The critical role of vestibular graviception during cognitivo-motor development.
We report that mouse pups suffered from a delay in the acquisition of sensorimotor reflexes, spatial olfactory guidance, path integration, and ultrasonic communication, while maternal care remained normal. We demonstrate that development has a critical period dependent on the vestibular otolithic sensory perception of gravity, probably temporally between the somesthetic and visual critical periods. The symptoms expressed by the congenital otolithic-deficient mice are similar to validated mouse models of autism and highlight the significance of vestibular graviception in the pathophysiology of development. PMID: 312204...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Le Gall A, Hilber P, Chesneau C, Bulla J, Toulouse J, Machado ML, Philoxene B, Smith PF, Besnard S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like activity of hyperforin and changes in BDNF and zinc levels in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.
This study evaluated the antidepressant activity of hyperforin in the CUMS model using fluoxetine (FLX) as a reference drug. The antidepressant-like effects of hyperforin and FLX were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST), and splash test (SPT). CUMS induced an increase in immobility time in mice (pro-depressive effects) in the FST and TST. CUMS-induced changes were reversed by chronic treatment with hyperforin (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), as well as FLX (10 mg/kg). SPT results revealed a decrease in the frequency and duration of grooming in stressed mice. These effects were normalized by ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Szewczyk B, Pochwat B, Muszyńska B, Opoka W, Krakowska A, Rafało-Ulińska A, Friedland K, Nowak G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Impairments in cognitive functions and emotional and social behaviors in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate in detail behavioral patterns and comorbid disturbances in rats using the lithium-pilocarpine model. A comprehensive set of behavioral tests was used to investigate behavioral patterns, including the open field test, Morris water maze, Y-maze, fear conditioning, the elevated plus maze, the forced swimming test, and the resident-intruder paradigm. Motor and explorative activity, learning and memory, anxiety and depressive-like behavior, aggression, and communication were evaluated 8-15 d after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) (latent phase of the model) and ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Smolensky IV, Zubareva OE, Kalemenev SV, Lavrentyeva VV, Dyomina AV, Karepanov AA, Zaitsev AV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of human prefrontal cortex in the modulation of conditioned eyeblink responses.
a E Abstract Classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex (EBC) is a simple form of associative motor learning. EBC is heavily dependent on cerebellar function, but experimental studies also suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) orchestrates a neuronal network which interacts with the cerebellum to mediate the conditioned eyeblink responses (CR). To further investigate the role of PFC for EBC in humans, we aimed in this study at assessing whether acquisition of CR can be modulated by focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the dorsolateral PFC (DLPF...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nardone R, Langthaler PB, Höller Y, Golaszewski S, Versace V, Sebastianelli L, Brigo F, Saltuari L, Trinka E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differences in the expression of restricted repetitive behaviors in female BTBR T  + tf/J mice.
Differences in the expression of restricted repetitive behaviors in female BTBR T + tf/J mice. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 15;:112028 Authors: Amodeo DA, Pahua AE, Zarate M, Taylor JA, Peterson S, Posadas R, Oliver BL, Amodeo LR Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by the expression of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) and impairments in social recognition and communication. Epidemiological studies demonstrate males are three times more likely than females to be affected. Although this is the case, more recent studies suggest females may be underrepresented in thes...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Amodeo DA, Pahua AE, Zarate M, Taylor JA, Peterson S, Posadas R, Oliver BL, Amodeo LR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Guanosine prevents depressive-like behaviors in rats following bilateral dorsolateral striatum lesion induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.
Abstract The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) processes motor and non-motor functions and undergoes extensive dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Beyond the nigrostriatal pathway, dopaminergic degeneration also affects other brain areas including the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, which have been associated with the appearance of anhedonia and depression at pre-motor phases of PD. Herein, using behavioral and biochemical approaches, we investigated the protective effects of guanosine (GUO) (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) against emotional impairments and cellular events in cortical, striatal and ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Marques NF, Binder LB, Roversi K, Sampaio TB, Constantino LC, Prediger RD, Tasca CI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered Dietary Selenium Influences Brain Iron Content and Behavioural Outcomes.
Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that provides antioxidant defence through selenoproteins, but at high concentrations, deleterious effects have been reported. The present study examines the antioxidant response in brain regions and behavioural functions in mice under various dietary Se paradigms; Se-deficient, Se-adequate and Se-excess. Se levels were found to be reduced in the cortex and hippocampus of Se-deficient animals, whereas no change was observed in animals on Se-excess diet. In the hippocampus, iron (Fe) levels increased in both Se-deficient and Se-excess animals. Moreover, in Se-defi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sharma SK, Bansal MP, Sandhir R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Music exposure attenuates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and increases hippocampal spine density in male rats.
Abstract Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that early-life stress (ELS) may lead to the development of mental disorders in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS) is a valid animal model of ELS that produces detrimental effects on brain and behavior of experimental animals. Positive environmental stimuli have been shown to counteract the behavioral deficits of ELS and enhance neuroplasticity. Recent data indicate that music may serve as a form of environmental enrichment in experimental animals. However, the underlying mechanisms through which musical enrichment exerts its effects are poorly understood. Mal...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Papadakakis A, Sidiropoulou K, Panagis G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pattern of cortical thinning associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in Parkinson's disease.
ulisevsky J Abstract The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism has been suggested to modulate cognitive deterioration in Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, the val/val genotype has been recently suggested to increase the risk of cognitive decline in this population. However, to date, little is known about the underlying brain alterations responsible for this association. Here, in a cohort of 93 early PD patients with preserved cognition from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI), we found that BDNF val/val patients experience an increased cortical atrophy rate with re...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sampedro F, Marín-Lahoz J, Martínez-Horta S, Pagonabarraga J, Kulisevsky J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Exacerbation of the credit assignment problem in rats with lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex is revealed by Bayesian analysis of behavior in the pre-solution period of learning.
Abstract Our internal models of the world help us to process information rapidly: in general model-based learning is more rapid than model-free learning. However, the cognitive flexibility required to overcome cognitive predispositions can let us down: it is not fully developed until adulthood; predispositions can be unconscious biases; and cognitive flexibility is impaired in many psychiatric and neurological conditions. To understand these limits to flexibility, we need to know how brain generates predispositions and deploys flexibility. We performed a detailed analysis of the exploratory behavior of rats in the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Tait DS, Brown VJ, Bowman EM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Haplotypes of coping behavior associated QTL regions reveal distinct transcript profiles in Amygdala and Hippocampus.
Abstract Stress response and coping behavior in pigs are largely shaped by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympatho-adrenomedullary system action. However, the dynamic interaction between amygdala and hippocampus crucially modulates the behavioral response towards significant emotional events. While this functional relationship is well documented, the molecular underpinnings still remain insufficiently understood. Our study used transcriptome profiling of porcine amygdala and hippocampus to identify molecular pathways that are differentially activated depending on the haplotype of a significantly coping be...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gley K, Murani E, Haack F, Trakooljul N, Zebunke M, Puppe B, Wimmers K, Ponsuksili S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Synaptic properties of newly generated granule cells support sparse coding in the adult hippocampus.
Abstract In the adult hippocampus new neurons are continuously generated throughout life and integrate into the existing network via the formation of thousands of new synapses. Adult-born granule cells are known to improve learning and memory at about 3-6 weeks post mitosis by enhancing the brains ability to discriminate similar memory items. However, the underlying mechanisms are still controversial. Here we review the distinct functional properties of the newborn young neurons, including enhanced excitability, reduced GABAergic inhibition, NMDA-receptor dependent electrogenesis and enhanced synaptic plasticity. ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lodge M, Bischofberger J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The intermittent administration of ethanol during the juvenile period produces changes in the expression of hippocampal genes and proteins and deterioration of spatial memory.
