Rosmarinic acid reverses the deleterious effects of repetitive stress and tat protein.
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) has infected more than 40 million people worldwide and is associated with central nervous system (CNS) disruption in at least 30% of these persons. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the systemic immunopathology associated with HIV, but the occurrence of neurological disorders continues to be reported in notable numbers. The present study evaluated the potential of rosmarinic acid to reverse the detrimental effects of an intracerebral injection of the viral protein tat. Control and tat-injected rats were also subjecte...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Makhathini KB, Mabandla MV, Daniels WMU Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Integrating Genome-Wide Association Study, Chromosomal Enhancer Maps and Element-gene Interaction Networks Detected Brain Regions Related Associations between Elements and ADHD/IQ.
CONCLUSION: Our study results provide novel clues for understanding the associations between elements and ADHD/IQ. This study also illustrated the good performance of ERGSEA approach for complex diseases. PMID: 30016737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma M, Liang X, Cheng S, Zhang L, Cheng B, Yang J, Ding M, Zhao Y, Li P, Du Y, Liu L, Wen Y, He A, Fan Q, Guo X, Zhang F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Observational threat conditioning is induced by circa-strike activity burst but not freezing and requires visual attention.
Abstract Social transmission refers to a process in which an observer (OB) acquires new information about the environment including threat situations, through the action of familiar conspecifics. Recently, a number of studies employing observational threat conditioning (OTC) in which OB mice expressed defensive responses following indirect exposure to pair-housed partner mice (demonstrator: DE) which were receiving repeated footshocks, have produced interesting insights into the social mechanisms of emotional transfer. However, the nature of the transmitted information or the critical cognitive processes involved ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hong EH, Choi JS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in young adult APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice with insensitivity to chronic mild stress.
Abstract Early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression share many symptoms, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Therefore, characterizing the shared and different biological changes between the two disorders will be helpful in making an early diagnosis and planning treatment. In the present study, 8-week-old APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice received chronic mild stress (CMS) for 8 weeks followed by a series of behavioral, biochemical and pathological analyses. APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice showed depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and reduced sociability, accompanied by high levels of soluble beta-amyloid, glial a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao JY, Chen Y, Su DY, Marshall C, Xiao M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Saccade latency delays in young apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 carriers.
This study aimed to assess the association between APOE genotype and saccade latency using a prosaccade and antisaccade task in young individuals (N = 97, age: 17-35 years). Results showed that prosaccade latency was significantly delayed in a group of ε4 carriers in comparison to non-carriers, which was due to a lower rate of signal accumulation rather than a change in the criterion threshold. In contrast, there was no significant genotype difference for antisaccade latency in this young cohort. These results indicate that prosaccade latency may be useful in establishing the APOE behavioural phenotype, which c...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Niechwiej-Szwedo E, Tapper A, Gonzalez D, Bradley RM, Duncan R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation inhibits the development of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference.
Abstract The abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health issue in recent years, these new-type drugs can cause addiction and serious cognitive impairment. However, there are no effective methods for the prevention and treatment of ATS addiction at present. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a painless and non-invasive new therapeutic approach that has been used for the treatment of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders, but whether it can be used to treat drug addiction is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of rTMS on m...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu XQ, Zan GY, Ju YY, Chen TZ, Guo LB, Jiao DL, Jiang HF, Deng YZ, Liu JG, Zhao M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Minocycline ameliorates depressive behaviors and neuro-immune dysfunction induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress in the rat.
In conclusion, CUMS-induced depression- and anxiety-like behavior may result from imbalance between M1 and M2 and suppressed astrocyte function since minocycline treatment reversed M1 response, which was associated with behavioral normalization. PMID: 30003978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang C, Zhang YP, Li YY, Liu BP, Wang HY, Li KW, Song C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reconsolidation of human motor memory: From boundary conditions to behavioral interventions-How far are we from clinical applications?
