Spatiotemporal AMPK α2 deletion in mice induces cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis and cardiolipin remodeling associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in males only
ConclusionOur results confirm the close link between AMPK and cardiac mitochondrial function, but also highlight links with cardiac fibrosis. Importantly, we show that AMPK is differently involved in these processes in males and females, which may have clinical implications for the use of AMPK activators in the treatment of heart failure. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 17, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Role of GDF-15, YKL-40 and MMP 9 in patients with end-stage kidney disease: focus on sex-specific associations with vascular outcomes and all-cause mortality
AbstractBackgroundSex differences are underappreciated in the current understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A hallmark of CKD is vascular aging that is characterised, amongst others, by; systemic inflammation, microbiota disbalance, oxidative stress, and vascular calcification —features linked to atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis development. Thus, it is the necessary to introduce novel biomarkers related to athero-/arteriosclerotic damage for better assessment of vascular ageing in patients CKD. However, little is known about the relationship between uraemia a...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 15, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Shortening time for access to alcohol drives up front-loading behavior, bringing consumption in male rats to the level of females
ConclusionsThis strategy could be useful for exploring sex differences in the neural mechanisms underlying alcohol drinking and related health vulnerabilities. Our findings also highlight the importance of the time of testing for detecting sex differences in drinking behavior. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 15, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ischemic preconditioning protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury in chronic kidney disease in both males and females
ConclusionThe infarct size-limiting effect of IPRE was preserved in both sexes in CKD despite the more severe uremic cardiomyopathy in male CKD rats. Further research is needed to identify crucial molecular mechanisms in the cardioprotective effect of IPRE in CKD. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Sex differences in a cohort of COVID-19 Italian patients hospitalized during the first and second pandemic waves
(Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 20, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Investigating the sex-dependent effects of prefrontal cortex stimulation on response execution and inhibition
In this study, we examined the interaction of two contextual factors, participants' sex and background acoustic stimuli, in modulating the effects of tDCS on response inhibition and execution. In a sham-controlled and cross-over (repeated-measure) design, 73 participants (37 females) performed a Stop-Signal Task in different background acoustic conditions before and after tDCS (anodal or sham) was applied over the DLPFC. Participants had to execute a speeded response in Go trials but inhibit their response in Stop trials. Participants' sex was fully counterbalanced across all experimental conditions (acoustic and tDCS). We...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 17, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Activation of G protein-coupled estradiol receptor 1 in the dorsolateral striatum enhances motivation for cocaine and drug-induced reinstatement in female but not male rats
ConclusionsThese results support the conclusion that activation of GPER1 in the DLS enhances cocaine-seeking behaviors for female, but not male rats. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in a cohort of COVID-19 Italian patients hospitalized during the first and second pandemic waves
ConclusionsThese data indicate that once patients were hospitalized, the risk of dying was similar between females and males. Therefore, future studies should aim at understanding the reasons why, for a given number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, fewer females develop the disease requiring hospitalization.HighlightsAlthough the hospitalized males were significantly more, the similar number of hospitalizations of the> 75-year-old females and males could be due to the fact that in Brescia province, elderly women are about twice as many as men.Although males spent more days in the hospital, had a longer disease duration, develo...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 11, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Testosterone and depressive symptoms during the late menopause transition
ConclusionThese results suggest that, within the context of the menopause transition, times that are characterized by a higher testosterone-to-estradiol ratio may be associated with higher depressive symptoms. Perimenopausal women with a higher average ratio of testosterone relative to estradiol may also experience more sleep difficulties and vasomotor symptom bother. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 30, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism of monocyte transcriptome in individuals with chronic low-grade inflammation
AbstractSexual dimorphism in the immune system is evidenced by a higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases in men. However, the molecular basis of these sex-based differences is not fully understood. We have characterized the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood monocytes from males and postmenopausal females with chronic low-grade inflammation. We identified 41 sexually differentially expressed genes [adjustedp value (FDR)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 28, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Network analysis of the left anterior descending coronary arteries in swim-trained rats by an in situ video microscopic technique
(Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 18, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effect of reproductive hormones on women ’s daily smoking across the menstrual cycle
ConclusionsThe present study suggests that (1) elevated progesterone levels lessen the propensity to smoke in women, (2) estrogen levels influence women ’s subjective experience of smoking, and (3) simultaneous drops or increases in these hormones are associated with increased smoking. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 10, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A retrospective study on sex difference in patients with urolithiasis: who is more vulnerable to chronic kidney disease?
