Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome and its components in elderly Korean adults.
This study examined the determinants of the prevalence of factors related to five components of metabolic syndrome in the elderly. METHODS: The study used raw data (2010-2012) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V. The 3971 study subjects were community-dwelling elderly adults aged over 65years. The criteria for the metabolic syndrome were based on those of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, and the waist circumference cutoff points for these factors were adapted from the standard suggested by the Korea Society for the Study of Obesity in 2005. RES...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 16, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Kim S, So WY Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Breaking-up sedentary time is associated with impairment in activities of daily living.
In conclusion, the frequency of breaks in sedentary time in older ages is independently associated with lower risk for ADL impairments and physical dependence. Our findings support interventions to encourage older adults to increase overall PA by interrupting sedentary time. PMID: 26385738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 15, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Sardinha LB, Ekelund U, Dos Santos L, Cyrino ES, Silva AM, Santos DA Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Testosterone and estradiol treatments differently affect pituitary-thyroid axis and liver deiodinase 1 activity in orchidectomized middle-aged rats.
In conclusion, androgenization enhanced pituitary TSHβ RIF, thyroid activation and liver Dio1 enzyme activity in Orx-MA, without elevating serum TSH as in Orx-YA rats. Estrogenization induced pituitary enlargement with no effect on pituitary TSHβ RIF, serum TSH or liver Dio1 activity. E also induced alterations in thyroid histology that indicate mild suppression of its functioning, and contributed to thyroid blood vessel enlargement in Orx-MA rats. PMID: 26384168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 14, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Šošić-Jurjević B, Filipović B, Renko K, Miler M, Trifunović S, Ajdžanovič V, Kӧhrle J, Milošević V Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Exercise in knee osteoarthritis - preliminary findings: Exercise-induced pain and health status differs between drop-outs and retainers.
aes P Abstract BACKGROUND: Exercise effectiveness is related to adherence, compliance and drop-out. The aim of this study is to investigate if exercise-induced pain and health status are related to these outcomes during two exercise programmes in knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis patients were randomly allocated to a walking or strengthening programme (N=19/group). At baseline, patients were categorized according to their health status. Exercise adherence and compliance were calculated and drop-out rate was registered. For exercise-induced pain, patients rated their pain o...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 11, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Beckwée D, Bautmans I, Scheerlinck T, Vaes P Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Does tooth wear influence ageing? A comparative study across large herbivores.
irc;tre JF Abstract We test whether the intensity of tooth wear influences the strength of actuarial senescence across species of large herbivores. We collected from the literature data on tooth wear in the wild (measured as the slope of the regression of log-transformed M1 crown height on age), longevity (measured as the age at which 90% of individuals are dead) and two metrics of actuarial senescence in captive populations (rate of senescence between 6 and 12years of age and Gompertz rate of senescence). Between-species differences and variation in tooth height accounted for most of the observed variation in too...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 11, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Gaillard JM, Berger V, Tidière M, Duncan P, Lemaître JF Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

The diurnal profile of melatonin during delirium in elderly patients-preliminary results.
Abstract Delirium is an acute-onset syndrome that exacerbates patients' condition and significantly increases consequential morbidity and mortality. There is no comprehensive, cellular and tissue-level, pathophysiological theory. The melatonin hormone imbalance has been shown to be linked to circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycle disturbances, and delirium incidence. There has been relatively little research about melatonin in delirium, and there has been no such study done in the group of elderly patients of a general medicine ward yet. The aim of our study was to compare melatonin hormone concentration in relati...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 11, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Piotrowicz K, Klich-Rączka A, Pac A, Zdzienicka A, Grodzicki T Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16/FOXO Transcription Factor and Its Mammalian Homologs Associate with Age-Related Disease.
Abstract The insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and its function is mediated largely by FOXO transcription factors. Reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling leads to translocation of FOXO proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they activate a set of genes that mediate oxidative stress, heat shock, and xenobiotic responses, innate immunity, metabolism, and autophagy. Disruptions in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway affect life span in many species. Over the past two decades, the function of these FOXO proteins in age-related diseases has been extensively studied, in the model organism Ca...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 9, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Hesp K, Smant G, Kammenga J Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Red blood cells open promising avenues for longitudinal studies of ageing in laboratory, non-model and wild animals.
