Whole-body pulsed EMF stimulation improves cognitive and psychomotor activity in senescent rats.
etz K, Nyakas C Abstract During advanced aging passive exercise (PE) is becoming a valuable therapeutic intervention to improve physical and mental performances. In the present study chronic low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure was presented to senescent rats in order to clarify the behavioural effects related to cognitive and motility functions. Male Wistar rats of 30-32 months old were treated with EMF for six weeks, 3 times per week, 24 min per sessions prior to the age of 32 months. Stimulation intensities varied from 45 to 1250 µT. Psychomotility was estimated in an open field (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Téglás T, Dörnyei G, Bretz K, Nyakas C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Female hatchling American kestrels have a larger hippocampus than males: A link with sexual size dimorphism?
Abstract The brain and underlying cognition may vary adaptively according to an organism's ecology. As with all raptor species, adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) are sexually dimorphic with females being larger than males. Related to this sexual dimorphism, kestrels display sex differences in hunting and migration, with females ranging more widely than males, suggesting possible sex differences in spatial cognition. However, hippocampus volume, the brain region responsible for spatial cognition, has not been investigated in raptors. Here, we measured hippocampus and telencephalon volumes in American kestr...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Guigueno MF, Karouna-Renier NK, Henry PFP, Head JA, Peters LE, Palace VP, Letcher RJ, Fernie KJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Maternal nicotine exposure has severe cross-generational effects on offspring behavior.
In this study, female and male mice were exposed respectively by nicotine before pregnancy. The maternal pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure led to depression-like behaviors in the F1 offspring. However, after biparental pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure, seventy percentage of the offspring exhibited a depressive phenotype while 20% were hyperactive, and the remaining exhibited no obvious abnormal behavior. The cross-generational effects appeared to be mediated via disruption of the balance between GSK3 and p-GKS3 by nicotine. These results suggested that pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure can induce alterations in the behavior of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang M, Xu W, He G, Zhang D, Zhao X, Dai J, Wu J, Cao Y, Wang Z, Wang L, Qiao Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms associated with treatment decision making: an fMRI study.
Abstract Great progress has been made in understanding how people make financial decisions. However, there is little research on how people make health and treatment choices. Our study aimed to examine how participants weigh benefits (reduction in disease progression) and probability of risk (medications' side effects) when making hypothetical treatment decisions, and to identify the neural networks implicated in this process. Fourteen healthy participants were recruited to perform a treatment decision probability discounting task using MRI. Behavioral responses and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured....
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Abidi M, Bruce J, Le Blanche A, Bruce A, Jarmolowicz DP, Csillik A, Thai NJ, Lim SL, Heinzlef O, de Marco G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dietary Choline Supplementation in Adult Rats Improves Performance on a Test of Recognition Memory.
Abstract In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-hr interval (Experiments 1 a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Moreno H, Hall G, Gallo M, de Brugada I Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Individual differences in conditioned fear are associated with levels of adolescent/early adult alcohol consumption and instrumental extinction.
Abstract Previous research has shown a relationship between alcohol exposure and conditioned fear, but the nature of this relationship remains unclear. We determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol during adolescence and early adulthood would alter or be associated with the level of conditioned fear to an auditory cue in male Long Evans rats. Rats received 6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol or water from PND 26-66 and began behavioral testing 10 days later. We found no evidence that voluntary alcohol consumption altered fear. However, we found that rats that consumed more alcohol ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pajser A, Breen M, Fisher H, Pickens CL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of taurine on striatal dopamine transporter expression and dopamine uptake in SHR rats.
This study investigates the effect of taurine on the SHR striatum by detecting the spontaneous alternation, DA transporter (DAT) level, dopamine uptake and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. A significant increase in the total arm entries was detected in both WKY and SHR rats fed with low-dose taurine but not in those fed with high-dose taurine. Notably, significantly increased spontaneous alternation was observed in SHR rats fed with high-dose taurine. Significantly higher striatal DAT level was detected in WKY rats fed with low-dose taurine but not in SHR rats, whereas significantly reduced striatal DAT...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen VC, Chiu CC, Chen LJ, Hsu TC, Tzang BS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of the NMDA receptor antagonists dizocilpine and Ro 63-1908 on delay-discounting and risky decision-making in a gambling task.