Abstract The memory reconsolidation hypothesis states that a previously consolidated and stable memory can return to a temporary labile state after retrieved, requiring a new stabilization process. During the labile period, the memory trace is vulnerable to modification, which provides a potential therapeutic opportunity to weaken, updated or strengthen that memory. As such, reconsolidation has been the subject of numerous studies in different domains of human memory that seek strategies to treat post-traumatic disorders and erase or modify pathological memories. A few studies have also investigated the impairment...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Silva MB, Soares AB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

TNF signalling via the TNF receptors mediates the effects of exercise on cognition-like behaviours.
DISCUSSION: TNF receptor signalling via the TNFR1 and TNFR2 appears to mediate the effects of exercise on cognitive-like behaviours. The potential for exercise to regulate human TNF and TNF signalling and cognitive dysfunction needs investigation under inflammatory conditions including depression and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID: 29969604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Morgan JA, Singhal G, Corrigan F, Jaehne EJ, Jawahar MC, Baune BT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The contribution of contextual fear in the anxiolytic effect of chlordiazepoxide in the fear-potentiated startle test.
This study evaluated the extent to which a reduction in contextual fear contributes to the anxiolytic effect of benzodiazepines in the fear-potentiated startle response. To this end, chlordiazepoxide, an anxiolytic often used as positive control in preclinical drug studies, and zolpidem, known to have sedative properties and to be devoid of anxiolytic effects, were tested in two contexts: the same context as training had taken place and an alternative context. In addition, the level of muscle relaxation was assessed in a grip strength test. Chlordiazepoxide (2.5-10 mg/kg) decreased the fear-potentiated startle response, ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao Y, Bijlsma EY, Verdouw PM, Garssen J, Groenink L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of combined pre- and post-natal enrichment on anxiety-like, social, and cognitive behaviours in juvenile and adult rat offspring.
Abstract The pre- and post-natal periods are characterized by unrivalled growth and are sensitive to environmental changes. A correctly stimulating early environment is essential for developing natural behaviors and maintaining affective wellness. Five litters of rat progeny were co-housed through gestation until juvenile age in housing providing physical and social enrichment. Five control litters were housed separately in standard conditions. Half of the offspring were tested in the elevated plus-maze and the social interaction test as juveniles (five weeks old) with the other half tested in the Morris water maz...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sparling JE, Baker SL, Bielajew C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Agmatine attenuates depressive-like behavior and hippocampal oxidative stress following amyloid β (Aβ1-40) administration in mice.
Agmatine attenuates depressive-like behavior and hippocampal oxidative stress following amyloid β (Aβ1-40) administration in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Jun 28;: Authors: de Souza ACG, Gonçalves CL, de Souza V, Hartwig JM, Farina M, Prediger RD Abstract Depression is one of the most common psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and several studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the etiopathology of both AD and depression. Clinical studies indicate reduced efficacy of the current antidepressants for the treatment of depression in AD. In this regard, agm...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: de Souza ACG, Gonçalves CL, de Souza V, Hartwig JM, Farina M, Prediger RD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Causal and functional interpretation of mu- and delta-opioid receptor profiles in mesoaccumbens and nigrostriatal pathways of an oral stereotypy phenotype.
Abstract Spontaneous stereotypic behaviours are repetitive, compulsive, topographically invariant response patterns commonly observed in captive or domestic animals, which have been linked to dysfunction of basal ganglia input/output pathways. There is evidence that endogenous opioids play a key regulatory role in basal ganglia direct and indirect pathways, but their precise role, both causally and functionally, in spontaneous stereotypic behaviour is unclear. Here we examined the profile of mu- and delta-opioid receptors (density [Bmax] and affinity [Kd]) of basal ganglia structures in stereotypy (n = 10) and...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hemmings A, Parker MO, Hale C, McBride SD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Maternal stress during pregnancy induces depressive-like behavior only in female offspring and correlates to their hippocampal Avp and Oxt receptor expression.
