Sex bias in basic and preclinical age-related hearing loss research
ConclusionsSex bias is present in basic and preclinical age-related hearing loss research for the manuscripts screened in the 10-year period. Equal inclusion of both males and females in basic and preclinical age-related hearing loss research is critical for understanding sex-based differences in mechanisms and for effective treatment options. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The association between cannabis use and suicidal behavior in patients with psychiatric disorders: an analysis of sex differences
ConclusionOur findings indicate that there is no association between cannabis use and suicidal behavior in men or women with psychiatric disorders unlike what was reported for the general population, though the heaviness of cannabis use may have an effect in men. The impact of cannabis use in psychiatric disorders needs ongoing examination in light of its common use, impending legalization with expected increased access and the uncertainty about cannabis ’ effects on prognosis of psychiatric disorders. In addition, research should continue to investigate modifiable risk factors of SB in this population of which canna...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 11, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Risk of epilepsy in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a twin cohort study
ConclusionsIn this population-based study of Danish twins, we did not find difference in the risk of epilepsy between twins with an OS co-twin and twins with a SS co-twin. This applied to both female and male twins. The study therefore does not support the hypothesis that subtle hormone difference in fetal life due to co-twin may play a role in the development of epilepsy later in life. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in basal hypothalamic anorectic and orexigenic gene expression and the effect of quantitative and qualitative food restriction
AbstractBackgroundResearch into energy balance and growth has infrequently considered genetic sex, yet there is sexual dimorphism for growth across the animal kingdom. We test the hypothesis that in the chicken, there is a sex difference in arcuate nucleus neuropeptide gene expression, since previous research indicates hypothalamicAGRP expression is correlated with growth potential and that males grow faster than females. Because growth has been heavily selected in some chicken lines, food restriction is necessary to improve reproductive performance and welfare, but this increases hunger. Dietary dilution has been proposed...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 29, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in cardiovascular epigenetics —a systematic review
ConclusionOur overview indicates that the majority of studies into cardiovascular epigenetics do not show their data stratified by sex, despite the well-known sex differences in CVD. All included and sex-stratified papers focus on DNA methylation, indicating that a lot of ground is still to gain regarding other epigenetic mechanisms, like chromatin architecture, and histone modifications. More attention to sex in epigenetic studies is warranted as such integration will advance our understanding of cardiovascular disease mechanisms in men and women. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific microRNA expression networks in an acute mouse model of ozone-induced lung inflammation
ConclusionOur results indicate that both sex and hormonal status can influence lung miRNA expression in response to ozone exposure, indicating that sex-specific miRNA regulation of inflammatory gene expression could mediate differential pollution-induced health outcomes in men and women. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 8, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in kinematic adaptations to muscle fatigue induced by repetitive upper limb movements
ConclusionDespite many similarities between men ’s and women’s response to fatigue induced by repetitive pointing movements, some sex differences were observed. Those subtle differences may indicate that men’s shoulder muscles were more fatigued than women’s despite a similar level of perceived exertion. They may also indicate that men an d women do not adapt the exact same way to a similar fatigue. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 19, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in pulmonary arterial hypertension: role of infection and autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of disease
AbstractRegistry data worldwide indicate an overall female predominance for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) of 2 –4 over men. Genetic predisposition accounts for only 1–5% of PAH cases, while autoimmune diseases and infections are closely linked to PAH. Idiopathic PAH may include patients with undiagnosed autoimmune diseases based on the relatively high presence of autoantibodies in this group. The two lar gest PAH registries to date report a sex ratio for autoimmune connective tissue disease-associated PAH of 9:1 female to male, highlighting the need for future studies to analyze subgroup data according ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 18, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in umbilical artery Doppler indices: a longitudinal study