Abstract Previous studies demonstrated that NMDA receptor antagonists such as dizocilpine (MK801) and the GluN2B NMDA antagonist Ro 63-1908 promote impulsive action (motor impulsivity). The effects of these treatments on impulsive choice and decision-making is less well characterized. Two experiments were undertaken. In the first experiment, given evidence for delay order as a factor in choice selection, the effect of dizocilpine was examined in a delay discounting task with separate groups of male Long-Evans rats trained to a schedule of either ascending (i.e. 0-40s), or descending delays (i.e. 40-0s). Under the ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Higgins GA, Silenieks LB, MacMillan C, Zeeb FD, Thevarkunnel S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Body Mass Index and its relation to neuropsychological functioning and brain volume in healthy older adults.
Abstract Obesity is a growing concern worldwide because of its adverse health effects, including its negative impact on cognitive functioning. This concern is especially relevant for older adults, who are already likely to experience some cognitive decline and loss of brain volume due to aging [63,13]. However, there is some evidence that higher body mass index (BMI) may actually be protective in later life [8-11]. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between BMI and neuropsychological functioning in older adults, and concurrently the relationship between BMI and brain volume....
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gogniat MA, Robinson TL, Mewborn CM, Jean KR, Miller LS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Interhemispheric alpha-band hypoconnectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder.
Abstract Diverse genetic and environmental etiologies converge onto circuit level brain dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), manifesting at a macroscopic level as aberrant neural connectivity. Previous studies have described atypical patterns of decreased short range and increased long range connectivity in ASD [1]. However, it remains unclear whether group level features of circuit dysfunction are consistently present across the range of cognitive function seen in the autism spectrum. The dynamics of neural oscillations in the alpha range (6-12 Hz) are exquisitely sensitive to healthy development of f...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Dickinson A, DiStefano C, Lin YY, Scheffler AW, Senturk D, Jeste SS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Acute stress, but not corticosterone, facilitates acquisition of paired associates learning in rats using touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers.
Abstract Acute stress influences learning and memory in humans and rodents, enhancing performance in some tasks while impairing it in others. Typically, subjects preferentially employ striatal-mediated stimulus-response strategies in spatial memory tasks following stress, making use of fewer hippocampal-based strategies which may be more cognitively demanding. Previous research demonstrated that the acquisition of rodent paired associates learning (PAL) relies primarily on the striatum, while task performance after extensive training is impaired by hippocampal disruption. Therefore, we sought to explore whether th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Roebuck AJ, Liu MC, Lins BR, Scott GA, Howland JG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid receptors in the basolateral amygdala mediated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behaviors in rats.
In this study, we tried to find out the involvement of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the BLA in stress-induced reinstatement of the extinguished METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. The CPP paradigm was done in eighty-one adult male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 g. The animals received a daily injection of methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), during the conditioning phase. In extinction phase, the rats were put in the CPP box for 30 min per day for 8 days. After the extinction, the animals were exposed to acute restraint stress (ARS), 3 h before subcutaneous administration of sub-threshold dose of me...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Taslimi Z, Sarihi A, Haghparast A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reserpine-induced depression is associated in female, but not in male, adolescent rats with heightened, fluoxetine-sensitive, ethanol consumption.
This study assessed, in Wistar male and female adolescent rats, the effects of inducing experimental depression (via administration of 1.0 mg/kg reserpine [RES], a monoamine depleting drug, between postnatal day [PD] 30 to PD33) on the acquisition of voluntary ethanol drinking during PD38 to PD42), and the modulation of these effects by fluoxetine (FLUOX, 10.0 mg/kg) on PDs 34 to 37. RES-treated rats exhibited a significant reduction of dopamine levels at the insula, no significant changes in circulating levels of thyroxine T4, and reduced distance travelled in an open field. Repeated treatment with RES heightened etha...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruiz P, Calliari A, Pautassi RM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Improved cognitive morning performance in healthy older adults following blue-enriched light exposure on the previous evening.
