Targeting senescence improves angiogenic potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with preeclampsia
AbstractBackgroundPreeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder characterized by impaired angiogenesis. We postulate that senescence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), multipotent cells with pro-angiogenic activities, is one of the mechanisms by which systemic inflammation exerts inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in preeclampsia.MethodsMSC were isolated from abdominal fat tissue explants removed during medically indicated C-sections from women with preeclampsia (PE-MSC,n = 10) and those with normotensive pregnancies (NP-MSC,n = 12). Sections of the frozen subcutaneous adipose tissue ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in fetal growth and immediate birth outcomes in a low-risk Caucasian population
AbstractBackgroundAccording to the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group recommendations, boys and girls have different growth trajectories after birth. Our aim was to develop gender-specific fetal growth curves in a low-risk population and to compare immediate birth outcomes.MethodsFirst, second, and third trimester fetal ultrasound examinations were conducted between 2002 and 2012. The data was selected using the following criteria: routine examinations in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, Caucasian ethnicity, and confirmation of gestational age by a crown-rump length (CRL) measurement in the first trimester. G...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in PAR 2 -dependent regulation of primitive colonic cells
ConclusionsAltogether, these data demonstrate that there is a sexual dimorphism in the PAR2-dependent regulation of primitive cells of the colon crypt. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The developmental origins of sex-biased expression in cardiac development
ConclusionsOverall, our results support the existence of sexually dimorphic gene expression profiles and regulatory networks at every stage of cardiac development, some of which may be established in early embryogenesis and epigenetically perpetuated. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Adipocyte deficiency of ACE2 increases systolic blood pressures of obese female C57BL/6 mice
ConclusionsAdipocyte ACE2 protects female mice from obesity-hypertension, and reduces the blood pressure response to systemic AngII. In obese transwomen undergoing gender-affirming hormone therapy, 17 β-estradiol administration may regulate blood pressure via the Ang-(1-7)/AngII balance. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

An inherent T cell deficit in healthy males to C . neoformans infection may begin to explain the sex susceptibility in incidence of cryptococcosis
ConclusionsThese results suggest that males show an inherent deficit in T cell response during infection, which may contribute to the increased incidence of disease in males. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 2, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Muscle metabolism and atrophy: let ’s talk about sex
AbstractSkeletal muscle health is a strong predictor of overall health and longevity. Pathologies affecting skeletal muscle such as cancer cachexia, intensive care unit treatment, muscular dystrophies, and others are associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Recent research has begun to determine that these muscular pathologies appear to present and develop differently between males and females. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a comprehensive review on musculoskeletal differences between males and females and how these differences may contribute to sex differences in muscle pathologi...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ischemia and reperfusion injury following cardioplegic arrest is attenuated by age and testosterone deficiency in male but not female mice
AbstractBackgroundCardiovascular disease increases with age in both sexes. Treatment can require cardiac surgery, where the hearts are pre-treated with protective cardioplegic solution before ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). While endogenous estrogen is beneficial in I/R, whether testosterone is involved is uncertain and whether age modifies responses to I/R is unclear. We investigated sex- and age-specific differences in I/R injury in the hearts pre-treated with clinically relevant cardioplegic solution.MethodsThe hearts were isolated from young (6 –9 months) and old (20–28 months) mice of both sexes ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific association of metabolic risk factors with brain ischemic lesions by severity and location
AbstractBackgroundMales and females exhibit significant differences in metabolism and in brain ischemic stroke and different features of brain ischemic lesions are related to different health outcomes. It is critical to understand sex differences in their associations to optimize prevention and intervention for both sexes. We aimed to investigate the sex-specific association of metabolic risk factors with brain ischemic lesions by severity and location.MethodsFive thousand seven hundred ninety-one participants who underwent comprehensive health examinations between Jan. 1, 2017, and Dec. 31, 2017, were enrolled. Clinical a...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the association between spousal metabolic risk factors with incidence of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal study of the Iranian population
