Muscle function and fatigability of trunk flexors in males and females
ConclusionsUnlike many limb muscle groups, males and females had similar fatigability and torque steadiness of the trunk flexor muscles during isometric contractions. Stronger individuals, however, exhibited less fatigability. Lower self-reported physical activity was associated with greater fatigability of trunk flexor muscles. The relationship between strength and fatigability of the trunk flexor muscles and physical activity supports the importance of abdominal muscle strengthening to offset fatigability in both males and females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Do sex differences in CEOAEs and 2D:4D ratios reflect androgen exposure? A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
ConclusionsIn line with previous studies, our findings in CAIS women suggest that additional, non-androgenic, factors mediate male-typical sexual differentiation of digit ratios and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Consequently, use of these measures in adults as retrospective markers of early androgen exposure is not recommended. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 12, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Association between cannabis use and methadone maintenance treatment outcomes: an investigation into sex differences
ConclusionsThis is the largest study to date examining the association between cannabis use and illicit opioid use. Cannabis use may be a sex-specific predictor of poor response to MMT, such that women are more likely to use illicit opioids if they also use cannabis during treatment. Women may show improved treatment outcomes if cannabis use is addressed during MMT. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 30, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the association of phospholipids with components of the metabolic syndrome in young adults
ConclusionsWe have shown clear differences between plasma metabolite concentrations in males, and HC or non-HC females, especially in lyso-phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine, which have been shown to associate with obesity in other studies. The association of these metabolites differed between sexes with components of the metabolic syndrome, which means that development of diseases like obesity and diabetes may differ between the sexes. Our findings highlight the importance of considering sex differences when conducting a metabolomics study and the need to account for the effect of HC usage in femal...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 28, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Severe pulmonary hypertension in aging female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice is rescued by estrogen replacement therapy
AbstractBackgroundApolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a multifunctional protein, and its deficiency leads to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have reduced expression of ApoE in lung tissue. ApoE is known to inhibit endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation and has anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet aggregation properties. Young ApoE-deficient mice have been shown to develop PH on high fat diet. The combined role of female sex and aging in the development of PH has not been investigated before. Here, we investigated the development of PH in young and middle-aged (MA) femal...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in variability across timescales in BALB/c mice
ConclusionsAlthough variability in circadian power is comparable between the sexes for both LA and CBT, infradian variability is greater in females and ultradian variability is greater in males. Thus, exclusion of female mice from studies because of estrous cycle variability may increase variance in investigations where only male measures are collected over a span of several hours and limit generalization of findings from males to females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 9, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex and age differences in the expression of liver microRNAs during the life span of F344 rats
AbstractBackgroundPhysiological factors such as age and sex have been shown to be risk factors for adverse effects in the liver, including liver diseases and drug-induced liver injury. Previously, we have reported age- and sex-related significant differences in hepatic basal gene expression in rats during the life span that may be related to susceptibility to such adverse effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of the gene expression changes were not fully understood. In recent years, increasing evidence for epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation has fueled interest in the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in toxicogenomics...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 3, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the aging pattern of renin –angiotensin system serum peptidases
AbstractBackgroundSerum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of the renin –angiotensin system (RAS). Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk. In the present study, serum activities of RAS peptidases were analyzed to evaluate the existence of sexual differences, with a possible different pattern in pre- and post-androp ausal/post-menopausal participants.MethodsOne hundred and eighteen healthy men and wome...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 3, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Bariatric surgery emphasizes biological sex differences in rodent hepatic lipid handling
