of acting as a chiroptical probe for the Z-form of DNA, a high energy transient conformation of DNA. In addition to monitor by Electronic Circular Dichroism chiroptical response the formation of Z-DNA in the presence of micromolar concentration of spermine, this porphyrin based molecular probe is also able to catalyze and stabilize this important DNA structure. The ZnTCPPSpm4 conjugate represents a perfect example of single m...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 14, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gangemi CMA, D'Urso A, Tomaselli GA, Berova N, Purrello R Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Uptake of Ga-curcumin derivatives in different cancer cell lines: Toward the development of new potential (68)Ga-labelled curcuminoids-based radiotracers for tumour imaging.
This study is focused onto the development of curcuminoid complexes with gallium-68 employed as potential new radio-labelled probes to detect neoplastic tissues through imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography. To this purpose, the uptake of three Ga-curcuminoid complexes, namely Ga(CUR)2(+), Ga(DAC)2(+), Ga(bDHC)2(+), by various tumour cell lines was compared with the uptake of the same compounds by normal human lymphocytes by flow cytometry using the intrinsic fluorescence of the curcuminoids. Ga(CUR)2(+), and particularly Ga(DAC)2(+), showed a higher uptake by colorectal carcinoma (HT29) and lymphoma (K56...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 10, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rubagotti S, Croci S, Ferrari E, Orteca G, Iori M, Capponi PC, Versari A, Asti M Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Structure-activity relationship between Zn(2+)-chelated alkylated poly(1-vinylimidazole) and gene transfection.
Abstract The structure-activity relationship between Zn(2+)-chelated alkylated poly(1-vinylimidazole) (PVIm) and gene transfection has been demonstrated. From a chemical structure perspective, ethylated PVIm (PVIm-Et) chelated the most Zn(2+) ions compared to methylated PVIm (PVIm-Me) and butylated PVIm (PVIm-Bu). The resulting Zn(2+)-chelated PVIm-Et formed more stable complexes with plasmid DNA complex than non-chelated PVIm-Et. From a biological activity perspective, the Zn(2+)-chelated PVIm-Et delivered the highest amount of Zn(2+) ions inside the cell, corresponding to the highest gene transfection. These res...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 10, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Asayama S, Sakata M, Kawakami H Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Design, synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes.
Abstract A new ligand PFPIP (PFPIP=2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)[4,5-f]imadazo [1,10]phenanthroline) and its four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(NN)2(PFPIP)](ClO4)2 (NN=dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, 1; bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, 2; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline, 3; dmp: 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and ESI-MS. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of the ligand and complexes toward BEL-7402, A549, HeLa, HepG2 and MG-63 cell lines was evaluated using MTT method (MTT=(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromi...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 10, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tang B, Wan D, Lai SH, Yang HH, Zhang C, Wang XZ, Zeng CC, Liu YJ Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

A comparison study on RNase A oligomerization induced by cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin.
Abstract Cisplatin (CDDP) can form interprotein cross-links, leading to the formation of platinated oligomers. A dimer, a trimer and higher oligomers of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) obtained upon reaction with CDDP in 1:10 protein to metal ratio at 37°C have been previously characterized. Here, we verify the ability of carboplatin and oxaliplatin to induce RNase A oligomerization under the same experimental conditions. The amount of formed RNase A oligomers was compared with that obtained in the reaction of the protein with CDDP. Among the three anticancer agents, CDDP is the most reactive and the ...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 9, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Picone D, Donnarumma F, Ferraro G, Gotte G, Fagagnini A, Butera G, Donadelli M, Merlino A Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Competitive reactions among glutathione, cisplatin and copper-phenanthroline complexes.
Abstract A large number of cancers are treated with cisplatin (CDDP). However, its use is limited by drug resistance, which is often related to intracellular levels of thiol-containing molecules such as glutathione (GSH). The role of GSH in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells is still unclear. GSH may form adducts with CDDP which results in the deactivation of the drug, and, actually, a high intracellular level of GSH was observed in some cisplatin-resistant cancers. To overcome drug resistance, CDDP is often administered in combination with one or more drugs to exploit a possible synergistic effect. In previous stud...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 8, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cadoni E, Valletta E, Caddeo G, Isaia F, Cabiddu MG, Vascellari S, Pivetta T Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Prediction of ligand effects in platinum-amyloid- β coordination.