ConclusionWe found a sex-specific effect of spousal diabetes on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Having a husband with diabetes increased an individual ’s risk of type 2 diabetes. Our results might contribute to the early detection of individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly, in women adversely affected by their partner’s diabetes. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in perceptual responses to experimental pain before and after an experimental fatiguing arm task
ConclusionsFindings suggest that mechanisms underlying the sensation of acute pain following a repetitive shoulder height task are closely linked with PPT changes in shoulder stabilizers (UT) irrespective of sex, and more so with physical pain responses in men and in attitudes towards pain in women. Sex differences in pain perception may contribute to a better understanding of sex-specific mechanisms underlying neck/shoulder MSDs. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Siah2 modulates sex-dependent metabolic and inflammatory responses in adipose tissue to a high-fat diet challenge
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that additional  file 1 was incorrect. The corrected additional file 1 is given below. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in metabolic effects of angiotensin-(1-7) treatment in obese mice
ConclusionsThis study provides new evidence for sex differences in the impact of chronic angiotensin-(1-7) in obese mice, with females having greater changes in glucose tolerance with treatment. These findings improve understanding of sex differences in renin-angiotensin mechanisms in obesity and illustrate the potential for targeting angiotensin-(1-7) for treatment of this condition. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in nicotine-enhanced Pavlovian conditioned approach in rats
ConclusionsDrug-na ïve females exhibited heightened sign-tracking compared to males, and nicotine enhanced conditioned approach similarly in males and females. Further, non-significant changes to BDNF expression in brain regions highly associated with PCA indicate that BDNF is unlikely to drive nicotine-enhanced cond itioned behavior. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in brain activation patterns with mental stress in patients with coronary artery disease
ConclusionMen and women with CAD show differences in responses to stress in brain limbic areas that regulate emotion, and these functional responses differ by MSI status. Our results suggest that the cingulate gyrus may be involved in sex differences in MSI. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 12, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impaired sleep quality is associated with concurrent elevations in inflammatory markers: are post-menopausal women at greater risk?
ConclusionImpaired sleep quality is independently associated with greater inflammation in healthy adult men and women. Despite an overall less favorable metabolic and inflammatory profile in postmenopausal women, impaired sleep did not emerge as differentially related to inflammatory activity in this group. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 8, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the association of metabolic syndrome with low back pain among middle-aged Japanese adults: a large-scale cross-sectional study
ConclusionsThis large-scale cross-sectional study indicated that MetS was significantly associated with LBP among women only and that a sex-difference existed in the association between the clustering of MetS components and LBP. Clustering of MetS components by sex may need to be considered for the prevention of LBP, although further prospective studies are needed to clarify the causality. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in gray matter volume: how many and how large are they really ?
AbstractBackgroundStudies assessing volumetric sex differences have provided contradictory results. Total intracranial volume (TIV) is a major confounding factor when estimating local volumes of interest (VOIs). We investigated how the number, size, and direction of sex differences in gray matter volume (GMv) vary depending on how TIV variation is statistically handled.MethodsSex differences in the GMv of 116 VOIs were assessed in 356 participants (171 females) without correcting for TIV variation or after adjusting the data with 5 different methods (VBM8 non-linear-only modulation, proportions, power-corrected-proportions...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the metabolic effects of the renin-angiotensin system
AbstractObesity is a global epidemic that greatly increases risk for developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Sex differences in the obese phenotype are well established in experimental animal models and clinical populations. While having higher adiposity and obesity prevalence, females are generally protected from obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular complications. This protection is, at least in part, attributed to sex differences in metabolic effects of hormonal mediators such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Previous literature has predominantly focused on the vasoconstrictor arm of the RAS...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex hormones, aging and cardiometabolic syndrome
AbstractIt is well documented that the metabolic syndrome predisposes patients to increased cardiovascular risk. Emerging data indicates that cardiovascular risk conferred by metabolic syndrome is highly dependent on sex and sex hormone status throughout the lifetime. Both male and female sex hormones, as well as sex chromosomes themselves, contribute to the development of obesity and intervene in the control of insulin homeostasis and blood pressure. Furthermore, men and women develop age-associated cardiometabolic risk in a sex-specific fashion in association with changes in these sex hormonal levels. Therefore, the curr...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex, gut microbiome, and cardiovascular disease risk