AbstractBackgroundEighty percent of patients who receive bariatric surgery are women, yet the majority of preclinical studies are in male rodents. Because sex differences drive hepatic gene expression and overall lipid metabolism, we sought to determine whether sex differences were also apparent in these endpoints in response to bariatric surgery.MethodsTwo cohorts of age-matched virgin male and female Long-Evans rats were placed on a high fat diet for 3 weeks and then received either Sham or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a surgery which resects 80% of the stomach with no intestinal rearrangement.ResultsEach sex exhib...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 28, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender-specific differences in hypothalamus –pituitary–adrenal axis activity during childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractBackgroundGender-specific differences in hypothalamus –pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity have been postulated to emerge during puberty. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that gender-specific differences in HPA axis activity are already present in childhood.MethodsFrom inception to January 2016, PubMed and EMBASE.com were searched for studies that assessed non-stimulated cortisol in serum or saliva or cortisol in 24-h urine in healthy males and females aged ≤18 years. Studies that conform with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Met...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression in mice abrogates sex differences in body weight, visceral fat, and food intake response to a fast and alters levels of feeding regulatory hormones
ConclusionsThese data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting circulating hormones and hypothalamic feeding-related signals. CRF-OE also abolishes the sex difference in body weight, abdominal fat, and fasting-induced feeding and changes in plasma levels of leptin and acyl ghrelin. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 13, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent alteration of cardiac cytochrome P450 gene expression by doxorubicin in C57Bl/6 mice
ConclusionsAcute DOX exposure causes sex-dependent alteration of cardiac CYP gene expression. Since cardiac CYP enzymes metabolize several endogenous compounds to biologically active metabolites, sex-dependent alteration of CYP genes may play a role in the sexual dimorphism of acute DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A primer on the use of mouse models for identifying direct sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues
AbstractIn animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, all sex differences originate from the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that are consistently different in male and female zygotes. In mammals, the imbalance in Y gene expression, specifically the presence vs. absence ofSry, initiates the differentiation of testes in males, setting up lifelong sex differences in the level of gonadal hormones, which in turn cause many sex differences in the phenotype of non-gonadal tissues. The inherent imbalance in the expression of X and Y genes, or in the epigenetic impact of X and Y chromosomes, also has the potential to ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 13, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in sympathetic innervation and browning of white adipose tissue of mice
ConclusionsCollectively, these data demonstrate that female mice are more responsive than males to the recruitment of brown adipocytes in gonadal WAT and this difference corresponds to greater levels of estrogen-dependent sympathetic innervation. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 9, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Pancreatic cancer risk in relation to sex, lifestyle factors, and pre-diagnostic anthropometry in the Malm ö Diet and Cancer Study
ConclusionsWHR was the only pre-diagnostic anthropometric factor associated with pancreatic cancer risk, with no sex-related differences. Regular smoking was confirmed as a significant risk factor in both sexes, whereas occasional and passive smoking were significant risk factors only in women. Despite the lack of a significant interaction between smoking and sex in relation with pancreatic cancer risk, potential sex differences should be considered in future epidemiological studies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 9, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impact of gonadectomy on blood pressure regulation in ageing male and female rats
ConclusionsTaken altogether, the results show that females are protected from age-related declining renal function and to a lesser extent from rising blood pressure in comparison to males. Whilst ovariectomy had some deleterious effects in females, the strongest effects were associated with gonadectomy in males, suggesting a damaging effect of male hormones. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 3, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study
ConclusionsSex affects both fetal as well as infant growth. Besides body size, also body proportions differ between males and females with different growth patterns. This sexual dimorphism might arise from differences in fetal programming with sex specific health differences as a consequence in later life. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 3, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-related differences in the associations between plasma free fatty acid levels and clinical features in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
AbstractBackgroundPrevious studies have indicated that inefficient energy utilization may play a pivotal role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, whether plasma free fatty acid (FFA), a main energy substrate of heart, has an effect on HCM remains unclear. Besides, several studies have suggested sex-related differences in HCM features and FFA metabolism. Here, we aimed to explore the association between plasma FFA levels and HCM and potential effects of sex on this relation.MethodsA total of 412 patients (age 47.8  ± 12.7 years, 243 males (59.0%)) with HCM were recruited. Complete medica...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 25, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in outcomes after stroke among patients with low total cholesterol levels: a large hospital-based prospective study
This study recruited patients with atherothrombotic infarctions from Tianjin, China, between May 2005 and September 2014. Patients with low TC levels (defined as TC
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 24, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparisons of chromosome Y-substituted mouse strains reveal that the male-specific chromosome modulates the effects of androgens on cardiac functions