r N Abstract The majority of studies examining the consequences of prenatal stress in rodent models analyze pups having been raised by their biological mother, i.e. the female which experienced stress during her pregnancy. To test whether pregnancy stress changes maternal behavior and thereby - in addition to stress exposure in utero - influences behavior and brain function of offspring, we implemented a fostering model, in which mouse pups that were not stressed in utero, are raised by dams which were exposed to stress during their pregnancy. We found that dams, which were stressed during pregnancy (PS foster dam...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmidt M, Braun K, Brandwein C, Rossetti AC, Guara Ciurana S, Riva MA, Deuschle M, Bock J, Gass P, Gröger N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Searching for auditory targets in external space and in working memory: electrophysiological mechanisms underlying perceptual and retroactive spatial attention.
Abstract Attention can be shifted within internal representations maintained in working memory. These retroactive processes are particularly inherent to the processing of auditory information that is especially transient over time and thus, requires us to continuously maintain, attend to, and integrate information in working memory. Using EEG recordings, the present study investigated the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying selective spatial attention in a retroactive as opposed to a perceptual auditory search task. Two kinds of sound stimuli were employed: a horizontal sound array consisting of two natural s...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Klatt LI, Getzmann S, Wascher E, Schneider D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

FAAH inhibition attenuates TLR3-mediated hyperthermia, nociceptive- and anxiety-like behaviour in female rats.
Abstract Aberrant activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)s results in persistent and prolonged neuroinflammation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. TLR3 coordinates the innate immune response to viral infection and recent data have demonstrated that inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme that primarily metabolizes anandamide, modulates TLR3-mediated neuroinflammation. However, the physiological and behavioural consequences of such modulation are unknown. The present study examined the effect of URB597, a selective FAAH inhib...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Flannery LE, Kerr DM, Finn DP, Roche M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Increased training compensates for OX1R blockage-impairment of spatial memory and c-Fos expression in different cortical and subcortical areas.
te;r E, Segura-Torres P Abstract It has been suggested that the orexin system modulates learning and memory-related processes. However, the possible influence that training could have on the effect of the blockade of orexin-A selective receptor (OX1R) on a spatial memory task has not been explored. Therefore, the present study attempts to compare the effects of OX1R antagonist SB-334867 infusion on spatial memory in two different conditions in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). This experiment evaluated the animals' performance in weak training (2 trials per session) vs strong training (6 trials per session) protocols i...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: García-Brito S, Aldavert-Vera L, Huguet G, Álvarez A, Kádár E, Segura-Torres P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit deletion protects against dependence-like ethanol drinking.
Abstract The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is mechanistically involved in the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of alcohol, but the specific role of the GluN2A subunit remains unclear. Here, we exposed mice with constitutive GluN2A gene knockout (KO) to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor (CIE) and tested for EtOH consumption/preference using a two-bottle choice paradigm, as well as NMDAR-mediated transmission at basolateral amygdala synapses via ex vivo slice electrophysiology. Results showed that GluN2A KO mice attained comparable blood EtOH levels in response to CIE exposure, but did not exhibit ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jury NJ, Radke AK, Pati D, Kocharian A, Mishina M, Kash TL, Holmes A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Auditory neglect in children following perinatal stroke.
Abstract Auditory neglect has been found in adults with right hemisphere focal brain lesions following strokes. Visual and tactile neglect has been found in children following both left and right hemisphere lesions resulting from perinatal strokes. The present cross-sectional study assessed auditory neglect in children with early unilateral brain damage from perinatal stroke. Twenty-six children with perinatal stroke and matched controls participated. All were asked to identify the location of a pure tone presented in left or right auditory fields. We found that children who had experienced left hemisphere perinat...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Martin K, Trauner DA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Mechanism of nitric oxide and acid-sensing ion channel 1a modulation of panic-like behaviour in the dorsal periaqueductal grey of the mouse.