We present the current knowledge about RBCs and age-dependent changes in these pathways in non-model and wild species that are especially suitable to address questions related to ageing using longitudinal studies. We discuss how the different pathways relate with survival and lifespan and give information on their genetic and environmental determinants to appraise their evolutionary potential. PMID: 26362216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 8, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Stier A, Reichert S, Criscuolo F, Bize P Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

What can long-lived mutants tell us about mechanisms causing ageing and lifespan variation in natural environments?
Abstract Long-lived mutants of model organisms have brought remarkable progress in our understanding of ageing mechanisms. However, long-lived mutants are usually maintained in optimal standardized laboratory environments (SLEs), and it is not obvious to what extent insights from long-lived mutants in SLEs can be generalized to more natural environments. To address this question we reviewed experiments that compared the fitness and lifespan advantage of long-lived mutants relative to their wild type controls in SLEs and more challenging environments. In competition experiments over multiple generations, the long-l...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 8, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Briga M, Verhulst S Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Age gene expression and coexpression progressive signatures in peripheral blood leukocytes.
, Otaegui D Abstract Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexp...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 8, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Irizar H, Goñi J, Alzualde A, Castillo-Triviño T, Olascoaga J, de Munain AL, Otaegui D Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.
Abstract Molecular studies of aging aim to unravel the cause(s) of aging bottom-up, but linking these mechanisms to organismal level processes remains a challenge. We propose that complementary top-down data-directed modelling of organismal level empirical findings may contribute to developing these links. To this end, we explore the heuristic value of redundancy models of aging to develop a deeper insight into the mechanisms causing variation in senescence and lifespan. We start by showing (i) how different redundancy model parameters affect projected aging and mortality, and (ii) how variation in redundancy mode...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 8, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Boonekamp JJ, Briga M, Verhulst S Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Telomeres shorten more slowly in slow-aging wild animals than in fast-aging ones.
Abstract Research on the physiological causes of senescence aim to identify common physiological mechanisms that explain age-related declines in fitness across taxonomic groups. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences found on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Past research indicates that telomere attrition is strongly correlated with inter-specific rates of aging, though these studies cannot distinguish whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of the aging process. We extend previous research on this topic by incorporating recent studies to test the hypothesis that telomeres shorten more slowl...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 5, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Dantzer B, Fletcher QE Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

On the Analysis and Interpretation of Late-Life Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Late-life plateaus have been described in both cohort and individual trajectories of fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster females. Here I examine life history data recently analyzed by Le Bourg and Moreau (2014) and show that non-linearity in the cohort trajectory of fecundity is largely explained by heterogeneity in the duration of reproductive life spans. A model specifying linear post-peak decline of fecundity in individual flies provides a better fit to the data than one that combines linear decline with late-life fecundity plateaus. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, I show that age-depend...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 4, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Curtsinger JW Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Senescence in the wild: Insights from a long-term study on Seychelles warblers.
We describe how key cellular and physiological processes (oxidative stress and telomere shortening) underpinning senescence are affected by individual and environmental characteristics in the Seychelles warbler (e.g. food availability, reproductive investment, disease) and we discuss how such physiological variation may mediate the relationship between environmental characteristics and senescence. Based on our work using Seychelles warblers as a model system, we show how insights from long-term studies of wild animals may help unravel the causes of the remarkable variation in senescence observed in natural systems, and hig...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 4, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Hammers M, Kingma SA, Bebbington K, van de Crommenacker J, Spurgin LG, Richardson DS, Burke T, Dugdale HL, Komdeur J Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Reduced rate of knee extensor torque development in older adults with knee osteoarthritis is associated with intrinsic muscle contractile deficits.