This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. METHODS: Ten healthy older adults (average age = 63.3 yrs; 6 F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days. Participants were randomized to either BEL or WL of the same irradiance for the four evening light exposures. On the next mornings at...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Scheuermaier K, Münch M, Ronda JM, Duffy JF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment cognitive neuroprotection in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia: biochemical and molecular aspects.
lva C Abstract Stroke is considered a major cause of global morbidity. Currently, there are no effective treatments for post-stroke cognitive impairment. Enriched environment (EE) has been brought forward as a preconditioning method to induce cerebral tolerance in an ischemic event. However, the subjacent mechanisms involved in this tolerance are not yet clear. Herein we aimed to identify the mechanisms of neuroprotection triggered by EE preconditioning in a murine model of ischemic stroke. In order to do so, C57Bl/6 mice were kept for five weeks either in EE or in standard environment (SC) prior to ischemic injur...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gonçalves LV, Herlinger AL, Ferreira TAA, Coitinho JB, Pires RGW, Martins-Silva C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Orexin A in the ventral tegmental area enhances saccharin-induced conditioned flavor preference: The Role of D1 receptors in central nucleus of amygdala.
Abstract In industrialized societies, food intake is largely determined by its hedonic characteristics, which can be modified by our experience via taste learning. In this learning, the hedonic value of a neutral flavor changes after its association with a motivationally significant stimulus. Experiment 1 analyzes the effect of orexin administration (53 and 107 ng) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on hedonic intake through acquisition of a flavor-taste preference and a flavor-taste aversion. Accordingly, animals underwent four one-bottle acquisition sessions with unilateral application of orexin-A or saline i...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Risco S, Mediavilla C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The dorsal diencephalic conduction system in reward processing: spotlight on the anatomy and functions of the habenular complex.
Abstract The dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC) is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates that provides a route for the neural information to flow from forebrain to midbrain structures. It contains the bilaterally paired habenular nuclei along with two fiber tracts, the stria medullaris and the fasciculus retroflexus. The habenula is the principal player in mediating the dialogue between forebrain and midbrain regions, and functional abnormalities in this structure have often been attributed to pathologies like mood disorders and substance use disorder. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka seminal work on ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fakhoury M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Silibinin exerts antidepressant effects by improving neurogenesis through BDNF/TrkB pathway.
In this study, we demonstrated that Silibinin (SLB), a polyphenolic flavanoid from Silybum marianum, ameliorated reserpinized mouse depressant-like behaviors. The antidepressants of SLB administration was associated with increased neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and further confirmed in BDNF/TrkB signaling transduction. SLB treatment reversed the decreased expression levels of BDNF and its receptor TrkB, and the reduced activation of downstream target proteins including phosphorylated extracellular-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in depressived hippo...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li YJ, Li YJ, Yang LD, Zhang K, Zheng KY, Wei XM, Yang Q, Niu WM, Zhao MG, Wu YM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, corticosterone, and hippocampal tyrosine hydroxylase in adolescent and adult mice.
Abstract Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant drug that can alter behavior, the stress response system, and the dopaminergic system. The effects of MA can be modulated by age, however relatively little research has examined the acute effects of MA in adolescents and how the effects compare to those found in adults. The hippocampal dopamine system is altered by MA exposure and can modulate anxiety-like behavior, but the effects of MA on the hippocampal dopamine system have not been well studied, especially in adolescent animals. In order to assess potential age differences in the effects of MA exposure, ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Struntz KH, Siegel JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Strengthened functional connectivity among LFPs in rat medial prefrontal cortex during anxiety.