AbstractKey differences exist between men and women in the determinants and manifestations of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases. Recently, gut microbiome-host relations have been implicated in cardiovascular disease and associated metabolic conditions; therefore, gut microbiota may be key mediators or modulators driving the observed sexual dimorphism in disease onset and progression. While current evidence regarding pure physiological sex differences in gut microbiome composition is modest, robust research suggests that gut microbiome-dependent metabolites may interact with important biological pathways under sex...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex steroid hormone modulation of neural stem cells: a critical review
AbstractWhile numerous in vivo experiments have sought to explore the effects of sex chromosome composition and sex steroid hormones on cellular proliferation and differentiation within the mammalian brain, far fewer studies as reviewed here, have explored these factors using a direct in vitro approach. Generally speaking, in vivo studies provide the gold standard to demonstrate applicable findings in regards to the role hormones play in development. However, in the case of neural stem cell (NSC) biology, there remain many unknown factors that likely contribute to observations made within the developed brain, specifically ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Polypharmacy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a gender-specific analysis
AbstractBackgroundMultiple sclerosis (MS) affects about three times more women than men. Due to variable MS courses, multiple therapies are necessary in clinical practice.ObjectiveWe aimed at conducting sex-specific analyses of MS patients regarding polypharmacy ( ≥ 5 drugs) and at identifying differences in the medication spectrum.MethodsClinico-demographic data were gathered from 306 patients using clinical examinations, structured patient interviews, and patient records. Statistical data analyses were performed to evaluate whether the same or different factors are associated with polypharmacy in both genders.R...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the expression of cell adhesion molecules on microvesicles derived from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with inflammatory and thrombotic stimuli
AbstractBackgroundThere are sex differences in risk for stroke and small vessel ischemic disease in the brain. Microvesicles (MV) derived from activated cells vary by cell of origin and the stimulus initiating their release. MV released from cells activated by inflammatory and thrombotic factors have the potential to disrupt endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature. Therefore, experiments were designed to identify sex differences in the phenotype of MV released from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in response to inflammatory and thrombotic stimuli.MethodsCultured HBMEC derived from 20- t...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Prohibitin: a prime candidate for a pleiotropic effector that mediates sex differences in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysregulation
In conclusion, the sex-dimorphic metabolic and immune phenotypes of PHB-Tg and mPHB-Tg mice have revealed PHB as a pleiotropic effector of sex differences in adipose and immune functions. In this mini-review, we will discuss the pleiotropic attributes of PHB and potential mechanisms that may have contributed to the sex-dimorphic metabolic phenotypes in PHB-Tg and mPHB-Tg mice, which warrant future research. We propose that PHB is a prime candidate for a pleiotropic mediator of sex differences in adipose and immune functions in both physiology and pathophysiology, including obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysregu...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific responses to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in hypertensive African American males and females
ConclusionsOur data suggests that spironolactone is particularly effective in reducing blood pressure and controlling HTN in AA women. Further research into the impact of this therapy in this underserved and understudied minority is warranted. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in negative affect and postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty
ConclusionsThis study underlines the importance of considering sex and psychosocial factors, as well as their interaction, in understanding postsurgical pain trajectories. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The role of the gut microbiome in sex differences in arterial pressure
AbstractThere has been intense interest in the role of the gut microbiome in human health and a broad range of diseases in recent years. In the context of cardiovascular disease, gut dysbiosis (defined as a change in the gut microbiome and the gut-epithelial barrier) has been linked to disturbances in blood pressure (BP) regulation. These findings build upon our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of essential hypertension. There are clear sex differences in the epidemiology of hypertension, with distinct trends in BP across the life-course in men and women. To date, a role for the gut microbiome in contributing t...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Chronic low alcohol intake during pregnancy programs sex-specific cardiovascular deficits in rats