ConclusionsThe results indicate that in mice, androgens have activational effects on cardiac circadian rhythms, contractile gene expression, and myocardial functional reserve. All effects occurred preferentially at the same time of the day, but varied as a function of the genetic origin of MSY. Androgens may therefore be necessary but not sufficient to impart male-specific characteristics to some particular cardiac functions, with genetic material from MSY being one other necessary factor to fully define their range of actions. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 23, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gene-specific sex effects on eosinophil infiltration in leishmaniasis
ConclusionsWe demonstrated a strong influence of sex on numbers of eosinophils in the lymph nodes afterL. major infection and present the first identification of sex-dependent autosomal loci controlling eosinophilic infiltration. The positive correlation between eosinophil infiltration and parasite load in males suggests that this sex-dependent eosinophilic infiltration reflects ineffective inflammation. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 22, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in the mast cell transcriptome and the pathophysiological responses to immunological and psychological stress
ConclusionsThese results provide a new understanding of sexual dimorphic responses in MCs and have direct implications for stress-related diseases associated with a female predominance and MC hyperactivity including irritable bowel syndrome, allergy, and anaphylaxis. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 22, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The role of sex-differential biology in risk for autism spectrum disorder
AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition that affects approximately four times as many males as females, a strong sex bias that has not yet been fully explained. Understanding the causes of this biased prevalence may highlight novel avenues for treatment development that could benefit patients with diverse genetic backgrounds, and the expertise of sex differences researchers will be invaluable in this endeavor. In this review, I aim to assess current evidence pertaining to the sex difference in ASD prevalence and to identify outstanding questions and remaining gaps in our understanding of how mal...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 16, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex- and age-related differences in arterial pressure and albuminuria in mice
ConclusionsArterial pressure and albuminuria increase in an age- and sex-specific manner in mice, similar to patterns observed in humans. Thus, mice represent a useful model for studying age and sex differences in the regulation of arterial pressure and renal disease. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease may lead to new and better-tailored therapies for men and women. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The p.R92W variant of NR5A1/Nr5a1 induces testicular development of 46,XX gonads in humans, but not in mice: phenotypic comparison of human patients and mutation-induced mice
AbstractNR5A1 is the key regulator of adrenal and gonadal development in both humans and mice. Recently, a missense substitution in humanNR5A1, p.R92W, was shown to underlie gonadal dysgenesis in genetic males and testicular formation in genetic females. Here, we investigated the phenotypic effects of the p.R92W mutation on murine development. Mice carrying the p.R92W mutation manifested a similar but milder phenotype than that of the previously describedNr5a1 knockout mice. Importantly, mutation-positive XX mice showed no signs of masculinization. These results, together with prior observations, indicate that the p.R92W m...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 8, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex and gender in medical education: a national student survey
ConclusionsMedical students recognize the differentiation between SGBM principles and women ’s health, and understand the translational value of sex and gender-specific principles in the clinical setting. However, current curricular offerings fall short of providing students with adequate coverage of specific evidence-based health differences. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

How to study the impact of sex and gender in medical research: a review of resources
AbstractThere is a growing appreciation by the biomedical community that studying the impact of sex and gender on health, aging, and disease will lead to improvements in human health. Sex- and gender-based comparisons can inform research on disease mechanisms and the development of new therapeutics as well as enhance scientific rigor and reproducibility. This review will assist basic researchers, clinical investigators, as well as epidemiologists, population, and social scientists by providing an annotated bibliography of currently available resource tools on how to consider sex and gender as independent variables in resea...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation
AbstractThe Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women's Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women ’s Health, Mayo Clinic, and Society for Women's Health Research (www.sgbmeducationsummit.com). It was held on October 18 –19, 2015 to provide a unique venue for collaboration among nationally and internationally renowned experts in developing a roadmap for the incorporation of sex and gender based concepts into medical education curricula. The Summit engaged 148 in-person attendees for the 1 1/2-day program. ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of sex- and gender-based medicine training in post-graduate medical education: a cross-sectional survey study
