Changes in excessive alcohol use among older women across the menopausal transition: a longitudinal analysis of the Study of Women ’s Health Across the Nation
ConclusionsThe present study demonstrates that the menopausal transition marks a period of instability in alcohol use among women. Further research is warranted to understand factors related to transitioning in and out of excessive drinking. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Systematic review supports the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia: a call for analytical and methodological standardization
ConclusionsThe findings from this review support the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Establishing field-wide methodological and analytical standards may increase value and reduce waste, allowing researchers to gain additional insights into the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Androgens ’ effects on cerebrovascular function in health and disease
AbstractAndrogens affect the cerebral vasculature and may contribute to sex differences in cerebrovascular diseases. Men are at a greater risk for stroke and vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) compared to women throughout much of the lifespan. The cerebral vasculature is a target for direct androgen actions, as it expresses several sex steroid receptors and metabolizing enzymes. Androgens ’ actions on the cerebral vasculature are complex, as they have been shown to have both protective and detrimental effects, depending on factors such as age, dose, and disease state. When administered...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Unfractionated heparin displaces sFlt-1 from the placental extracellular matrix
In this study, we hypothesized that administration of unfractionated heparin would displace and solubilize placental extracellular matrix(ECM)-bound sFlt-1. If unfractionated heparin can displace this large reservoir of sFlt-1 in the placenta and mobilized it into the maternal circulation, we should be able to observe its effects on maternal angiogenic balance and blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, we utilized in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo methods. Using the BeWo placental trophoblast cell line, we observed increased sFlt-1 in the media of cells treated with unfractionated heparin compared to controls. The increase ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 29, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in Alzheimer ’s-related Tau biomarkers and a mediating effect of testosterone
We examined whether testosterone levels might influence this sex difference and the modify ing role of APOE4 status. Analyses included 172 participants (25 cognitively normal, 97 mild cognitive impairment, 50 AD participants) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (34% female, 54% APOE4 carriers, aged 55–90). We examined the separate and interactive effects of plasma te stosterone levels and APOE4 on cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated-tau181 (p-Tau) levels in the overall sample and the sex difference in p-Tau levels before and after adjusting for testosterone. A significant APOE4-by-testoster...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 19, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in pharmacokinetics predict adverse drug reactions in women
ConclusionsSex differences in pharmacokinetics strongly predict sex-specific ADRs for women but not men. This sex difference was not explained by sex differences in body weight. The absence of sex-stratified PK information in public records for hundreds of drugs raises the concern that sex differences in PK values are widespread and of clinical significance. The common practice of prescribing equal drug doses to women and men neglects sex differences in pharmacokinetics and dimorphisms in body weight, risks overmedication of women, and contributes to female-biased adverse drug reactions. We recommend evidence-based dose re...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 5, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Androgens and the developing hippocampus
AbstractThe hippocampus is central to spatial learning and stress responsiveness, both of which differ in form and function in males versus females, yet precisely how the hippocampus contributes to these sex differences is largely unknown. In reproductively mature individuals, sex differences in the steroid hormone milieu undergirds many sex differences in hippocampal-related endpoints. However, there is also evidence for developmental programming of adult hippocampal function, with a central role for androgens as well as their aromatized byproduct, estrogens. These include sex differences in cell genesis, synapse formatio...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 1, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Estrogen-related mechanisms in sex differences of hypertension and target organ damage
AbstractHypertension (HTN) is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events, target organ damage (TOD), premature death and disability worldwide. The pathophysiology of HTN is complex and influenced by many factors including biological sex. Studies show that the prevalence of HTN is higher among adults aged 60 and over, highlighting the increase of HTN after menopause in women. Estrogen (E2) plays an important role in the development of systemic HTN and TOD, exerting several modulatory effects. The influence of E2 leads to alterations in mechanisms regulating the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldoste...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 1, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe
ConclusionThe sex and gender disparities observed in COVID-19 vulnerability emphasize the need to better understand the impact of sex and gender on incidence and case fatality of the disease and to tailor treatment according to sex and gender. The ongoing and planned prophylactic and therapeutic treatment studies must include prospective sex- and gender-sensitive analyses. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 25, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Transcriptional analysis of the multiple Sry genes and developmental program at the onset of testis differentiation in the rat
