Acute kidney injury is more common in men than women after accounting for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, alcohol intake and smoking history
This study was designed to examine the association of sex and socioeconomic factors with AKI and AKI-related mortality and further to evaluate the additional relationship with other possible risk factors for AKI occurrence.MethodsWe included 3534 patients (1878 males with mean age 61.1 ± 17.7 and 1656 females 1656 with mean age 60.3 ± 20.0 years) admitted to Queen Elizabeth or Heartlands Hospitals, Birmingham, between October 2013 and January 2016. Patients were prospectively followed-up for a median 47.70 [IQR, 18.20] months. Study-endpoints were incidence of AKI, based on KDIG O-AKI Guidelines, and all-caus...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 8, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis: a functional meta-analysis of sex-based differences in transcriptomic studies
ConclusionsOur meta-analysis of transcriptomic data provides a powerful approach to identify sex-based differences in NAFLD. We detected differences in relevant biological functions and molecular terms between premenopausal women and men. Differences in immune responsiveness between men and premenopausal women with NAFLD suggest that women possess a more immune tolerant milieu, while men display an impaired liver regenerative response.Graphical abstract (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impact of sex in the prevalence and progression of glioblastomas: the role of gonadal steroid hormones
ConclusionGonadal steroid hormones can stimulate the progression of glioblastomas through the increase in proliferation, migration, and invasion. However, the effects mentioned above depend on the concentrations of these hormones and the receptor involved in hormone actions. Estradiol and progesterone can exert promoter or protective effects while the role of testosterone has been always associated to glioblastomas progression. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Chronic ethanol vapor exposure potentiates cardiovascular responses to acute stress in male but not in female rats
ConclusionChronic ethanol vapor exposure increased the cardiovascular reactivity to stress in male, but not in female rats. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 16, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in fetal Doppler parameters during gestation
ConclusionsDoppler ultrasound parameters were found to be dependent on fetal sex for some vessels and not for others in healthy pregnancies. Further investigations are needed to understand the physiological mechanisms for these sex differences and the relevance for disease processes in pregnancy. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 10, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone: sex-dependent role in nervous system regulation and disease
AbstractThyroid hormone (TH) regulates many functions including metabolism, cell differentiation, and nervous system development. Alteration of thyroid hormone level in the body can lead to nervous system-related problems linked to cognition, visual attention, visual processing, motor skills, language, and memory skills. TH has also been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Males and females display sex-specific differences in neuronal signaling. Steroid hormones including testosterone and estrogen are considered to be the prime regulators for progra...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 8, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in noise-induced hearing loss: a cross-sectional study in China
ConclusionsThis study indicates significant sex differences in NIHL. Males are at higher risk of HFHL than females despite equivalent noise exposure and age. The risk factors for NIHL might be different in males and females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender-related variables for health research
ConclusionOur new instrument represents an important step toward developing more comprehensive and precise survey-based measures of gender in relation to health. Our questionnaire is designed to shed light on how specific gender-related behaviors and attitudes contribute to health and disease processes, irrespective of —or in addition to—biological sex and self-reported gender identity. Use of these gender-related variables in experimental studies, such as clinical trials, may also help us understand if gender factors play an important role as treatment-effect modifiers and would thus need to be further consid ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Estrogen receptors in pain modulation: cellular signaling
AbstractSensory perception and emotional disorders are disproportionally represented in men and women and are thus thought to be modulated by different sex hormones in various conditions. Among the most important hormones perceived to affect sensory processing and transduction is estrogen. Numerous previous researchers have endeavored to demonstrate that estrogen is capable of modulating the activity of sensory neurons in peripheral and central sites in female, male, or castrated animals. However, the underlying mechanisms of its modulation of neuronal activity are somewhat unclear. In the present review, we discuss the po...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 10, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent effects of prenatal food and protein restriction on offspring physiology in rats and mice: systematic review and meta-analyses