CONCLUSIONS: Excessive and intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence impaired the spatial memory processes during adulthood regardless of the amount of alcohol administered. Moreover, chronic-moderate and intermittent pattern induced changes in the expression of glutamatergic receptors. In addition, high-intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence inactivated GSK3β by increasing its phosphorylation in Ser9. PMID: 31201872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Contreras A, Morales L, Del Olmo N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Consistent within-group covariance of septal and temporal hippocampal neurogenesis with behavioral phenotypes for exploration and memory retention across wild and laboratory small rodents.
Abstract Striking differences in the septo-temporal distribution of neurogenesis are found in different small rodents. Here, we assessed the association of adult hippocampal neurogenesis with behavioral responses to novelty, temporal and spatial sequence and reversal learning in wild, wild-derived and laboratory rodents using an automated testing apparatus, the IntelliCage. Behaviorally, DBA/2 and wild-derived house mice were quickest to explore a novel environment, wild wood mice and bank voles were slowest, and C57BL/6 intermediate. Rule learning (temporal and spatial) was fastest in wood mice and bank voles, wh...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: van Dijk RM, Wiget F, Wolfer DP, Slomianka L, Amrein I Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis for systems consolidation of memory.
Abstract The hippocampus (HPC) is required for the initial process of permanent memory formation. After memory acquisition, HPC-dependency of memory recall gradually decreases with time, whereas cortical-dependency of memory recall increases. This phenomenon is often referred to as systems consolidation of memory. In the HPC, adult neurogenesis has been described in many mammalian species and is involved in the process of learning and memory. In this review, we first examine the neural circuit mechanisms that underlie the systems consolidation of episodic memories, focusing on adult neurogenesis within the HPC. Re...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Terranova JI, Ogawa SK, Kitamura T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Insult-induced aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis: functional consequences and possible therapeutic strategies.
ns CP Abstract Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in a wide spectrum of hippocampus-dependent functions. Brain pathologies that involve the hippocampus like epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, are commonly associated with cognitive impairments and mood disorders. These insults can affect the neural stem cells and the subsequent neurogenic cascade in the hippocampus, resulting in the induction of aberrant neurogenesis, which is thought to compromise hippocampal network function, thereby hampering hippocampus-dependent behavior. We here summarize recent preclinical literature on hippocamp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bielefeld P, Durá I, Danielewicz J, Lucassen PJ, Baekelandt V, Abrous DN, Encinas JM, Fitzsimons CP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Peripheral Anti-inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-10 Treatment Mitigates Interleukin-1 β - Induced Anxiety And Sickness Behaviors in Adult Male Rats.
Peripheral Anti-inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-10 Treatment Mitigates Interleukin-1β - Induced Anxiety And Sickness Behaviors in Adult Male Rats. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 10;:112024 Authors: Munshi S, Parrilli V, Rosenkranz JA Abstract Pro-inflammatory cytokines produce manifestations of sickness during inflammation, such as malaise and lethargy. They also contribute to effects of inflammation on mood. Anti-inflammatory cytokines counteract damage caused by inflammatory processes and can limit the severity of inflammation. However, very little is known about the role of anti-inflammatory cyto...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Munshi S, Parrilli V, Rosenkranz JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypoglycemia causes dysregulation of Neuregulin 1, ErbB receptors, Ki67 in cerebellum and brainstem during diabetes: Implications in motor function.
Abstract Hypoglycemia induced brain injury poses a major setback to optimal blood glucose regulation during diabetes. It causes irreversible injury in several brain regions culminating in improper function. Neuregulin 1 and ErbB receptors are involved in regeneration in adulthood as well as in glucose homeostasis. We intended to understand the influence of extreme discrepancies in glycemic levels on Neuregulin 1, ErbB receptor subtypes and Ki67 expression in relation to motor deficits as a consequence of cellular dysfunction/degeneration in the cerebellum and brainstem during diabetes. Elevated oxidative stress an...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Joshi M, Krishnakumar A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum in incentive motivation for cocaine.