ConclusionsWe show for the first time that low level chronic maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy influences arterial pressure in adult offspring in the absence of fetal growth restriction. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in stress and immune responses during confinement in Antarctica
ConclusionsThe extreme environment of Antarctica seems to trigger some distinct stress and immune responses but —with the exception of cortisol and blood cell counts—without any major relevant sex-specific differences. Stated sex differences were shown to be independent of enhanced psychological stress and seem to be related to the environmental conditions. However, sources and consequences of these sex d ifferences have to be further elucidated. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Siah2 modulates sex-dependent metabolic and inflammatory responses in adipose tissue to a high-fat diet challenge
ConclusionsThe most striking sex-related effect of Siah2 deficiency is reduced whitening of brown fat in high-fat-fed females. Protection from accumulating unilocular adipocytes in the brown fat corresponds to increased expression of thermogenic genes and proteins in female, but not in male mice. These results raise the possibility that Siah2 contributes to the estrogen-related effects on brown fat function in males and females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: National trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension among Iranian adolescents across urban and rural areas (2007 –2011)
. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Perspective and strategy interactively modulate sex differences in a 3D navigation task
AbstractSex differences in navigation performance have been attributed to sex differences in information processing during navigation. Perspective refers to the viewpoint of the navigator, with previous work suggesting that men tend to use an allocentric perspective, while women tend to use an egocentric perspective during navigation. Furthermore, different navigation strategies may be used when moving from point A to B, with previous work suggesting that men tend to use a Euclidian strategy, while women tend to use a landmark-based strategy. However, it has not been studied whether perspective and strategy affect sex diff...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Inflammatory responses to dietary and surgical weight loss in male and female mice
ConclusionsThese studies demonstrate that regardless of sex, it is critical to assess an individuals ’ history of obesity rather than just rely on current weight status in medical decision-making. There are long-lasting effects on tissue inflammation in both sexes especially with surgical weight loss. Dietary change is overall most effective to improve meta-inflammation in obese males on its own or in combination with surgical weight loss. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex and genetic differences in postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a longitudinal cohort analysis
ConclusionsOlder men withAPOE4 allele may be more vulnerable to postoperative cognitive dysfunction than older women withAPOE4 allele. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 29, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

National trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension among Iranian adolescents across urban and rural areas (2007 –2011)
ConclusionThe current results showed high constant trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension in Iranian boys and girls, residing in both urban and rural areas. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 29, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

X-chromosome association study reveals genetic susceptibility loci of nasopharyngeal carcinoma
ConclusionOur finding reveals new susceptibility loci at the X chromosome conferring risk of NPC and supports the value of including the X chromosome in large-scale association studies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hormonal regulation of circuit function: sex, systems and depression
AbstractMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating chronic illness that is two times more prevalent in women than in men. The mechanisms associated with the increased female susceptibility to depression remain poorly characterized. Aberrant neuronal oscillatory activity within the putative depression network is an emerging mechanism underlying MDD. However, innate sex differences in network activity and its contribution to depression vulnerability have not been well described. In this review, current evidence of sex differences in neuronal oscillatory activity, including the influence of sex hormones and female cycl...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific lipid molecular signatures in obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions revealed by lipidomic characterization in ob/ob mouse
AbstractThe response to overfeeding is sex dependent, and metabolic syndrome is more likely associated to obesity in men or postmenopausal women than in young fertile women. We hypothesized that obesity-induced metabolic syndrome is sex dependent due to a sex-specific regulation of the fatty acid (FA) synthesis pathways in liver and white adipose depots. We aimed to identify distinctive molecular signatures between sexes using a lipidomics approach to characterize lipid species in liver, perigonadal adipose tissue, and inguinal adipose tissue and correlate them to the physiopathological responses observed. Males had less t...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Female-biased sexual dimorphism of corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
