Selective deletion of endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor protects from vascular dysfunction in sodium-restricted female mice
ConclusionCollectively, these data indicate that female mice develop aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction via endothelial MR-mediated reductions in NO bioavailability. In addition, these data support a role for ECMR to promote vascular contractility in female mice in response to sodium restriction. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Differential expression of microRNAs in the hippocampi of male and female rodents after chronic alcohol administration
ConclusionsThese results suggest that chronic heavy alcohol use produces sex-dependent effects on neurogenesis and miRNA expression in the hippocampus and that sex differences should be considered when developing miRNA biomarkers to diagnose or treat alcoholics. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes in patients with vasospastic angina: results from the VA-Korea registry, a prospective multi-center cohort
ConclusionsIn VA patients, there were several different clinical characteristics according to sex; however, long-term clinical outcome was similar between sexes. Significant organic coronary stenosis in both sexes and low body mass index (
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent alterations in the physiology of entorhinal cortex neurons in old heterozygous 3xTg-AD mice
AbstractWhile the higher prevalence of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) in women is clear, studies suggest that biological sex may also influence AD pathogenesis. However, mechanisms behind these differences are not clear. To investigate physiological differences between sexes at the cellular level in the brain, we investigated the intrinsic and syna ptic properties of entorhinal cortex neurons in heterozygous 3xTg-AD mice of both sexes at the age of 20 months. This brain region was selected because of its early association with AD symptoms. First, we found physiological differences between male and female ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in neuro(auto)immunity and chronic sciatic nerve pain
AbstractChronic pain occurs with greater frequency in women, with a parallel sexually dimorphic trend reported in sufferers of many autoimmune diseases. There is a need to continue examining neuro-immune-endocrine crosstalk in the context of sexual dimorphisms in chronic pain. Several phenomena in particular need to be further explored. In patients, autoantibodies to neural antigens have been associated with sensory pathway hyper-excitability, and the role of self-antigens released by damaged nerves remains to be defined. In addition, specific immune cells release pro-nociceptive cytokines that directly influence neural fi...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 12, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Investigating transcriptome-wide sex dimorphism by multi-level analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing data in ten mouse cell types
ConclusionsWe explored novel gene expression-based biomarkers, functional cell group compositions, and transcriptional regulatory networks associated with sex dimorphism with a novel computational pipeline. Our findings indicated that sex dimorphism might be widespread across the transcriptomes of cell types, cell type-specific, and impactful for regulating cellular activities. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 5, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Is sex a proxy for mechanical variables during an upper limb repetitive movement task? An investigation of the effects of sex and of anthropometric load on muscle fatigue
ConclusionsThis sex difference emerged when AL was included as a covariate, suggesting that sex-associated anthropometric differences may contribute to sex differences in the fatigue response. Differences in the impact of AL on AD compared to UT could be explained by differences in their respective mechanical roles or muscle fiber content. Anthropometrics may be useful to include as covariates in future research to separate individual anthropometric differences from sex differences. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in fatigability after ischemic preconditioning of non-exercising limbs
AbstractBackgroundIschemic preconditioning (IPC) is suggested to decrease fatigability in some individuals but not others. Sex differences in response to IPC may account for this variability and few studies systematically investigated the effects of IPC in men and women. The goal of this study was to determine if time to task failure, perception of pain, and neuromuscular mechanisms of fatigability were altered by IPC in men and women.MethodsTen women (29 ± 5 years old) and 10 men (28 ± 6 years old) performed isometric contractions with the plantar flexor muscles of the dominant leg at 20% of ma...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 27, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interactive effects of asparagine and aspartate homeostasis with sex and age for the risk of type 2 diabetes risk
ConclusionsHigh asparagine to aspartate ratio was associated with markedly increased risk of T2D, which was further amplified by either female gender or> 50 years of age, and especially both. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in clinical phenotype and transitions of care among individuals dying of COVID-19 in Italy
ConclusionsMen and women dying with COVID-19 had different clinical manifestations and transitions of care. Identifying sex-specific features in individuals with COVID-19 and fatal outcome might inform preventive strategies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in self-report anxiety and sleep quality during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders
AbstractBackgroundCOVID-19 and home isolation has impacted quality of life, but the perceived impact on anxiety and sleep remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 and stay-at-home orders on self-report anxiety and sleep quality, with a focus on sex differences. We hypothesized that the COVID-19 pandemic would be associated with increased anxiety and decreased sleep quality, with stronger associations in women.MethodsOne hundred three participants (61 female, 38 ± 1 years) reported perceived changes in anxiety and sleep quality due to stay-at-home orders during the COVI...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A community-based study of demographics, medical and psychiatric conditions, and gender dysphoria/incongruence treatment in transgender/gender diverse individuals
