Long-term exposure to ephedrine leads to neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral disorders accompanied by up-regulation of CRF in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in rhesus macaques.
This study seeks to examine whether there is a correlation between the CRF and chronic ephedrine neurotoxicity. To this end, we established a chronic ephedrine (0.4-1.6 mg/kg/d) exposure model in rhesus macaques, assessed its effects on body weight and behavior, examined neuronal changes in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and measured the CRF expression in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. After 8-weeks of exposure to ephedrine, the toxic effects of ephedrine included significant weight loss and induction of behavioral changes in rhesus macaques. In particular, in the modeling group, the abnormal behavio...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Duan S, Xie L, Zheng L, Huang J, Guo R, Sun Z, Xie Y, Lv J, Lin Z, Ma S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Amyloid-beta (1-42) lesion of ca1 rat dorsal hippocampus reduces contextual fear memory and increases expression of microglial genes regulating neuroinflammation.
This study reappraises the amyloid hypothesis by focusing on the impact of neuroinflammation in a beta-amyloid model of AD, how this possibly exacerbates the progression of the disease and the correlation between genes regulating neuroinflammation (CD33 and TREM2) with post-training recall. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study, randomly divided into a vehicle group of rats (n = 40) that were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and an Aβ(1-42) group (n = 40) that were injected with the neurotoxin Aβ(1-42) peptide. Fear conditioning test (FCT) to assess fear memory...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shallie OF, Mabandla MV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

TRPM4 inhibition improves spatial memory impairment and hippocampal long-term potentiation deficit in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats.
Abstract Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) been well characterized as a common pathological status contributing to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. CCH is an important factor that leads to cognitive impairment, but the underlying neurobiological mechanism is poorly understood and no effective treatment is available. Recently, transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) cation channel has been identified as an important molecular element in focal cerebral ischemia. Over activation of the channel is a major molecular mechanism of oncotic cell death. However, the ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hazalin NAMN, Liao P, Hassan Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Large nest building and high marble-burying: two compulsive-like phenotypes expressed by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) and their unique response to serotoninergic and dopamine modulating intervention.
This study aimed to further dissect the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) model of compulsive-like behavior with respect to two persistent-like behavioral phenotypes viz. large nest building (LNB) and high marble-burying (HMB), which may be relevant to understanding the neurobiology of different symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Since LNB is sensitive to chronic, high dose escitalopram intervention but HMB is not, we assessed whether the two behaviors could be further distinguished based on their response to 4 weeks of uninterrupted serotonergic intervention (i.e. escitalopram; ESC...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: de Brouwer G, Fick A, Lombaard A, Stein DJ, Harvey BH, Wolmarans W Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Allocentric coordinate spatial representations are impaired in aMCI and Alzheimer's Disease Patients.
Abstract Research has reported deficits in egocentric (subject-to-object) and mainly allocentric (object-to-object) spatial representations in the early stages of the Alzheimer's disease (eAD). To identify early cognitive signs of neurodegenerative conversion, several studies have shown alterations in both reference frames, especially the allocentric ones in amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and eAD patients. However, egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference are intrinsically connected with coordinate (metric/variant) and categorical (non-metric/invariant) spatial relations. This raises the q...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruggiero G, Ruotolo F, Iavarone A, Iachini T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The relationship between loneliness and working-memory-related frontoparietal network connectivity in people with major depressive disorder.
Abstract Loneliness affects up to 40% of middle-aged and older adults, and is closely associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between loneliness and neural network functioning during executive cognitive processes, such as working memory, in MDD is still unclear. To address this gap, our study recruited 21 medicated MDD patients (mean age = 52.0 ± 5 years) and 24 matched healthy controls (HC) (mean age = 48.7 ± 6 years) who completed an n-back fMRI task. For behavioural performance, we observed no significant mo...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao M, Shao R, Huang CM, Liu HL, Chen YL, Lee SH, Lin C, Lee TMC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dysregulation of protein degradation in the hippocampus is associated with impaired spatial memory during the development of obesity'.