We examined the effect of knee osteoarthritis on the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensors in older adults with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA; n=15) and recreationally-active controls (n=15) of similar age, sex and health status, as well as the relationship between RTD and the size and contractility of single muscle fibers. OA participants had lower RTD when expressed in absolute terms (Nm/ms). There were sex differences in peak RTD (P
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 3, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Callahan DM, Tourville TW, Slauterbeck JR, Ades PA, Stevens-Lapsley J, Beynnon BD, Toth MJ Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Multifactorial Processes to Slowing the Biological Clock: Insights from a Comparative Approach.
Abstract Traditionally scientists have attempted to understand the biology of aging through engineering tractable systems, employing methods such as transgenesis and environmental or nutritional manipulation. An alternative approach relies on the phenomena of natural, extreme biology. Numerous examples exist of species that persist under conditions that promote pathology in humans and considerable insight has been garnered by uncovering the molecular mechanisms mediating this "evolutionary experimentation". Here we focus on a few well-studied naturally long-lived species to evaluate how natural selection...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 3, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Sanchez JR, Milton SL, Corbit KC, Buffenstein R Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Comparative cellular biogerontology: where do we stand?
Abstract Due to the extreme variation in life spans among species, using a comparative approach to address fundamental questions about the aging process has much to offer. For example, maximum life span can vary by as much as several orders of magnitude among taxa. In recent years, using primary cell lines cultured from species with disparate life spans and aging rates has gained considerable momentum as a means to dissect the mechanisms underlying the variation in aging rates among animals. In this review, we reiterate the strengths of comparative cellular biogerontology, as well as provide a survey of the curren...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 3, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Alper S, Bronikowski AM, Harper JM Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Epigenetic mechanisms of dietary restriction induced aging in Drosophila.
Abstract Aging is a long-standing problem that people are always interested in. Thus, it is critical to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in aging and explore the most efficient method to extend life expectancy. To achieve this goal, a wide range of systems including cells, rodent models, budding yeast, C. elegans and flies have been employed for decades. In recent years, the effect of dietary restriction (DR) on lifespan is in the prime focus. Although we have confirmed that reduced insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling can increase Drosophila lifespa...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 2, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Lian T, Gaur U, Yang D, Li D, Li Y, Yang M Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Effects of elastic band resistance training and nutritional supplementation on physical performance of institutionalised elderly - a randomized controlled trial.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of elastic band resistance training in combination with nutrient supplementation on muscular strength and the ability to perform mobility-related activities of daily living in older adults living in retirement care facilities. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial, with a 6-months intervention period SETTING: A retirement care facility, Vienna, Austria PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and seventeen older adults (14 males (12%) and 103 females (88%)), aged 65 to 97 years (mean age: 82.8±6.0), having a mini-mental state examination score≥23 and no chronic diseases p...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - September 2, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Oesen S, Halper B, Hofmann M, Jandrasits W, Franzke B, Strasser EM, Graf A, Tschan H, Bachl N, Quittan M, Wagner KH, Wessner B Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Steroidogenic fate of the Leydig cells that repopulate the testes of young and aged Brown Norway rats after elimination of the preexisting Leydig cells.
Abstract The capacity of Brown Norway rat Leydig cells to produce testosterone (T) decreases with aging. In a previous study, we reported that a new generation of Leydig cells can be restored in both young and old rat testes after a single injection of ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS), and that the abilities of the new Leydig cells in young and old rats to produce T were equivalent. Our objective herein was to compare the steroidogenic fate of the new Leydig cells over time. Young (3month-old) and old (18month-old) rats were injected with EDS to eliminate the existing Leydig cells. Ten weeks after EDS, Leydig cells...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 31, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Chen H, Guo J, Ge R, Lian Q, Papadopoulos V, Zirkin BR Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

A theoretical model of the evolution of actuarial senescence under environmental stress.
Abstract Free-living organisms are exposed to a wide range of stressors, all of which can disrupt physiological regulatory mechanisms. The subsequent accumulation of somatic damage is widely believed to play a major role in the evolution of senescence. Organisms have evolved sophisticated physiological regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in response to environmental perturbations, but these systems are likely to be constrained in their ability to optimise robustness to multiple stressors due to functional correlations among these related traits. While evolutionary change can accelerate due to human ecolo...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 31, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Watson H, Cohen AA, Isaksson C Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Deficiency Improves Survival of Mice on a High Fat Diet.