Abstract Predators induce defensive responses and fear behaviours in prey. The rat exposure test (RET) is frequently used as an animal model of panic. Nitric oxide (NO) which has been reported to be activated by the NMDA receptor, in turn mediates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signalling pathways in defensive responses. ACCN2, the orthologous human gene of acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a), is also associated with panic disorder; however, few studies have focused on the roles of ASIC1a in the modulation of panic and calcium/CaMKII signalling by NO. In the present study, NG-nitro-L-argi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou P, Xu HS, Li MM, Chen XD, Wang J, Zhou HB, Chen L, Zhang N, Liu N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prenatal Stress Disrupts Social Behavior, Cortical Neurobiology and Commensal Microbes in Adult Male Offspring.
Abstract In utero and early neonatal exposure to maternal stress is linked with psychiatric disorders, and the underlying mechanisms are currently being elucidated. We used a prenatal stressor in pregnant mice to examine novel relationships between prenatal stress exposure, changes in the gut microbiome, and social behavior. Here, we show that males exposed to prenatal stress had a significant reduction in social behavior in adulthood, with increased corticosterone release following social interaction. Male offspring exposed to prenatal stress also had neuroinflammation, decreased oxytocin receptor, and decreased ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gur TL, Palkar AV, Rajasekera T, Allen J, Niraula A, Godbout J, Bailey MT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Modulation of Kalirin-7 Expression by Hippocampal CA1 5-HT1B Receptors in Spatial Memory Consolidation.
In this study, spatial memory of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was assessed in a Morris water maze after bilateral dorsal hippocampal CA1 infusion of the 5-HT1BR antagonist GR55562 (25 μg/μL) or agonist CP93129 (25 μg/μL). GR55562 did not affect the spatial memory acquisition but significantly increased the target quadrant preference during the memory consolidation probe performed 14 d after the training session, while CP93129 impaired the memory consolidation process. Moreover, GR55562 significantly increased, while CP93129 significantly decreased, the density of dendritic spines on the distal apical dendrites ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou MH, Sun FF, Xu C, Chen HB, Qiao H, Cai X, Ma XM, An SC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Acute and Long-Lasting Cortical Thickness Changes Following Intensive First-Person Action Videogame Practice.
Abstract Recent evidence shows how an extensive gaming experience might positively impact cognitive and perceptual functioning, leading to brain structural changes observed in cross-sectional studies. Importantly, changes seem to be game-specific, reflecting gameplay styles and therefore opening to the possibility of tailoring videogames according to rehabilitation and enhancement purposes. However, whether if such brain effects can be induced even with limited gaming experience, and whether if they can outlast the gaming period, is still unknown. Here we quantified both cognitive and grey matter thickness changes...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Momi D, Smeralda C, Sprugnoli G, Ferrone S, Rossi S, Rossi A, Di Lorenzo G, Santarnecchi E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Peripersonal and extrapersonal visuospatial neglect in different frames of reference: A brain lesion-symptom mapping study.
DISCUSSION: We found right hemispheric anatomical correlates for peripersonal and extrapersonal neglect. However, no brain areas were uniquely associated with peripersonal neglect, meaning we could not conclusively verify the ventral/dorsal hypothesis. Several areas were uniquely associated with egocentric extrapersonal neglect, suggesting that these brain areas can be specifically involved in extrapersonal, but not in peripersonal, attention processes. PMID: 29940260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ten Brink AF, Matthijs Biesbroek J, Oort Q, Visser-Meily JMA, Nijboer TCW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Glucocorticoids Effects on Autobiographical Memory Retrieval in Healthy Women.
In this study, thirty-three healthy women received either placebo or 10 mg hydrocortisone in a double blind cross-over design before completing an AM test during fMRI. In this test, participants are asked to recall specific events from their own past in response to a cue word. In a first step, we analyzed the neural underpinnings of AM retrieval in the placebo condition. We found an activation pattern consistent with core regions involved in autobiographical memory recall, including the ventromedial PFC, anterior medial (am)PFC, inferior frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex, the tempoparietal junction, the middl...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fleischer J, Metz S, Düsenberg M, Grimm S, Golde S, Roepke S, Renneberg B, Wolf OT, Otte C, Wingenfeld K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The relationship between cavum septum pellucidum and psychopathic traits in female offenders.