Abstract Studies have shown that long-term exposure to high fat and other obesogenic diets results in insulin resistance and altered blood brain barrier permeability, dysregulation of intracellular signaling mechanisms, changes in DNA methylation levels and gene expression, and increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus, all of which are associated with impaired spatial memory. The ubiquitin-proteasome system controls the majority of protein degradation in cells and is a critical regulator of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Yet, whether protein degradation in the hippocampus beco...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: McFadden T, Musaus M, Nelsen JL, Martin K, Jones N, Smith P, Kugler H, Jarome TJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Oxytocin in the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in helping behaviour.
OXYTOCIN IN THE ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX IS INVOLVED IN HELPING BEHAVIOUR. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Jun 27;:112790 Authors: Yamagishi A, Lee J, Sato N Abstract Empathy toward the distress of others is thought to motivate helping behaviour, in the form of voluntary action to eliminate that distress. Neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with various social cognitive abilities, including empathy and prosocial behaviour. The anterior cingulate cortex is known to be one of the brain regions underlying empathy, and one in which oxytocin receptors are expressed. However, the relationship between helping behavio...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamagishi A, Lee J, Sato N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Subjective reward value of visual sexual stimuli is coded in human striatum and orbitofrontal cortex.
ark R Abstract Human neuroimaging research suggests the existence of one core network for the subjective valuation of rewards, including the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. However, there is little research on the neural representation of subjective reward values of visual sexual stimuli (VSS) and on the role of these subjective valuations in the development of related addictive behaviors. Here, we investigate how neural reactivity to VSS is connected to individual preference using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During the fMRI scan, 72 men viewed different VSS film clips. Ratings regarding valen...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Klein S, Kruse O, Markert C, León IT, Strahler J, Stark R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Circadian disruption impairs fear extinction and memory of conditioned safety in mice.
Abstract Animal models of fear conditioning and fear inhibition are frequently employed in the study of associative learning and commonly derive important human implications. Animal and human studies have demonstrated fear processing abilities are moderated by circadian rhythms, however, the influence of circadian disruption on fear inhibition is not well understood. Here, we examined the effects of circadian disruption on fear inhibition processes (i.e., fear extinction and safety learning) in a pre-clinical model. Adult male C57Bl/6 J mice completed cued fear and safety conditioning in the subjective day ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Clark JW, Hoyer D, Cain SW, Phillips A, Drummond SPA, Jacobson LH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prophylactic effect of physical exercise on A β1-40-induced depressive-like behavior and gut dysfunction in mice.
Prophylactic effect of physical exercise on Aβ1-40-induced depressive-like behavior and gut dysfunction in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Jun 26;:112791 Authors: Rosa JM, Pazini FL, Camargo A, Wolin IAV, Olescowicz G, Eslabão LB, Romero OB, Winkelmann-Duarte EC, Rodrigues ALS Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease that is highly comorbid with depression. Gut dysfunction has been proposed as a possible risk factor for both clinical conditions. In the present study, we investigated the ability of treadmill exercise for 4 weeks (5 days/week, 40 min/day)...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rosa JM, Pazini FL, Camargo A, Wolin IAV, Olescowicz G, Eslabão LB, Romero OB, Winkelmann-Duarte EC, Rodrigues ALS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Modulation of brain stimulation reward and locomotor activity by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the tail of the ventral tegmental area.
é PP Abstract The rostromedial tegmental nucleus also referred to as the tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA) contains a cluster of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that receive dense glutamatergic afferents from the lateral habenula (LHb), and project to dopamine (DA) neurons of the VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In light of previous evidence implicating glutamate transmission in the regulation of midbrain DA neuronal activity, we first assessed the impact of intra-tVTA microinjection of NBQX (0.8 nmol/side) and PPPA (0.825 nmol/side), respectively AMPA and NMDA...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fakhoury M, Hernandez G, Lévesque D, Rompré PP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Vinpocetine facilitates the anti-amnesic activity of estrogen-receptor alpha agonist in bilateral ovariectomy-challenged animals.