Abstract Theta oscillations in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety-related behaviors. However, the theta-band functional connectivity in mPFC is less well characterized. Therefore, we simultaneously recorded local filed potentials (LFPs) from mPFC in freely behaving rats in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Functional connectivity among LFPs was measured by directed transfer function (DTF) via spectral Granger causal connectivity analysis. Causal network was then identified based on DTF. Global efficiency (Eglob) was selected to quantitatively describe the cha...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu J, Dong H, Zheng X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Interference in lateral masking stimuli - The effects of relative phase, position, orientation, and spatial frequency.
Abstract Lateral masking has been defined as the perception of a visual target stimulus being impaired when other stimuli are present in its adjacent surroundings. In such cases it has generally been assumed that the target stimulus presented along with a masking stimulus has the same stimulus power as when presented alone and that the reduced visibility reflects interactions in the visual system. It has, however, become clear that there may be interference between such stimuli (Skottun, 2017a, doi: 10.3758/s13428-017-0978-3). Such interference, which takes place in the stimuli and is independent of the visual sys...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Skottun BC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Long-term Effects of Cocaine Use on Cognitive Functioning: A Systematic Critical Review.
CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence does not support the view that chronic cocaine use is associated with broad cognitive deficits. The view that cocaine users have broad cognitive deficits is inaccurate based upon current evidence, and the perpetuation of this view may have negative implications for treatment programs and development of public policies. PMID: 29673580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Frazer KM, Richards Q, Keith DR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Acute and repeated exposure to social stress reduces gut microbiota diversity in Syrian hamsters" [Behav. Brain Res. 345 (2018) 39-48].
Corrigendum to "Acute and repeated exposure to social stress reduces gut microbiota diversity in Syrian hamsters" [Behav. Brain Res. 345 (2018) 39-48]. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Apr 16;: Authors: Partrick KA, Chassaing B, Beach LQ, McCann KE, Gewirtz AT, Huhman KL Abstract Social stress can promote a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses, many of which have a high co-morbidity with gastrointestinal disorders. Recent data indicate that gastrointestinal microbiota can affect their host's brain and behavior. Syrian hamsters are ideal subjects for social stress research because they are territorial,...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Partrick KA, Chassaing B, Beach LQ, McCann KE, Gewirtz AT, Huhman KL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Roles of the anterior basolateral amygdalar nucleus during exposure to a live predator and to a predator-associated context.
Abstract The basolateral amygdala complex, which includes the lateral, basolateral and basomedial nuclei, has been implicated in innate and contextual fear responses to predator threats. In the basolateral complex, the lateral and posterior basomedial nuclei are able to process predator odor information, and they project to the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit; lesions in these amygdalar sites reduce innate responses and practically abolish contextual fear responses to predatory threats. In contrast to the lateral and posterior basomedial nuclei, the basolateral nucleus does not receive direct information ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bindi RP, Baldo MVC, Canteras NS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Genetically defined fear-induced aggression: focus on bdnf and its receptors.
GENETICALLY DEFINED FEAR-INDUCED AGGRESSION: FOCUS ON BDNF AND ITS RECEPTORS. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Feb 06;: Authors: Ilchibaeva TV, Tsybko AS, Kozhemyakina RV, Kondaurova EM, Popova NK, Naumenko VS Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its precursor proBDNF, BDNF pro-peptide, BDNF mRNA levels, as well as TrkB and p75NTR receptors mRNA and protein levels, were studied in the brain of rats, selectively bred for more than 85 generations for either the high level or the lack of fear-induced aggressive behavior. Furthermore, we have found that rats of aggressive strain demonstrated both high ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ilchibaeva TV, Tsybko AS, Kozhemyakina RV, Kondaurova EM, Popova NK, Naumenko VS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Incorporation of new neurons in the olfactory bulb after paced mating in the female rat.
es RG Abstract One of the regions that constantly produces neurogenesis in the adult brain is the subventricular zone (SVZ), whose new cells migrate to the olfactory bulbs (OB). When the females regulate the copulatory events (paced mating) the number of new cells in the SVZ increases, as well as those observed in the OB 15 days later. However, no changes were observed in the number of cells 45 days after the females paced the sexual interaction. Constant sensory stimulation is an important promoter of cell survival in the OB circuit. Hence, we increased the number of mating sessions in this study to cover the per...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Alvarado-Martínez R, Paredes RG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Age and HIV Effects on Resting State of the Brain in Relationship to Neurocognitive Functioning.