Abstract Cavum Septum Pellucidum (CSP) is a common anatomical variant of the septum pellucidum. CSP is considered a marker for abnormal limbic brain development, but its functional consequences are non-specific. In a recent report [1], CSP size was significantly positively correlated with the affective/interpersonal traits of psychopathy in male offenders (N = 1742). Here we test the hypothesis that CSP is related to psychopathic traits in incarcerated females (N = 355). We examine continuous relationships as well as categorical assignments for CSP size corresponding to a number of prior reports. We also compa...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Crooks D, Anderson NE, Widdows M, Petseva N, Decety J, Pluto C, Kiehl KA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Increased expression of BDNF mRNA in the frontal cortex of autistic patients.
Abstract Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders for which genetic components have been well defined. However, specific gene deregulations related to synapse function in the autistic brain have not been as extensively described. Based on a candidate genes approach, we present in this study the expression data of 4 transcripts of interest (BDNF, CAMK2a, NR-CAM and RIMS1) located at the synapse in two regions of interest in the context of the ASDs; the lobule VI of cerebellum and the Brodmann area 46. We have also genotyped in our cohort the coding single nucleotide polymorphism rs6265, l...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Maussion G, Moalic JM, Simonneau M, Gorwood P, Ramoz N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Maternal separation as a risk factor for aggravation of neuropathic pain in later life in mice.
In this study, we sought to determine whether infant maternal separation (MS) contributes to aggravation of neuropathic pain in adult mice. MS increased anxiety- and depression-like behavioral responses to adult stress. In MS animals, chronic constriction injury (CCI) heightened the sensory dimension of chronic pain relative to that of control mice. However, MS mice treated with fluoxetine for 4 weeks after MS did not exhibit augmentation of allodynia, and their emotional response was attenuated. Microglia were more abundant in the spinal cord in MS/CCI mice than in control/CCI mice. These results suggest that emotional im...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mizoguchi H, Fukumoto K, Sakamoto G, Jin S, Toyama A, Wang T, Suzumura A, Sato J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Nicotine and varenicline ameliorate changes in reward-based choice strategy and altered decision-making in methamphetamine-treated rats.
In this study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on impaired decision-making strategy in rats which have been treated repeatedly with methamphetamine. Nicotine has previously been shown to have therapeutic effects on attentional and cognitive abnormalities in psychosis. Rats were administered methamphetamine subcutaneously (sc) at 4 mg/kg once a day, for 30 days, and their decision-making was then assessed with a rodent gambling task. We found that methamphetamine-treated rats preferred the high-risk/high-return actions, which is consistent with our previous findings. Methamphetamine-induced impairment of decision-m...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mizoguchi H, Wang T, Kusaba M, Fukumoto K, Yamada K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Impairment of spatial working memory and oxidative stress induced by repeated crack cocaine inhalation in rats.
This study examined the effects of direct crack cocaine inhalation on spatial working memory and brain oxidative stress parameters in rats. Male adult Wistar rats, well-trained in an eight-arm radial maze (8-RM), underwent five sessions of crack cocaine inhalation (crack cocaine group) once a day or inhalation simulation (sham group), being tested in 1-h delayed tasks 24 h after the last inhalation. An additional inhalation session was carried out the following day, with the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum being removed five minutes afterwards in order to assess oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation, th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lipaus IFS, Gomes EF, Martins CW, E Silva CM, Pires RGW, Malgarin F, Schuck PF, Palacios EMN, de Melo Rodrigues LC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Social approach, anxiety, and altered tryptophan hydroxylase 2 activity in juvenile BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice.