ConclusionTransgender and gender diverse individuals represent a population who express various gender identities and are seeking gender-specific healthcare at increasing rates. Psychiatric illness is highly prevalent compared to the US population but there is no difference in the prevalence of CV risk factors including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 5, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury during pregnancy leads to increased sFlt-1 and sEng and decreased renal T regulatory cells in pregnant rats with HELLP syndrome
AbstractBackgroundThe incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during pregnancy precedes a high maternal mortality rate of 20 –40%. AKI during pregnancy has multiple etiologies; however, the more common are maternal hypertensive disorders, which include preeclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, low platelet) syndrome. Therefore, we sought to assess the impact of AKI on blood pressure, kidney injury, and a nti-angiogenic factors during pregnancies with and without HELLP syndrome.MethodsOn gestational day (GD) 12, mini-osmotic pumps were inserted into a subset of normal pregnant (NP) rats infusing 4.7 &th...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in severity and mortality from COVID-19: are males more vulnerable?
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shown high infection and mortality rates all over the world, and despite the global efforts, there is so far no specific therapy available for COVID-19. Interestingly, while the severity and mortality of COVID-19 are higher in males than in females, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this review, we explore sex-related differences that may be contributing factors to the observed male-biased mortality from COVID-19. Males are considered the weaker sex in aspects related to endurance and infection control. Studies show that viral RNA clearance is delayed in mal...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Role for ovarian hormones in purinoceptor-dependent natriuresis
ConclusionThese data suggest that ovary-intact females have enhanced P2Y2 and P2Y4-dependent regulation of Na+ handling in the renal medulla, compared to male and OVX rats. We speculate that the P2 pathway contributes to facilitated renal Na+ handling in premenopausal females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Association between fetal sex and maternal plasma microRNA responses to prenatal alcohol exposure: evidence from a birth outcome-stratified cohort
We reported that maternal miRNAs predicted FASD-related growth and psychomotor deficits in infants. Here, we assessed whether fetal sex influenced alterations in maternal circulating miRNAs following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). To overcome the loss of statistical power due to disaggregating maternal samples by fetal sex, we adapted a strategy of iterative bootstrap resampling with replacement to assess the stability of statistical parameter estimates. Bootstrap estimates of parametric and effect size tests identified male and female fetal sex-associated maternal miRNA responses to PAE that were not observed in the agg...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of sex hormones in autoimmunity: focus on EAE
AbstractSex-related differences in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases is well documented, with females showing a greater propensity to develop these diseases than their male counterparts. Sex hormones, namely dihydrotestosterone and estrogens, have been shown to ameliorate the severity of inflammatory diseases. Immunologically, the beneficial effects of sex hormones have been ascribed to the suppression of effector lymphocyte responses accompanied by immune deviation from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine production. In this review, we present our view of the mechanisms of sex hormones that contribute to th...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 6, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis
ConclusionMore regional GM atrophy was observed in men with MS than women with MS, consistent with previous observations that male sex is a risk factor for worse disease progression. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 27, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hypogonadal hypertension in male Sprague-Dawley rats is renin-angiotensin system-dependent: role of endogenous androgens
ConclusionsThis is the first study to examine the long-term effects of endogenous and exogenous androgens on BP in male SD and Tfm rats. These data reveal that endogenous androgens (TES) exert anti-hypertensive effects that appear to involve non-genomic and possibly genomic mechanism(s), resulting in reductions in RAS expression in the kidney and enhanced systemic vasodilation. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 25, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in circulating proteins in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
ConclusionIn chronic HFpEF, assessing sex differences in a wide range of circulating proteins led to the identification of 9 proteins that were differentially expressed between female and male patients. These findings may help further investigations into potential pathophysiological processes contributing to HFpEF. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Proteomic analysis revealed common, unique and systemic signatures in gender-dependent hepatocarcinogenesis
AbstractHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and is highly malignant. Male prevalence and frequent activation of the Ras signaling pathway are distinct characteristics of HCC. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. By exploringHras12V transgenic mice showing male-biased hepatocarcinogenesis, we performed a high-throughput comparative proteomic analysis based on tandem-mass-tag (TMT) labeling combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on the tissue samples obtained from HCC (T) and their paired adjacent precancerous (P) ofHras12V transgenic male and...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 12, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Roles for androgens in mediating the sex differences of neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses
