Implicit Predictions of Future Rewards and their Electrophysiological Correlates.
Abstract Information that is motivationally relevant to an organism's survival demands preferential attention. Affective mechanisms facilitate attentional shifts and potentiate action to allow organisms to respond appropriately to motivationally relevant information. Previous work has demonstrated that the late-positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential elicited by inherently emotional stimuli. For example, the LPP typically is evoked by images of weapons or erotica. The present study investigates stimuli that are not inherently emotional, but that implicitly (without participants' awareness) predict f...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Trimber EM, Luhmann CC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Supplementation with Zinc in Rats Enhances Memory and Reverses an Age-Dependent Increase in Plasma Copper.
Abstract Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sandusky-Beltran LA, Manchester BL, McNay EC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioural inflexibility in a comorbid rat model of striatal ischemic injury and mutant hAPP overexpression.
Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) and stroke coexist and interact; yet how they interact is not sufficiently understood. Both AD and basal ganglia stroke can impair behavioural flexibility, which can be reliably modeled in rats using an established operant based set-shifting test. Transgenic Fischer 344-APP21 rats (TgF344) overexpress pathogenic human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) but do not spontaneously develop overt pathology, hence TgF344 rats can be used to model the effect of vascular injury in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer disease. We demonstrate that the injection of endothelin-1 (ET1) into the dorsal...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Levit A, Regis AM, Garabon JR, Oh SH, Desai S, Rajakumar N, Hachinski V, Agca Y, Agca C, Whitehead SN, Allman BL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Perinatal protein deprivation facilitates morphine cross-sensitization to cocaine and enhances ΔFosB expression in adult rats.
This study evaluates the influence of perinatal protein malnutrition in developing cross-sensitization to cocaine-induced rewarding effects in animals pre-exposed to morphine. Different groups of well-nourished (C-rats) and protein-deprived animals (D-rats) were treated twice a day for three days with increasing doses of morphine or with saline. After 3 days, the incentive motivational effects of cocaine were assessed in a Conditioned Place Preference paradigm in both groups. In saline pre-treated animals, dose-response curves to cocaine revealed a conditioning effect in D-rats at doses of 5, 7.5 and 10mg/kg, while this ef...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Perondi MC, Gutiérrez MC, Valdomero A, Cuadra GR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Evaluating aged mice in three touchscreen tests that differ in visual demands: Impaired cognitive function and impaired visual abilities.
Abstract Normal aging is often accompanied by reductions in cognitive abilities as well as impairments in visual acuity in men and mice. In preclinical models of human cognition this concomitance can make it difficult to assess the relative contributions of declined vision and cognitive ability on behavioral measures of cognition. To assess the influence of age on cognition and the impact of visual decline on the performance of touchscreen-based behavioral paradigms in mice, aged (11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 21 months old) male C57BL/6J mice were compared to young (3 or 4 months old) male C57BL/6J mice using three test...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Buscher N, van Dorsselaer P, Steckler T, Talpos JC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The alteration of autophagy and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with natural aging-dependent cognitive deficits.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that cognitive deficits are first observed in the initial old stage. The levels of autophagy and apoptosis tend to be opposite in the adult and old phases. High levels of autophagy and apoptosis coexist in the initial old stage. Our study indicates that up-regulation of autophagy in the initial old phase to anti-cognitive deficits must be further evaluated. PMID: 28688896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yu Y, Feng L, Li J, Lan X, Lixiang A, Lv X, Zhang M, Chen L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Gross Motor AbiLity predictS Response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.
Abstract The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: George SH, Rafiei MH, Borstad A, Adeli H, Gauthier LV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.
Abstract Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. PMID: 28684358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Klinker F, Ko Hnemann K, Paulus W, Liebetanz D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Significance of the nicotinic alpha7 receptor in cognition and antipsychotic-like behavior in the rat.
In conclusion, a7 PAMs, in addition to alleviate the cognitive impairments observed in SCH patients, may enhance the antipsychotic efficacy of atypical antipsychotics. PMID: 28684359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wadenberg MG, Manetti D, Romanelli MN, Arias HR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Abnormal cortical-basal ganglia network in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a voxel-wise network efficiency analysis.