In this study, juvenile male BALB/c (G/G; loss-of-function variant) and C57BL/6 J (C/C; wild type variant) mice, were exposed to the three-chamber sociability test, and one week later to the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) activity was measured following injection of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-inhibitor, NSD-1015, and subsequent HPLC detection of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) within subregions of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and median raphe nucleus (MnR). The BALB/c mice showed reduced social behaviour and increased anxious behaviour, as well as decreased 5-HTP accumulation in ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Russo AM, Lawther AJ, Prior BM, Isbel L, Somers WG, Lesku JA, Richdale AL, Dissanayake C, Kent S, Lowry CA, Hale MW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Bold zebrafish (Danio rerio) express higher levels of delta opioid and dopamine D2 receptors in the brain compared to shy fish.
This study aimed at investigating if there was a correlation between risk-taking behavior and the expression of dopamine and opioid receptors in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Risk-taking behavior was assessed in a novel tank diving test, and the most extreme high risk taking, i.e. bold, and low risk taking, i.e. shy, fish were sampled for qPCR analysis of whole brain gene expression. The expression analysis showed a significantly higher expression of the dopamine D2 receptors (drd2a and drd2b) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR; oprd1b) in bold compared to shy fish. Besides reward and reinforcing properties, DORs are ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Thörnqvist PO, McCarrick S, Ericsson M, Roman E, Winberg S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The rostromedial tegmental nucleus modulates the development of stress-induced helpless behavior.
Abstract A growing body of clinical and preclinical research suggests that structural and functional changes in the habenula, a component of the epithalamus, are associated with major depressive disorder. A major excitatory, efferent projection from the habenula targets the rostromedial tegmentum (RMTg), a mesopontine region that provides significant input to the ventral tegmentum and raphe nuclei. While the RMTg contributes to monoaminergic response to aversive events, its role in stress-based animal models of depression has yet to be determined. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the RMTg is a com...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Elmer GI, Palacorolla H, Mayo CL, Brown PL, Jhou TC, Brady D, Shepard PD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential function of medial prefrontal cortex catecholaminergic receptors after long-term sugar consumption.
rez I, Miranda MI Abstract The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has reciprocal projections with many cerebral structures that are crucial in the control of food ingestion behavior and reward processing; therefore, the mPFC has an important function in taste memory recognition. Previous results indicate that long-term consumption of sugar produces changes in appetitive re-learning and suggest that this could trigger an escalating consumption due to the inability to learn new negative consequences related to the same taste. Further evidence suggests that general identity reward value could be encoded in the mPFC. The...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Caynas-Rojas S, Rodríguez-García G, Delint-Ramírez I, Miranda MI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE mlh MUTANT MICE LACKING OTOCONIA.
This study aims to characterize the behavior of mergulhador (mlh), otoconia-deficient mutant mice. Additionally, the central catecholamine levels were evaluated to investigate possible correlations between behaviors and central neurotransmitters. A sequence of behavioral tests was used to evaluate the parameters related to the general activity, sensory nervous system, psychomotor system, and autonomous nervous system, in addition to measuring the acquisition of spatial and declarative memory, anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and swimming behavior of the mlh mutant mice. As well, the neurotransmitter levels in the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Manes M, Garcia-Gomes MSA, Sandini TM, Zaccarelli-Magalhães J, Florio JC, Alexandre-Ribeiro SR, Wadt D, Bernardi MM, Massironi SMG, Mori CMC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Maternal separation stress reduced prenatal-ethanol-induced increase in exploratory behaviour and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity.
In this study, ethanol-dams voluntarily consumed a 0.066% saccharin-sweetened 10% ethanol (EtOH) solution for 10 days prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation while control-dams had ad libitumaccess to a 0.066% saccharin (sacc) solution. Whole litters were randomly assigned to undergo maternal separation (MS) for 3 hours/day from P2 to P14 while the remaining litters were left undisturbed (nMS). This resulted in 4 experimental groups: control (sacc + nMS), MS (sacc + MS), EtOH (EtOH + nMS) and EtOH + MS. Throughout development, EtOH-rats weighed less than control rats. However, subsequent maternal sepa...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Swart PC, Russell VA, Dimatelis JJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Orexin signaling during social defeat stress influences subsequent social interaction behaviour and recognition memory.