ConclusionsThis work represents a first step in defining the complex environment of rat testis differentiation that can open the door for generating sex reversal model systems using embryo manipulation techniques that have been available in the mouse but not the rat. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 12, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fetal sex and maternal pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThis meta-analysis suggests that the occurrence of pregnancy complications differ according to fetal sex with a higher cardiovascular and metabolic load for the mother in the presence of a male fetus.FundingNone. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in traumatic stress reactivity in rats with and without a history of alcohol drinking
ConclusionsWe report robust sex differences in behavioral and endocrine responses to bobcat urine exposure in adult Wistar rats. Also, males with a history of chronic moderate alcohol drinking exhibited increased traumatic stress reactivity relative to alcohol-drinking females. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering sex as a biological variable in the investigation of traumatic stress effects on physiology and behavior. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex- and growth-specific characteristics of small for gestational age infants: a prospective cohort study
AbstractBackgroundAsymmetric fetal growth and male sex are both associated with adverse neonatal outcome. However, less is known about the influence of asymmetric growth and fetal sex within SGA neonates, a group of infants already at increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into variance in risk factors for SGA in a fetal sex- and growth symmetry-specific way.MethodsFor this prospective, multicenter cohort study, data from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study were used with 5628 nulliparous participants, of which 633 (11.3%) pregnancies were complicat...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The impact of sex and gender on immunotherapy outcomes
AbstractImmunotherapies are often used for the treatment, remission, and possible cure of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. Empirical evidence illustrates that females and males differ in outcomes following the use of biologics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), infectious diseases, e.g., influenza, and solid tumor cancers. Females tend to experience more adverse reactions than males following the use of a class of biologics referred to as immunotherapies. For immunotherapies aimed at stimulating an immune response, e.g., influenza vaccines, females develop great...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 4, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-related differences in markers of immune activation in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients
ConclusionA significant sex-related difference in the level of immune activation was observed in a population of individuals with HIV on long-term ART. A more complete characterization of these differences may support the introduction of sex-specific approaches in the clinical management of individuals with HIV. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 1, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific clustering of metabolic risk factors and cancer risk: a longitudinal study in Iran
ConclusionsClustering patterns may reflect underlying link between MRFs and cancer and could potentially facilitate tailored health promotion interventions. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 25, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Alterations of neural network organization during REM sleep in women: implication for sex differences in vulnerability to mood disorders
ConclusionsThus, the highlighting of these sex differences in network organization during REM sleep indicates the presence of differences in the global and local processing of information during sleep between women and men. In addition, this small-world network organization less marked during REM sleep appears to be a marker of vulnerability to mood disorders specific to women, which opens up new perspectives in understanding sex differences in the occurrence of mood disorders. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 25, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Social functioning outcomes in men and women receiving medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder
This study is the largest to date to study sex differenc es in OUD and explore associations between MAT and SF.MethodsData were collected from 2736 participants with OUD, enrolled in MAT for varying lengths of time, in outpatient clinics across Ontario. SF was defined according to the Maudsley Addiction Profile ’s domains of (1) employment, (2) criminal activity, and (3) interpersonal conflict. Using logistic regression analysis, we examined sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with domains of SF.ResultsThere were 1544 men (56%) and 1192 women (44%) in this study, and  ages varied from 17 to 76 years...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Age-period-cohort effects in pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases amongst primiparous women
ConclusionsIndependent of changes in the incidence of pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases as women age, the obstetric population is becoming less healthy over time. This is important, as these changes have a direct negative impact on short-term obstetric outcomes and women ’s long-term health. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 19, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in cancer mechanisms
AbstractWe now know that cancer is many different diseases, with great variation even within a single histological subtype. With the current emphasis on developing personalized approaches to cancer treatment, it is astonishing that we have not yet systematically incorporated the biology of sex differences into our paradigms for laboratory and clinical cancer research. While some sex differences in cancer arise through the actions of circulating sex hormones, other sex differences are independent of estrogen, testosterone, or progesterone levels. Instead, these differences are the result of sexual differentiation, a process...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 15, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Calorie intake is associated with weight gain during transition phase of nutrition in female extremely low birth weight infants