Abstract Evidence suggests that dysfunctional cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) network plays important roles in the motor symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, little effort has been made to investigate the functional abnormalities of CBG network in ALS. Here, we constructed voxel-wise CBG networks using the resting-state fMRI data of 20 patients with ALS and 21 normal controls, and characterized the differences of their efficiency parameters between the two groups. Compared to normal controls, patients with ALS exhibited decreased nodal efficiency in the right thalamus (THA), the left caudate (CAU...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu J, Li H, Li C, Yao JC, Hu J, Wang J, Hu Q, Zhang Y, Zhang J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Diminished motor imagery capability in adults with motor impairment: an fMRI mental rotation study.
Abstract Recent research has demonstrated that adults with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (pDCD) show similar behavioural deficits as those observed in children DCD when performing a motor imagery task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pattern of neural activation in adults with pDCD during motor imagery differed from adults without motor skill impairment. Twelve adults with pDCD (5 male; age M=24.5 yrs) and 11 adults without pDCD (6 male; age M=26.7 yrs) participated. The hand rotation task was used to assess motor imagery ability, while functional neural images were acquired usi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kashuk SR, Williams J, Thorpe G, Wilson PH, Egan GF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prefrontal mRNA expression of Long and Short isoforms of D2 dopamine receptor: possible role in delayed learning deficit caused by early life interleukin-1 β treatment.
In this study, we have investigated the combined effect of training in active avoidance (AA) paradigm and chronic early life treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β (1μg/kg i.p., P15-21) on D2S and D2L dopamine receptor mRNA expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult rats. We have shown differential regulation of D2 short and long mRNA isoform expression in the mPFC. There was no effect of AA-training on D2S mRNA expression, while D2L mRNA was downregulated in AA-trained control (intact and saline-treated) animals, and this effect was not observed in rats treated with IL-1β...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schwarz AP, Trofimov AN, Zubareva OE, Lioudyno VI, Kosheverova VV, Ischenko AM, Klimenko VM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Age-related deficits in the mnemonic similarity task for objects and scenes.
In this study, we sought to evaluate a novel version of this task, utilizing scenes that might emphasize the role of the hippocampus in contextual and spatial processing. In addition, we investigated whether, by utilizing two stimulus classes (scenes and objects), we could also interrogate the roles of the PRC and PHC in aging. Thus, we evaluated differential contributions to these tasks by relating performance on objects versus scenes to volumes of the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe structures. We found that while there was an age-related impairment on lure discrimination performance for both objects and...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Stark SM, Stark CEL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Methylphenidate on the Microstructure of Schedule-Induced Polydipsia in an animal model of ADHD.
e;n R, Sanabria F Abstract Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) was established in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), and Wistar rats, using a multiple fixed-time (FT) schedule of food delivery, with 30- and 90-s components. Thereafter, animals were exposed to methylphenidate (MPH; 2.5mg/kg/d) for six consecutive SIP sessions. A test to assess possible sensitization effects was also conducted four days after termination of the drug treatment. At baseline, FT 90-s produced longer and more frequent drinking episodes in SHR than in WKY. An analysis of the distribution of inter-lick intervals...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Íbias J, Daniels CW, Miguéns M, Pellón R, Sanabria F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Classification of somatosensory cortex activities using fNIRS.
In this study, we utilize a lab-made multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to discriminate the hemodynamic responses (HRs) of four different tactile stimulations (handshake, ball grasp, poking, and cold temperature) applied to the right hand of eight healthy male subjects. The activated brain areas per stimulation are identified with the t-values between the measured data and the desired hemodynamic response function. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized to classify the acquired data into four classes based on three features (mean, peak value, and skewness) of the associated oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) s...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hong KS, Bhutta MR, Liu X, Shin YI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Disruption of GluA2 Phosphorylation Potentiates Stress Responsivity.