AbstractBackgroundSexual dimorphism in placental size and function has been described. Whether this influences the clinically important umbilical artery (UA) waveform remains controversial, although a few cross-sectional studies have shown sex differences in UA pulsatility index (PI). Therefore, we tested whether fetal sex influences the UA Doppler indices during the entire second half of pregnancy and aimed to establish sex-specific reference ranges for UA Doppler indices if needed.MethodsOur main objective was to investigate gestational age-associated changes in UA Doppler indices during the second half of pregnancy and ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 18, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Orphan receptor GPR37L1 contributes to the sexual dimorphism of central cardiovascular control
ConclusionsDespite its absence in the heart and kidney, GPR37L1 regulates baseline blood pressure in female mice and is crucial for cardiovascular compensatory responses in males. The expression of GPR37L1 in the brain, yet absence from peripheral cardiovascular tissues, suggests this orphan receptor is a hitherto unknown contributor to central cardiovascular control. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

All-male hybrids of a tetrapod Pelophylax esculentus share its origin and genetics of maintenance
ConclusionsOur results confirm that also males can perpetuate over many generations as the unisexual lineage and successfully compete withP. ridibundus males for eggs provided byP. ridibundus females. Natural persistence of such sex-specific hybrid populations allows to studying the similarities and differences between male and female reproductive parasitism in many biological settings. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 2, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The impact of biological sex on the response to noise and otoprotective therapies against acoustic injury in mice
AbstractBackgroundNoise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most prevalent form of acquired hearing loss and affects about 40 million US adults. Among the suggested therapeutics tested in rodents, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been shown to be otoprotective from NIHL; however, these results were limited to male mice.MethodsHere we tested the effect of SAHA on the hearing of 10-week-old B6CBAF1/J mice of both sexes, which were exposed to 2  h of octave-band noise (101 dB SPL centered at 11.3 kHz). Hearing was assessed by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABR) at 8, 16, 24, and 32 kHz, 1...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex as predictor for achieved health outcomes and received care in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage: a register-based study
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between patients ’ sex and post-stroke health outcomes and received care in a Swedish setting.MethodsPatients with a registered diagnosis of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or ischemic stroke (IS) within regional administrative systems (ICD-10 codes I61* or I63*) and the Swedish Stroke Register during 2010 –2011 were included and followed for 1 year. Data linkage to multiple other data sources on individual level was performed. Adjustments were performed for age, socioeconomic factors, living arrangements, ADL dependency, and stroke severity ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

X chromosome dosage and presence of SRY shape sex-specific differences in DNA methylation at an autosomal region in human cells
ConclusionsWe conclude that sex-specific methylation differences at the autosomal locus result from interaction between a Y-linked factor SRY and at least one X-linked factor that acts in a dose-dependent manner. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 20, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex difference in clot lysability and association to coronary artery calcification
ConclusionsFibrin clot lysability changes over time with considerable sex differences. Women with progression of CAC have reduced fibrin clot lysability compared to men, indicating a sex-specific association between morphological vessel wall changes and fibrin clot lysability. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Identification of novel candidate genes for 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) using a C57BL/6J-Y POS mouse model
ConclusionThe use of a DSD-specific animal model improves variant interpretation by correlating human sequence variants with transcriptome variation. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 30, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of gut-derived endotoxin on anxiety-like and repetitive behaviors in male and female mice
ConclusionIn spite of the ubiquitous nature of LPS in the gut lumen, this is the first study to demonstrate that intestinally derived LPS can initiate behavioral aspects of the sickness response. While an increased enteric load of LPS increases anxiety-like behavior in both sexes, it likely does so via sex-specific mechanisms. Similarly, TLR4 signaling may promote baseline expression of repetitive behavior differently in males and females. This study lays the groundwork for future interrogations into connections between gut-derived endotoxin and behavioral pathology in males and females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 19, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Axonal transport in a peripheral diabetic neuropathy model: sex-dimorphic features
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that sex-specific decrease in neuroactive steroid levels in male diabetic animals may cause an alteration in their mitochondrial function that in turn might impact in axonal transport, contributing to the sex difference observed in diabetic neuropathy. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 19, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Sex differences in drugs: the development of a comprehensive knowledge base to improve gender awareness prescribing
