Sex-specific effects of LiCl treatment on preservation of renal function and extended life-span in murine models of SLE: perspective on insights into the potential basis for survivorship in NZB/W female mice
Abstract Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a systemic disease with a number of organs involved. One of the major target organs is the kidney, but patients vary in the progression of the end-organ targeting of this organ. Some patients develop glomerulonephritis only, while others develop rapidly progressive end organ failure. In murine models of SLE, renal involvement can also occur. Studies performed over the past several years have indicated t...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 27, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Prohibitin: an unexpected role in sex dimorphic functions
Abstract Sex differences are known to exist in adipose and immune functions in the body, and sex steroid hormones are known to be involved in sexually dimorphic biological and pathological processes related to adipose-immune interaction. However, our knowledge of proteins that mediate such differences is poor. Two novel obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, that have been reported recently have revealed an unexpected role of a pleiotropic protein, prohibitin (PHB), in sex differences in adipose and immune functions. This discovery points towards a role of pleiotropic proteins and their potential interplay wit...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 24, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-related differences in pain behaviors following three early life stress paradigms
Conclusions In summary, our data confirms that early adverse experiences in the form of MS, LN, and OAL contribute to the long-term development of heightened pain responsiveness in adulthood. Furthermore, this study indicates that sex-related vulnerability or resilience for the development of heightened pain perception is directly associated with the context or nature of the ELS experienced. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 10, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gene changes may minimize masculinizing and defeminizing influences of exposure to male cotwins in female callitrichine primates
Conclusions In spite of a shared placental vasculature with opposite-sex twins throughout embryonic and fetal development, female callitrichine primates gestated with a male cotwin exhibit no decrement in reproductive performance relative to females gestated with female cotwins. Hence, IUP effects on female reproduction in callitrichines are modest. We have identified mutations in candidate genes relevant for steroid hormone signaling and metabolism, and especially in AMH-related genes, that are likely to alter protein structure and function in the callitrichines. These mutations may confer protection for female...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 2, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterization of osteoarthritic human knees indicates potential sex differences
Conclusions These results demonstrate that there are underlying sex differences in knee tissues affected by osteoarthritis. Our findings do not address osteoarthritis etiology but have implications for different prevention methods and treatments for men and women. Further research is needed to better understand these sex-based differences. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - June 2, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Age and sex dependent effects of early overnutrition on metabolic parameters and the role of neonatal androgens
Conclusions Our results indicate that (1) both sex and age determine the response to neonatal overnutrition; (2) differences in neonatal sex steroid levels may participate in the development of sex differences in metabolic parameters in adulthood and possibly in the response to neonatal overnutrition; and (3) the comparison of circulating hormone and cytokine levels, even in normal control animals, should take into consideration the early neonatal nutritional environment. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in myocardial acylcarnitine and triglyceride metabolism
Conclusion Overall, we demonstrate sex differences in myocardial AC and TG metabolism with implications for therapy and diagnosis of diabetic cardiovascular disease. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 13, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Influence of menstrual cycle phase on resting-state functional connectivity in naturally cycling, cigarette-dependent women
Conclusions This is the first study to explore menstrual cycle phase differences in rsFC among cigarette-dependent women, and results suggest that FPs show differences in rsFC underlying cognitive control, which could place them at greater risk for continued smoking and relapse. These findings provide new insights toward individualized treatment strategies. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - May 10, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Using the 3D Facial Norms Database to investigate craniofacial sexual dimorphism in healthy children, adolescents, and adults
Abstract Background Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derived from the 3D Facial Norms data repository, we tested for sexual dimorphism of craniofacial soft-tissue morphology at different ages. Methods One thousand five hundred fifty-five individuals, pre-screened for craniofacial conditions, between 3 and 25 years of age were placed in to one of six age-defined categories: ea...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 22, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gender-related differences in the association between serum uric acid and left ventricular mass index in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Abstract Background Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in a wide spectrum of study population. However, whether this association exists in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, including obstructive HCM), and if present, whether gender has any impact on this association, remains unknown. Methods A total of 161 patients with obstructive HCM (age 47.2 ± 10.8 years, 99 (62 %) men) were included in this study. All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, echocardiogr...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 5, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex impacts Th1 cells, Tregs, and DCs in both intestinal and systemic immunity in a mouse strain and location-dependent manner