Abstract The fluctuation in plasma estrogen level influences the cognitive function in the females. The specific estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist, (4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1 H] pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) tris phenol (PPT), is reported to exhibit therapeutic activity similar to that of estrogen replacement therapy. However, the former can also exert cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent carcinogenic activity in the uterus of the ovariectomized animals. Moreover, there is no report of cGMP on ERα-mediated phosphorylation of Akt in the experimental condition. Vinpocetine increases the ra...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Goyal A, Garabadu D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Structural brain changes in Ser129-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein rats based on voxel-based morphometry.
Abstract Parkinson's disease has become one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological changes typically manifest following dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra and abnormal alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation in the neurons. α-Syn is the major component of Lewy bodies. However, research pertaining to the spread of abnormal α-syn aggregations, which results in specific damage to the brain structure and function, is lacking. In the present study, full-length human α-syn fibrils were injected into the medial forebrain bundle of rats, with an experimental endpoint ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Tan Y, Peng Q, Zeng W, Yang X, Chen C, Wu Y, Xu Y, Cao X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Monoamine oxidase A genotype and methylation moderate the association of maltreatment and aggressive behaviour" [Behav. Brain Res. 382 (2020) 112476].
Corrigendum to "Monoamine oxidase A genotype and methylation moderate the association of maltreatment and aggressive behaviour" [Behav. Brain Res. 382 (2020) 112476]. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Jun 23;393:112721 Authors: Checknita D, Bendre M, Ekström TJ, Comasco E, Tiihonen J, Hodgins S, Nilsson KW PMID: 32590300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Checknita D, Bendre M, Ekström TJ, Comasco E, Tiihonen J, Hodgins S, Nilsson KW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A reinforcement-learning model of active avoidance behavior: Differences between Sprague Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto rats.
Abstract Avoidance behavior is a typically adaptive response performed by an organism to avert harmful situations. Individuals differ remarkably in their tendency to acquire and perform new avoidance behaviors, as seen in anxiety disorders where avoidance becomes pervasive and inappropriate. In rodent models of avoidance, the inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat demonstrates increased learning and expression of avoidance compared to the outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rat. However, underlying mechanisms that contribute to these differences are unclear. Computational modeling techniques can help identify factors that may not ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Spiegler KM, Palmieri J, Pang KCH, Myers CE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sociability and extinction of conditioned social fear is affected in neuropeptide S receptor-deficient mice.
Abstract Being cautious of unfamiliar conspecifics is adaptive because sick or aggressive conspecifics may jeopardize survival and well-being. However, prolonged or excessive caution, i.e. fear related to social situations, is maladaptive and may result in social anxiety disorder. Some anxiety disorders in humans are associated with polymorphisms of the neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) gene. In line with this finding, animal studies showed an important role of NPS and NPSR in anxiety and fear. The present study investigated the role of NPSR deficiency in social behavior under non-aversive and aversive conditions. Fo...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kolodziejczyk MH, Faesel N, Koch M, Fendt M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Short-term exposure to dietary cholesterol is associated with downregulation of interleukin-15, reduced thigmotaxis and memory impairment in mice.
We report that short-term exposure to a high-cholesterol diet led to decreased thigmotaxis and short-term spatial memory impairment without affecting long-term recognition memory. Furthermore, cognitive and behavioral phenotypes in these mice were associated with a reduction in interleukin-15 levels in the absence of changes in other inflammatory mediators. Our findings indicate that interleukin-15 may play a role in early stages of cognitive impairment secondary to hypercholesterolemia. Consequently, optimization of interleukin-15 signaling may be a viable effective cognitive therapy in the population susceptible to devel...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mayagoitia K, Shin SD, Rubini M, Siebold L, Wilson CG, Bellinger DL, Figueroa JD, Soriano S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The nicotinic α7 receptor agonist GTS-21 but not the nicotinic α4β2 receptor agonist ABT-418 attenuate the disrupting effects of anesthetic ketamine on recognition memory in rats.