Prediction of ligand effects in platinum-amyloid-β coordination. J Inorg Biochem. 2017 May 02;173:44-51 Authors: Turner M, Deeth RJ, Platts JA Abstract Ligand field molecular mechanics (LFMM) and semi-empirical Parametric Model 7 (PM7) methods are applied to a series of six Pt(II)-Ligand systems binding to the N-terminal domain of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Molecular dynamics using a combined LFMM/Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER) approach is used to explore the conformational freedom of the peptide fragment, and identifies favourable platinum binding modes and pep...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - May 2, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Turner M, Deeth RJ, Platts JA Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Structural insights into the binding of buckwheat glutaredoxin with GSH and regulation of its catalytic activity.
Abstract Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are ubiquitous thioltransferases and members of the thioredoxin (Trx) fold superfamily. They have multiple functions in cells including oxidative stress responses and cell signaling. A novel glutaredoxin from buckwheat (rbGrx) with higher catalytic activity was identified, cloned, and purified. The structures of glutathionylated rbGrx and an rbGrx mutant, in which cysteine 39 was mutated to alanine, were solved by x-ray diffraction at a resolution of 2.05Å and 2.29Å, respectively. In rbGrx, GSH (glutathione) is bound at the conserved GSH-binding site, and its structure sho...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang X, Wang W, Li C, Zhao Y, Yuan H, Tan X, Wu L, Wang Z, Wang H Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Reaction mechanism of sterol hydroxylation by steroid C25 dehydrogenase - Homology model, reactivity and isoenzymatic diversity.
iec M Abstract Steroid C25 dehydrogenase (S25DH) is a molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase isolated from the anaerobic Sterolibacterium denitrificans Chol-1S. S25DH is classified as 'EBDH-like' enzyme (EBDH, ethylbenzene dehydrogenase) and catalyzes the introduction of an OH group to the C25 atom of a sterol aliphatic side-chain. Due to its regioselectivity, S25DH is proposed as a catalyst in production of pharmaceuticals: calcifediol or 25-hydroxycholesterol. The aim of presented research was to obtain structural model of catalytic subunit α and investigate the reaction mechanism of the O2-independent terti...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rugor A, Wójcik-Augustyn A, Niedzialkowska E, Mordalski S, Staroń J, Bojarski A, Szaleniec M Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Arylsulfanyl groups - Suitable side chains for 5-substituted 1,10-phenanthroline and nickel complexes as G4 ligands and telomerase inhibitors.
In this report, we have investigated the side chain effect on G-quadruplex recognition by evaluating a series of 5-substituted phenanthroline-based metal complexes (Phen-Ni) binding to telomeric G-quadruplex DNA. Results from biophysical methods including fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) thermal denaturation, CD titration, and the fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay suggest that several Phen-Ni complexes bind to G-quadruplex DNA with submicromolar (G4)DC50 values. Arylsulfanyl groups at the 5 position of 1,10-phenanthroline are the best side chains regarding binding affinity and selectivity towards G-...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu W, Wang S, Dotsenko IA, Samoshin VV, Xue L Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity studies on BEL-7402 cells.
Abstract Two new ligand PTTP (2-phenoxy-1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene) and FTTP (2-(3-fluoronaphthalen-2-yloxy)-1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene) and their six ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(N-N)2(PTTP)](ClO4)2 and [Ru(N-N)2(FTTP)](ClO4)2 (N-N=dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipiridine; dmp: 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline; ttbpy: 4,4'-ditertiarybutyl-2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes against cancer cells HeLa, BEL-7402, A549, HepG-2, HOS and normal cell LO2 was evaluated by MTT method. The IC50 values range from 1.5±0.1 to 55.9±7.5μM. Comple...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 27, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wan D, Lai SH, Zeng CC, Zhang C, Tang B, Liu YJ Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Novel copper(II) complexes with hydrazides and heterocyclic bases: Synthesis, structure and biological studies.
rra W Abstract Five new copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(NO)(NN)(ClO4)2], in which NO=4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid hydrazide (4-FH) or 4-nitrobenzoic hydrazide (4-NH) and NN=1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4-4'-dimethoxy-2-2'-bipyridine (dmb) or 2,2-bipyridine (bipy) were synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. The X-ray structural analysis of one representative compound indicates that the geometry around the copper ion is distorted octahedron, in which the ion is coordinated to hydrazide via the terminal nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen, and to heterocyclic bases via their two nitrogen at...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 26, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Paixão DA, Marzano IM, Jaimes EHL, Pivatto M, Campos DL, Pavan FR, Deflon VM, Maia PIDS, Da Costa Ferreira AM, Uehara IA, Silva MJB, Botelho FV, Pereira-Maia EC, Guilardi S, Guerra W Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Chlorite reactivity with myoglobin: Analogy with peroxide and nitrite chemistry?