AbstractEstradiol and testosterone are powerful steroid hormones that impact brain function in numerous ways. During development, these hormones can act to program the adult brain in a male or female direction. During adulthood, gonadal steroid hormones can activate or inhibit brain regions to modulate adult functions. Sex differences in behavioral and neuroendocrine (i.e., hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis) responses to stress arise as a result of these organizational and activational actions. The sex differences that are present in the HPA and behavioral responses to stress are particularly important considering ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 28, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Pathophysiological effects of androgens on the female vascular system
AbstractSex hormones and their respective receptors affect vascular function differently in men and women, so it is reasonable to assume they play a role in the sex differences in cardiovascular disease states. This review focuses on how the effects of testosterone on arterial vessels impact the female vasculature. In women with androgen-excess polycystic ovary syndrome, and in transgender men, testosterone exposure is associated with high blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. These relationships suggest that androgens may exert pathophysiological effects on the female vasculature, and these effects on...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 28, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The prognostic value of gender in gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a propensity score matching analysis
AbstractBackgroundGastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach are the most common GISTs. The risk, incidence, and outcome of cancer are different between the sexes. Whether gender is related to the prognosis of gastric stromal tumors is unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the relationship between gender and gastric GIST prognosis.MethodsData from gastric GIST patients were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce confounding factors, and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of GIST patients were co...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Reference genome and transcriptome informed by the sex chromosome complement of the sample increase ability to detect sex differences in gene expression from RNA-Seq data
ConclusionsWe show that regardless of the choice of the read aligner, using an alignment protocol informed by the sex chromosome complement of the sample results in higher expression estimates on the pseudoautosomal regions of the X chromosome in both genetic male and genetic female samples, as well as an increased number of unique genes being called as differentially expressed between the sexes. We additionally show that using a pseudo-alignment approach informed on the sex chromosome complement of the sample eliminates Y-linked expression in female XX samples. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender differences of morphological and hemodynamic characteristics of abdominal aortic aneurysm
ConclusionsThe morphological and hemodynamic features of AAA have very obvious gender differences that would induce higher risk of rupture for female AAA biomechanically. These findings would help to explore the mechanism of gender differences in AAA and draw attention to gender-specific consideration for AAA treatment. More morphological and hemodynamic indictors are suggested to be involved in the future guidelines. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

An interaction between fetal sex and placental weight and efficiency predicts intrauterine growth in response to maternal protein insufficiency and gestational exposure window in a mouse model of FASD
AbstractBackgroundIndividuals exposed to gestational stressors such as alcohol exhibit a spectrum of growth patterns, suggesting individualized responses to the stressors. We hypothesized that intrauterine growth responses to gestational alcohol are modified not only by the stressor ’s severity but by fetal sex and the placenta’s adaptive capacity.MethodsPregnant C57BL/6J mice were assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 consumed a normal protein diet (18% protein by weight) and received 4.5  g alcohol/kg body weight (NP-Alc-8) or isocaloric maltodextrin (NP-MD-8) daily from embryonic day (E) 8.5–...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 19, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the association of abdominal adipose tissue and anthropometric data with untreated hypertension in a Chinese population
AbstractBackgroundThere are inconsistent interpretations of the interrelationship of adiposity, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. Additionally, whether these relationships differ between sexes is unknown. We aimed to elucidate the associations of adiposity indices measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with BP and hypertension and to determine the effect of sex on the interrelationship of these parameters in a Chinese population.MethodsAbdominal adipose fat, including the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area, was measured by QCT...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A new sex-specific underlying mechanism for female schizophrenia: accelerated skewed X chromosome inactivation
AbstractBackgroundX chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mechanism by which the X-linked gene dosage is adjusted between the sexes. Evidence shows that many sex-specific diseases have their basis in X chromosome biology. While female schizophrenia patients often have a delayed age of disease onset and clinical phenotypes that are different from those of males, it is unknown whether the sex differences in schizophrenia are associated with X-linked gene dosage and the choice of X chromosome silencing in female cells. Previous studies demonstrated that sex chromosome aneuploidies may be related to the pathogeneses of some psy...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Changes in excessive alcohol use among older women across the menopausal transition: a longitudinal analysis of the Study of Women ’s Health Across the Nation