The nicotinic α7 receptor agonist GTS-21 but not the nicotinic α4β2 receptor agonist ABT-418 attenuate the disrupting effects of anesthetic ketamine on recognition memory in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Jun 21;:112778 Authors: Pitsikas N Abstract Several lines of evidence indicate that anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine disrupt memory functions in rodents. The mechanism by which anesthetic ketamine produces its adverse behavioural effects is not yet clarified. The implication of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a potential site ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pitsikas N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cognitive impairments in adult mice with RIP140 overexpression in neural stem cells.
Abstract Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a transcription co-regulator of several transcription factors and a signal transduction regulator. RIP140 was recently implicated in the regulation of cognitive functions. The gene that encodes RIP140 is located on chromosome 21. An increase in RIP140 expression was observed in the fetal cerebral cortex and hippocampus in Down syndrome patients who exhibited strong cognitive disabilities. We hypothesized that RIP140 overexpression affects cognitive function in adult neural development. The present study used a Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus to selectively...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang X, Ren S, Yu W, Mu Q, Ye S, Cui C, Guo J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of 5-HT2C receptor agonist and antagonist on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) - mediated anxiety and depression in adolescent Wistar albino rat: Implicating serotonin and mitochondrial ETC-I function in serotonergic neurotransmission.
Abstract Anxiety and depression are among the major neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide, and yet the etiologies of these disorders remain unclear to date. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) procedure mimics several behavioral characteristics such as anxiety and depression in rodents. Using this animal model, we have attempted to understand the serotonergic system in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, while using the 5-HT2CR agonist and antagonist in evaluating 5-HT2C receptor neurotransmission. A decrease in serotonin (5-HT) level, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 activity and, 5-HT2CR receptor protein down-regulation ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wankhar W, Syiem D, Pakyntein CL, Thabah D, Sunn SE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Validation of behavioral phenotypes in the BACHD rat model.
en HP Abstract Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the HTT gene. Various HD animal models have been generated to mimic the motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances that affect HD patients. Reproducing disease phenotypes within these models is essential to identify reliable readouts for therapy studies. We validated behavioral phenotypes shown earlier by other research groups in the BACHD rat model, using both previously applied and novel tests for motor, cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors. We first confirmed known BACHD rats' phenotypes in rota...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Novati A, Manfré G, Flunkert S, Van der Harst JE, Homberg JR, Wronski R, Nguyen HP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential immediate early gene activity revealed by playback of male and female incomplete chick-a-dee calls.
Abstract In both humans and animals, biological differences between males and females has long been a topic of research. In songbirds, sexual dimorphisms can be seen in many species' plumage and heard in some species' songs. However, not all songbirds have such overt phenotypic sexual differences, leading to the question: are all vocalizations dimorphic? One of the most used and versatile vocalizations of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is their namesake chick-a-dee call, that is produced by both sexes. This call is composed of four note types: A, B, C (together chick-a), and D (dee). Previous re...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Scully EN, Montenegro C, Sturdy CB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Contextual Processing elicits Sex Differences in Dorsal Hippocampus Activation following Footshock and Context Fear Retrieval.
Abstract Establishing a contextual representation of an environment places specific spatial-temporal processing demands on the mammalian hippocampus, a region showing sex-differences in processing capabilities. However, evidence for sex differences in these processing demands during contextual fear learning remains limited. Here, we examined the relationship among contextual processing, timing of footshock, and activation of the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdalar nuclei (BLA) in male and female mice (C57Bl/6 J). We modified the initial exposure time to the conditioning context prior to administrat...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Colon LM, Poulos AM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Combined effects of caloric restriction and fish oil attenuated anti-depressant and anxiolytic-like effects of fish oil: association with hippocampal BDNF concentrations.
Abstract Omega-3-enriched fish oil (FO) and caloric restriction (CR) are nutritional therapeutic approaches that exert an important impact on brain function, behavior, memory, and neuroprotection. Here, we investigate the synergic effects of both therapeutic approaches combined (CR + FO) on behavior (memory, anxiety-like behavior, antidepressant-like behavior), as well as its association with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four dietary groups: Control group (C) - chow ad libitum; CR group - 30% CR, considering C group food intake; FO gr...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Correa CR, Schena C, Lopes SC, Prediger RD, Silva EL, Venske DKR, Ribeiro LC, Moreira JD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Memory reconsolidation impairments in sign-tracking to an audiovisual compound stimulus.