Abstract Background Males and females have a different predisposition for the development of intestinal disorders, like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We hypothesized that sex specific differences in intestinal immune responses may underlie this bias. To test this hypothesis, we studied sex differences in immune cell populations in the Peyer’s patches (PP). For comparison with systemic immunity, we studied spleen cells. Methods Two mouse strains with different susceptibility for developing colitis (BALB/c and C57Bl/6) were used. Using flo...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 5, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Expression profile of androgen-modulated microRNAs in the fetal murine lung
Conclusions Regulation of male lung development involves several miRNAs that are under androgen modulation in vivo. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - April 1, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Strategies and methods to study female-specific cardiovascular health and disease: a guide for clinical scientists
Conclusions The purpose of this review is to encourage investigators to consider ways to increase the usefulness of physiological and psychosocial data obtained from clinical populations, in an effort to improve the understanding of sex differences in clinical CVD research and health-care delivery for women and men. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 31, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific genetic effects associated with pigmentation, sensitivity to sunlight, and melanoma in a population of Spanish origin
Abstract Background Human pigmentation is a polygenic quantitative trait with high heritability. In addition to genetic factors, it has been shown that pigmentation can be modulated by oestrogens and androgens via up- or down-regulation of melanin synthesis. Our aim was to identify possible sex differences in pigmentation phenotype as well as in melanoma association in a melanoma case-control population of Spanish origin. Methods Five hundred and ninety-nine females (316 melanoma cases and 283 controls) and 458 males (234 melanoma cases and 224 co...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Single-cell analysis reveals differential regulation of the alveolar macrophage actin cytoskeleton by surfactant proteins A1 and A2: implications of sex and aging
Conclusions There are marked sex- and age-related differences in the alveolar macrophage phenotype as illustrated by F-actin staining between SP-A1 and SP-A2. Importantly, the phenotypic switch caused by the different SP-A variants is subtle, and pertains to the frequency of the observed subpopulations, demonstrating the need for single-cell analysis approaches. The differential responses of alveolar macrophages to SP-A1 and SP-A2 highlight the importance of genotype in immune regulation and the susceptibility to lung disease and the need for development of individualized treatment options. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific IL-6-associated signaling activation in ozone-induced lung inflammation
Conclusions Together, our observations indicate a sex-based and estrous cycle-dependent differential lung inflammatory response to O3 and involvement of two converging JAK2/STAT3 and AKT1/NF-κB pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first study specifically addressing the impact of the estrous cycle in O3-associated lung inflammatory pathways. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - March 5, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Our evolving science: studying the influence of sex in preclinical research
Abstract The policy announcement by the National Institutes of Health that sex should be considered as a relevant variable in preclinical research has sparked considerable debate. This debate has largely centered on specific concerns regarding how the policy will be implemented. However, others have reacted to the new policy by calling into question the capacity of preclinical science to generate data that can be useful to human health. This commentary examines the basis for this contention and maintains that it is essential to expand our scientific efforts to include the influence of sex on the biology and behav...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 25, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Consecutive lynestrenol and cross-sex hormone treatment in biological female adolescents with gender dysphoria: a retrospective analysis
Conclusions Treatment of FtM gender dysphoric adolescents with lynestrenol monotherapy and in combination with testosterone esters is effective, safe, and inexpensive; however, suppression of gonadotropins is incomplete. Regular blood controls allow screening for unphysiological changes in safety parameters or hormonal levels and for medication abuse. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 16, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluating sex as a biological variable in preclinical research: the devil in the details
Abstract Translating policy into action is a complex task, with much debate surrounding the process whereby US and Canadian health funding agencies intend to integrate sex and gender science as an integral component of methodological rigor and reporting in health research. Effective January 25, 2016, the US National Institutes of Health implemented a policy that expects scientists to account for the possible role of sex as a biological variable (SABV) in vertebrate animal and human studies. Applicants for NIH-funded research and career development awards will be asked to explain how they plan to factor considerat...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 11, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex dependency of inhibitory control functions
Conclusionc Here, we show a significant difference in executive control functions and their modulation by contextual factors between females and males that might have implications for the differences in their propensity for particular neuropsychological disorders and related rehabilitation approaches. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 9, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Key influence of sex on urine volume and osmolality