ConclusionsWe found little support for the hypotheses that males are more affected by food and protein restriction, or that effects are particularly severe if nutrition is reduced part-way through gestation. However, less than half of the studies tested for sex by maternal diet interactions to identify sex-dependent effects. As a result, many reported sex-specific effects may be false positives. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 9, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and outcomes in women and men hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 in New Orleans
ConclusionsThis study highlights sex disparities in clinical determinants of severe outcomes in COVID-19 patients that may inform management and prevention strategies to ensure gender equity. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 5, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in uterine artery Doppler during gestation in pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fetal sex on uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) throughout gestation in a cohort of normal and complicated pregnancies.MethodsA prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 240 pregnant women. Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound of the proximal uterine arteries was performed at a 4-weekly interval between 14 and 40  weeks of gestation. The patients were classified retrospectively as normal or complicated (one or more of maternal preeclampsia, preterm birth, or small for gestational age). To assess if the change in uterine artery PI during gestation differ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 2, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Age-dependent changes of gender disparities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survival
ConclusionsGender disparities in cancer-specific mortality for patients with NPC were age-dependent. The differences mostly cannot be explained by confounder or mediation effects. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 30, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The visceral fat area to leg muscle mass ratio is significantly associated with the risk of hyperuricemia among women: a cross-sectional study
ConclusionThe VFA-to-LMM ratio was positively associated with the risk of hyperuricemia in women after adjustment by confounders. Pre-menopausal women have a higher risk of hyperuricemia than postmenopausal women with the increase of the VFA-to-LMM ratio. In addition, the highest risk of hyperuricemia was demonstrated when both VFA and LMM were at the highest quartile. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 29, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Association of menopausal status with COVID-19 outcomes: a propensity score matching analysis
ConclusionsMen had higher disease severity than premenopausal women, while the differences disappeared between postmenopausal women and men. These findings support aggressive treatment for the poor prognosis of postmenopausal women in clinical practice. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 29, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender score development in the Berlin Aging Study II: a retrospective approach
AbstractIn addition to biological sex, gender, defined as the sociocultural dimension of being a woman or a man, plays a central role in health. However, there are so far few approaches to quantify gender in a retrospective manner in existing study datasets. We therefore aimed to develop a methodology that can be retrospectively applied to assess gender in existing cohorts. We used baseline data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), obtained in 2009 –2014 from 1869 participants aged 60 years and older. We identified 13 gender-related variables and used them to construct a gender score by using primary comp...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 18, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in stroke outcome correspond to rapid and severe changes in gut permeability in adult Sprague-Dawley rats
AbstractBackgroundSex differences in experimental stroke outcomes are well documented, such that adult males have a greater infarct volume, increased stroke-induced mortality, and more severe sensory-motor impairment. Based on recent evidence that the gut is an early responder to stroke, the present study tested the hypothesis that sex differences in stroke severity will be accompanied by rapid and greater permeability of the gut-blood barrier and gut dysbiosis in males as compared to females.MethodMale and female Sprague-Dawley rats (5 –7 months of age) were subject to endothelin (ET)-1-induced middle cerebra...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the association of sphingolipids with age in Dutch and South-Asian Surinamese living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands
ConclusionsMean sphingolipid concentrations increase more rapidly with age in women than in men. Therefore, plasma lipid concentrations of sphingolipids, although lower in women than in men at younger age, are higher in women than in men at older age. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference?