Abstract Studies of memory reconsolidation of pavlovian memories have typically employed unimodal conditioned stimuli, despite the use of multimodal compound stimuli in other settings. Here we studied sign-tracking behaviour to a compound audiovisual stimulus. First, we observed not unexpectedly that sign-tracking was poorer to the audiovisual compound than to unimodal visual stimuli. Then, we showed that, depending on the parameters of compound stimulus re-exposure at memory reactivation, systemic MK-801 treatment either impaired extinction to improve sign-tracking at test, or disrupted reconsolidation to impair ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Drame ML, Balaet M, Lee JLC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Proximate and ultimate causes of ritual behavior.
Abstract Ritual behaviour, intended as a specific, repetitive and rigid form of action flow, appears both in social and non-social environmental contexts, representing an ubiquitous phenomenon in animal life including human individuals and cultures. The purpose of this contribution is to investigate an evolutionary continuum in proximate and ultimate causes of ritual behavior. A phylogenetic homology in proximal mechanisms can be found, based on the repetition of genetically programmed and/or epigenetically acquired action patterns of behaviour. As far as its adaptive significance, ethological comparative studies ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tonna M, Ponzi D, Palanza P, Marchesi C, Parmigiani S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The prefrontal cortex conscious and unconscious response to social/emotional facial expressions involve sex, hemispheric laterality, and selective activation of the central cardiac modulation.
Abstract The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) processes complex sensory information for the elaboration of social behaviors. The non-invasive neuroimaging technique near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) identifies hemodynamic changes and concentration of oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin in the cerebral cortex. We studied the responses detected by NIRS in the right and left PFC activation of 28 participants (n = 14 adult young females and males) while processing social/emotional facial expressions, i.e., in conscious perception of different expressions (neutral, happy, sad, angry, disgust,...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fogazzi DV, Neary JP, Sonza A, Reppold CT, Kaiser V, Scassola CM, Casali KR, Rasia-Filho AA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioral indicators of succeeding and failing under higher-challenge compulsion-like alcohol drinking in rat.
Abstract Intake despite negative consequences (compulsivity) contributes strongly to the harm of alcohol use disorder, making the underlying psychological and circuit mechanisms of great importance. To gain insight into possible underlying action strategies, we compared rat licking microstructure across compulsion-like and non-compulsive conditions. We previously showed that drinking under a moderate-challenge, quinine-alcohol model (Alc-ModQ) shows less variable responding in many measures, suggesting a more automatic strategy to overcome challenge. Here, we reanalyzed our original data, newly focusing on the beh...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Darevsky D, Hopf FW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Event-related Desynchronization of Alpha and Beta Band Neural Oscillations Predict Speech and Limb Motor Timing Deficits in Normal Aging.
Abstract Normal aging is associated with decline of motor timing mechanisms implicated in planning and execution of movement. Evidence from previous studies has highlighted the relationship between neural oscillatory activities and motor timing processing in neurotypical younger adults; however, it remains unclear how normal aging affects the underlying neural mechanisms of movement in older populations. In the present study, we recorded EEG activities in two groups of younger and older adults while they performed randomized speech and limb motor reaction time tasks cued by temporally predictable and unpredictable...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Johari K, Behroozmand R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Increased Ethanol Intake is Associated with Social Anxiety in Offspring Exposed to Ethanol on Gestational Day 12.