This study examined the effects of age and HIV infection on the resting state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) of the brain and cognitive functioning. The objective was to evaluate the moderating role of age and HIV on the relationship between RS-FC and cognition. To examine RS-FC we implemented the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Regional Homogeneity (ReHo). Neurocognition was evaluated with comprehensive battery of standardized neuropsychological tests. Age and HIV were entered as the independent variables. The independent effects of age, HIV, and interaction effects of age-HIV on RS-fMRI measures (ICA, ReHo) w...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Egbert AR, Biswal B, Karunakaran K, Gohel S, Pluta A, Wolak T, Szymańska B, Firląg-Burkacka E, Sobańska M, Gawron N, Bieńkowski P, Sienkiewicz-Jarosz H, Ścińska-Bieńkowska A, Bornstein R, Rao S, Łojek E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Visible Burrow System: a behavioral paradigm to assess sociability and social withdrawal in BTBR and C57BL/6J mice strains.
In conclusion, our study validated the use of the VBS as an ethologically relevant behavioral paradigm in group-housed mice to investigate individual sociability and social withdrawal features and their underlying neurobiology. This paradigm may provide new insights to develop new therapeutic treatments for behavioral dysfunctions that may be relevant across neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID: 29425919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bove M, Ike K, Eldering A, Buwalda B, de Boer SF, Morgese MG, Schiavone S, Cuomo V, Trabace L, Kas MJH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prenatal cold stress: effect on maternal hippocampus and offspring behavior in rats.
Abstract In mammals, environmental factors including cold stress exert dramatic effects on adult health during late gestation, the cold stress response refers to an organism's response to cold. Indeed, cells and organs, including the hippocampus, are coordinated to respond to prevent hypothermia. The hippocampus act as an important brain structure that regulates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and suppress the stress reaction through feedback regulation of the HPA axis. To evaluate the response of the hippocampus during prenatal cold stress, we established a prenatal cold stress rat ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lian S, Wang D, Xu B, Guo W, Wang L, Li W, Ji H, Wang J, Kong F, Zhen L, Li S, Zhang L, Guo J, Yang H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Development of novel tasks for studying view-invariant object recognition in rodents: sensitivity to scopolamine.
Abstract The capacity to recognize objects from different view-points or angles, referred to as view-invariance, is an essential process that humans engage in daily. Currently, the ability to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of this phenomenon is limited, as few ethologically valid view-invariant object recognition tasks exist for rodents. Here, we report two complementary, novel view-invariant object recognition tasks in which rodents physically interact with three-dimensional objects. Prior to experimentation, rats and mice were given extensive experience with a set of 'pre-exposure' objects. In a v...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mitchnick KA, Wideman CE, Huff AE, Palmer D, McNaughton BL, Winters BD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pharmacological manipulation of GABA activity in nucleus subpretectalis/interstitio-pretecto-subpretectalis (SP/IPS) impairs figure-ground discrimination in pigeons: Running head: SP/IPS in figure-ground segregation.
Abstract Figure-ground segregation is a fundamental visual ability that allows an organism to separate an object from its background. Our earlier research has shown that nucleus rotundus (Rt), a thalamic nucleus processing visual information in pigeons, together with its inhibitory complex, nucleus subpretectalis/interstitio-pretecto-subpretectalis (SP/IPS), are critically involved in figure-ground discrimination (Acerbo et al., 2012; Scully et al., 2014). Here, we further investigated the role of SP/IPS by conducting bilateral microinjections of GABAergic receptor antagonist and agonists (bicuculline and muscimol...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Acerbo MJ, Lazareva OF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Exacerbation of sensorimotor dysfunction in mice deficient in Atp13a2 and overexpressing human wildtype alpha-synuclein.