Abstract Stopped-flow UV-vis data allow for the first time direct spectroscopic detection of a ferryl species during the reaction of met myoglobin (Mb) with chlorite, analogous to what is observed in the reaction with peroxides. Ferryl is also observed in the reaction of oxy Mb+chlorite. A pathway involving Fe-O-O-ClO2 is explored by analogy with the Fe-O-O-NO and Fe-O-O-NO2 previously proposed as intermediates in the reactions of oxy globins with nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively. However, Fe-O-O-ClO2 is not detectable in these stopped-flow experiments and is in fact, unlike its nitrogenous congeners, predic...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 23, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bischin C, Mot A, Stefancu A, Leopold N, Hathazi D, Damian G, Silaghi-Dumitrescu R Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Copper(II) and iron(III) ions inhibit respiration and increase free radical-mediated phospholipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria: Effect of antioxidants.
Repetto MG Abstract Rat liver mitochondria (1.5-2.1mg protein·mL(-1)) supplemented with either 25 and 100μM Cu(2+) or 100 and 500μM Fe(3+) show inhibition of active respiration (O2 consumption in state 3) and increased phospholipid peroxidation . Liver mitochondria were supplemented with the antioxidants reduced glutathione, N-acetylcysteine or butylated hydroxitoluene, to evaluate their effects on the above-mentioned alterations. Although the mitochondrial dysfunction is clearly associated to phospholipid peroxidation, the different responses to antioxidant supplementation indicate that the metal io...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 19, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Saporito-Magriñá C, Musacco-Sebio R, Acosta JM, Bajicoff S, Paredes-Fleitas P, Reynoso S, Boveris A, Repetto MG Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Synthesis, structure and cytotoxicity of a series of Dioxidomolybdenum(VI) complexes featuring Salan ligands.
Abstract Seven hexacoordinated cis-dioxidomolybdenum(VI) complexes [MoO2L(1-7)] (1-7) derived from various tetradentate diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" ligands, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxy-3-X-5-Y-6-Z-benzyl)-1,2-diaminoethane {(X=Br, Y=Me, Z=H (H2L(1)); X=Me, YCl, Z=H (H2L(2)); X=(i)Pr, Y=Cl, Z=Me (H2L(3))} and N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxy-3-X-5-Y-6-Z-benzyl)-1,2-diaminopropane {(X=Y=(t)Bu, Z=H (H2L(4)); X=Y=Me, Z=H (H2L(5)); X=(i)Pr, YCl, Z=Me (H2L(6)); X=Y=Br, Z=H (H2L(7))} containing O-N donor atoms, have been isolated and structurally characterized. The formation of cis-dioxidomolybdenum(VI) complexes w...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 18, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Roy S, Mohanty M, Pasayat S, Majumder S, Senthilguru K, Banerjee I, Reichelt M, Reuter H, Sinn E, Dinda R Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Ferrocenyl and organic novobiocin derivatives: Synthesis and their in vitro biological activity.
Abstract A focused series of novobiocin derivatives containing a ferrocene unit together with their corresponding organic novobiocin analogues have been synthesized in modest to good yields. These compounds were screened for biological activity against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) and human breast cancer cell line (HCC38). With the exception of compounds 5c and 5d, the general trend observed is that incorporation of the ferrocene moiety into novobiocin scaffold resulted in compounds 6a-d/6f showing enhanced activity compared to organic analogues 5a-b and 5e-f. PMID: 28441548 [...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 13, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mbaba M, Mabhula AN, Boel N, Edkins AL, Isaacs M, Hoppe HC, Khanye SD Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Three phases in pH dependent heme abstraction from myoglobin.
Abstract The extent of heme extraction from myoglobin (Mb) by methylethyl ketone is found to be pH dependent and show three distinct phases. Parallel investigations of the protein using resonance Raman (rR) and circular dichroism (CD) across these pH regions indicate that these phases correspond to three different protonation steps in holoMb as the pH of the solution changed. The first transition occurs between pH5-6 and is due to the protonation of one of the heme propionate groups which disrupts its H-bonding with Arg 45 in the loop. The 2nd phase (pH5-4) likely involves the protonation of the 2nd propionate whi...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 9, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mukherjee S, Mukherjee M, Bandyopadhyay S, Dey A Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Development and applications of two colorimetric and fluorescent indicators for Hg(2+) detection.