Abstract Cocaine addiction is characterized by persistent craving and addicts frequently relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Exposure to stress can precipitate relapse in humans and rodents. Stress and drug use can lead to common alterations in synaptic plasticity and these commonalities may contribute to the ability of stress to elicit relapse. These common changes in synaptic plasticity are mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors. Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subun...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ellis AS, Fosnocht AQ, Lucerne K, Briand LA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain infusion of α-synuclein oligomers induces motor and non-motor Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in mice.
In conclusion, i.c.v. infusion of α-SYOs recapitulated some of PD-associated non-motor symptoms, such as increased anxiety and olfactory dysfunction, but failed to recapitulate memory impairment and depressive-like behavior typical of the disease. Moreover, α-SYOs i.c.v. administration induced motor deficits and loss of TH and dopamine levels, key features of PD. Results point to α-syn oligomers as the proximal neurotoxins responsible for early non-motor and motor deficits in PD and suggest that the i.c.v. infusion model characterized here may comprise a useful tool for identification of PD novel therapeu...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fortuna JTS, Gralle M, Beckman D, Neves FS, Diniz LP, Frost PS, Barros-Aragão F, Santos LE, Gonçalves RA, Romão L, Zamberlan DC, Soares FAA, Braga C, Foguel D, Gomes FCA, Felice FG, Ferreira ST, Clarke JR, Figueiredo CP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Operant responding for optogenetic excitation of LDTg inputs to the VTA requires D1 and D2 dopamine receptor activation in the NAcc.
Abstract Behavioral studies in rats and mice indicate that laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) inputs to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) importantly contribute to reward function. Further evidence from anesthetized rat and mouse preparations suggests that these LTDg inputs may exert this effect by regulating mesolimbic dopamine (DA) signaling. Direct evidence supporting this possibility remains lacking however. To address this lack, rat LDTg neurons were transfected with adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 and eYFP (ChR2) or eYFP alone (eYFP) and rats were subsequently trained to lever pre...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Steidl S, O'Sullivan S, Pilat D, Bubula N, Brown J, Vezina P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

MMP-2: a modulator of neuronal precursor activity and cognitive and motor behaviors.
In this report we elucidate the effects of the absence of MMP2 in Neural Precursor Cells (NPC) derived from C57BL/6 MMP2 KO mice and in primary and secondary neurosphere formation. We observed smaller neurosphere numbers and sizes, decreased NPC numbers, PCNA expression, DNA and Akt activation in MMP2 KO NPC compared to WT NPC. We also found decreased neurosphere formation and NPC migration outward from adherent neurospheres, decreased CXCR4 and nestin expression and increased GFAP and neuro-filament expression in MMP2 KO NPC compared to Wt NPC. MMP2 KO mice were found to exhibit increased anxiety manifested in open field ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Q, Michaud M, Shankar R, Canosa S, Schwartz M, Madri JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dopamine Transporter (DAT1/SLC6A3) polymorphism and the association between being born small for gestational age and symptoms of ADHD.
This study investigated whether SGA moderates the effect of dopamine transporter gene variants on the risk of ADHD. A total of 546 children of European descent were genotyped at age 11 for seven DAT1 SNPs (rs6347, rs11564774, rs40184, rs1042098, rs2702, rs8179029 and rs3863145). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure symptoms of ADHD at ages 3.5, 7 and 11. We found significant gene-environment interactions between birth weight and DAT1 SNPs (rs6347, rs40184, rs1042098, rs3863145) on ADHD symptoms at 3.5 years only. Results suggest that genotypic variation of DAT1 may confer a relative protective e...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Waldie KE, Cornforth CM, Webb RE, Thompson JMD, Murphy R, Moreau D, Slykerman R, Morgan AR, Ferguson LR, Mitchell EA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioral Activation Sensitivity and Default Mode Network- Subgenual Cingulate Cortex Connectivity in Youth.
Abstract Increased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the default mode network (DMN) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is consistently reported in adults and youth with psychopathologies related to affect dysregulation (e.g. depression, posttraumatic stress disorder). This pattern of increased rsFC is thought to underlie ruminative thought patterns through integration of negative affect (via sgACC) into self-referential operations supported by the DMN. Neurobiological studies in adults show that behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity is a potential protective factor against ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Iadipaolo AS, Marusak HA, Sala-Hamrick K, Crespo LM, Thomason ME, Rabinak CA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Glibenclamide pretreatment protects against chronic memory dysfunction and glial activation in rat cranial blast traumatic brain injury.