AbstractBackgroundAddressing healthcare disparities is a national priority for initiatives in precision and individualized medicine. An essential component of precision medicine is the understanding that sex and gender influence health and disease. Whether these issues are addressed in post-graduate medical education curricula is unknown.MethodsA questionnaire was designed and administered to residents across the Mayo Clinic enterprise to assess current knowledge of sex and gender medicine in a large program of post-graduate medical education and to identify barriers and preferred teaching methods for addressing sex and ge...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

eGender —from e-Learning to e-Research: a web-based interactive knowledge-sharing platform for sex- and gender-specific medical education
ConclusionsThe eGender platform is a flexible and user-friendly electronical knowledge-sharing platform providing evidence-based high-quality learning material used by a growing number of registered users. The eGender Medicine learning modules could be key in the reform of medical curricula to integrate Sex and Gender Medicine into the education of health professionals. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex and gender medicine in physician clinical training: results of a large, single-center survey
ConclusionsCurrent physician trainees endorse both a current lack of and need for Sex and Gender Medicine clinical training. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The science of sex and gender in human health: online courses to create a foundation for sex and gender accountability in biomedical research and treatment
Conclusions“The Science of Sex and Gender in Human Health” online courses are freely available sources of information that provide healthcare providers and researchers with the resources to successfully account for sex and gender in their medical practice and research programs. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Integrating topics of sex and gender into medical curricula —lessons from the international community
AbstractIn the era of individualized medicine, training future scientists and health-care providers in the principles of sex- and gender-based differences in health and disease is critical in order to optimize patient care. International successes to incorporate these concepts into medical curricula can provide a template for others to follow. Methodologies and resources are provided that can be adopted and adapted to specific needs of other institutions and learning situations. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Training emergency physicians in sex- and gender-based medicine: assessing attitudes of program directors and residency graduates
ConclusionsOver half of the RGs of ACGME EM residencies felt that their instruction in SGBM was not adequate, and SGBM was not reported as a consistent priority among PDs. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Auditing sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) content in medical school curriculum: a student scholar model
ConclusionsThe real-time student scholar audit was effective in identifying SGBM content in the existing medical school curriculum that was not possible with a retrospective review of course syllabi and lecture objectives or curriculum databases such as the CurrMIT. The audit results revealed the need for improved efforts to teach SGBM topics in our school ’s pre-clinical curriculum. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Innovative levers for sustainable integration of gender medicine into medical school curricula
AbstractEfforts to integrate gender medicine into medical school curricula have focused largely on the work of individual champions. Online sex and gender materials for undergraduate courses have also been developed and disseminated. Success has been sporadic, with varying uptake across schools within and between countries. International trends in medical school accreditation processes and the growing force of the millennial student voice offer untapped opportunities to promote more systematic integration of gender medicine on a national and international level. In this commentary, the president and CEO of the Association ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Instructional design framework for the sex and gender-specific health multimedia case-based learning modules
AbstractThe goal of the Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH) curriculum at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) is to advance the understanding of sex/gender differences, increase the awareness of gender-specific health issues, and improve the knowledge of sex and gender evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this paper is to explain the development and theoretical rationale for an important aspect of the curriculum: the SGSH Multimedia Case-Based Learning Modules (MCBLMs). The MCBLMs are designed to be used throughout the TTUHSC curriculum as a stand-alone or a supplementary instructional resource. ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Workshop summaries from the 2015 Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: utilization of sex and gender based medical education resources and creating student competencies
ConclusionThese Workshops provided a forum for national and international institutional representatives to lay a foundation for integration of SGBM into medical school curricula and the development of national SGBM Student Competencies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

In utero origin of sex-related differences in future cardiovascular disease
ConclusionsMale fetuses exhibit an increased preload and reduced afterload conditions compared to females. While it is difficult to relate these measurements to exact cardiac function, our findings strongly suggest that the known differences in cardiovascular performance between the sexes already start in utero. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 13, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The elimination half-life of crystalloid fluid is shorter in female than in male volunteers: a retrospective population kinetic analysis
ConclusionsThe half-life of infused Ringer ’s acetate was 60 % longer in healthy male volunteers than in female volunteers. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 7, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Reduction of apoptosis and preservation of mitochondrial integrity under ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by estrogen receptor β