ConclusionsThe female gender is significantly associated with a higher prevalence of CKD among patients with urolithiasis. Therefore, women with stone disease may need close renal function monitoring during follow-up. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 7, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex difference in the association between plasma selenium and first stroke: a community-based nested case-control study
AbstractBackgroundTo date, there is no clearly defined association between plasma selenium levels and first stroke. We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma selenium and first stroke risk in a community-based Chinese population.MethodsUsing a nested case-control study design, a total of 1255 first stroke cases and 1255 matched controls were analyzed. Participant plasma selenium concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the association of plasma selenium with first stroke risk was estimated by conditional logistic regression models.ResultsOverall, a non...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 29, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A cross-cohort analysis of autosomal DNA methylation sex differences in the term placenta
ConclusionsOur results provide a comprehensive analysis of sex differences in autosomal DNAme in the term human placenta. We report a list of high-confidence autosomal sex-associated differentially methylated CpGs and identify several key features of these loci that suggest their relevance to sex differences observed in normative and complicated pregnancies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 27, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Network analysis of the left anterior descending coronary arteries in swim-trained rats by an in situ video microscopic technique
ConclusionsPhysical activity and LV hypertrophy were accompanied by a remodelling of coronary resistance artery network geometry that was different in both sexes. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 26, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infections —a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsCurrent literature suggests sex differences with male preference (59%) in the distribution of VRE BSI cases. Further primary studies should address the question of male-specific factors favoring the enhanced frequency of VRE BSI. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 17, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the intestinal microbiome: interactions with risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease
ConclusionNovel strategies focused on resolving intestinal dysbiosis as a means to slow progression of atherosclerosis and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease should be evaluated through a lens of sex differences. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 17, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences associated with adverse drug reactions resulting in hospital admissions
ConclusionsThere are sex-related differences in the risk of hospital admission in specific drug-ADR combinations. The most substantial differences were due to anticoagulants and diuretics. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 3, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in soluble prorenin receptor in patients with type 2 diabetes
ConclusionsIn patients with type 2 diabetes, sPRR contributes to RAS stimulation in a sex-dependent fashion. In diabetic women, increased plasma sPRR parallels the activation of systemic RAS; while in diabetic men, decreased sPRR in urine matches intrarenal RAS stimulation. sPRR might be a potential indicator of intrarenal RAS activation and renal dysfunction in men and women with type 2 diabetes. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 1, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Lower variability in female students than male students at multiple timescales supports the use of sex as a biological variable in human studies
ConclusionsOur findings do not support the idea that women are more behaviorally variable than men and may support the opposite. Our findings support including sex as a biological variable and do not support variance-based arguments for the exclusion of women as research subjects. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterisation of cardiac health in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure model and a 3D cardiac spheroid model, of preeclampsia
AbstractBackgroundPreeclampsia is a dangerous cardiovascular disorder of pregnancy that leads to an increased risk of future cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Much of the pathogenesis and mechanisms involved in cardiac health in preeclampsia  are unknown. A novel anti-angiogenic protein, FKBPL, is emerging as having a potential role in both preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, in this study we aimed to characterise cardiac health and FKBPL regulation in the rat reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) and a 3D car diac spheroid model of preeclampsia.MethodsThe RUPP model was induced in preg...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 20, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury is more common in men than women after accounting for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, alcohol intake and smoking history
This study was designed to examine the association of sex and socioeconomic factors with AKI and AKI-related mortality and further to evaluate the additional relationship with other possible risk factors for AKI occurrence.MethodsWe included 3534 patients (1878 males with mean age 61.1 ± 17.7 and 1656 females 1656 with mean age 60.3 ± 20.0 years) admitted to Queen Elizabeth or Heartlands Hospitals, Birmingham, between October 2013 and January 2016. Patients were prospectively followed-up for a median 47.70 [IQR, 18.20] months. Study-endpoints were incidence of AKI, based on KDIG O-AKI Guidelines, and all-caus...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 8, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis: a functional meta-analysis of sex-based differences in transcriptomic studies
ConclusionsOur meta-analysis of transcriptomic data provides a powerful approach to identify sex-based differences in NAFLD. We detected differences in relevant biological functions and molecular terms between premenopausal women and men. Differences in immune responsiveness between men and premenopausal women with NAFLD suggest that women possess a more immune tolerant milieu, while men display an impaired liver regenerative response.Graphical abstract (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impact of sex in the prevalence and progression of glioblastomas: the role of gonadal steroid hormones
ConclusionGonadal steroid hormones can stimulate the progression of glioblastomas through the increase in proliferation, migration, and invasion. However, the effects mentioned above depend on the concentrations of these hormones and the receptor involved in hormone actions. Estradiol and progesterone can exert promoter or protective effects while the role of testosterone has been always associated to glioblastomas progression. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Chronic ethanol vapor exposure potentiates cardiovascular responses to acute stress in male but not in female rats
ConclusionChronic ethanol vapor exposure increased the cardiovascular reactivity to stress in male, but not in female rats. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 16, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in fetal Doppler parameters during gestation
ConclusionsDoppler ultrasound parameters were found to be dependent on fetal sex for some vessels and not for others in healthy pregnancies. Further investigations are needed to understand the physiological mechanisms for these sex differences and the relevance for disease processes in pregnancy. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 10, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone: sex-dependent role in nervous system regulation and disease