AbstractOver the last decades, a central role for vitamin D in immune modulation has been well established. The active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, through the interaction with vitamin D receptor, exerts different activities on the innate and adaptive immune system, among which suppression of inflammation and promotion of tolerogenic responses. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to autoimmune disorders that commonly display significant differences between females and males due to genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Notably, a number of studies recently showed a cross-talk bet...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Important differences between hypertensive middle-aged women and men in cardiovascular autonomic control —a critical appraisal
ConclusionRegardless of blood pressure control through pharmacological treatment, hypertensive patients continued to have reduced HRV compared to normotensive, and hypertensive men had more autonomic impairment than hypertensive premenopausal women. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Maternal DHA supplementation influences sex-specific disruption of placental gene expression following early prenatal stress
AbstractEarly life adversity is widely recognized as a key risk factor for early developmental perturbations and contributes to the presentation of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Neurodevelopmental disorders exhibit a strong sex bias in susceptibility, presentation, onset, and severity, although the underlying mechanisms conferring vulnerability are not well understood. Environmental perturbations during pregnancy, such as malnutrition or stress, have been associated with sex-specific reprogramming that contribute to increased disease risk in adulthood, whereby stress and nutritional insufficiency may be additive...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 9, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A sex-stratified long-term clinical outcome analysis in coronary chronic total occlusion patients
AbstractBackgroundDifferences in outcomes for women and men after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients remain controversial. Herein, we compared the clinical outcomes by sex in CTO patients undergoing PCI.MethodsA total of 563 consecutive patients (19% women) who were diagnosed with CTO at a single center in China from June 2017 to December 2019 were included in this study. Three hundred patients were revascularized by PCI, and 263 were not revascularized. The clinical outcomes of these patients stratified by sex were examined. The primary endpoints included the risk of major a...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 8, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent differences in the secretome of human endothelial cells
ConclusionsOur results demonstrated that serum-starved male and female ECs possess different secretory phenotypes that might take part in the sex-biased response to cellular stress. We identified PTX3 as a crucial player in the male-specific endothelial response to an apoptotic trigger. This novel and sex-related role for secreted proteins, and mainly for PTX3, may open the way to the discovery of still unknown sex-specific mechanisms and pharmacological targets for the prevention and treatment of endothelial dysfunction at the onset of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 7, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Increased P450 aromatase levels in post-menopausal women after acute ischemic stroke
ConclusionsEstradiol levels correlated with functional outcomes (change in mRS) in both men and women, at least in the acute phase (24  h) of stroke. However, no significant difference in estradiol levels is seen 24 h post-stroke in men or women. Testosterone levels decrease at 24 h after stroke in men. As seen in animal models, aromatase levels increase after acute ischemic stroke, but this was only true for women. These ind icate an active aromatization process in post-menopausal women after acute ischemic stroke. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 7, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fetal sex and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: findings from two prospective pregnancy cohorts
ConclusionsMale fetal sex was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms during the postnatal period. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Investigation of interleukin-2-mediated changes in blood pressure, fetal growth restriction, and innate immune activation in normal pregnant rats and in a preclinical rat model of preeclampsia
The objective of this study was to examine a role for IL-2 in NK cell activation, fetal growth restriction, and hypertension during pregnancy by either infusion of IL-2 or blockade of IL-2 (basiliximab) in normal pregnant (NP) and RUPP rats. On gestational day 14, NP and RUPP rats received low (LD), middle (MD), or high dose (HD) IL-2 (0.05, 0.10, or 0.20  ng/ml) IP or basiliximab (0.07 mg per rat) by IV infusion. On day 19, blood pressure (MAP), pup weights, and blood were collected. Basiliximab had no effect on blood pressure, however, significantly lowered NK cells and may have worsened overall fetal survi...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in expression of immune elements emerge in children, young adults and mice with osteosarcoma
AbstractBackgroundMales
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Analysis of sex differences in dietary copper-fructose interaction-induced alterations of gut microbial activity in relation to hepatic steatosis
ConclusionsOur data demonstrated sex differences in the alterations of gut microbial abundance, activities, and hepatic steatosis in response to dietary copper-fructose interaction in rats. The correlation between sex differences in metabolic phenotypes and alterations of gut microbial activities remains elusive. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The associations of hostility and defensiveness with telomere length are influenced by sex and health status