In this study, we determined the lifespan of PAPP-A knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates fed a high fat diet (HFD) starting at 12 months of age. PAPP-A KO and WT mice had equivalent weight gain as measured over 25 weeks on HFD. However, PAPP-A KO mice on HFD had a significant increase in lifespan (P = 0.018). Body composition and tissue pathology were assessed in a separate cohort of mice after 30 weeks on HFD. Percent body fat was equivalent in the two groups. However, there was a decrease in visceral fat depot weights and an increase in serum adiponectin levels in PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice. Major pathologica...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 29, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Conover CA, Bale LK, Marler RJ Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Why is the dog an ideal model for aging research?
Abstract With many caveats to the traditional vertebrate species pertaining to biogerontology investigations, it has been suggested that a most informative model is one which: 1) examines closely related species, or various members of the same species with naturally occurring lifespan variation. 2) already has adequate medical procedures developed. 3) has a well annotated genome. 4) does not require artificial housing, and can live in its natural environment while being investigated. And 5) allows considerable information to be gathered within a relatively short period of time. The domestic dog unsurprisingly fits...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 29, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Gilmore KM, Greer KA Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Older Driver Head Functional Range of Motion using Portable Immersive Virtual Reality.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The number of drivers over 65years of age continues to increase. Although neck rotation range has been identified as a factor associated with self-reported crash history in older drivers, it was not consistently reported indicators of older driver performance or crashes across previous studies. It is likely that drivers use neck and trunk rotation when driving, and therefore the functional range of motion (ROM) (i.e. overall rotation used during a task) of older drivers should be further examined. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate older driver performance in an immersive virtual reality, simulated, dyn...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 24, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Chen KB, Xu X, Lin JH, Radwin RG Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Of mice, pigs and humans: An analysis of mitochondrial phospholipids from mammals with very different maximal lifespans.
Abstract The maximal lifespan (MLS) of mammals is inversely correlated with the peroxidation index, a measure of the proportion and level of unsaturation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in membranes. This relationship is likely related to the fact that PUFA are highly susceptible to damage by peroxidation. Previous comparative work has examined membrane composition at the level of fatty acids, and relatively little is known regarding the distribution of PUFA across phospholipid classes or phospholipid molecules. In addition, data for humans is extremely rare in this area. Here we present the first shotgun li...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 24, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Cortie CH, Hulbert AJ, Hancock SE, Mitchell TW, McAndrew D, Else PL Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Dose-and Gender-Specific Effects of Resistance Training on Circulating Levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that only the mixed-low-resistance training program with a very high number of repetitions at a sufficiently high external resistance was able to increase circulating BDNF in older male participants. Training to volitional fatigue might be necessary to obtain optimal results. Additional studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms, as well as to confirm the observed gender difference. PMID: 26297701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 18, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Forti LN, Van Roie E, Njemini R, Coudyzer W, Beyer I, Delecluse C, Bautmans I Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.
Abstract Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been ...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 17, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Kowald A, Kirkwood TB Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Asynchrony of senescence among phenotypic traits in a wild mammal population.
We examined twenty different phenotypic traits in both males and females, encompassing vital rates (survival and fecundity), maternal reproductive performance (offspring birth weight, birth date and survival), male rutting behaviour, home range measures, parasite burdens, and body mass. We initially quantified age-related variation in each trait having controlled for annual variation in the environment, among-individual variation and selective disappearance effects. We then standardised our age-specific trait means and tested whether age trajectories could be meaningfully grouped according to sex or the type of trait. Whil...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 13, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Hayward AD, Moorad J, Regan CE, Berenos C, Pilkington JG, Pemberton JM, Nussey DH Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Age-related differences in muscle recruitment and reaction-time performance.