Abstract Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in physical, cognitive, and neurological deficits termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Deficits in social functioning associated with PAE are frequently observed and persist throughout the lifespan. Social impairments, such as social anxiety, are associated with increased alcohol abuse, which is also highly pervasive following PAE. Yet, the relationship between PAE-induced social alterations and alcohol intake later in life is not well understood. In order to test this relationship, we exposed pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats to a single instance of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Diaz MR, Johnson JM, Varlinskaya EI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Imbalance in cerebral protein homeostasis: Effects on memory consolidation.
ina PC, Medina AC Abstract The long-standing hypothesis that memory consolidation is dependent upon de novo protein synthesis is based primarily on the amnestic effects of systemic administration of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs), and recent chemogenetic approaches give further support to this hypothesis. Early experiments on mice showed that PSIs produced interference with memory consolidation that was dependent on the doses of PSIs, on the interval between drug injection and training, and, importantly, on the degree and duration of protein synthesis inhibition in the brain. Surprisingly, there is a conspicu...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Prado-Alcalá RA, González-Salinas S, Antaramián A, Quirarte GL, Bello-Medina PC, Medina AC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant effect of BE360, a new selective estrogen receptor modulator, activated via CREB/BDNF, Bcl-2 signaling pathways in ovariectomized mice.
This study aimed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of BE360 on depression-like behaviors in ovariectomized (OVX) mice subjected to subchronic stress, which are postmenopausal depression models. BE360 was subcutaneously administrated using a mini-osmotic pump, for 2 weeks. Depression-like behaviors were evaluated using the forced swimming test. Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) was measured by analyzing cells expressing doublecortin (DCX) following 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. The levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB), brain-derived neurotroph...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sakuma W, Nakagawasai O, Nemoto W, Odaira T, Ogawa T, Ohta K, Endo Y, Tan-No K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Anti-LINGO-1 antibody treatment improves chronic stress-induced spatial memory impairments and oligodendrocyte loss in the hippocampus.
Abstract Chronic exposure to stressful conditions may affect spatial learning and memory abilities and the brain structure, and disruptions in oligodendrocyte function may cause cognitive dysfunction. Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain-containing protein 1 (LINGO-1) is a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocytes and axon myelination. However, the questions we sought to answer in this study are whether hippocampal oligodendrocytes are involved in the pathological process of spatial learning and memory impairments induced by chronic stress (CS) and whether antibodies targeting LINGO-1 improve str...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang C, Tang J, Liang X, Qi Y, Luo Y, Xie Y, Wang J, Jiang L, Zhou C, Huang C, Tang Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Autistic-Like Behaviours and Associated Brain Structural Plasticity are Modulated by Oxytocin in Maternally Separated Rats.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Early psycho-social experiences influence the developing brain and possible onset of various neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is characterized by a variety of brain abnormalities, including alteration of oxytocin receptors in the brain. Recently, early life adverse experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), have been shown to constitute risk factors for ASD in preclinical studies. Therefore, the main aims of the current study were to i) explore the association between onset of autistic-like behaviours and molecular/structural changes in the brain fo...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mansouri M, Pouretemad H, Roghani M, Wegener G, Ardalan M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of combined treatment with aripiprazole and antidepressants on the MK-801-induced deficits in recognition memory in novel recognition test and on the release of monoamines in the rat frontal cortex.
;ż Z Abstract According to preclinical and clinical studies, the antidepressant-induced increase in the activity of atypical antipsychotics may efficiently improve the treatment of negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the antidepressants escitalopram and mirtazapine and the atypical antipsychotic drug aripiprazole, administered separately or in combination, on the MK-801-induced deficits in the recognition memory test and on the extracellular levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the rat frontal cortex. Based on the results of the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hereta M, Kamińska K, Białoń M, Wąsik A, Lorenc-Koci E, Rogóż Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Red-hot chili receptors: a systematic review of TRPV1 antagonism in animal models of psychiatric disorders and addiction.
Abstract Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are non-selective cationic polymodal receptors gated by several different chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV1 receptors are distributed in several brain areas and interact with important neurotransmitter systems linked to mental disorders, such as endocannabinoid and opioid systems. The increasing number of results obtained in this field has recently attracted growing attention to these receptors as potential targets for the treatment of different psychiatric conditions. To review the available results on this topic, we searched on the PubMed data...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Escelsior A, Sterlini B, Murri MB, Serafini G, Aguglia A, Silva BPD, Corradi A, Valente P, Amore M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Touchscreen-based assessment of risky-choice in mice.