AbstractWe sought to determine whether there are sex-based differences in the requirements for calories or protein for optimal growth during the transition phase (TP) when an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, defined as a preterm infant with a birth weight of
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 15, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in vascular aging in response to testosterone
AbstractLarge elastic arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction are phenotypic characteristics of vascular aging, a major risk factor for age-associated cardiovascular diseases. Compared to men, vascular aging in women appears to be slowed until menopause, whereafter vascular aging accelerates to match that seen in men. These sex differences in vascular aging have been attributed to changes in sex hormones that occur with aging. Although the role of estradiol in vascular aging in women has been highlighted in recent aging research, little is known about the impact of declining testosterone concentrations in both sexe...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 15, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ovarian status modulates cardiovascular autonomic control and oxidative stress in target organs
This study aimed to assess cardiovascular autonomic modulation, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and oxidative stress in male rats (M) and in female rats during ovulatory (FOV) and non-ovulatory phases (FNOV) of the estrous cycle and after deprivation of ovarian hormones (FO). Direct AP was recorded, and BRS was assessed by using increasing doses of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. AP and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analysis. Oxidative stress profile was evaluated in cardiac, renal, and muscle tissues. In females, the ovulatory phase and ovarian hormone deprivation induced an increase in AP (FOV an...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 7, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Pregnancy-associated cardiac dysfunction and the regulatory role of microRNAs
AbstractMany crucial cardiovascular adaptations occur in the body during pregnancy to ensure successful gestation. Maladaptation of the cardiovascular system during pregnancy can lead to complications that promote cardiac dysfunction and may lead to heart failure (HF). About 12% of pregnancy-related deaths in the USA have been attributed to HF and the detrimental effects of cardiovascular complications on the heart can be long-lasting, pre-disposing the mother to HF later in life. Indeed, cardiovascular complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and peripartum cardiomyopath...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 6, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific and shared expression profiles of vulnerability and resilience to trauma in brain and blood
ConclusionIn contrast to the varied characterization of the PTSD-like EBR group, characterization of MBR across blood, amygdala, and hippocampus suggests a common theme of upregulated wound healing and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling shared between sexes. In all, we identified differential oligodendrocyte proportions in hippocampus between PTSD-like EBR and resilient MBR, and identified processes and pathways that characterize the EBR and MBR-associated transcriptional changes across hippocampus, amygdala, and blood. The sex-specific mechanisms involved in EBR may contribute to the pronounced disparity in risk for PT...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective and neurotoxic outcomes of androgens and estrogens in an oxidative stress environment
ConclusionsSex hormone action on cell viability is dependent on the cellular environment. In healthy neuronal cells, sex hormones are protective against oxidative stress insults via the estrogen receptor, regardless of sex chromosome complement (XX, XY). However, in unhealthy (e.g., high oxidative stress) cells, sex hormones exacerbated oxidative stress-induced cell loss, regardless of cell type or sex chromosome complement. The non-genomic AR45 receptor, which is present in humans, mediated androgen ’s damaging effects, but it is unknown which receptor mediated estrogen’s damaging effects. These differential e...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 29, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Early progression of pulmonary hypertension in the monocrotaline model in males is associated with increased lung permeability
ConclusionsOur study indicates the importance of barrier-disruptive mechanisms as an earlier event in the induction of pulmonary hypertension. Importantly, males are more susceptible to hemolysis and develop PH earlier than females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 18, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Obesity: sex and sympathetics
AbstractObesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in men, but not women. Here, we review current evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic sympathoexcitatory responses to leptin and insulin may contribute. More specifically, while insulin increases SNA similarly in lean males and females, this response is markedly amplified in obese males, but is abolished in obese females. In lean female rats, leptin increases a subset of sympathetic nerves only during the high estrogen proestrus reproductive phase; thus, in obese females, because reproductive cycling can become impaired, the sporadic nature of leptin-induced s...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of fasting on the expression pattern of FGFs in different skeletal muscle fibre types and sexes in mice
This study revealed the expression profile ofFgfs in different skeletal muscle fibre types and different sexes and provides clues to the interaction between the skeletal muscle and other organs, which deserves future investigations. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex difference in dopamine D1-D2 receptor complex expression and signaling affects depression- and anxiety-like behaviors