CorrectionUnfortunately, after publication of this article [1], two errors were noticed. The names of Linn éa Karlsson Lind and Karin Schenck-Gustafsson were formatted incorrectly, attributing incorrect elements to the Given and Family names.Further to this, a reference in Fig.  1 was missing. The line reading, “Fig. 1 shows the working process and each step is explained in more detail below” should instead read, “Fig. 1, modified from Nörby et al. [2], shows the working process and each step is explained in more detail below”. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 18, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the late first trimester human placenta transcriptome
ConclusionsThis study is the first characterization of the late first trimester placenta transcriptome, highlighting similarities and differences among the sexes in ongoing human pregnancies resulting in live births. Sexual dimorphism may contribute to pregnancy outcomes, including fetal growth and birth weight, which was seen in our cohort, with males significantly heavier than females at birth. This transcriptome provides a basis for development of early diagnostic tests of placental function that can indicate overall pregnancy heath, fetal-maternal health, and long-term adult health. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences and functional hemispheric asymmetries during number comparison
ConclusionHemispheric asymmetries in holistic versus decomposed number processing could be demonstrated for the first time, suggesting a similar hemispheric modulation for number magnitude processing as for global-local processing. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 8, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in primary muscle afferent sensitization following ischemia and reperfusion injury
ConclusionsHere, we illustrate a unique phenomenon wherein discrete, sex-dependent mechanisms of primary muscle afferent sensitization after ischemic injury to the periphery may underlie similar behavioral changes between the sexes. Furthermore, although the group III and IV muscle afferents are fully developed functionally, the differential mechanisms of sensitization manifest prior to sexual maturity. Hence, this study illustrates the pressing need for further exploration of sex differences in afferent function throughout the lifespan for use in developing appropriately targeted pain therapies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in urea breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: a large cross-sectional study
We examined differences in UBT values betweenH.pylori-infected men and women while adjusting for background characteristics such as age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking.MethodsA cross-sectional study was undertaken using coded data from the computerized database of Maccabi Health Services in Israel. Included were adults examined for UBT during 2002 –2012 and were foundH.pylori positive (UBT  >  3.5‰). Multivariable linear mixed models were performed to assess the relationship between sex and UBT quantitative results, while adjusting for background characteristics.ResultsA total of 76,403 pa...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 2, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific phenotypes of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in aged mice
ConclusionsBy comparison of male and female mice with TD at two life stages, we found that sex modulates TH action in an organ- and function-specific manner. Sex differences were more pronounced under hyperthyroid conditions. Importantly, sex-specific differences in features of TD in adult and old mice were not conclusively explained by serum TH status in mice. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

SP-A2 contributes to miRNA-mediated sex differences in response to oxidative stress: pro-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant pathways are involved
ConclusionsWe conclude that SP-A2 influences the miRNA-mediated sex-specific differences in response to OxS. In males, these differences pertain to inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant pathways. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 4, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Regulatory and evolutionary signatures of sex-biased genes on both the X chromosome and the autosomes
ConclusionsThese findings lend insight into the regulatory and evolutionary forces shaping sex-biased gene expression and their involvement in the physiological and pathological processes in human health and diseases. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 2, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Stress amplifies sex differences in primate prefrontal profiles of gene expression
ConclusionsStress amplifies sex differences in gene expression profiles for prefrontal cortical regions involved in stress coping and emotion regulation. Results suggest molecular targets for new treatments of stress disorders in human mental health. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 2, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex influences eQTL effects of SLE and Sj ögren’s syndrome-associated genetic polymorphisms
AbstractBackgroundSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sj ögren’s syndrome (pSS) are autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibodies, dysregulated B cells, and notably high female-to-male incidence ratios. Genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility SNPs for both diseases. Many SNPs in the genome are expression quantitati ve trait loci (eQTLs), with context-dependent effects. Assuming that sex is a biological context, we investigated whether SLE/pSS SNPs act as eQTLs in B cells and used a disease-targeted approach to understand if they display sex-specific effects.Method...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 25, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The protective role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular disease and the controversial use of estrogen therapy
AbstractEpidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD increases postmenopause. The lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in women during reproductive age is attributed at least in part to estrogen (E2). E2 binds to the traditional E2 receptors (ERs), estrogen receptor alpha (ER α), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), as well as the more recently identified G-protein-coupled ER (GPR30), and can exert both genomic and non-genomic actions. This review summar...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in drugs: the development of a comprehensive knowledge base to improve gender awareness prescribing
(Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genetic sex determination of mice by simplex PCR
ConclusionThis method achieves rapid and unequivocal genetic sex determination of mice in low volume PCR reactions, reducing reagent usage and simultaneously eliminating shortcomings of previous methods. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effects of 17 alpha-estradiol to inhibit inflammation in vitro
ConclusionsIn conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that 17 α-E2, as well as 17 β-E2, suppresses inflammation through their effects on ERα and NFκB-p65. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 6, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in thermal detection and thermal pain threshold and the thermal grill illusion: a psychophysical study in young volunteers
ConclusionsOur finding that thermal detection threshold not only differs between the sexes but is also dependent on the baseline temperature reveals a complex processing of “cold” and “warm” inputs in thermal perception. The results of the TGI experiment support the assumption that sex differences in cold-related thermoreception are responsible for sex differences in the TGI. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 1, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex chromosomes drive gene expression and regulatory dimorphisms in mouse embryonic stem cells
ConclusionsOverall, our results support the role of the sex chromosomes in establishing sex-specific networks early in embryonic development and provide insights into effects of sex chromosome aneuploidies originating at those stages. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in microRNA-mRNA networks: examination of novel epigenetic programming mechanisms in the sexually dimorphic neonatal hypothalamus
ConclusionsSexual differentiation of the perinatal brain, and that of stress circuitry in the hypothalamus specifically, seems to be particularly susceptible to environmental programming effects. Integrating miRNA into our conceptualization of factors, directing differentiation of this circuitry could be an informative next step in efforts to understand the complexities behind these processes. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genomic upregulation of cardiac Cav1.2 α and NCX1 by estrogen in women
This study investigates if the effects of estrogen on rabbit ICa,L and INCX apply to human hearts.MethodsPostmortem human left ventricular tissue samples were probed with selective antibodies for regional heterogeneities of ion channel protein expression and compared to rabbit myocardium. Functionally, ICa,L and INCX were measured from female and male cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-CMs) with the voltage-clamp technique from control and estrogen-treated iPS-CMs.ResultsIn women (n = 12), Cav1.2α (primary subunit of the L-type calcium channel protein 1) and NCX1 (sodium-c...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 14, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Long-term follow-up in primary Sj ögren’s syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients
ConclusionsWe observe enhanced serological responses and higher frequencies of lymphoma-related extraglandular manifestations in men with pSS. Notably, lymphoma itself was also significantly more common in men. These observations may reflect an aggravated immune activation and a more severe pathophysiological state in male patients with pSS and indicate a personalized managing of the disease due to the influence of the sex of patients with pSS. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 8, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Is HPA axis reactivity in childhood gender-specific? A systematic review
DiscussionSex differences in HPA axis reactivity appear to be present in childhood, although evidence is not unequivocal. For a better evaluation of sex differences in HPA axis reactivity, standardization of protocols and reports of stress tests is warranted. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 11, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex difference in thermal preference of adult mice does not depend on presence of the gonads
ConclusionsFemale mice prefer a warmer environment than male mice, a difference not affected by gonadectomy. This suggests that thermal-sensing mechanisms may be influenced by sex-specific pathways other than gonadal factors or that the thermoregulatory set point has already been determined prior to puberty. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 11, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Inclusion of sex and gender in biomedical research: survey of clinical research proposed at the University of Pennsylvania