Abstract Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects both military and civilian populations, and often results in chronic deficits in cognition and memory. Chronic glial activation after bTBI has been linked with cognitive decline. Pharmacological inhibition of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) with glibenclamide was shown previously to reduce glial activation and improve cognition in contusive models of CNS trauma, but has not been examined in bTBI. We postulated that glibenclamide would reduce chronic glial activation and improve long-term memory function after bTBI. Using a rat direct cranial model of bTBI (dc-bTB...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Stokum JA, Keledjian K, Hayman E, Karimy JK, Pampori A, Imran Z, Woo SK, Gerzanich V, Simard JM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Both serotonergic and noradrenergic systems modulate the development of tolerance to chronic stress in rats with lesions of the serotonergic neurons of the median raphe nucleus.
Abstract Acute exposure to stress induces significant behavioural changes, while repeated exposure to the same stressor leads to the development of tolerance to stress. The development of tolerance appears to involve the serotonergic projections from the Median Raphe Nucleus (MnRN) to the dorsal Hippocampus (dH), since rats with lesions of this pathway does not develop tolerance to stress. Previous data from our laboratory showed that treatment with imipramine, a serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor, lead to the development of tolerance. However, it remains to be elucidated whether such toler...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pereira AC, Carvalho MC, Padovan CM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Enhanced limbic/impaired cortical-loop connection onto the hippocampus of NHE rats: application of resting-state functional connectivity in a preclinical ADHD model.
Abstract Due to a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system, Naples-High-Excitability (NHE) rats have been proposed to model for the meso-cortical variant of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared to Naples Random-Bred (NRB) controls, NHE rats show hyperactivity, impaired non-selective attention (Aspide et al., 1998), and impaired selective spatial attention (Ruocco et al., 2009a, 2014). Alteration in limbic functions has been proposed; however, resulting unbalance among forebrain areas has not been assessed yet. By resting-state functional Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in vivo, we investiga...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zoratto F, Palombelli GM, Ruocco LA, Carboni E, Laviola G, Sadile AG, Adriani W, Canese R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.
Abstract We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improve cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamaguchi H, Hara Y, Ago Y, Takano E, Hasebe S, Nakazawa T, Hashimoto H, Matsuda T, Takuma K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

HBK-15 protects mice from stress-induced behavioral disturbances and changes in corticosterone, BDNF, and NGF levels.
In this study, we aimed to further characterize pharmacological profile of HBK-15 and investigate its antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity in the mouse model of unpredictable chronic mild stress. We used sucrose consumption test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze and evaluated the influence on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as body weight, relative adrenal glands weight and plasma corticosterone level in the stressed mice. We utilized LC/MS/MS method to determine HBK-15 concentration in plasma and brain. We evalua...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pytka K, Głuch-Lutwin M, Kotańska M, Żmudzka E, Jakubczyk M, Waszkielewicz A, Janiszewska P, Walczak M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Features of emotional and social behavioral phenotypes of calsyntenin2 knockout mice.
Abstract Calsyntenin-2 (Clstn2) is the synaptic protein that belongs to the super family of cadherins, playing an important role in learning and memory. We recently reported that Clstn2 knockout mice (Clstn2-KO) have a deficit of GABAergic interneurons coupled with hyperactivity and deficient spatial memory. Given, that impaired functioning of GABA receptors is linked to several psychopathologies, including anxiety and autism, we sought to further characterize Clstn2-KO mice with respect to emotional and social behavior. Clstn2-KO males and females were tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), open field (OF), forc...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ranneva SV, Pavlov KS, Gromova AV, Amstislavskaya TG, Lipina TV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic Mild Stress Impairs Latent Inhibition and Induces Region-Specific Neural Activation in CHL1-Deficient Mice, a Mouse Model of Schizophrenia.