Abstract Drug addiction involves increased incentive motivation for drug. Intermittent access to cocaine (IntA; 5-6 minutes ON, 25-26 minutes OFF, for 5-6 hours/session) enhances motivation to take the drug. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the dorsal striatum (DS) are part of a corticolimbic circuit that encodes incentive value and regulates reward-directed behaviour. We predicted that inactivation of the OFC, DS or both suppresses incentive motivation for cocaine after IntA experience. Male Wistar rats had IntA to cocaine (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) for 10 sessions. The rats develo...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Minogianis EA, Servonnet A, Filion MP, Samaha AN Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Association between the rs2590498 polymorphism of Odorant Binding Protein (OBPIIa) gene and olfactory performance in healthy subjects.
In conclusion, our results show that a relationship exists between the physiological variations of olfactory performance and the OBPIIa gene polymorphism. PMID: 31195037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sollai G, Melis M, Magri S, Usai P, Hummel T, Barbarossa IT, Crnjar R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sleep Deprivation caused a Memory Defects and Emotional Changes in a Rotenone-based Zebrafish Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world. Apart from motor deficits, PD reduces patient's quality of life through sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment and emotional disorders. However, it's unclear whether bad life habits such as stay up late exacerbate the patient's cognition and emotional disorders. Thus we investigated the consequences of sleep deprivation (SD) on memory and emotions using a rotenone-based zebrafish model of PD. Behavioral assays, using locomotor activity assay, showed that rotenone treated zebrafish exhibited PD-like symptoms, wher...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lv DJ, Li LX, Chen J, Wei SZ, Wang F, Hu H, Xie AM, Liu CF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hyperlocomotion and anxiety- like behavior induced by binge ethanol exposure in rat neonates. Possible ameliorative effects of Omega 3.
In conclusion, acute ethanol exposure produced neurobehavioral alterations that persisted in the offspring, with omega-3 able to ameliorate these effects on PND 14. These data are relevant considering that omega-3 administration may have therapeutic effects through mitigating some of ethanol´s damaging consequences. PMID: 31181220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Balaszczuk V, Salguero JA, Villarreal RN, Scaramuzza RG, Mendez S, Abate P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, improves working memory and reduces circulating levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in aged male mice.
In this study, we assessed changes in circulating cytokines across the lifespan, memory performance in young and aged mice, and the effects of BCP on memory function and cytokine load. The plasma levels of 12 cytokines were assessed in male Swiss-Webster mice at 3, 12, and 18 months of age using multiplexed flow cytometry. Working memory was compared in 3 and 12 month-old mice using spontaneous alternations. A dose-response function (100-300 mg/kg, subchronic administration) for BCP-induced memory restoration was determined in 3 and 12 month-old mice. Finally, the effects on cytokine levels of the peak memory enhanc...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lindsey LP, Daphney CM, Aboagyewaah OD, Uchakin PN, Abney SE, Uchakina ON, Khusial RD, Akil A, Murnane KS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Calcium-dependent kinases in the brain have site-specific associations with locomotion and rearing impairments in rats with bile duct ligation.
Abstract We study the impairment of locomotion and rearing behavior in rats with a common bile duct ligation (BDL), and the possible involvement of the PKCγ and CamKIIα gene expression in the brain. Male Wistar rats undergo either sham operation or BDL to induce a rat model of cirrhotic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Six groups of the animals were divided into three sets of sham-operated and BDL groups. In the first set, locomotion and rearing behavior were assessed on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of BDL. On day 28 of BDL, blood samples were collected from the second set of the animals for biochemical analys...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmadi S, Faridi S, Tahmasebi S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Inactivation of the basolateral amygdala suppresses the expression of taste neophobia but not the retrieval process in attenuation of neophobia.
In this study, we examined the effect of pharmacological inactivation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) on taste neophobia in rats using muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist. Rats treated with muscimol infused into the bilateral BLA showed a suppressed but not totally abolished neophobic reaction to a novel saccharin solution compared to that observed in control rats. This result indicates that BLA function is important, but not essential, for expression of a neophobic reaction to a novel sweet taste solution. However, infusion of muscimol into the BLA did not disrupt attenuation of neophobia, which implies th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shinohara K, Yasoshima Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Proteomic analysis of male rat nucleus accumbens, dorsal hippocampus and amygdala on conditioned place aversion induced by morphine withdrawal.