AbstractBackgroundShorter telomere length (TL) may indicate premature cellular aging and increased risk for disease. While there is substantial evidence for shorter TL in individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders, data is scarce on maladaptive personality traits related to coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of TL with hostility and defensiveness in individuals with CAD or other non-cardiovascular illnesses and whether associations were moderated by CAD status and sex.MethodsOne thousand thirty-six individuals (Mage = 65.40 ± 6.73 years) with and wit...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender differences in the efficacy of pioglitazone treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients with abnormal glucose metabolism
ConclusionThe study recommends pioglitazone plus lifestyle intervention for Chinese NAFLD female patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.Trial registrationRole of Pioglitazone and Berberine in Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease,NCT00633282. Registered on 3 March 2008,https://register.clinicaltrials.gov. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

MicroRNA profiling of the pig periaqueductal grey (PAG) region reveals candidates potentially related to sex-dependent differences
ConclusionsThe obtained results broaden the knowledge on the porcine PAG miRNAome, along with its dynamism reflected in different isomiR signatures. Moreover, they indicate possible mechanisms associated with sex-influenced differences mediated via miRNAs in the PAG functioning. They also provide candidate miRNAs for further research concerning, i.e., sex-related bases of physiological and pathological processes occurring in the nervous system.Graphical abstract (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Selective deletion of endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor protects from vascular dysfunction in sodium-restricted female mice
ConclusionCollectively, these data indicate that female mice develop aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction via endothelial MR-mediated reductions in NO bioavailability. In addition, these data support a role for ECMR to promote vascular contractility in female mice in response to sodium restriction. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Differential expression of microRNAs in the hippocampi of male and female rodents after chronic alcohol administration
ConclusionsThese results suggest that chronic heavy alcohol use produces sex-dependent effects on neurogenesis and miRNA expression in the hippocampus and that sex differences should be considered when developing miRNA biomarkers to diagnose or treat alcoholics. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes in patients with vasospastic angina: results from the VA-Korea registry, a prospective multi-center cohort
ConclusionsIn VA patients, there were several different clinical characteristics according to sex; however, long-term clinical outcome was similar between sexes. Significant organic coronary stenosis in both sexes and low body mass index (
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent alterations in the physiology of entorhinal cortex neurons in old heterozygous 3xTg-AD mice
AbstractWhile the higher prevalence of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) in women is clear, studies suggest that biological sex may also influence AD pathogenesis. However, mechanisms behind these differences are not clear. To investigate physiological differences between sexes at the cellular level in the brain, we investigated the intrinsic and syna ptic properties of entorhinal cortex neurons in heterozygous 3xTg-AD mice of both sexes at the age of 20 months. This brain region was selected because of its early association with AD symptoms. First, we found physiological differences between male and female ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in neuro(auto)immunity and chronic sciatic nerve pain
AbstractChronic pain occurs with greater frequency in women, with a parallel sexually dimorphic trend reported in sufferers of many autoimmune diseases. There is a need to continue examining neuro-immune-endocrine crosstalk in the context of sexual dimorphisms in chronic pain. Several phenomena in particular need to be further explored. In patients, autoantibodies to neural antigens have been associated with sensory pathway hyper-excitability, and the role of self-antigens released by damaged nerves remains to be defined. In addition, specific immune cells release pro-nociceptive cytokines that directly influence neural fi...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 12, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Investigating transcriptome-wide sex dimorphism by multi-level analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing data in ten mouse cell types
ConclusionsWe explored novel gene expression-based biomarkers, functional cell group compositions, and transcriptional regulatory networks associated with sex dimorphism with a novel computational pipeline. Our findings indicated that sex dimorphism might be widespread across the transcriptomes of cell types, cell type-specific, and impactful for regulating cellular activities. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 5, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Is sex a proxy for mechanical variables during an upper limb repetitive movement task? An investigation of the effects of sex and of anthropometric load on muscle fatigue
ConclusionsThis sex difference emerged when AL was included as a covariate, suggesting that sex-associated anthropometric differences may contribute to sex differences in the fatigue response. Differences in the impact of AL on AD compared to UT could be explained by differences in their respective mechanical roles or muscle fiber content. Anthropometrics may be useful to include as covariates in future research to separate individual anthropometric differences from sex differences. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in fatigability after ischemic preconditioning of non-exercising limbs
AbstractBackgroundIschemic preconditioning (IPC) is suggested to decrease fatigability in some individuals but not others. Sex differences in response to IPC may account for this variability and few studies systematically investigated the effects of IPC in men and women. The goal of this study was to determine if time to task failure, perception of pain, and neuromuscular mechanisms of fatigability were altered by IPC in men and women.MethodsTen women (29 ± 5 years old) and 10 men (28 ± 6 years old) performed isometric contractions with the plantar flexor muscles of the dominant leg at 20% of ma...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 27, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interactive effects of asparagine and aspartate homeostasis with sex and age for the risk of type 2 diabetes risk