Abstract Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal processing of information and attentional deficits. Schizophrenia has a high genetic component but is precipitated by environmental factors, as proposed by the 'two-hit' theory of schizophrenia. Here we compared latent inhibition as a measure of learning and attention, in CHL1-deficient mice, an animal model of schizophrenia, and their wild-type littermates, under no-stress and chronic mild stress conditions. All unstressed mice as well as the stressed wild-type mice showed latent inhibition. In contrast, CHL1-deficient mice did not ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Buhusi M, Obray D, Guercio B, Bartlett MJ, Buhusi CV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia caused cognitive dysfunction relate to miRNAs dysregulation in hippocampus.
Abstract Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a characteristic pathophysiological change of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a commonly diagnosed chronic sleep disorder. With the process of OSA, patients will suffer from the nervous system damage and appear to multiple cognitive dysfunction. The mechanism that how IH causes cognitive impairment is still unknown. Both control and experimental rats were placed in conditions absence and presence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) for 8h a day for a week, two weeks and four weeks, and then followed by behavioral assessments with Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. The results showed that t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao H, Han Z, Huang S, Bai R, Ge X, Chen F, Lei P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Testing the physiological plausibility of conflicting psychological models of response inhibition: a forward inference fMRI study.
Abstract The neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition and related disorders are unclear and controversial for several reasons. First, it is a major challenge to assess the psychological bases of behaviour, and ultimately brain-behaviour relationships, of a function which is precisely intended to suppress overt measurable behaviours. Second, response inhibition is difficult to disentangle from other parallel processes involved in more general aspects of cognitive control. Consequently, different psychological and anatomo-functional models coexist, which often appear in conflict with each other even though t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Criaud M, Longcamp M, Anton JL, Nazarian B, Roth M, Sescousse G, Strafella AP, Ballanger B, Boulinguez P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypoxic postconditioning improves behavioural deficits at 6 weeks following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats.
Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborns is associated with high morbidity and mortality, with many babies suffering neurological deficits. Recently, we showed that hypoxic postconditioning (PostC) immediately post injury can protect against HI up to one week in neonatal rats. Here, we aimed to examine whether long term functional deficits were also improved by PostC. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to control (C) or HI group on postnatal day 7 (P7). The HI group underwent unilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by hypoxia (7% oxygen, 3h). Half of each group were randomly assigned to the Post...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Teo JD, Morris MJ, Jones NM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Functional brain networks during picture encoding and recognition in different odor contexts.
f V Abstract Contextual odors can serve as retrieval cues when applied during encoding and recall/recognition of information. To investigate the neuronal basis of these observations, we collected functional MRI data while participants (n=51) performed an encoding and recognition memory task during which odors (congruent: CO or incongruent: IO) were presented as contextual cues. Recognition performance was not influenced by odor, but there was increased activation in the piriform cortex during successful encoding in the CO group, possibly indicating enhanced retrieval of information previously integrated with an ol...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Reichert JL, Ninaus M, Schuehly W, Hirschmann C, Bagga D, Schöpf V Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Animal models of psychoactive drug use and addiction - present problems and future needs for translational approaches.
CP Abstract Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments. ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Müller CP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic pramipexole treatment induces compulsive behavior in rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.
Abstract Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions. Accordingly, we aimed to mimic chronic DRT in a PD context, ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dardou D, Reyrolle L, Chassain C, Durif F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Disturbances of novel object exploration and recognition in a chronic ketamine mouse model of schizophrenia.
Abstract Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating disease with an overall lifetime risk of 1%. While positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are reduced by antipsychotic medication based on the inhibition of type 2 dopaminergic receptors (D2R), negative symptoms (e.g. reduced motivation) and cognitive symptoms (e.g. impaired working memory) of schizophrenia are not effectively treated by current medication. This dichotomy might arise in part because of our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition to genetic appro...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hauser MJ, Isbrandt D, Roeper J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The lateral parabrachial nucleus and central angiotensinergic mechanisms in the control of sodium intake induced by different stimuli.