Abstract Previously, we showed that prolonged reaction-time (RT) in older persons is related to increased antagonist muscle co-activation, occurring already before movement onset. Here, we studied whether a difference in temporal agonist and antagonist muscle activation exists between young and older persons during an RT-test. We studied Mm. Biceps (antagonist muscle) & Triceps (agonist muscle) Brachii activation time by sEMG in 60 young (26±3years) and 64 older (80±6years) community-dwelling subjects during a simple point-to-point RT-test (moving a finger using standardized elbow-extension from ...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 8, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Arnold P, Vantieghem S, Gorus E, Lauwers E, Fierens Y, Pool-Goudzwaard A, Bautmans I Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Smoking habits and leukocyte telomere length dynamics among older adults: Results from the ESTHER cohort.
This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. METHODS: LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and cha...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 6, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Müezzinler A, Mons U, Dieffenbach AK, Butterbach K, Saum KU, Schick M, Stammer H, Boukamp P, Holleczek B, Stegmaier C, Brenner H Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Elevated Oxygen Consumption Rate in Response to Acute Low- Glucose Stress: Metformin Restores Rate to Normal Level.
Abstract Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of mortality among all age demographics in the United States, with the highest occurrence in populations aged 65 and older. Glucose levels, particularly hyperglycemia, are associated with the premature onset of age-related diseases including CVD. A major challenge in the treatment of elderly patients with chronically elevated blood glucose is the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. Molecular mechanisms of hypoglycemia remain unclear, but are associated with premature onset of age-related-diseases. Here we report a mitochondrial metabolic profi...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 6, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Williams ED, Rogers SC, Zhang X, Azhar G, Wei JY Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Vitellogenin in the honey bee brain: atypical localization of a reproductive protein that promotes longevity.
GV Abstract In comparative gerontology, highly social insects such as honey bees (Apis mellifera) receive much attention due to very different and flexible aging patterns among closely related siblings. While experimental strategies that manipulate socio-environmental factors suggest a causative link between aging and social signals and behaviors, the molecular underpinnings of this linkage are less well understood. Here we study the atypical localization of the egg-yolk protein Vitellogenin (Vg) in the brain of the honey bee. Vg is known to influence honey bee social regulation and aging rate. Our findings sugge...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - August 5, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Münch D, Ihle KE, Salmela H, Amdam GV Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Exercise Training Attenuates Age-dependent Elevation of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Nox2 Signaling in the Rat Heart.
Abstract Fibrosis of the aging heart impedes cardiac function and increases the risk of arrhythmias and heart disease. Previously, we demonstrated that exercise-induced reduction of collagen I in the aging heart was linked to a suppression of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). The renin-angiotensin II system (RAS) increases oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2) and thus elevates TGF-ß and collagen accumulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that exercise training would alleviate age-related upregulation of the angiotensin II receptor I (AT1R) and NADPH oxidase-2 (...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 31, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Lee Y, Kwak HB, Hord J, Kim JH, Lawler JM Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Blood-Cell Bioenergetics are Associated With Physical Function and Inflammation in Overweight/Obese Older Adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that respirometric profiles of readily obtainable blood cells are associated with physical function and strength. Future studies should be undertaken in order to determine whether blood-based bioenergetic profiling can provide an objective index of systemic mitochondrial health. PMID: 26226578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 27, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tyrrell DJ, Bharadwaj MS, Van Horn CG, Marsh AP, Nicklas BJ, Molina AJ Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

The adipokine leptin mediates muscle- and liver-derived IGF-1 in aged mice.
le EJ Abstract Muscle- and liver-derived IGF-1 play important roles in muscle anabolism throughout growth and aging. Yet, prolonged food restriction is thought to increase longevity in part by lowering levels of IGF-1, which in turn reduces the risk for developing various cancers. The dietary factors that modulate IGF-1 levels are, however, poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that the adipokine leptin, which is elevated with food intake and suppressed during fasting, is a key mediator of IGF-1 levels with aging and food restriction. First, leptin levels in peripheral tissues were measured in young mice fed...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 25, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Hamrick MW, Dukes A, Arounleut P, Davis C, Periyasamy-Thandavan S, Mork S, Herberg S, Johnson MH, Isales CM, Hill WD, Otvos L, Belin de Chantemèle EJ Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Change in Motor Function and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older African Americans.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We tested whether declining motor function accelerates with age in older African Americans. METHODS: Eleven motor performances were assessed annually in 513 older African Americans. RESULTS: During follow-up of 5years, linear mixed-effect models showed that motor function declined by about 0.03 units/yr (Estimate, -0.026, p
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 21, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Leurgans SE, Bennett DA, Barnes LL Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Impact of age on aortic wave reflection responses to metaboreflex activation and its relationship with leg lean mass in postmenopausal women.