ConclusionsThe present study demonstrates that the menopausal transition marks a period of instability in alcohol use among women. Further research is warranted to understand factors related to transitioning in and out of excessive drinking. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Systematic review supports the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia: a call for analytical and methodological standardization
ConclusionsThe findings from this review support the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Establishing field-wide methodological and analytical standards may increase value and reduce waste, allowing researchers to gain additional insights into the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 5, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Androgens ’ effects on cerebrovascular function in health and disease
AbstractAndrogens affect the cerebral vasculature and may contribute to sex differences in cerebrovascular diseases. Men are at a greater risk for stroke and vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) compared to women throughout much of the lifespan. The cerebral vasculature is a target for direct androgen actions, as it expresses several sex steroid receptors and metabolizing enzymes. Androgens ’ actions on the cerebral vasculature are complex, as they have been shown to have both protective and detrimental effects, depending on factors such as age, dose, and disease state. When administered...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 29, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Unfractionated heparin displaces sFlt-1 from the placental extracellular matrix
In this study, we hypothesized that administration of unfractionated heparin would displace and solubilize placental extracellular matrix(ECM)-bound sFlt-1. If unfractionated heparin can displace this large reservoir of sFlt-1 in the placenta and mobilized it into the maternal circulation, we should be able to observe its effects on maternal angiogenic balance and blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, we utilized in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo methods. Using the BeWo placental trophoblast cell line, we observed increased sFlt-1 in the media of cells treated with unfractionated heparin compared to controls. The increase ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 28, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in Alzheimer ’s-related Tau biomarkers and a mediating effect of testosterone
We examined whether testosterone levels might influence this sex difference and the modify ing role of APOE4 status. Analyses included 172 participants (25 cognitively normal, 97 mild cognitive impairment, 50 AD participants) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (34% female, 54% APOE4 carriers, aged 55–90). We examined the separate and interactive effects of plasma te stosterone levels and APOE4 on cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated-tau181 (p-Tau) levels in the overall sample and the sex difference in p-Tau levels before and after adjusting for testosterone. A significant APOE4-by-testoster...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 18, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in pharmacokinetics predict adverse drug reactions in women
ConclusionsSex differences in pharmacokinetics strongly predict sex-specific ADRs for women but not men. This sex difference was not explained by sex differences in body weight. The absence of sex-stratified PK information in public records for hundreds of drugs raises the concern that sex differences in PK values are widespread and of clinical significance. The common practice of prescribing equal drug doses to women and men neglects sex differences in pharmacokinetics and dimorphisms in body weight, risks overmedication of women, and contributes to female-biased adverse drug reactions. We recommend evidence-based dose re...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 4, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Androgens and the developing hippocampus
AbstractThe hippocampus is central to spatial learning and stress responsiveness, both of which differ in form and function in males versus females, yet precisely how the hippocampus contributes to these sex differences is largely unknown. In reproductively mature individuals, sex differences in the steroid hormone milieu undergirds many sex differences in hippocampal-related endpoints. However, there is also evidence for developmental programming of adult hippocampal function, with a central role for androgens as well as their aromatized byproduct, estrogens. These include sex differences in cell genesis, synapse formatio...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 31, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Estrogen-related mechanisms in sex differences of hypertension and target organ damage
AbstractHypertension (HTN) is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events, target organ damage (TOD), premature death and disability worldwide. The pathophysiology of HTN is complex and influenced by many factors including biological sex. Studies show that the prevalence of HTN is higher among adults aged 60 and over, highlighting the increase of HTN after menopause in women. Estrogen (E2) plays an important role in the development of systemic HTN and TOD, exerting several modulatory effects. The influence of E2 leads to alterations in mechanisms regulating the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldoste...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 31, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe
ConclusionThe sex and gender disparities observed in COVID-19 vulnerability emphasize the need to better understand the impact of sex and gender on incidence and case fatality of the disease and to tailor treatment according to sex and gender. The ongoing and planned prophylactic and therapeutic treatment studies must include prospective sex- and gender-sensitive analyses. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 24, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Transcriptional analysis of the multiple Sry genes and developmental program at the onset of testis differentiation in the rat