Abstract Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and taking behavior, which is thought to result from persistent neuroadaptations, encoded by changes of gene expression. We previously demonstrated that the changes in synaptic plasticity were required for the formation of aversive memories associated with morphine withdrawal. However, the proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and aversive memory formation have not been well explored. In the present study, we employed a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomic technique to detect the changes of protein expression in the nucleus acc...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo LB, Yu C, Ling QL, Fu Y, Wang YJ, Liu JG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

"The expression of allocentric object-place recognition memory during development".
In conclusion, although rats might be able to form allocentric neuronal representations of space already earlier, only from PD18 on, such representations are used to organize spatial behavior, with a motivational shift from familiarity to novelty-driven navigation occurring during adolescence. PMID: 31173799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Contreras MP, Born J, Inostroza M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Effects of lipopolysaccharide administration and maternal deprivation on anxiety and depressive symptoms in male and female Wistar rats: Neurobehavioral and biochemical assessments" [Behav. Brain Res. 362 (2019) 46-55].
Corrigendum to "Effects of lipopolysaccharide administration and maternal deprivation on anxiety and depressive symptoms in male and female Wistar rats: Neurobehavioral and biochemical assessments" [Behav. Brain Res. 362 (2019) 46-55]. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 04;371:111977 Authors: Benmhammed H, El Hayek S, Berkiks I, Nassiri A, Bousalham R, Mesfioui A, Ouichou A, El Hessni A PMID: 31174166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Benmhammed H, El Hayek S, Berkiks I, Nassiri A, Bousalham R, Mesfioui A, Ouichou A, El Hessni A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Copulation induces expression of the immediate early gene Arc in mating-relevant brain regions of the male rat.
Abstract The medial amygdala (MeA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and medial preoptic area (mPOA) are important for the regulation of male sexual behavior. Sexual experience facilitates sexual behaviors and influences activity in these regions. The goal of this study was to determine whether sexual experience or copulation induces plasticity in the MeA, BNST, or mPOA of male rats, as indicated by changes in levels of Arc, which is indicative of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the brain. To this end, sexually naïve or experienced males were placed in mating arenas either alone, with an ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Turner JM, Will RG, Harvey EA, Hattori T, Tobiansky DJ, Nutsch VL, Martz JR, Dominguez JM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A combination of running and memantine increases neurogenesis and reduces activation of developmentally-born dentate granule neurons in rats.
Abstract During hippocampal-dependent memory formation, sensory signals from the neocortex converge in the dentate gyrus. It is generally believed that the dentate gyrus decorrelates inputs in order to minimize interference between codes for similar experiences, often referred to as pattern separation. The proportion of dentate neurons that are activated by experience is therefore likely to impact how memories are stored and separated. Emerging evidence from mouse models suggests that adult-born neurons can both increase and decrease activity levels in the dentate gyrus. However, the conditions that determine the ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cahill SP, Martinovic A, Cole JD, Seib DR, Snyder JS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Efficacy and Underlying Mechanism of Phosphodiesterase- 5 inhibitors in Preventing Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Pathology: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive decline in preclinical AD finds tauopathy has a more impact than Aβ-42. This systematic review showed that PDE-5 inhibitors might help prevent cognitive impairment in AD, and while its mechanism of action is non-related to Aβ-42, it might include decrease p-Tau, increase CREB and BDNF or suppressing apoptosis and inflammation. However, the efficacy of PDE-5 inhibitors in preventing cognitive impairment remains unclear due to various limitations, such as the small number of included studies, the high risk of bias, the lack of an integrated study design, and low reporting quality. PMID: ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bakly WE, Wagdy O, Sobhy A, Abo Elenain O, Riad MS, El Sayed M, Tarkhan S, Yassen M, Mahmoud A, Bassiony M, Nabil N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Week-long visuomotor coordination and relaxation trainings do not increase sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) based brain-computer interface performance.