AbstractThyroid hormone (TH) regulates many functions including metabolism, cell differentiation, and nervous system development. Alteration of thyroid hormone level in the body can lead to nervous system-related problems linked to cognition, visual attention, visual processing, motor skills, language, and memory skills. TH has also been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Males and females display sex-specific differences in neuronal signaling. Steroid hormones including testosterone and estrogen are considered to be the prime regulators for progra...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 8, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in noise-induced hearing loss: a cross-sectional study in China
ConclusionsThis study indicates significant sex differences in NIHL. Males are at higher risk of HFHL than females despite equivalent noise exposure and age. The risk factors for NIHL might be different in males and females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender-related variables for health research
ConclusionOur new instrument represents an important step toward developing more comprehensive and precise survey-based measures of gender in relation to health. Our questionnaire is designed to shed light on how specific gender-related behaviors and attitudes contribute to health and disease processes, irrespective of —or in addition to—biological sex and self-reported gender identity. Use of these gender-related variables in experimental studies, such as clinical trials, may also help us understand if gender factors play an important role as treatment-effect modifiers and would thus need to be further consid ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Estrogen receptors in pain modulation: cellular signaling
AbstractSensory perception and emotional disorders are disproportionally represented in men and women and are thus thought to be modulated by different sex hormones in various conditions. Among the most important hormones perceived to affect sensory processing and transduction is estrogen. Numerous previous researchers have endeavored to demonstrate that estrogen is capable of modulating the activity of sensory neurons in peripheral and central sites in female, male, or castrated animals. However, the underlying mechanisms of its modulation of neuronal activity are somewhat unclear. In the present review, we discuss the po...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 10, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent effects of prenatal food and protein restriction on offspring physiology in rats and mice: systematic review and meta-analyses
ConclusionsWe found little support for the hypotheses that males are more affected by food and protein restriction, or that effects are particularly severe if nutrition is reduced part-way through gestation. However, less than half of the studies tested for sex by maternal diet interactions to identify sex-dependent effects. As a result, many reported sex-specific effects may be false positives. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 9, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and outcomes in women and men hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 in New Orleans
ConclusionsThis study highlights sex disparities in clinical determinants of severe outcomes in COVID-19 patients that may inform management and prevention strategies to ensure gender equity. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 5, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in uterine artery Doppler during gestation in pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fetal sex on uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) throughout gestation in a cohort of normal and complicated pregnancies.MethodsA prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 240 pregnant women. Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound of the proximal uterine arteries was performed at a 4-weekly interval between 14 and 40  weeks of gestation. The patients were classified retrospectively as normal or complicated (one or more of maternal preeclampsia, preterm birth, or small for gestational age). To assess if the change in uterine artery PI during gestation differ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 2, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Age-dependent changes of gender disparities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survival
ConclusionsGender disparities in cancer-specific mortality for patients with NPC were age-dependent. The differences mostly cannot be explained by confounder or mediation effects. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 30, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The visceral fat area to leg muscle mass ratio is significantly associated with the risk of hyperuricemia among women: a cross-sectional study
ConclusionThe VFA-to-LMM ratio was positively associated with the risk of hyperuricemia in women after adjustment by confounders. Pre-menopausal women have a higher risk of hyperuricemia than postmenopausal women with the increase of the VFA-to-LMM ratio. In addition, the highest risk of hyperuricemia was demonstrated when both VFA and LMM were at the highest quartile. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 29, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Association of menopausal status with COVID-19 outcomes: a propensity score matching analysis
ConclusionsMen had higher disease severity than premenopausal women, while the differences disappeared between postmenopausal women and men. These findings support aggressive treatment for the poor prognosis of postmenopausal women in clinical practice. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 29, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender score development in the Berlin Aging Study II: a retrospective approach
AbstractIn addition to biological sex, gender, defined as the sociocultural dimension of being a woman or a man, plays a central role in health. However, there are so far few approaches to quantify gender in a retrospective manner in existing study datasets. We therefore aimed to develop a methodology that can be retrospectively applied to assess gender in existing cohorts. We used baseline data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), obtained in 2009 –2014 from 1869 participants aged 60 years and older. We identified 13 gender-related variables and used them to construct a gender score by using primary comp...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 18, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in stroke outcome correspond to rapid and severe changes in gut permeability in adult Sprague-Dawley rats
AbstractBackgroundSex differences in experimental stroke outcomes are well documented, such that adult males have a greater infarct volume, increased stroke-induced mortality, and more severe sensory-motor impairment. Based on recent evidence that the gut is an early responder to stroke, the present study tested the hypothesis that sex differences in stroke severity will be accompanied by rapid and greater permeability of the gut-blood barrier and gut dysbiosis in males as compared to females.MethodMale and female Sprague-Dawley rats (5 –7 months of age) were subject to endothelin (ET)-1-induced middle cerebra...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the association of sphingolipids with age in Dutch and South-Asian Surinamese living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands
ConclusionsMean sphingolipid concentrations increase more rapidly with age in women than in men. Therefore, plasma lipid concentrations of sphingolipids, although lower in women than in men at younger age, are higher in women than in men at older age. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference?