AbstractDepression and anxiety are more common among females than males and represent a leading cause of disease-related disability in women. Since the dopamine D1-D2 heteromer is involved in depression- and anxiety-like behavior, the possibility that the receptor complex may have a role in mediating sex differences in such behaviors and related biochemical signaling was explored.In non-human primate caudate nucleus and in rat striatum, females expressed higher density of D1-D2 heteromer complexes and a greater number of D1-D2 expressing neurons compared to males. In rat, the sex difference in D1-D2 expression levels occur...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Long-term exercise results in morphological and biomechanical changes in coronary resistance arterioles in male and female rats
ConclusionsAccording to our results, the coronary arterioles adapted to an elevated load during long-term exercise, and this adaptation depended on sex. It is important to emphasize that in addition to differences, we also found many similarities between the sexes in the adaptive response to exercise. The observed sport adaptation in the coronary resistance arteries of rats may contribute to a better understanding of the physiological and pathological function of these arteries in active and retired athletes of different sexes. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 12, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in muscle activity and motor variability in response to a non-fatiguing repetitive screwing task
ConclusionWomen showed higher levels of muscle activity and lower initial relative and absolute motor variability than males when performing the same occupational task, implying women may have a higher risk for developing disorders and point to both sexes using different intrinsic motor control strategies in task performance. Clearly, biological aspects alone cannot explain why women would be at higher risk for developing disorders than men. Therefore, a wider range of individual and environmental factors should be taken into account for optimizing work station designs and organizations by taking into account sex differenc...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 28, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific association between the gut microbiome and high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice
ConclusionsWe identified that sex had a greater impact on the composition of gut microbiota than environmental factors (HFD and antibiotics). The enrichment of beneficial microbes in female mice may be associated with the resistance of female mice to HFD-induced metabolic disorders, which was weakened by antibiotic pretreatment. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 20, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

6 β-Hydroxytestosterone, a metabolite of testosterone generated by CYP1B1, contributes to vascular changes in angiotensin II-induced hypertension in male mice
Conclusions6 β-OHT is required for the action of Ang II to increase vascular reactivity and cause endothelial dysfunction, hypertrophy, and increase in oxygen radical production. The effect of 6β-OHT in mediating Ang II-induced hypertension and associated hypertrophy is dependent on the androgen receptor. Ther efore, CYP1B1 could serve as a novel target for the development of therapeutics to treat vascular changes in hypertensive males. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

SeXY chromosomes and the immune system: reflections after a comparative study
ConclusionsThe X chromosome is not enriched for ISRG, though particular X-linked genes may be responsible for sex differences in certain immune responses. So far, there is insufficient information on sex-biased expression of X/Y-linked ISRG in leukocytes to draw general conclusions on the impact of X/Y-linked ISRG in immune function. More research on the regulation of the expression X-linked genes is required with attention to 1) femaleand male mechanisms that may either augment or diminish sex biased expression and 2) tissue-specific expression studies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Estrogen modulation of pain perception with a novel 17 β-estradiol pretreatment regime in ovariectomized rats
AbstractEstrogen plays substantial roles in pain modulation; however, studies concerning sex hormones and nociception often yield confusing results. The discrepancy could be a result of lack of consensus to regard estrogen as a variable when working with animal models; thus, the influence of hormones ’ fluctuations on nociception has continually been neglected. In the present study, we designed a novel hormone substitution model to aid us to evaluate the effects of estrogen’s long-term alterations on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and the expression of estrogen receptors(E Rs). OVX rats were ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the risk of vascular disease associated with diabetes
AbstractDiabetes is a strong risk factor for vascular disease. There is compelling evidence that the relative risk of vascular disease associated with diabetes is substantially higher in women than men. The mechanisms that explain the sex difference have not been identified. However, this excess risk could be due to certain underlying biological differences between women and men. In addition to other cardiometabolic pathways, sex differences in body anthropometry and patterns of storage of adipose tissue may be of particular importance in explaining the sex differences in the relative risk of diabetes-associated vascular d...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 3, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the ability of corticostriatal oscillations to predict rodent alcohol consumption
AbstractBackgroundAlthough male and female rats differ in their patterns of alcohol use, little is known regarding the neural circuit activity that underlies these differences in behavior. The current study used a machine learning approach to characterize sex differences in local field potential (LFP) oscillations that may relate to sex differences in alcohol-drinking behavior.MethodsLFP oscillations were recorded from the nucleus accumbens shell and the rodent medial prefrontal cortex of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Recordings occurred before rats were exposed to alcohol (n = 10/sex ×...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Novel human sex-typing strategies based on the autism candidate gene NLGN4X and its male-specific gametologue NLGN4Y