Abstract Loss of function mutations in the gene ATP13A2 are associated with Kufor-Rakeb Syndrome and Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, the former designated as an inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD). The function of ATP13A2 is unclear but in vitro studies indicate it is a lysosomal protein and may interact with the presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (aSyn) and certain heavy metals. Accumulation of aSyn is a major component of lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of PD. Atp13a2-deficient (13a2) mice develop age-dependent sensorimotor deficits, and accumulation of insoluble aSyn in the brain. To better under...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Dirr ER, Ekhator OR, Blackwood R, Holden JG, Masliah E, Schultheis PJ, Fleming SM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Nicotine-enhanced Pavlovian conditioned approach is resistant to omission of expected outcome.
Abstract Conditioned stimuli contribute to the resilience of nicotine addiction in that nicotine-associated cues can influence smokers and promote relapse. These stimuli are thought to acquire incentive motivational properties through a Pavlovian mechanism, and this phenomenon can be measured in animals by observing conditioned approach to the conditioned stimulus (sign-tracking) or to the location of unconditioned stimulus delivery (goal-tracking). Goal-tracking is thought to be more flexible than sign-tracking in response to changes in expected outcome. Nicotine exposure can increase the expression of conditione...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Stringfield SJ, Boettiger CA, Robinson DL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic amphetamine treatment affects collicular-dependent behaviour.
Abstract Distractibility can be defined as an attention deficit where orientation toward irrelevant targets cannot be inhibited. There is now mounting evidence that the superior colliculus is a key neural correlate of distractibility, with increased collicular-activity resulting in heightened distractibility. Heightened distractibility is reduced by amphetamine, which acutely suppresses collicular responsiveness. However, when amphetamine is used to treat distractibility, it is given chronically, yet no data exist on whether chronic amphetamine treatment affects the colliculus. Here, the effect of chronic amphetam...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Turner AC, Stramek A, Kraev I, Stewart MG, Overton PG, Dommett EJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant administration modulates stress-induced DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
Abstract Stress and antidepressant treatment can modulate DNA methylation in promoter region of genes related to neuroplasticity and mood regulation, thus implicating this epigenetic mechanism in depression neurobiology and treatment. Accordingly, systemic administration of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors induces antidepressant-like effects in rodents. DNA methylation is conveyed by DNMT 1, 3a and 3b isoforms, which are differentially expressed in the brain. In order to investigate if the behavioral effects of antidepressants could be associated with changes in DNA methylation and DNMT expression, we inves...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sales AJ, Joca SRL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Glutamine/Glutamate (Glx) concentration in prefrontal cortex predicts reversal learning performance in the marmoset.
This study used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to identify potential neurometabolitic markers of cognitive performance in male (n =7) and female (n=8) middle-aged (~5 years old) common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Anesthetized marmosets were scanned with a 4.7 T/40cm horizontal magnet equipped with 450 mT/m magnetic field gradients and a 20-G/cm magnetic field gradient insert, within 3 months of completing the CANTAB serial Reversal Learning task. Neurometabolite concentrations of N-Acetyl Asparate, Myo-Inositol, Choline, Phosphocreatine+creatine, Glutamate and Glutamine were acquired from a 3 mm3 voxel positione...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lacreuse A, Moore CM, LaClair M, Payne L, King JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Strategic neuronal encoding in medial prefrontal cortex of spatial working memory in the T-maze.
Abstract Strategic neuronal encoding in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat was correlated with spatial working memory (sWM) assessed by behavior in the T-maze. Neurons increased their firing rate around choice, with the increase largely occurring before choice as a prospective encode of behavior. This could be classified as sensitive-to-spatial information or sensitive-to-choice outcome. The sensitivity-to-spatial choice was defined by distinct firing rate changes before left- or right-choice. The percentage of left-choice sensitive neurons was not different from the percentage of right-choice sensitiv...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang Y, Mailman R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

NMDA receptors in the avian amygdala and the premotor arcopallium mediate distinct aspects of appetitive extinction learning.