Abstract Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats. Additionally, we determin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Eacret D, Grafe LA, Dobkin J, Gotter AL, Rengerb JJ, Winrow CJ, Bhatnagar S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neurocircuitry of fear extinction in adult and juvenile rats.
This study provides novel insight into the neural process underlying extinction, especially in the juvenile period. PMID: 29898421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ganella DE, Nguyen LD, Lee-Kardashyan L, Kim LE, Paolini AG, Kim JH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The relation of hippocampal subfield volumes to verbal episodic memory measured by the California Verbal Learning Test II in healthy adults.
rg TR Abstract Total hippocampal volume has previously been shown to correlate with performance on tests for verbal episodic memory. However, there are sparse evidence on how hippocampal subfield volumes are related to verbal episodic memory in healthy adults. The present study investigated the association between volumes of separate hippocampal subfields and verbal episodic memory performance in healthy volunteers. Forty-seven participants (31 females) between 20 to 71 years age underwent testing with the California Verbal Learning Test II (CVLT II), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) to ob...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Aslaksen PM, Bystad MK, Ørbo MC, Vangberg TR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

ZENK expression in the auditory pathway of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) as a function of D note number and duty cycle of chick-a-dee calls.
Abstract Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use their namesake chick-a-dee call for multiple functions, altering the features of the call depending on context. For example, duty cycle (the proportion of time filled by vocalizations) and fine structure traits (e.g., number of D notes) can encode contextual factors, such as predator size and food quality. Wilson and Mennill [1] found that chickadees show stronger behavioral responses to playback of chick-a-dee calls with higher duty cycles, but not to the number of D notes. That is, independent of the number of D notes in a call, but dependent on the ove...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Scully EN, Schuldhaus BC, Congdon JV, Hahn AH, Campbell KA, Wilson DR, Sturdy CB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

FoxO1-mediated autophagy plays an important role in the neuroprotective effects of hydrogen in a rat model of vascular dementia.
Abstract Vascular dementia (VD) is a heterogeneous group of brain disorders in which cognitive impairment is attributed to cerebrovascular pathologies. Autophagy, a self-cannibalization mechanism, has been demonstrated to be involved in VD progression. Molecular hydrogen is known for its powerful anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, and it is also involved in autophagy. However, the effects of hydrogen on VD remain unclear. The current study found that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) significantly alleviated spatial learning and memory impairments. Similar to donepezil treatment, HRW also in...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang X, Niu X, Guo Q, Dong Y, Xu J, Yin N, Qi Q, Jia Y, Gao L, He Q, Lv P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cerebral oxidative metabolism mapping in four genetic mouse models of anxiety and mood disorders.
Abstract The psychopathology of depression is highly complex and the outcome of studies on animal models is divergent. In order to find brain regions that could be metabolically distinctively active across a variety of mouse depression models and to compare the interconnectivity of brain regions of wild-type and such genetically modified mice, histochemical mapping of oxidative metabolism was performed by the measurement of cytochrome oxidase activity. We included mice with the heterozygous knockout of the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1-/+), full knockout of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1-/-), an anti-se...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Matrov D, Kaart T, Lanfumey L, Maldonado R, Sharp T, Tordera RM, Kelly PA, Deakin B, Harro J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Abnormal spontaneous brain activity is associated with impaired emotion and cognition in hyperthyroidism: A rs-fMRI study.
Abstract Hyperthyroid patients undergo emotional and cognitive dysfunction. However, the neurological basis for it remains ambiguous. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were used to investigate abnormal spontaneous activity in hyperthyroidism for the first time. 29 hyperthyroid patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) received 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and neuropsychological assessments. Compared with HC, hyperthyroid patients showed decreased ALFF in left medial frontal gyrus (MeFG) and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Hyperthyroidism group exhibited...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhi M, Hou Z, We Q, Zhang Y, Li L, Yuan Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Activation of cortical and striatal regions during the expression of a naturalistic compulsive-like behavior in the rabbit.
an KL PMID: 29885848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cano-Ramírez H, Hoffman KL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

PPAR ß/δ agonist alleviates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
PPARß/δ agonist alleviates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Jun 07;: Authors: Chen L, Xue L, Zheng J, Tian X, Zhang Y, Tong Q Abstract Recent studies have indicated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARß/δ) agonists exert neuroprotective effects in the model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, PPARß/δ agonists have been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory activity, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Emerging evidence indicates that...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen L, Xue L, Zheng J, Tian X, Zhang Y, Tong Q Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Fluoxetine and Stress Inversely Modify Lateral Septal Nucleus-mPFC Neuronal Responsivity.