Abstract Background Demographics influence kidney stone risk and the type of stone that is more likely to form. Common kidney stone risk factors include having a low urine volume and a high urine concentration. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of demographics on urinary concentration and osmole excretion. Methods Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN. Height, weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, and cystatin C were measured. Diet was assessed using the Viocare f...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 9, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The phenotypic impact of the male-specific region of chromosome-Y in inbred mating: the role of genetic variants and gene duplications in multiple inbred rat strains
Conclusion The data presented supports a high probability of MSY genetic variation altering a broad range of inbred rat phenotypes. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - February 3, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

High-fat diet impairs spatial memory and hippocampal intrinsic excitability and sex-dependently alters circulating insulin and hippocampal insulin sensitivity
Conclusions Findings consistent with these have been characterized previously in HFD or senescent males, but the effects observed here in young females are unique. Loss of CA1 neuronal excitability, and sex-dependent loss of insulin sensitivity, can have significant cognitive consequences, over both the short term and the life span. These findings highlight needs for more research into sex-dependent differences, relating systemic and neural plasticity mechanisms in metabolic disorders. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sexually dimorphic effects of early life stress in rat pups on urinary bladder detrusor muscle contractility in adulthood
Abstract Background Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a chronic disorder that is commonly seen in women who report a history of adversity in early life. Here, we test the hypothesis that early life stress (ELS) induces sexually dimorphic abnormalities in urinary bladder smooth muscle function in adulthood. Methods Male and female rat pups were conditioned on postnatal (PN) days 8–12 with either a “predictable or “unpredictable” odor-shock, or odor only control treatment. In adulthood, urinary bladde...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 27, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Preclinical studies of sex differences: a clinical perspective
Abstract The new policy from the National Institutes of Health to encourage grant applicants to consider studying both females and males in preclinical biological experiments has been met with support and opposition. Here, we will discuss implications of preclinical studies of sex differences on clinical research. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 22, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex and estrogens alter the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 on reward
Conclusions Collectively, these data reveal that females display much higher sensitivity to the food reward impact of central GLP-1 receptor activation. Surprisingly, they also demonstrate that central ERα signaling is necessary for the actions of GLP-1 on food-reward behavior in both sexes. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 16, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Perinatal testosterone exposure is critical for the development of the male-specific sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that mediates erection and ejaculation
Conclusions The perinatal androgen surge plays a key role in masculinization of the spinal GRP system that controls male sexual behavior. Further, the present study provides potentially new approaches to treat sexual disorders of males. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 12, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Low expression of estrogen receptor β in T lymphocytes and high serum levels of anti-estrogen receptor α antibodies impact disease activity in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
In this study, we contributed to define the influences of E2 on T cells from female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a representative autoimmune disease characterized by a higher prevalence in women than in men (female/male ratio 9:1). Particularly, our aim was to evaluate whether alterations of ERα and ERβ expression in T cells from female SLE patients may impact lymphocyte sensitivity to E2 and anti-ERα antibody (anti-ERα Ab) stimulation interfering with cell signaling and display a direct clinical effect. Methods Sixty-one premenopausal ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 12, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Spatial sexual dimorphism of X and Y homolog gene expression in the human central nervous system during early male development
Conclusions This study has visualized the spatial distribution of PCDH11X/Y and NLGN4X/Y in human developing nervous tissue. The observed spatial distribution patterns suggest the existence of an additional layer of complexity in the development of the male CNS. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 12, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interaction between neonatal maternal deprivation and serum leptin levels on metabolism, pubertal development, and sexual behavior in male and female rats
Conclusions These findings indicate that some of the long-term changes in metabolic and reproductive parameters induced by MD, such as advanced pubertal onset and increased hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in adult males and decreased serum triglyceride and estradiol levels in females, are most likely due to the decrease in leptin levels during the period of MD. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 11, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is not regulated by testosterone in transmen
Abstract Brain morphology significantly differs between the sexes. It has been shown before that some of these differences are attributable to the sex-specific hormonal milieu. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in myriads of neuroplastic processes and shows a sexual dimorphism. Transsexual persons may serve as a model to study sex steroid-mediated effects on brain plasticity. We have recently demonstrated that serum levels of BDNF are reduced in transwomen following 12 months of cross-sex hormone treatment. We now wanted to look at the effects of testosterone treatment on BDNF in transmen....