Abstract Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a typical facilitatory stimulus for sodium appetite. Surprisingly, hyperosmolarity and central cholinergic stimulation, two classical antinatriorexigenic stimuli, also facilitate NaCl intake when they are combined with injections of the α2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we tested the relative importance of central angiotensinergic and cholinergic mechanisms for the control of water and NaCl intake by combining different dipsogenic or natriorexigenic stimuli with moxonidine injection into the L...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Roncari CF, David RB, De Paula PM, Colombari DSA, De Luca LA, Colombari E, Menani JV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Contextual fear conditioning is enhanced in mice lacking functional sphingosine kinase 2.
In this study we investigated the consequences of global SphK2 knockout (SphK2(-/-)) on basic motor capabilities, anxiety, learning, and memory in mice, using a range of tests including the elevated plus maze, the cheeseboard, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and fear extinction. Loss of SphK2 resulted in an 85-90% reduction in brain S1P levels, and was associated with a notably higher freezing response in a novel context. SphK2 knockout mice also exhibited increased contextual fear conditioning but the extinction of contextual fear memory was similar to control mice. SphK2(-/-) mice, contrary to their control litter...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lei M, Shafique A, Shang K, Couttas TA, Zhao H, Don AS, Karl T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of a change in housing conditions on body weight, behavior and brain neurotransmitters in male C57BL/6J mice.
Abstract The development of modern housing regimes such as individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become very popular and attractive in order to reduce spreading of pathogenic organisms and to lower the risk to develop a laboratory animal allergy for staff members. Additionally, optimal housing of laboratory animals contributes to improve animal health status and ensures high and comparable experimental and animal welfare standards. However, it has not been clearly elucidated whether 1) a change to IVC systems have an impact on various physiological phenotypic parameters of mice when compared to convention...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pasquarelli N, Voehringer P, Henke J, Ferger B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The long-term effects of stress and kappa opioid receptor activation on conditioned place aversion in male and female California mice.
We examined the long-term effects of social defeat stress on the aversive properties of KOR activation in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) using a conditioned place aversion paradigm. Female California mice naïve to social defeat, formed a place aversion following treatment with 2.5mg/kg of the KOR agonist U50,488, but females exposed to defeat did not form a place aversion to this dose. This supports the finding by others that social defeat weakens the aversive properties of KOR agonists. In contrast, both control and stressed males formed an aversion to 10mg/kg of U50,488. We also examined E...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Laman-Maharg AR, Copeland T, Sanchez EO, Campi KL, Trainor BC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reversal learning in C58 mice: Modeling higher order repetitive behavior.
Abstract Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule. In addit...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Whitehouse CM, Curry-Pochy LS, Shafer R, Rudy J, Lewis MH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Modulatory effects of Ampicillin/Sulbactam on glial glutamate transporters and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 as well as reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior.
In this study, we investigated the reinstatement to cocaine (20mg/kg, i.p.) seeking behavior using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In addition, we investigated the effects of Ampicillin/Sulbactam (AMP/SUL) (200mg/kg, i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic, on cocaine-induced reinstatement. We also investigated the effects of AMP/SUL on the expression of glial glutamate transporters and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We found that AMP/SUL treatment reduced cocaine-triggered r...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hammad AM, Alasmari F, Althobaiti YS, Sari Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential urinary metabolites related with the severity of major depressive disorder.
Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder that affects a person's general health. However, there is still no objective laboratory test for diagnosing MDD. Here, an integrated analysis of data from our previous studies was performed to identify the differential metabolites in the urine of moderate and severe MDD patients. A dual platform approach (NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS) was used. Consequently, 14 and 22 differential metabolites responsible for separating moderate and severe MDD patients, respectively, from their respective healthy controls (HCs) were identified. Meanwhile, the modera...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen JJ, Zhou CJ, Zheng P, Cheng K, Wang HY, Li J, Zeng L, Xie P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Rapid and sustained antidepressant effects of resolvin D1 and D2 in a chronic unpredictable stress model.
Abstract Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and D2 (RvD2) are lipid mediators that are derived from docosahexaenoic acid. We recently demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of RvD1 or RvD2 attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behaviors via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. However, the antidepressant effects of RvD1 and RvD2 have not been fully investigated. Here, we examined the antidepressant effects of RvD1 and RvD2 using the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) in murine chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model. Male BALB/c mice (7 weeks) were subjected t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ishikawa Y, Deyama S, Shimoda K, Yoshikawa K, Ide S, Satoh M, Minami M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Re-evaluation of the reward comparison hypothesis for alcohol abuse.