Abstract Wave reflection (augmentation pressure [AP] and index [AIx]) is greater in older women than men. Resting AP is a better wave reflection index than AIx in older adults. The negative relationship between wave reflection and lean mass (LM) has been inconsistent. We investigated the impact of age and LM on aortic hemodynamic responses to metaboreflex activation in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women, younger and older (n=20 per group) than 60years, performed 2-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal force followed by 3-min post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave ve...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 17, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Figueroa A, Jaime SJ, Johnson SA, Alvarez-Alvarado S, Campbell JC, Feresin RG, Elam ML, Arjmandi BH Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Effects of long-term low-dose dietary creatine supplementation in older women.
Conclusion A one-year low-dose creatine supplementation (1g/d) was free of adverse effects, but did not affect bone health parameters, lean mass, or muscle function in older women. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and higher- doses of creatine supplementation are warranted. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01472393). PMID: 26192975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 17, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Lobo DM, Tritto AC, da Silva LR, de Oliveira PB, Benatti FB, Roschel H, Nieß B, Gualano B, Pereira RM Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Fatigue: Relevance and Implications in the Aging Population.
ari M Abstract Frailty has been identified as a promising condition for distinguishing different degrees of vulnerability among older persons. Several operational definitions have proposed fatigue as one of the features characterizing the frailty syndrome. However, such a subjective symptom is still not yet sufficiently explored and understood. Fatigue is a common and distressing self-reported symptom perceived by the person while performing usual mental and physical activities, highly prevalent in older people, and strongly associated to negative health-related events. The understanding of fatigue is hampered by ...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 16, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Zengarini E, Ruggiero C, Pérez-Zepeda MU, Hoogendijk EO, Vellas B, Mecocci P, Cesari M Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Motor unit loss is accompanied by decreased peak muscle power in the lower limb of older adults.
This study investigated the relationship between motor unit (MU) properties and the isometric strength and power of two lower limb muscles in healthy young and older adults. Twelve older adults (6 men, mean age, 77±5yrs) and twelve young adults (6 men, mean age, 24±3yrs) were studied. MU properties of the tibialis anterior (TA) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles were determined electrophysiologically using decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA). Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) of the TA were significantly reduced (p
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 16, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: McKinnon NB, Montero-Odasso M, Doherty TJ Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Resistance exercise training increases the expression of irisin concomitant with improved of muscle function in aging mice and human.
Abstract We investigated the effect of resistance training on irisin expression with improvement in muscle strength and function in aged mice and human. In the mice study, 19months old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into two groups; control group and resistance exercise group. Ladder climbing exercise with tail weight was performed 3days per week for 12weeks. In the human study, participants (aged over 65years) were randomly assigned into exercise group or control group. Elastic band exercise program consisted of 12weeks of 1-h session 2days per week. In the mice study, we found increase of irisin in ser...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 13, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Kim HJ, So B, Choi M, Kang D, Song W Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Effects of Different Types of Physical Activity on the Cognitive Functions and Attention in Older People: A Randomised Controlled Study.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on cognition. Eighty participants, 32 males and 48 females, aged 66.96±11.73, volunteered for this study. The participants were randomly divided into the four following groups: Resistance Group (RG; n=20), involved in high intensity strength training; Cardiovascular Group (CVG; n=20), involved in high intensity cardiovascular training; Postural Group (PG; n=20) involved in low intensity training, based on postural and balance exercises; and Control Group (CG; n=20). Exercises were performed over the course of 12weeks. All participants were teste...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 13, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Iuliano E, di Cagno A, Aquino G, Fiorilli G, Mignogna P, Calcagno G, Di Costanzo A Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Do patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease present an own-age bias in face recognition?