r A Abstract Brain computer interfaces (BCI) translate brain activity into control signals or commands for a device. Motor imagery of the limbs allows for modulating the sensorimotor rhythms (SMR), but there are up to 30% of the participants for whom electroencephalography (EEG) based SMR-BCI cannot detect any imagery-related changes. Individual variables, such as ability to concentrate on a task and error duration in a two-hand visuomotor coordination (VMC) task have been previously found to predict accuracy in an SMR-BCI. A first study attempted to substantiate those predictors by introducing a 30minutes relaxat...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Botrel L, Kübler A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Acute antinociceptive effect of fish oil or its major compounds, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on diabetic neuropathic pain depends on opioid system activation.
ACUTE ANTINOCICEPTIVE EFFECT OF FISH OIL OR ITS MAJOR COMPOUNDS, EICOSAPENTAENOIC AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACIDS ON DIABETIC NEUROPATHIC PAIN DEPENDS ON OPIOID SYSTEM ACTIVATION. Behav Brain Res. 2019 May 29;:111992 Authors: Redivo DDB, Jesus CHA, Sotomaior BB, Gasparin AT, Cunha JM Abstract Diabetic neuropathic pain is one of the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes whose available treatments are poorly effective. Currently, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have been widely studied as a treatment of many types of pain, including inflammatory, spontaneous and neuropat...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Redivo DDB, Jesus CHA, Sotomaior BB, Gasparin AT, Cunha JM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex-specific spatial memory deficits in mice with a conditional TrkB deletion on parvalbumin interneurons.
Abstract Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder characterised by three main symptom categories: positive, negative and cognitive. Cognitive symptoms emerge first, and currently do not have appropriate treatments, despite being a strong predictor of the severity and progress of the illness. Cognitive deficits are strongly associated with the dysfunction of GABAergic parvalbumin interneurons (PV-IN). PV-IN are supported by Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) via its receptor Tropomyosin-related Kinase B (TrkB). The main aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive and affective consequences of disrupted...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Grech AM, Du X, Murray SS, Xiao J, Hill RA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Noradrenergic and dopaminergic involvement in novelty modulation of aversive memory generalization of adult rats.
In this study, we investigate the effects of novelty on the generalization of fear memories, and the involvement of noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems in this process. For this study we used male Wistar rats (3 months old, 300-400 g). The participation of each neurotransmitter system was evaluated separately (two set of experiments). In each experimental set, the animals were divided in groups (8 animals each): (i) control, (ii) novelty, and, (iii) antagonist + novelty group (timolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, or SCH23390, a D1/D5 dopaminergic antagonist, in the first and in the second set of...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lima KR, de Vargas LDS, Ramborger B, Roehrs R, Sevenster D, Izquierdo I, D'Hooge R, Mello-Carpes PB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Immediate Pre-Learning Stress Enhances Baseline Startle Response and Fear Acquisition in a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm.
Abstract Extensive work has shown that stress time-dependently influences hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In particular, stress that is administered immediately before learning enhances long-term memory, while stress that is temporally separated from learning impairs long-term memory. We have extended these findings by examining the impact of immediate, pre-learning stress on an amygdala-dependent fear conditioning task. One hundred and forty-one healthy participants underwent a stress (socially evaluated cold pressor test) or control manipulation immediately before completing differential fear conditio...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Riggenbach MR, Weiser JN, Mosley BE, Hipskind JJ, Wireman LE, Hess KL, Duffy TJ, Handel JK, Kaschalk MG, Reneau KE, Rorabaugh BR, Norrholm SD, Jovanovic T, Zoladz PR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of reward size and context on learning in macaque monkeys.
Abstract The outcome of an action plays a crucial role in decision-making and reinforcement learning processes. Indeed, both human and animal behavioural studies have shown that different expected reward values, either quantitatively or qualitatively, modulate the motivation of subjects to perform an action and, as a consequence, affect their behavioural performance. Here, we investigated the effect of different amounts of reward on the learning of macaque monkeys using a modified version of the object-in-place task. This task offers the opportunity to shape rapid learning based on a set of external stimuli that e...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferrucci L, Nougaret S, Brunamonti E, Genovesio A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Impairment of cognitive flexibility in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.