This study examined whether various doses of ethanol induced reward or aversion and then evaluated Grigson's reward comparison hypothesis (1997). Rats were given a 0.1% saccharin solution (conditioned stimulus 1 [CS1]) 15min prior to administration of a 0, 0.05, 0.125, 0.20, 0.35, or 0.50g/kg dose of ethanol (unconditioned stimulus [US]). The rats were then exposed to a paired compartment (CS2) for 30min. The low dose of 0.05g/kg ethanol did not induce conditioned suppression (i.e., conditioned taste aversion [CTA]) or conditioned place preference (CPP). The dose of 0.125g/kg ethanol induced CPP but not CTA. High doses of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: He AB, Chang YC, Meng AWY, Huang ACW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal and cerebellar histological changes and their behavioural repercussions caused by brain ischaemic hypoxia experimentally induced by sodium nitrite.
CONCLUSION: NaNO2 promoted brain damage due to ischaemic hypoxia in rats. Intoxicated animals showed decreased brain weights; damage in hippocampus and cerebellum; and anxiogenic and depressive behaviour. PMID: 28606628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ribeiro MC, Dos Santos Bezerra T, Soares AC, Boechat-Ramos R, Carneiro FP, de Souza Vianna LM, Faro LRF, da Silva MV, Vieira MP, de Oliveira Monteiro I, Ferreira VM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neural substrates underlying balanced time perspective: a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.
Abstract Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear. To address this question, we quantified individual's deviation from the BTP (DBTP)...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo Y, Chen Z, Feng T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Long-term contextual memory in infant rats as evidenced by an ethanol conditioned tolerance procedure.
ias C Abstract Conditioned tolerance can be conceptualized as a particular case of Pavlovian conditioning in which contextual cues play the role of the conditioned stimulus. Although the evidence is contradictory, it is frequently assumed that long-term contextual conditioning in pre-weanling rats is weak or even absent. This hypothesis comes from and is sustained mainly by behavioral studies that explored different contextual effects in 16-18 day-old rats using a fear-conditioning paradigm, but their conclusions are stated in terms of an immature (hippocampal-dependent) declarative memory system. The main goal of...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Castelló S, Molina JC, Arias C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Restraint stress enhances alcohol intake in adolescent female rats but reduces alcohol intake in adolescent male and adult female rats.
RESTRAINT STRESS ENHANCES ALCOHOL INTAKE IN ADOLESCENT FEMALE RATS BUT REDUCES ALCOHOL INTAKE IN ADOLESCENT MALE AND ADULT FEMALE RATS. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Jun 09;: Authors: Wille-Bille A, Ferreyra A, Sciangula M, Chiner F, Nizhnikov ME, Pautassi RM Abstract Adolescents may be more sensitive to stress-induced alcohol drinking than adults, which would explain the higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in late adolescence than in adulthood. The present study analyzed the impact of restraint stress on the initiation of alcohol intake across 2 weeks of intermittent, two-bottle choice intake i...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wille-Bille A, Ferreyra A, Sciangula M, Chiner F, Nizhnikov ME, Pautassi RM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain Activity Related to Working Memory for Temporal Order and Object information.
Abstract Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal de...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Roberts BM, Libby LA, Inhoff MC, Ranganath C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cholinergic input to the hippocampus is not required for episodic memory in the rat, even with multiple consecutive events.
Abstract Previous work has shown that depletion of the cholinergic input to the hippocampus produces no impairment in an episodic (what-where-which) memory task in rats. However, in contrast a where-which task was significantly impaired. Models of acetylcholine function related to pattern separation were used to explain this result. Recent development of spontaneous recognition tasks to assess multiple trials consecutively in the same testing session allow an opportunity to assess whether an increase in interference produces an impairment in the episodic memory task using the same cholinergic lesion. By increasing...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Seel S, Eacott MJ, Easton A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research