Abstract Face perception depends both on the face and on the individual who perceives it. Some factors such as gender, ethnicity or age may influence face perception processing. For instance, recognition memory for faces of one's own age group is often superior to memory for other-age group faces. This bias is known as the Own-Age-Bias (OAB). OAB has been extensively studied in healthy subjects. However, to our knowledge, no article has been published on elder adults suffering from Alzheimer Disease (AD). Therefore, the present research aimed at studying the OAB in patients with AD in comparison with healthy old a...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 12, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Bortolon C, Louche A, Gely-Nargeot MC, Raffard S Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Impaired unfolded protein response in the degeneration of cochlea cells in a mouse model of age-related hearing loss.
In this study, we measured the expression levels of GRP78 and ubiquitinated proteins in the cochleae of young C57BL/6 mice and aged mice to assess the capacity of the UPR. The lower expression of GRP78 and the increased number of ubiquitinated proteins observed in the cochleae of aged mice suggested that the capacity of the UPR was impaired and that the cell death pathway was activated. We found a markedly increased expression of the ER-related pro-apoptotic factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in the cochleae of aged mice, whereas the level of cleaved caspase-12 did not differ between the two groups. In addition, the cl...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 11, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Wang W, Sun Y, Chen S, Zhou X, Wu X, Kong W, Kong W Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.
A, Ruiz-Litago F Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 11, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Fraile-Bermúdez AB, Kortajarena M, Zarrazquin I, Maquibar A, Yanguas JJ, Sánchez-Fernández CE, Gil J, Irazusta A, Ruiz-Litago F Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Feeding on frozen live yeast has some deleterious effects in Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Many experiments have shown that dietary restriction, for instance by removing live yeast or modifying the protein/carbohydrate ratio, can modulate lifespan, fecundity, resistance to severe stresses and behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster flies. The present study tested whether feeding flies with frozen yeast rather than with fresh yeast could have some effect on these traits, the other components of the food being similar in the two groups. Freezing altered live yeast quality and flies feeding on frozen yeast lived slightly less (males), were less fecund at older ages, and poorly resisted to some severe...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 7, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Le Bourg E, Gauthier T, Colinet H Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Cranberry Anthocyanin Extract Prolongs Lifespan of Fruit Flies.
Abstract Cranberry is an excellent source of dietary antioxidants. The present study investigated the effect of cranberry anthocyanin (CrA) extract on the lifespan of fruit flies with focus on its interaction with aging-related genes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (MTH), insulin receptor (InR), target of rapamycin (TOR), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Results showed that diet containing 20mg/mL CrA could significantly prolong the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10% compared with the control diet. This was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1 and down-regulation of ...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 6, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Wang L, Li YM, Lei L, Liu Y, Wang X, Ma KY, Chen ZY Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Sex Differences with Aging in the Fatigability of Dynamic Contractions.
This study determined the sex difference with aging in fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles during a dynamic fatiguing task, and explored the associated mechanisms. We compared fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles in 18 young (20.2±1years: 9 men) and 36 old adults (73.5±1years: 16 men) during and in recovery from repeated dynamic contractions (~60deg/s) with a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque until failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess supraspinal fatigue (an increase in the superimposed twitch, SIT) and the peak rate of musc...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 6, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Yoon T, Doyel R, Widule C, Hunter SK Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.
In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. PMID: 26151342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 4, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Mukherjee A, Haldar C Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Understanding the link between sexual selection, sexual conflict and aging using crickets as a model.
Abstract Aging evolved because the strength of natural selection declines over the lifetime of most organisms. Weak natural selection late in life allows the accumulation of deleterious mutations and may favor alleles that have positive effects on fitness early in life, but costly pleiotropic effects expressed later on. While this decline in natural selection is central to longstanding evolutionary explanations for aging, a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of lifespan and aging has only been identified recently. Testing how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect lifespan and agin...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - July 3, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Archer CR, Hunt J Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research