Following publication of the original article [1], we noticed a number of errors. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ modulates energy homeostasis through inhibition of neurotransmission at VMN SF-1/ARC POMC synapses in a sex- and diet-dependent manner
ConclusionThese findings show that males are more responsive to the pleiotropic actions of N/OFQ at anorexigenic VMN SF-1/ARC POMC synapses, and this responsiveness can be further enhanced under conditions of diet-induced obesity/insulin resistance. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 12, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific regulation of cardiac microRNAs targeting mitochondrial proteins in pressure overload
ConclusionWe put forward that the male-specific induction of miRNAs and corresponding downregulation of downstream protein targets involved in mitochondrial metabolism may contribute to sex-specific remodeling in PO-induced LVH. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific influence on cardiac structural remodeling and therapy in cardiovascular disease
ConclusionIn this review, sex-dependent alterations in adverse cardiac remodeling are discussed for various CVDs. Moreover, potential therapeutic options, like estrogen treatment, are reviewed. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Female-biased sexual dimorphism of corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
ConclusionVenus-expressing CRF neurons showed female-biased sexual dimorphism in ovBNST and alBNST of the mouse. Expression of Venus in these subnuclei was controlled by gonadal steroids. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex- and age-related changes in GABA signaling components in the human cortex
This study is the first analysis of the age- and sex-specific changes of the GAD, GABAA/BR subunits, and GAT expression in the human primary sensory and motor cortices; superior (STG), middle (MTG), and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG); and cerebellum. Utilizing Western blotting, we found that the GABAergic system is relatively robust against sex and age-related differences in all brain regions examined. However, we observed several sex-dependent differences in GABAAR subunit expression in STG along with age-dependent GABAAR subunit and GAD level alteration. No significant age-related differences were found in α1, &alph...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Estrogen receptor profiles across tissues from male and female Rattus norvegicus
AbstractBackgroundEstrogen is formed by the enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1) and signals via three identified receptors ER α (ESR1), ERß (ESR2), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Understanding the relative contribution of each receptor to estrogenic signaling may elucidate the disparate effects of this sex hormone across tissues, and recent developments in PCR technology allow absolute quantification and direct comparison of multiple targets. We hypothesized that this approach would reveal tissue- and sex-specific differences in estrogen receptor mRNA.MethodsESR1, ESR2, GPER, and CYP19A1 were measur...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-related DNA methylation differences in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
ConclusionsOur study represents the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) that investigates the sex-related differences in cancer, and indicated that DNA methylation differences might contribute to the sex-related difference in CLL risk. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The federal plan for health science and technology ’s response to the opioid crisis: understanding sex and gender differences as part of the solution is overlooked
This report provides the “roadmap” for a coordinated federal research and development response to the opioid crisis. Other than noting the important concerns regarding maternal and neonatal exposure to opioids, the report overlooks the laboratory, clinical, and epidemiological data that inform the need for further resea rch on sex and gender differences in opioid addiction that have critical gender-based treatment and prevention implications. As we embark on research and development, investigations into the neurobiology of pain, opioid use, and addiction must include both females and males in model systems and,...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Afferent arteriole responsiveness to endothelin receptor activation: does sex matter?
ConclusionThese data demonstrate that sex does not significantly influence afferent arteriole reactivity to ET receptor activation. Gonadectomy potentiated the responsiveness of the afferent arteriole to ETB-induced vasoconstriction in females, but not males, suggesting that female sex hormones influence ETB-mediated vasoconstriction in the renal microcirculation. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Proteomics and multivariate modelling reveal sex-specific alterations in distinct regions of human carotid atheroma
ConclusionsThis pilot study, for the first time, utilises a multivariate proteomic approach to investigate sexual dimorphism in human atherosclerotic tissue, and provides an essential proteomic platform for further investigations to help understand sexual dimorphism and plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 29, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research