ConclusionsThis work represents a first step in defining the complex environment of rat testis differentiation that can open the door for generating sex reversal model systems using embryo manipulation techniques that have been available in the mouse but not the rat. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fetal sex and maternal pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThis meta-analysis suggests that the occurrence of pregnancy complications differ according to fetal sex with a higher cardiovascular and metabolic load for the mother in the presence of a male fetus.FundingNone. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in traumatic stress reactivity in rats with and without a history of alcohol drinking
ConclusionsWe report robust sex differences in behavioral and endocrine responses to bobcat urine exposure in adult Wistar rats. Also, males with a history of chronic moderate alcohol drinking exhibited increased traumatic stress reactivity relative to alcohol-drinking females. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering sex as a biological variable in the investigation of traumatic stress effects on physiology and behavior. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex- and growth-specific characteristics of small for gestational age infants: a prospective cohort study
AbstractBackgroundAsymmetric fetal growth and male sex are both associated with adverse neonatal outcome. However, less is known about the influence of asymmetric growth and fetal sex within SGA neonates, a group of infants already at increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into variance in risk factors for SGA in a fetal sex- and growth symmetry-specific way.MethodsFor this prospective, multicenter cohort study, data from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study were used with 5628 nulliparous participants, of which 633 (11.3%) pregnancies were complicat...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 4, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The impact of sex and gender on immunotherapy outcomes
AbstractImmunotherapies are often used for the treatment, remission, and possible cure of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. Empirical evidence illustrates that females and males differ in outcomes following the use of biologics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), infectious diseases, e.g., influenza, and solid tumor cancers. Females tend to experience more adverse reactions than males following the use of a class of biologics referred to as immunotherapies. For immunotherapies aimed at stimulating an immune response, e.g., influenza vaccines, females develop great...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 3, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-related differences in markers of immune activation in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients
ConclusionA significant sex-related difference in the level of immune activation was observed in a population of individuals with HIV on long-term ART. A more complete characterization of these differences may support the introduction of sex-specific approaches in the clinical management of individuals with HIV. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific clustering of metabolic risk factors and cancer risk: a longitudinal study in Iran
ConclusionsClustering patterns may reflect underlying link between MRFs and cancer and could potentially facilitate tailored health promotion interventions. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 24, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Alterations of neural network organization during REM sleep in women: implication for sex differences in vulnerability to mood disorders
ConclusionsThus, the highlighting of these sex differences in network organization during REM sleep indicates the presence of differences in the global and local processing of information during sleep between women and men. In addition, this small-world network organization less marked during REM sleep appears to be a marker of vulnerability to mood disorders specific to women, which opens up new perspectives in understanding sex differences in the occurrence of mood disorders. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 24, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Social functioning outcomes in men and women receiving medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder
This study is the largest to date to study sex differenc es in OUD and explore associations between MAT and SF.MethodsData were collected from 2736 participants with OUD, enrolled in MAT for varying lengths of time, in outpatient clinics across Ontario. SF was defined according to the Maudsley Addiction Profile ’s domains of (1) employment, (2) criminal activity, and (3) interpersonal conflict. Using logistic regression analysis, we examined sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with domains of SF.ResultsThere were 1544 men (56%) and 1192 women (44%) in this study, and  ages varied from 17 to 76 years...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Age-period-cohort effects in pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases amongst primiparous women
ConclusionsIndependent of changes in the incidence of pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases as women age, the obstetric population is becoming less healthy over time. This is important, as these changes have a direct negative impact on short-term obstetric outcomes and women ’s long-term health. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 18, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in cancer mechanisms
AbstractWe now know that cancer is many different diseases, with great variation even within a single histological subtype. With the current emphasis on developing personalized approaches to cancer treatment, it is astonishing that we have not yet systematically incorporated the biology of sex differences into our paradigms for laboratory and clinical cancer research. While some sex differences in cancer arise through the actions of circulating sex hormones, other sex differences are independent of estrogen, testosterone, or progesterone levels. Instead, these differences are the result of sexual differentiation, a process...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Calorie intake is associated with weight gain during transition phase of nutrition in female extremely low birth weight infants
AbstractWe sought to determine whether there are sex-based differences in the requirements for calories or protein for optimal growth during the transition phase (TP) when an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, defined as a preterm infant with a birth weight of
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research