Abstract Impaired executive function is a major peril for patients with type 2 diabetes, reducing quality of life and ability for diabetes management. Despite the significance of this impairment, few animal models of type 2 diabetes examine domains of executive function such as cognitive flexibility or working memory. Here, we evaluated these executive function domains in db/db mice, an established model of type 2 diabetes, at 10 and 24 weeks of age. The db/db mice showed impaired cognitive flexibility in the Morris water maze reversal phase. However, the db/db mice did not show apparent working memory disturbance...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yermakov LM, Griggs RB, Drouet DE, Sugimoto C, Williams MT, Vorhees CV, Susuki K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Anxiety-like behavior induced by 6-OHDA animal model of Parkinson's disease may be related to a dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems in brain areas related to anxiety.
Abstract Anxiety in Parkinson's disease may represent a physiological reaction to the development of other symptoms during disease progression. However, evidence suggests that the incidence of anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease may be related to neurochemical changes. The present study addresses the question whether dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin levels in brain structures related to Parkinson's disease and anxiety are responsible for anxiety-like behavior by using an animal model of parkinsonism based in the bilateral injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the substantia nigra pars...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Vieira JCF, Bassani TB, Santiago RM, de O Guaita G, Zanoveli JM, da Cunha C, Vital MABF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sign- and goal-tracking rats show differences in various executive functions: Authors.
Bartsch D, Bähner F Abstract Sign tracking (ST) is a complex Pavlovian trait that is known to impact instrumental behaviour. Recent work suggests that this trait also correlates with altered top-down executive control relative to goal tracking (GT) rats. This raises the question as to the extent to which both phenotypes differ in executive functions. Moreover, it is unclear which cognitive processes might cause potential differences between ST and GT rats. We therefore compared the behaviour of ST and GT rats in several assays, such as outcome devaluation, attentional set shifting and reversal learning, condi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Authors. Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Abnormal functional network of the thalamic subregions in adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan 45 OCD patients and 43 well-matched healthy controls (HCs). Thalamic subregions were defined according to the Human Brainnetome Atlas. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and FC seeding-based connectivity were compared using a two-sample t-test. Correlations between abnormal FC and clinical symptoms were analyzed in OCD patients. Compared with HCs, increased fALFF was found in the bilateral thalamus, and increased FC was observed between the right posterior parietal thalamus (PPtha) and left middle occipital gyrus ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li K, Zhang H, Yang Y, Zhu J, Wang B, Shi Y, Li X, Meng Z, Lv L, Zhang H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Growth Factors: A Comparative Review.
Abstract The goal of this article is to clarify the role of various growth factors in the establishment and progression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is a chronic mental disorder with recurrent intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive compulsive behaviors that increase during stressful periods. Growth and neurotrophic factors may be contributing factors in the pathophysiology of OCD. Many of them are synthesized and released within the central nervous system and act as trophic agents in neurons; some of them are involved in brain growth, development, neurogenesis, myelination and plasticity, while others...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Savaheli S, Ahmadiani A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of haloperidol on cognitive function and behavioural flexibility in the IntelliCage social home cage environment.
This study examined the effects of chronic administration of haloperidol in female C57BL/6 mice. As patients with schizophrenia often show perseverant behaviours and lack of behavioural flexibility, it is important to know whether the effect of haloperidol makes these traits worse. This study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the effects of haloperidol on the learning performance of mice using an automated home cage environment, the IntelliCage. Behavioural shuttling in the IntelliCage enabled us to assess learning in tasks including place discrimination learning and reversal place learning. In reversal place learning, ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Marwari S, Dawe GS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Shared microglial mechanisms underpinning depression and chronic fatigue syndrome and their comorbidities.