ConclusionsReview of a subset of IRB protocols submitted at a major research institution suggests that very few investigators are considering sex or gender as important variables in their clinical research at the stage of protocol development. IRBs are in an excellent position to encourage investigators to consider SABV and gender in order to enhance the rigor of research design, maximize the importance of the resulting knowledge, and ensure that subject selection is equitable. These findings serve as the basis for developing an intervention at the level of IRB protocol development and submission that will promote consider...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in endogenous cortical network activity: spontaneously recurring Up/Down states
ConclusionsThe present study revealed for the first time sex differences in intracortical network activity, using an ex vivo paradigm of spontaneously occurring Up/Down states. We report significant sex differences in Up state properties that are already present in pre-puberty animals and are maintained through adulthood and old age. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent effects of maternal corticosterone and SSRI treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis across development
ConclusionsThese findings reveal how modeling treatment of postpartum depression with FLX alters hippocampal neurogenesis in developing offspring differently depending on sex, predominantly in the dorsal dentate gyrus and earlier in life. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 2, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

HDAC9 is an epigenetic repressor of kidney angiotensinogen establishing a sex difference
ConclusionsThese results indicate that HDAC9 is a novel suppressing factor involved in AGT regulation in PTC, leading to low levels of intrarenal AGT in females. These findings will help to delineate mechanisms underlying sex differences in the development of hypertension and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) associated kidney injury. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 30, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the development of vascular and renal lesions in mice with a simultaneous deficiency of Apoe and the integrin chain Itga8
ConclusionsIn this model of atherosclerosis, the female sex is a risk factor to develop more severe atherosclerotic lesions, even though serum fat levels are higher in males. In contrast, female mice are protected from renal damage, which is accompanied by attenuated inflammation and matrix deposition. Thus, sex affects vascular and renal injury in a differential manner. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 30, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in rat placental development: from pre-implantation to late gestation
ConclusionsAlthough there were no overt differences in blastocyst cell number or early placental development, reduced growth of the female labyrinth in mid gestation is likely to contribute to lower fetal weight in females at E20. These data suggest sex differences in fetal growth trajectories are due at least in part, to differences in placenta growth. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Difference in clinical presentation between women and men in incident primary Sj ögren’s syndrome
ConclusionsOur analysis of two independent cohorts of incident pSS demonstrates that the presence and number of EGM are significantly more frequent among men with pSS than women at diagnosis. Importantly, around half of the male patients presented with more than one EGM at diagnosis, supporting the conclusion that pSS in men represents a more severe form of disease, regardless of the lower risk for men to develop pSS. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 12, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

From sexless to sexy: Why it is time for human genetics to consider and report analyses of sex
AbstractScience has come a long way with regard to the consideration of sex differences in clinical and preclinical research, but one field remains behind the curve: human statistical genetics. The goal of this commentary is to raise awareness and discussion about how to best consider and evaluate possible sex effects in the context of large-scale human genetic studies. Over the course of this commentary, we reinforce the importance of interpreting genetic results in the context of biological sex, establish evidence that sex differences are not being considered in human statistical genetics, and discuss how best to conduct...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 3, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Does the sex of one ’s co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts
ConclusionsWe found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 27, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in insular cortex gyri responses to a brief static handgrip challenge
We examined sex-related insular gyral responses to a short static handgrip exercise challenge eliciting parasympathetic withdrawal with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four 16-s challenges (80% maximum strength) in 23 healthy females (age; mean  ± std 50 ± 8 years) and 40 males (46 ± 9 years). Heart rate (HR) and fMRI signals were compared with repeated measures ANOVA (P 
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research