ConclusionsActivation of ER β is essential for the improvement of cardiac recovery after I/R through the inhibition of apoptosis and preservation of mitochondrial integrity and can be a achieved by a specific ERβ agonist. Furthermore, E2 modulates MLC2 activation after I/R independent of ERβ. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 23, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific effects of dietary fatty acids on saliva cortisol and social behavior in guinea pigs under different social environmental conditions
ConclusionsWhile SFAs seemingly impaired cortisol responses and social behaviors, PUFAs enabled adequate behavioral responses in male individuals under stressful new social environmental conditions. This sex-specific effect was possibly related to a general sex difference in the n-3 PUFA bioavailability and cortisol responses, which may indicate that males are more susceptible to changing environmental conditions, and shows how dietary fatty acids can shape social systems. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 22, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-related factors influence expression of mood-related genes in the basolateral amygdala differentially depending on age and stress exposure
ConclusionsSex chromosome complement is an important factor modulating expression of mood-related genes during pre-pubertal development. The observed sex differences under chronically stressed conditions suggest that different molecular profiles may characterize male and female MDD. Our findings here forSst are especially interesting, and suggest an underlying XY vulnerability that is typically compensated for by circulating testosterone in “normal” males. Without testosterone, women may have lowerSST expression in the amygdala, resulting in increased MDD vulnerability. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 17, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis
AbstractA comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43  %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - September 2, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific phenotypes of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in mice
ConclusionsThese data demonstrate that the phenotypes of hypo- and hyperthyroidism differ between male and female mice and indicate that sex is an important modifier of phenotypic manifestations. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - August 24, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Organ transplantation and gender differences: a paradigmatic example of intertwining between biological and sociocultural determinants
Abstract Organ transplantation, e.g., of the heart, liver, or kidney, is nowadays a routine strategy to counteract several lethal human pathologies. From literature data and from data obtained in Italy, a striking scenario appears well evident: women are more often donors than recipients. On the other hand, recipients of organs are mainly males, probably reflecting a gender bias in the incidence of transplant-related pathologies. The impact of sex mismatch on transplant outcome remains debated, even though donor-recipient sex mismatch, due to biological matters, appears undesirable in female recipients. In our opinion, th...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 28, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Female rats are not more variable than male rats: a meta-analysis of neuroscience studies
Conclusions We conclude that even when female rats are used in neuroscience experiments without regard to the estrous cycle stage, their data are not more variable than those of male rats. This is true for behavioral, electrophysiological, neurochemical, and histological measures. Thus, when designing neuroscience experiments to include both male and female rats, power analyses based on variance in male measures are sufficient to yield accurate numbers for females as well, even when the estrous cycle is not taken into consideration. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 26, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Estrous cycle influences excitatory amino acid transport and visceral pain sensitivity in the rat: effects of early-life stress
Conclusions This data confirms that estrous cycle and ELS are significant factors in visceral sensitivity and fluctuations in EAAT function may be a perpetuating factor mediating central sensitization. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Male and female hypertrophic rat cardiac myocyte functional responses to ischemic stress and β-adrenergic challenge are different
Conclusions Our data demonstrate that cardiac hypertrophy produces dramatically different basal and stress-induced pathophenotypes in female- and male-origin cardiomyocytes. The lower Ca2+ operational status characteristic of female (vs male) cardiomyocytes comprising normal hearts is not exhibited by myocytes of hypertrophic hearts. After ischemia/reperfusion, availability of activator Ca2+ is suppressed in female hypertrophic myocytes, whereas sensitivity to Ca2+ is blunted in male hypertrophic myocytes. These findings demonstrate that selective intervention strategies should be pursued to optimize post-ischem...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - July 7, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific effects of LiCl treatment on preservation of renal function and extended life-span in murine models of SLE: perspective on insights into the potential basis for survivorship in NZB/W female mice
Abstract Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a systemic disease with a number of organs involved. One of the major target organs is the kidney, but patients vary in the progression of the end-organ targeting of this organ. Some patients develop glomerulonephritis only, while others develop rapidly progressive end organ failure. In murine models of SLE, renal involvement can also occur. Studies performed over the past several years have indicated t...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 27, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research