uml;rkün O Abstract Extinction learning is an essential mechanism that enables constant adaptation to ever-changing environmental conditions. The underlying neural circuit is mostly studied with rodent models using auditory cued fear conditioning. In order to uncover the variant and the invariant neural properties of extinction learning, we adopted pigeons as an animal model in an appetitive sign-tracking paradigm. The animals firstly learned to respond to two conditioned stimuli in two different contexts (CS-1 in context A and CS-2 in context B), before conditioned responses to the stimuli were extinguished ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao M, Lengersdorf D, Stüttgen Maik C, Güntürkün O Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Morphine antinociception on thermal sensitivity and place conditioning in male and female rats treated with intraplantar complete freund's adjuvant.
This study investigated the effects of morphine one and seven days after intraplantar administration of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) in male and female rats. Hargreaves test for thermal nociception and conditioned place preference (CPP) were performed following subcutaneous administration of saline or morphine (1.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 mg/kg). Hargreaves test results revealed that male rats were more sensitive to morphine antinociceptive actions as compared to female rats one day after CFA treatment; however, this sex difference was not detected seven days after CFA treatment. One day after CFA treatment, morphine doses of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Armendariz A, Nazarian A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Food-Induced Reinforcement is Abrogated by the Genetic Deletion of the MT1 or MT2 Melatonin Receptor in C3H/HeN Mice.
Abstract Palatable food is known for its ability to enhance reinforcing responses. Studies have suggested a circadian variation in both drug and natural reinforcement, with each following its own time course. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in palatable snack food-induced reinforcement, as measured by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm during the light and dark phases. C3H/HeN wild-type mice were trained for snack food-induced CPP at either ZT 6 - 8 (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT 0 = lights on), when endogenous melatonin levels are low, or ZT 19 - 21, w...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Clough SJ, Hudson RL, Dubocovich ML Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Inequity aversion is observed in common marmosets but not in marmoset models of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.
Abstract Humans and various nonhuman primates respond negatively to inequity not in their favor (i.e., inequity aversion), when inequity between two individuals is introduced. Common marmosets, a highly prosocial species, further discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges, and those who did not. Conversely, marmoset models of autism, induced via prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA marmosets), did not discriminate. Interestingly, previous studies of inequity aversion in marmosets have produced negative results, or were limited to males. Recent studies suggest that inequity aversion ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yasue M, Nakagami A, Nakagaki K, Ichinohe N, Kawai N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Glycyrrhizic acid ameliorates the kynurenine pathway in association with its antidepressant effect.
Abstract Our previous study implied the role of central high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive behavior that could partially abrogate by glycyrrhizic acid (GZA). Here, we considered the potential mechanism underlying GZA ameliorating chronic stress-induced depression both in vivo and in vitro. Depression model was established with the 4-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice or low dose of LPS/HMGB1 administration slices. Sucrose preference test, tail suspension test and open field test were performed to reflect depressive behaviors. Enzyme activity of indoleam...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang B, Lian YJ, Dong X, Peng W, Liu LL, Su WJ, Gong H, Zhang T, Jiang CL, Li JS, Wang YX Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Anxiety-like behavior and neuropeptide receptor expression in male and female prairie voles: the effects of stress and social buffering.
Abstract Strong social support can negate negative health outcomes - an effect defined as 'social buffering'. In the present study, using the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), we examined whether the presence of a bonded partner during a stressful event can reduce stress responses. Adult, pair-bonded female and male voles were assigned into experimental groups that were either handled (Control), experienced a 1-hr immobilization (IMO) stress alone (IMO-Alone), or experienced IMO with their partner (IMO-Partner). Thereafter, subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior, and brain sections w...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Donovan M, Liu Y, Wang Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Intermittent intense exercise protects against cognitive decline in a similar manner to moderate exercise in chronically stressed mice.