Abstract Addictions are characterized by choices made to satisfy the addiction despite the risk it could produce an adverse consequence. Here, we developed a murine version of a 'risky decision-making' task (RDT), in which mice could respond on a touchscreen panel to obtain either a large milkshake reward associated with varying probability of footshock, or a smaller amount of the same reward that was never punished. Results showed that mice shifted choice from the large to small reward stimulus as shock probability increased. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed more Fos-positive cells in prelimbic cortex (PL) a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Glover LR, Postle AF, Holmes A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Intact olfactory memory in the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease from 3 to 15 months of age.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that causes profound cognitive dysfunction. Deficits in olfactory memory occur in early stages of AD and may be useful in AD diagnosis. The 5xFAD mouse is a commonly used model of AD, as it develops neuropathology, cognitive and sensori-motor dysfunctions similar to those seen in AD. However, olfactory memory dysfunction has not been studied adequately or in detail in 5xFAD mice. Furthermore, despite sex differences in AD prevalence and symptom presentation, few studies using 5xFAD mice have examined sex differences in learning and memo...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Leary TP, Stover KR, Mantolino HM, Darvesh S, Brown RE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Mouse Arm and Hand Movements in Grooming are Reaching Movements: Evolution of Reaching, Handedness, and the Thumbnail.
Abstract Grooming in the mouse features hand licking and symmetric and asymmetric arm and hand "strokes" over the face and body to maintain pelage. Grooming is syntactically organized but the structure of individualized movements of the arm, hand, and tongue have not been examined. Here spontaneous and water-induced grooming was video recorded in free-moving and head-fixed mice and subject to frame-by-frame video inspection and kinematic analysis using Physics Tracker. All groom arm and hand movements had a structure similar that described for reach-to-eat movements. The movement included the hand liftin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Naghizadeh M, H Mohajerani M, Whishaw IQ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Frontal-midline theta frequency and probabilistic learning: A transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation study.
eth D Abstract Probabilistic learning is a fundamental cognitive ability that extracts and represents regularities of our environment enabling predictive processing during perception and acquisition of perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills. Previous studies show competition between neural networks related to executive function/working memory vs. probabilistic learning. Theta synchronization has been associated with the former while desynchronization with the latter in correlational studies. In the present paper our aim was to test causal relationship between fronto-parietal midline theta synchronization ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zavecz Z, Horváth K, Solymosi P, Janacsek K, Nemeth D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Diverging changes in rat striatal extracellular dopamine and DOPAC levels and in frequency-modulated 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations rate during repeated amphetamine treatment.
Abstract One characteristic feature of addictive drugs is their ability to induce, after a single exposure, a lasting sensitization to the next doses; the underlying neuroplastic changes supposedly involve the brain dopamine system. We aimed at identifying putative relationships between alterations in extracellular dorsal striatal dopamine, HVA and DOPAC levels and in frequency-modulated 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations rate response during repeated intraperitoneal amphetamine treatment. Measurements were performed before and after amphetamine doses 1, 2, 7 and 8 (Amph1, Amph2, Amph7 and Amph8;treatment days 1, 7, ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Czarna M, Kuchniak K, Chrapusta SJ, Turzyńska D, Płaźnik A, Taracha E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Interactive virtual objects attract attention and induce exploratory behaviours in rats.
Abstract Animals use visual information to recognize the value of objects and respond with different behaviours, such as evasion or approach. While rodents show defensive behaviour toward an artificial looming stimulus that mimics an approaching avian predator, the visual feature that attracts them to targets with positive value, such as prey, remains unclear. Here, we reveal that rats show curiosity-related behaviours towards a virtual object on screen when it moves interactively with their movements, whereas they show less response to a static object, a regularly moving object, or interactive dislocation of the ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim D, Jeong YC, Park C, Shin A, Min KW, Jo S, Kim D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

T-type calcium channels regulate the acquisition and recall of conditioned fear in male, Wistar rats.