ConclusionsThese results indicate that the detection of humanNLGN4X/Y is a suitable alternative to previously reported methods employing gene loci such asAMELX/Y. Furthermore, this is the first report applying successfully the rhAMP-genotyping strategy as a means for SNP-based sex-typing, which consequently will be applicable to other gene loci or different species as well. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Cardiac hypertrophy with obesity is augmented after pregnancy in C57BL/6 mice
ConclusionsThese results suggest that the combined effects of pregnancy and obesity augment cardiac hypertrophy and promote remodeling. The rising prevalence of CVD in premenopausal women may be attributed to an increased prevalence of women entering pregnancy with an overweight or obese BMI. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in clinical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus
In this study, we investigated a large and well-characterized patient group with the aim of identifying sex differences in disease manifestations, with a special focus on renal involvement.MethodsWe studied a Swedish multi-center SLE cohort including 1226 patients (1060 women and 166 men) with a mean follow-up time of 15.8  ± 13.4 years. Demographic data, disease manifestations including ACR criteria, serology and renal histopathology were investigated. Renal outcome and mortality were analyzed in subcohorts.ResultsFemale SLE patients presented more often with malar rash (p 
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The angiotensin II type I receptor contributes to impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation caused by placental ischemia in pregnant rats
ConclusionsThese results suggest that the impaired CBF autoregulation associated with placental ischemia is due, at least in part, to activation of the AT1 receptor and that the RAS may interact with other placental factors to promote cerebrovascular changes common to preeclampsia. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Statistical methods for testing X chromosome variant associations: application to sex-specific characteristics of bipolar disorder
ConclusionX chromosome association studies should employ methods which account for its unique biology. Future work is needed to validate the identified associations with BD, to formally assess the performance of both approaches under different true genetic architectures, and to apply these approaches to study sex differences in other conditions. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Age-related sex differences in the expression of important disease-linked mitochondrial proteins in mice
In this study, we compared the expression patterns of physiologically important mitochondrial proteins in female and male C57BL/6N mice of age cohorts frequently used in experiments. We found that sex-related differences in the expression of uncoupling proteins 1 and 3 (UCP1 and UCP3) occur in an age-dependent manner. The sex-specific expression of UCP1 and UCP3 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was inversely correlated with differences in body weight. Expression of UCP4 in the brain, Complex I in the spleen, and Complex II in the brain and BAT was least affected by the sex of the mouse. We further demonstrated that there are ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific association between the cortisol awakening response and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in healthy individuals
ConclusionsThere are sex differences in the association between OC symptoms and HPA axis measures in healthy individuals. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 2, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fetal growth outcomes following peri-implantation exposure of Long-Evans rats to noise and ozone differ by sex
ConclusionsThese data indicate that exposure to ozone and noise differentially impact uterine blood flow, particularly at mid-gestation, with only ozone exposure being associated with sex-dependent fetal growth retardation in male offspring. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 2, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The influence of biological sex and sex hormones on bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis
AbstractObesity and elevated serum lipids are associated with a threefold increase in the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that underlies stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Strategies that aim to reduce serum cholesterol through modulation of liver enzymes have been successful in decreasing the risk of developing atherosclerosis and reducing mortality. Statins, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, are considered among the most successful compounds developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, recent debate surrounding their effectiveness and safety prom...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparison of uterine fibroids ’ growth pattern during pregnancy according to fetal sex: an observational study
AbstractBackgroundTo investigate the effect of fetal sex on fibroids ’ growth during pregnancy according to the hCG serum levelsMethodsObservational study conducted from January 2007 to December 2016 on women with ultrasound identification of uterine fibroids who had a pregnancy within 1 year from diagnosis. The fibroids diameter was determined during the pre-pregnancy ultrasound, early first trimester (5 –7 weeks), late first trimester (11–13 weeks), second trimester (19–21 weeks), and third trimester (31–33 weeks). The diameter growth was calculated in each interval between two ultrasounds. ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Female sex, high soluble CD163, and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with high galectin-3 binding protein in type 1 diabetes
ConclusionsHigh Gal3BP levels were associated with female sex, increasing sCD163 and total cholesterol levels, and decreasing HDL-cholesterol levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of high Gal3BP was more than twice as high in the women as in the men. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Neurochemical sex differences in adult ADHD patients: an MRS study
ConclusionThis is the largest study yet to analyze sex differences in brain neurochemistry in adult patients with ADHD. Different age-dependent t-Cho signals in the ACC might be associated with delayed myelinization in mADHD. Further MRS studies in adult ADHD, accounting for possible sex effects, are warranted to validate the present findings. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 29, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research