Abstract It is well known that regular low or mild exercise helps to improve and maintain cognition. On the other hand, ever thought many people prefer high-intensity exercise (e.g., running, swimming, biking, soccer, basketball, etc.) to get rid of stress or improve their health, the previous studies reported that intense exercise either impairs cognition or has no effect on cognitive function. However, we previously showed that intermittent intense exercise prevents stress-induced depressive behavior in mice in a similar manner to moderate exercise. On the basis of this finding, we investigated the effect of int...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee H, Nagata K, Nakajima S, Ohno M, Ohta S, Mikami T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reversible inactivation of Interpeduncular nucleus impairs memory consolidation and retrieval but not learning in rats: A behavioral and molecular study.
In this study we aimed to investigate how reversible inactivation of IPN could affect the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval phases of memory in passive avoidance (PA) and Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. To support our data, molecular studies were performed in order to detect possible changes in the expression of proteins related to learning and memory in the hippocampus. To address this issue rats' IPN was reversibly inactivated by microinjection of lidocaine hydrochloride (4%). After the behavioral studies, the phosphorylation of CREB and P70, and c-fos expression levels in the hippocampus were determined using west...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Khatami L, Khodagholi F, Motamedi F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Assessment of Impulsivity in Adolescent Mice: A New Training Procedure for a 3-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task.
Abstract Immaturity in impulse control among adolescents could result in substance abuse, criminal involvement, and suicide. The brains of adolescents and adults are anatomically, neurophysiologically, and pharmacologically different. Therefore, preclinical models of adolescent impulsivity are required to screen drugs for adolescents and elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related differences in impulsivity. The conventional 3- or 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is a widely used task to assess impulsivity in adult rodents, cannot be used for young mice because of two technical problems: impair...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sasamori H, Ohmura Y, Kubo T, Yoshida T, Yoshioka M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A role for CA3 in social recognition memory.
Abstract Social recognition memory is crucial for survival across species, underlying the need to correctly identify conspecifics, mates and potential enemies. In humans the hippocampus is engaged in social and episodic memory, however the circuit mechanisms of social memory in rodent models has only recently come under scrutiny. Work in mice has established that the dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 regions play critical roles, however a more comprehensive comparative analyses of the circuits and mechanisms required has not been reported. Here we employ conditional genetics to examine the differential contributions of t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chiang MC, Huang AJY, Wintzer ME, Ohshima T, McHugh TJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex differences in rat decision-making: The confounding role of extraneous feeder sampling between trials.
Abstract Although male and female rats appear to perform differently in some tasks, a clear picture of sex differences in decision-making has yet to develop. This is in part due to significant variability arising from differences in strains and tasks. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of sex on specific response elements in a reinforcement learning task so as to help identify potential explanations for this variability. We found that the primary difference between sexes was the propensity to approach feeders out of the task context. This extraneous feeder sampling affects choice on subsequent t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Donovan CH, Wong SA, Randolph SH, Stark RA, Gibb RL, Gruber AJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of exercise and enrichment on behaviour in CD-1 mice.
Abstract A host of scholarly work has characterized the positive effects of exercise and environmental enrichment on behaviour and cognition in animal studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake and longitudinal impact of exercise and enrichment on the behavioural phenotype of male and female CD-1 mice. CD-1 mice housed in standard (STD) or exercise and enrichment (EE) conditions post-weaning were tested in the 3-chamber sociability test, open field, and elevated plus maze and exercise activity was monitored throughout the enrichment protocol. Male and female EE mice both showed reduced anxiet...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Aujnarain AB, Luo OD, Taylor N, Lai JKY, Foster JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Food allergy induces alteration in brain inflammatory status and cognitive impairments.
Abstract Accumulating evidence supports an increase in emotional and behavioral problems in patients with food allergy, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we found that in addition to inducing an increase of allergic factors in serum, food allergy also increased levels of antigen-specific immunoglobulins and mast cell marker in the brain. In particular, food allergy increased the number of total microglia and the percentage of active microglia in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 areas, and induced the increase of TNF-α in the cerebral cortex. Importantly, these brain allergic...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - January 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou L, Chen L, Li X, Li T, Dong Z, Wang YT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research