In conclusion, based on our review we may posit that shared immune-inflammatory pathways and especially activated microglia underpin comorbid depression and CFS. As such, microglial activation and neuro-inflammation may be promising targets to treat the overlapping manifestations of both depression and CFS. PMID: 31136774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Filho AJMC, Macedo DS, de Lucena DF, Maes M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Central nucleus of the amygdala is involved in induction of yawning response in rats.
Abstract Yawning behavior is characterized by mouth opening accompanied by deep inspiration, as well as arousal response, and is often observed not only in states of boredom or drowsiness, but also in stressful emotional situations in humans and animals. These phenomena suggest that yawning response may be an emotional behavior, possibly through activation of the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), which is a critical region for emotional responses. However, the involvement of the CeA in triggering yawning remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether neuronal activation of the CeA by microinjection of L-glutamate...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kita I Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pre-trial and pre-response EEG microstates in schizophrenia: An endophenotypic marker.
Abstract Cognitive deficits in Schizophrenia interfere with everyday functioning and social functioning. Strong familial associations in schizophrenia might serve to establish cognitive impairments as endophenotypic markers. Therefore, visuo-spatial working memory simulating day-to-day activities at high memory load was assessed in patients with schizophrenia, their first-degree relatives and healthy controls to explore pre-trial and pre-response EEG microstates and their intracranial generators. Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives and matched healthy controls participated in the study...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Soni S, Muthukrishnan SP, Samanchi R, Sood M, Kaur S, Sharma R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Distinguishing between predictive and incentive value of uncertain gambling-like cues in a Pavlovian autoshaping task.
Abstract The flashing lights and celebratory sounds that dominate slot-machine gambling are believed to promote engagement and motivation to keep playing. However, these cues are often presented in the absence of reward, and previous research suggests that this reward uncertainty, which degrades their predictive value, also increases their incentive value. Here, we used autoshaping to tease apart the impact of reward uncertainty on the predictive and incentive value of a conditioned stimulus (CS) using serial cues. Each CS trial began with the presentation of a predictive CS1, followed by a CS2, holding primarily ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Robinson MJF, Clibanoff C, Freeland CM, Knes AS, Cote JR, Russell TI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Conditioned place preferences induced by hearing song outside the breeding season relate to neural dopamine D1 and cannabinoid CB1 gene expression in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).
Abstract The affective state induced by sensory stimuli changes to adaptively modify behaviors that are critical for survival and reproduction. In European starlings, during the spring breeding season, male courtship song is rewarding to females, but only to those that possess resources that are necessary for reproduction (i.e., nesting sites). In fall, starling song is non-sexual and proposed to maintain flocks. This suggests that in fall it may be adaptive for females to be rewarded by fall rather than spring, courtship song. We used a conditioned place preference (CPP) test to evaluate song-induced affective st...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hahn AH, Spool JA, Angyal CS, Stevenson SA, Riters LV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Regional gray matter reductions associated with mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.
Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is inconclusively associated with regional gray matter (GM) abnormalities in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to quantitatively evaluate whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies that have investigated brain GM changes in PD patients with MCI (PD-MCI). Seed-based d Mapping, a well-validated coordinate-based meta-analytic approach, was utilized. We included 20 VBM studies that reported 22 datasets containing 504 patients with PD-MCI and 554 PD patients without MCI (PD-NCI). The most reliable finding identified in this meta-analysis was that patients with PD-MCI exh...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zheng D, Chen C, Song W, Yi Z, Zhao P, Zhong J, Dai Z, Shi H, Pan P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Memory consolidation impairment induced by Interleukin-1 β is associated with changes in hippocampal structural plasticity.
Memory consolidation impairment induced by Interleukin-1β is associated with changes in hippocampal structural plasticity. Behav Brain Res. 2019 May 22;:111969 Authors: Herrera G, Calfa G, Schiöth HB, Lasaga M, Scimonelli T Abstract Pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), can affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory. The aim of this study was to establish whether the effect of IL-1β on contextual fear memory is associated with changes in hippocampal structural plasticity. We also studied the effect of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormon...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Herrera G, Calfa G, Schiöth HB, Lasaga M, Scimonelli T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research