Abstract Two rhodamine-active probes RBAI (Rhodamine B-di-Aminobenzene-phenyl Isothiocyanate) and RGAI (Rhodamine 6G-di-Aminobenzene-phenyl Isothiocyanate) were designed, synthesized and characterized. The probes were developed as fluorescent and colorimetric chemodosimeters in ethanol-water solution with a broad pH span (5-10) and high selectivity toward Hg(2+) but no significant response toward other common competitive cations. The Hg(2+)-promoted ring opening of spirolactam of the rhodamine moiety induced cyclic guanylation of the thiourea moiety, which resulted in the dual chromo- and fluorogenic observation (...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 9, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Long Y, Yang MP, Yang BQ Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Cadmium induces Ca(2+) mediated, calpain-1/caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in primary cultured rat proximal tubular cells.
This study was designed to investigate the signal pathway involved in [Ca(2+)]c elevation-mediated apoptosis. The results confirmed the elevation of [Ca(2+)]c by confocal microscopy and enhancement of the apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometer when rPT cells were exposed to Cd for 12h. Then we demonstrated that Cd enhanced the protein levels of active calpain-1 and caspase-3 in rPT cells. Pretreatment with a cytosolic Ca(2+) chelator, 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), markedly blocked the up-regulation of active calpain-1 and caspase-3 and inhibited t...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 8, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang H, Zhai N, Chen Y, Xu H, Huang K Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

New iminodibenzyl derivatives with anti-leishmanial activity.
to BP Abstract Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by sandflies. Current treatments are expensive and time-consuming, involving Sb(V)-based compounds, lipossomal amphotericin B and miltefosine. Recent studies suggest that inhibition of trypanothione reductase (TR) could be a specific target in the development of new drugs because it is essential and exclusive to trypanosomatids. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of new iminodibenzyl derivatives (dado) with ethylenediamine (ea), ethanolamine (en) and diethylenetriamine (dien) and their copper(...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 4, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Arndt A, Liria CW, Yokoyama-Yasunaka JKU, Machini MT, Uliana SRB, Espósito BP Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Design an anticancer copper(II) pro-drug based on the flexible IIA subdomain of human serum albumin.
Abstract Owing to the flexible IIA sub-domain of human serum albumin (HSA), we proposed to rationally design a metal agent with a leaving group, and then regulate a leaving group of metal agent to be displaced by His-242 for improving its delivery efficiency and selectivity. To confirm our hypothesis, we synthesized a copper(II) compound derived from 2-amino-5-chlorophenol 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde Schiff-base, containing a leaving group [pyridine, PRD], namely Cu(L)(PRD). The HSA complex structure revealed that Cu(L)(PRD) binds to the hydrophobic cavity in HSA IIA sub-domain, His242 of HSA replaces the pyridine ligan...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - April 4, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Gou Y, Jiang M, Khan H, Zhou Z, Liang H, Yang F Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Characteristics of minerals in vesicles produced by human osteoblasts hFOB 1.19 and osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells stimulated for mineralization.
Abstract Bone cells control initial steps of mineralization by producing extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and releasing vesicles that trigger apatite nucleation. Using transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (TEM-EDX) we compared the quality of minerals in vesicles produced by two distinct human cell lines: fetal osteoblastic hFOB 1.19 and osteosarcoma Saos-2. Both cell lines, subjected to osteogenic medium with ascorbic acid (AA) and β-glycerophosphate (β-GP), undergo the entire osteoblastic differentiation program from proliferation to mineralization, produce the ...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - March 29, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Strzelecka-Kiliszek A, Bozycki L, Mebarek S, Buchet R, Pikula S Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research

Characterization of tRNA(Leu) binding interactions with Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) and their biological implications.
Abstract RNA is known to interact with Mg(2+) when assuming higher-ordered tertiary configurations. Structurally, when tRNA molecules interact with Mg(2+), they consistently form a "L-shape" conformation each time they are synthesized. Therefore, if Mg(2+) can induce tertiary structure formation, then binding to alternative cations could produce alternative tertiary configurations. By utilizing circular dichroism and mobility gel-shift assays it was observed that tRNA structure can be altered when in the presence of different divalent cationic species. Formation of these alternative structural configurat...
Source: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry - March 28, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dimkovikj A, Banton MJ, McDanel LA, Arndt KN, Unvert KE, Thorn EK, Marco AR, Hellmann-Whitaker RA Tags: J Inorg Biochem Source Type: research