AbstractOver the last decades, a central role for vitamin D in immune modulation has been well established. The active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, through the interaction with vitamin D receptor, exerts different activities on the innate and adaptive immune system, among which suppression of inflammation and promotion of tolerogenic responses. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to autoimmune disorders that commonly display significant differences between females and males due to genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Notably, a number of studies recently showed a cross-talk bet...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Important differences between hypertensive middle-aged women and men in cardiovascular autonomic control —a critical appraisal
ConclusionRegardless of blood pressure control through pharmacological treatment, hypertensive patients continued to have reduced HRV compared to normotensive, and hypertensive men had more autonomic impairment than hypertensive premenopausal women. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Maternal DHA supplementation influences sex-specific disruption of placental gene expression following early prenatal stress
AbstractEarly life adversity is widely recognized as a key risk factor for early developmental perturbations and contributes to the presentation of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Neurodevelopmental disorders exhibit a strong sex bias in susceptibility, presentation, onset, and severity, although the underlying mechanisms conferring vulnerability are not well understood. Environmental perturbations during pregnancy, such as malnutrition or stress, have been associated with sex-specific reprogramming that contribute to increased disease risk in adulthood, whereby stress and nutritional insufficiency may be additive...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 9, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A sex-stratified long-term clinical outcome analysis in coronary chronic total occlusion patients
AbstractBackgroundDifferences in outcomes for women and men after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients remain controversial. Herein, we compared the clinical outcomes by sex in CTO patients undergoing PCI.MethodsA total of 563 consecutive patients (19% women) who were diagnosed with CTO at a single center in China from June 2017 to December 2019 were included in this study. Three hundred patients were revascularized by PCI, and 263 were not revascularized. The clinical outcomes of these patients stratified by sex were examined. The primary endpoints included the risk of major a...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 8, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent differences in the secretome of human endothelial cells
ConclusionsOur results demonstrated that serum-starved male and female ECs possess different secretory phenotypes that might take part in the sex-biased response to cellular stress. We identified PTX3 as a crucial player in the male-specific endothelial response to an apoptotic trigger. This novel and sex-related role for secreted proteins, and mainly for PTX3, may open the way to the discovery of still unknown sex-specific mechanisms and pharmacological targets for the prevention and treatment of endothelial dysfunction at the onset of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 7, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Increased P450 aromatase levels in post-menopausal women after acute ischemic stroke
ConclusionsEstradiol levels correlated with functional outcomes (change in mRS) in both men and women, at least in the acute phase (24  h) of stroke. However, no significant difference in estradiol levels is seen 24 h post-stroke in men or women. Testosterone levels decrease at 24 h after stroke in men. As seen in animal models, aromatase levels increase after acute ischemic stroke, but this was only true for women. These ind icate an active aromatization process in post-menopausal women after acute ischemic stroke. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 7, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fetal sex and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: findings from two prospective pregnancy cohorts
ConclusionsMale fetal sex was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms during the postnatal period. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Investigation of interleukin-2-mediated changes in blood pressure, fetal growth restriction, and innate immune activation in normal pregnant rats and in a preclinical rat model of preeclampsia
The objective of this study was to examine a role for IL-2 in NK cell activation, fetal growth restriction, and hypertension during pregnancy by either infusion of IL-2 or blockade of IL-2 (basiliximab) in normal pregnant (NP) and RUPP rats. On gestational day 14, NP and RUPP rats received low (LD), middle (MD), or high dose (HD) IL-2 (0.05, 0.10, or 0.20  ng/ml) IP or basiliximab (0.07 mg per rat) by IV infusion. On day 19, blood pressure (MAP), pup weights, and blood were collected. Basiliximab had no effect on blood pressure, however, significantly lowered NK cells and may have worsened overall fetal survi...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in expression of immune elements emerge in children, young adults and mice with osteosarcoma
AbstractBackgroundMales
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Analysis of sex differences in dietary copper-fructose interaction-induced alterations of gut microbial activity in relation to hepatic steatosis
ConclusionsOur data demonstrated sex differences in the alterations of gut microbial abundance, activities, and hepatic steatosis in response to dietary copper-fructose interaction in rats. The correlation between sex differences in metabolic phenotypes and alterations of gut microbial activities remains elusive. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research