ConclusionsHigh asparagine to aspartate ratio was associated with markedly increased risk of T2D, which was further amplified by either female gender or> 50 years of age, and especially both. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in clinical phenotype and transitions of care among individuals dying of COVID-19 in Italy
ConclusionsMen and women dying with COVID-19 had different clinical manifestations and transitions of care. Identifying sex-specific features in individuals with COVID-19 and fatal outcome might inform preventive strategies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in self-report anxiety and sleep quality during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders
AbstractBackgroundCOVID-19 and home isolation has impacted quality of life, but the perceived impact on anxiety and sleep remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 and stay-at-home orders on self-report anxiety and sleep quality, with a focus on sex differences. We hypothesized that the COVID-19 pandemic would be associated with increased anxiety and decreased sleep quality, with stronger associations in women.MethodsOne hundred three participants (61 female, 38 ± 1 years) reported perceived changes in anxiety and sleep quality due to stay-at-home orders during the COVI...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A community-based study of demographics, medical and psychiatric conditions, and gender dysphoria/incongruence treatment in transgender/gender diverse individuals
ConclusionTransgender and gender diverse individuals represent a population who express various gender identities and are seeking gender-specific healthcare at increasing rates. Psychiatric illness is highly prevalent compared to the US population but there is no difference in the prevalence of CV risk factors including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 5, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury during pregnancy leads to increased sFlt-1 and sEng and decreased renal T regulatory cells in pregnant rats with HELLP syndrome
AbstractBackgroundThe incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during pregnancy precedes a high maternal mortality rate of 20 –40%. AKI during pregnancy has multiple etiologies; however, the more common are maternal hypertensive disorders, which include preeclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, low platelet) syndrome. Therefore, we sought to assess the impact of AKI on blood pressure, kidney injury, and a nti-angiogenic factors during pregnancies with and without HELLP syndrome.MethodsOn gestational day (GD) 12, mini-osmotic pumps were inserted into a subset of normal pregnant (NP) rats infusing 4.7 &th...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in severity and mortality from COVID-19: are males more vulnerable?
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shown high infection and mortality rates all over the world, and despite the global efforts, there is so far no specific therapy available for COVID-19. Interestingly, while the severity and mortality of COVID-19 are higher in males than in females, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this review, we explore sex-related differences that may be contributing factors to the observed male-biased mortality from COVID-19. Males are considered the weaker sex in aspects related to endurance and infection control. Studies show that viral RNA clearance is delayed in mal...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Role for ovarian hormones in purinoceptor-dependent natriuresis
ConclusionThese data suggest that ovary-intact females have enhanced P2Y2 and P2Y4-dependent regulation of Na+ handling in the renal medulla, compared to male and OVX rats. We speculate that the P2 pathway contributes to facilitated renal Na+ handling in premenopausal females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Association between fetal sex and maternal plasma microRNA responses to prenatal alcohol exposure: evidence from a birth outcome-stratified cohort
We reported that maternal miRNAs predicted FASD-related growth and psychomotor deficits in infants. Here, we assessed whether fetal sex influenced alterations in maternal circulating miRNAs following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). To overcome the loss of statistical power due to disaggregating maternal samples by fetal sex, we adapted a strategy of iterative bootstrap resampling with replacement to assess the stability of statistical parameter estimates. Bootstrap estimates of parametric and effect size tests identified male and female fetal sex-associated maternal miRNA responses to PAE that were not observed in the agg...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of sex hormones in autoimmunity: focus on EAE
AbstractSex-related differences in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases is well documented, with females showing a greater propensity to develop these diseases than their male counterparts. Sex hormones, namely dihydrotestosterone and estrogens, have been shown to ameliorate the severity of inflammatory diseases. Immunologically, the beneficial effects of sex hormones have been ascribed to the suppression of effector lymphocyte responses accompanied by immune deviation from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine production. In this review, we present our view of the mechanisms of sex hormones that contribute to th...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 6, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis
ConclusionMore regional GM atrophy was observed in men with MS than women with MS, consistent with previous observations that male sex is a risk factor for worse disease progression. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 27, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hypogonadal hypertension in male Sprague-Dawley rats is renin-angiotensin system-dependent: role of endogenous androgens
ConclusionsThis is the first study to examine the long-term effects of endogenous and exogenous androgens on BP in male SD and Tfm rats. These data reveal that endogenous androgens (TES) exert anti-hypertensive effects that appear to involve non-genomic and possibly genomic mechanism(s), resulting in reductions in RAS expression in the kidney and enhanced systemic vasodilation. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 25, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research