This study examined the dose-dependent effects (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) of acute systemic treatment with Z944 on the learning and memory of fear conditioning and extinction in male Wistar rats. Z944 administered prior to the acquisition of fear conditioning significantly increased freezing prior to acquisition and extinction, during acquisition, and impaired recall of fear memory 24 hours later. These findings suggest that T-type calcium channel activity may be required during associative learning for intact long-term memory. Enhanced fear behaviour observed prior to acquisition and extinction, and du...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Marks WN, Zabder NK, Snutch TP, Howland JG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A new paradigm for Prosocial Behavior and Reciprocity, assessed in WT and HET rats for the DAT gene.
Abstract Most behavioral studies on animals focus on observation of individual subjects. Current paradigms of sociability set aside the social-operant dimension, i.e. acting in favor of another conspecific. We focused on prosocial behavior and reciprocity of male, adult Wild-Type (WT) and Heterozygous (HET) rats for the dopamine-transporter (DAT) gene. METHOD: The experiment consisted of 24 rats, of WT (n = 12) and HET (n = 12) genotypes. During training, rats were daily introduced, individually, into an apparatus hosting a suspended syringe, which learnt to push in order to obtain food...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fabiana F, Clelia B, Luca C, Marinella P, Silvia C, Giuseppe C, Walter A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Multi-omics analysis of pathological changes in the amygdala of rats subjected to chronic restraint stress.
PMID: 32502515 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Z, Gao C, Peng J, Liu M, Cong B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dose-dependent effects of alcohol injections on omission-contingency learning have an inverted-U pattern.
Abstract Previous examinations of the long-term effects of alcohol exposure on omission-contingency learning have produced mixed results across different age or sex groups, with evidence for faster learning or no effect. However, none of these experiments made comparisons using the same exposure-dose across the age/sex groups. Here, we exposed rats to 6 weeks of alcohol injections (3 days/week, 1.75 or 3.5 g/kg/24-h, i.p. broken up into 2 injections/day) in adolescent/early adult males or females (PND27-66) or adult males (PND62-101). We then tested the rats in autoshaping and omission-contingency tasks. In...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pickens CL, Cook A, Gaeddert B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Perinatal exposure to omega-3 fatty acid imbalance leads to early behavioral alterations in rat pups.
Abstract Polyunsaturated long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) are crucially involved in brain development and function. Inadequate n3-PUFA intake in rats during the perinatal period leads to behavioral deficits in adulthood, but early behavioral changes have not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate potential behavioral alterations in neonatal rats exposed to a perinatal n3-PUFA imbalance. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed an n3-PUFA-enriched or an n3-PUFA-deficient diet throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation. Controls were fed an n6/n3-PUFA-balanced diet. We observed maternal b...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Colucci P, De Castro V, Peloso A, Splendori M, Trezza V, Campolongo P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Ketamine as a mental health treatment: Are acute psychoactive effects associated with outcomes? A systematic review.
Abstract Esketamine was recently licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Drug Agency (EDA) for use in treatment resistant depression (TRD), and promising research indicates ketamine as a possible treatment in other mental health conditions. While the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, it has been hypothesised that acute psychoactive effects during ketamine administration may be associated with psychiatric treatment efficacy. We systematically reviewed the evidence for this association. The databases Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched up to June 2019. Studies were included if ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Grabski M, Borissova A, Marsh B, Morgan CJA, Curran HV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Probiotic treatment (Bifidobacterium infantis) affects stress responsivity in male rats after chronic corticosterone exposure.
Abstract Mounting evidence suggests that gut microbiota do not only regulate intestinal function and health, but that they also play a role in mental health via the gut-brain axis. Previous research further suggests that probiotics may have beneficial health effects, but more research is needed to confirm these beneficial effects and better understand the underlying mechanisms and potential sex differences in the response to probiotics. Therefore, the current study investigates the effects of chronic administration of the commercially available probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis (B. infantis) to male and female ra...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Haas GS, Wang W, Saffar M, Mooney-Leber SM, Brummelte S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research