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - January 8, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Derivation of consensus inactivation status for X-linked genes from genome-wide studies
Conclusions This study has compiled a comprehensive list of X-chromosome inactivation statuses for genes and also discovered some biases which will help guide future studies examining X-chromosome inactivation. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 30, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Mitochondria can orchestrate sex differences in cell fate of vascular smooth muscle cells from rats
Conclusions Our results suggest that (i) mitochondria, being producers of ROS, can orchestrate sex differences in cell fate of VSMC and (ii) mitochondrial dysfunction may be a significant mechanism by which cardiovascular risk factors lead to the formation of vascular lesions in a sex-specific way. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 16, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Examination of sex and minocycline treatment on acute morphine-induced analgesia and inflammatory gene expression along the pain pathway in Sprague–Dawley rats
Conclusions These data describe a significant difference between males and females in the behavioral effects following co-administration of morphine and minocycline. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 12, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in porcine left ventricular myocardial remodeling due to right ventricular pacing
Abstract Background Although sex differences in heart failure (HF) prevalence and severity have been recognized, its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We used a tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy model to determine the sex specific remodeling pattern in male and female adult pigs. Methods We compared the echocardiographic and molecular measures of myocardial remodeling in 19 male and 12 female pigs with chronic symptomatic systolic HF due to right ventricle (RV) pacing (170 bpm) and 6 male and 5 female sham-operated controls. Males ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 10, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber
Conclusions These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 10, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Neonatal outcomes in relation to sex differences: a national cohort survey in Taiwan
Abstract Background An extensive assessment investigating the association between sex differences and neonatal outcomes is lacking. In the current study, we estimated the correlation of gender with adverse birth outcomes in a large cohort population. Methods National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information in 2001 to 2010 were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. Singletons without high-risk pregnancy were further analyzed for the sex ratio of live births in relation to neonatal outcomes—includ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 9, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in long-term outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes in China
Abstract Background Diabetes has been shown to be significantly associated with poor outcome after stroke. However, the sex differences in stroke outcome among patients with diabetes are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the sex differences in long-term prognosis among acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes. Methods The ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited to this study between May 2005 and September 2014 in Tianjin, China. Sex differences in mortality, dependency (modified rank scale > 2), and recurren...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 4, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise
Conclusions Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 1, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific regulation of chemokine Cxcl5/6 controls neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in acute inflammatory states
Abstract Background Tissue infiltration by neutrophils during acute inflammatory states causes substantial tissue injury. While the magnitude of tissue neutrophil accumulation in innate immune responses is profoundly greater in males than females, fundamental aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying these sex differences remain largely unknown. Methods We investigated sex differences in neutrophil stimulation and recruitment in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R; mesenteric or renal) or carrageenan pleurisy in rats or mice, as well as skin injury in ...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 26, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Large-scale transcriptome sequencing reveals novel expression patterns for key sex-related genes in a sex-changing fish
Conclusions Expression patterns of key sex-related genes suggest that sex-changing fish predominantly use an evolutionarily conserved genetic toolkit, but that subtle variability in the standard sex-determination regulatory network likely contributes to sexual plasticity in these fish. This study not only provides the first molecular data on a system ideally suited to explore the molecular basis of sexual plasticity and tissue re-engineering, but also sheds some light on the evolution of diverse sex determination and differentiation systems. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 25, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to pain in older adults: a cross-sectional study