;nchez-Salcedo JA Abstract Several clinically effective antidepressants increase the neuronal firing rate in the lateral septal nucleus (LSN), a forebrain structure that is anatomically related to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions. mPFC function is related to depression and the regulation of fear. However, unknown is whether antidepressant treatment or chronic stress modifies the responsivity of neuronal LSN-mPFC connections. We performed single-unit extracellular recordings in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) regions of the mPFC during stimulation of the LSN in ane...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Contreras CM, Gutiérrez-García AG, Sánchez-Salcedo JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sickness in adolescent female rats alters the acute-phase response and lithium chloride (LiCl)- induced impairment of conditioned place avoidance/aversion learning, following a homotypic LPS challenge in adulthood.
Abstract The multi-variable locomotor activity effects of LiCl treatment in female rats were examined in a conditioned place avoidance/aversion (CPA) paradigm. In addition, the sickness effects of an LPS injection (200 μg/kg), given during adolescents, on CPA learning in adulthood were examined, as were the effects of a homotypic LPS injection (200 μg/kg) just prior to CPA acquisition trials. Female rats were injected with LPS or saline during adolescents (6 weeks of age) and later pretreated with LPS again or saline in an automated two-chamber CPA paradigm with LiCl (95 mg/kg) treatments as the aversi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cloutier CJ, Kavaliers M, Ossenkopp KP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Emerging category representation in the visual forebrain hierarchy of pigeons (Columba livia).
ml;n O, Cheng S Abstract Recognizing and categorizing visual stimuli are cognitive functions vital for survival, and an important feature of visual systems in primates as well as in birds. Visual stimuli are processed along the ventral visual pathway. At every stage in the hierarchy, neurons respond selectively to more complex features, transforming the population representation of the stimuli. It is therefore easier to read-out category information in higher visual areas. While explicit category representations have been observed in the primate brain, less is known on equivalent processes in the avian brain. Even...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Azizi AH, Pusch R, Koenen C, Klatt S, Bröcker F, Thiele S, Kellermann J, Güntürkün O, Cheng S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Processing emotions: Effects of menstrual cycle phase and premenstrual symptoms on the startle reflex, facial EMG and heart rate.
Abstract Emotional reactivity varies across the menstrual cycle although physiological findings are not entirely consistent. We assessed facial EMG and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy free cycling women (N = 45) with an emotional startle paradigm both during the early follicular and the late luteal phase, verified by repeated salivary 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assessments. Cycle phase impacted startle responses with larger magnitudes during the luteal phase. Notably, this effect was only present when premenstrual symptoms and sequence of lab sessions were included as co-variates. At ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Armbruster D, Grage T, Kirschbaum C, Strobel A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Rats with ventral hippocampal damage are impaired at various forms of learning including conditioned inhibition, spatial navigation, and discriminative fear conditioning to similar contexts.
Abstract The ventral hippocampus (vHPC) has been implicated in learning and memory functions that seem to differ from its dorsal counterpart. The goal of this series of experiments was to provide further insight into the functional contributions of the vHPC. Our previous work implicated the vHPC in spatial learning, inhibitory learning, and fear conditioning to context. However, the specific role of vHPC on these different forms of learning are not clear. Accordingly, we assessed the effects of neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus on retention of a conditioned inhibitory association, early versus late spa...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: McDonald RJ, Balog RJ, Lee JQ, Stuart EE, Carrels BB, Hong NS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research