Abstract Background Neuroimaging studies in younger adults have demonstrated sex differences in brain processing of painful experimental stimuli. Such differences may contribute to findings that women suffer disproportionately from pain. It is not known whether sex-related differences in pain processing extend to older adults. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated sex differences in pain reports and brain response to pain in 12 cognitively healthy older female adults and 12 cognitively healthy age-matched older male adults (age range 65&...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 16, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in substance use, health, and social functioning among opioid users receiving methadone treatment: a multicenter cohort study
Conclusions Our results have revealed different patterns of substance use, health, and social functioning among men and women currently receiving methadone treatment for opioid addiction in Ontario, Canada. This information can be used to develop an integrative treatment regimen that caters to the individual needs of men and women, as well as to inform methadone treatment protocols to include specialized services (including vocational counseling, childcare and parenting assistance, medical assistance, relationship or domestic violence counseling, etc.) and increase their availability and accessibility on a large...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 10, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in protein expression in the mouse brain and their perturbations in a model of Down syndrome
Conclusions The extensive sex differences in control mice in levels of proteins involved in learning/memory illustrate the molecular complexity underlying sex differences in normal neurological processes. The sex-specific abnormalities in the Dp10 suggest the possibility of sex-specific phenotypic features in DS and reinforce the need to use female as well as male mice, in particular in preclinical evaluations of drug responses. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 9, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in the hypophysiotropic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the preoptic area of the teleost, Clarias batrachus
Abstract Background Dopamine (DA) neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in the preoptic area (POA) of mammals express estrogen receptors, regulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, and show distinct sexual dimorphism. In teleosts, hypophysiotropic DA neurons of the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), located in the anteroventral POA, express estrogen receptors, innervate LH cells, and emerged as a neuroanatomical substrate for inhibiting LH cells. Interestingly, the NPP and AVPV seem to share several similarities. Whether DAergic neurons in the NPP show sexua...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 9, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Magnesium sulfate has sex-specific, dose-dependent vasodilator effects on preterm placental vessels
Abstract Background Women at risk of preterm delivery receive magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in the pre-delivery phase to reduce their child’s risk of neurodevelopmental complications associated with preterm birth. However, the mechanisms underpinning its placental vascular role remain uncertain. Methods The aim of this study was to examine MgSO4 action on vascular tone in male and female human placental vessels from term and preterm deliveries. Vessels were obtained from placental biopsy following birth at term (37–41 weeks) or preterm gestation (
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 4, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences in Sjögren’s syndrome: a comprehensive review of immune mechanisms
Abstract Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are estimated to affect between 5 and 8 % of the US population, and approximately 80 % of these patients are women. Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an AD that occurs predominately in women over men (16:1). The hallmark characteristic of SS is diminished secretory production from the primary exocrine gland and the lacrimal or salivary glands resulting in symptoms of dry eye and mouth. The disease is believed to be mediated by an inflammatory and autoantibody response directed against salivary and lacrimal gland tissues. This review will examine the literature on s...
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - November 3, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Are females more variable than males in gene expression? Meta-analysis of microarray datasets
Conclusion Our analysis supports and extends previous studies reporting no overall greater phenotypic variability in females. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 29, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex-specific cardiac cardiolipin remodelling after doxorubicin treatment
Conclusions These results emphasize for the first time the cardiac remodelling in the phospholipid classes after doxorubicin treatment. These observations suggest that doxorubicin has a sex-specific impact on the heart phospholipidome especially on cardiolipin, an essential mitochondrial lipid. Further studies are needed to better understand the roles of lipids in the anthracycline cardiotoxicity and sex differences, but phospholipid cardioprotection seems a valuable new additive therapeutic strategy for anthracycline cardiotoxicity. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 15, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sex differences and the role of IL-10 in ischemic stroke recovery
In this study, we found that higher levels of IL-10 were associated with poor acute and long-term outcomes after ischemic stroke in female patients but not in males. After controlling for confounders, IL-10 was not an independent predictor of functional outcomes. This suggests that higher serum IL-10 levels may reflect factors that interact with sex such as age and stroke severity. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - October 12, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research