Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Impairs Behavioral Flexibility in a Rat Foraging Task in Adulthood.
Abstract Alcohol exposure is linked to behavioral flexibility deficits in humans, but it is unclear when the critical exposure occurred or if alcohol exposure alone is sufficient to produce behavior deficits. Increasing evidence shows that binge levels of alcohol during adolescence are particularly harmful to the brain, producing physiological and behavioral effects that can persist into adulthood. The present study determined whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) in rats impaired action selection in a discriminative stimulus task using a foraging response. Rats were exposed to ethanol during adolescence (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sey NYA, Alexander GA, Madayag AC, Boettiger CA, Robinson DL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of maternal separation on serotonergic systems in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of adult male Tph2-deficient mice.
Abstract Previous studies have highlighted interactions between serotonergic systems and adverse early life experience as important gene x environment determinants of risk of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Evidence suggests that mice deficient in Tph2, the rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin synthesis, display disruptions in behavioral phenotypes relevant to stress-related psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine how maternal separation in wild-type, heterozygous, and Tph2 knockout mice affects mRNA expression of serotonin-related genes. Serotonergic genes studied included Tph2, th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lieb MW, Weidner M, Arnold MR, Loupy KM, Nguyen KT, Hassell JE, Schnabel KS, Kern R, Day HEW, Lesch KP, Waider J, Lowry CA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Using maternal rescue of pups in a cup to investigate mother-infant interactions in mice/rodents.
Abstract Efficient parental care is indispensable for survival of the mammalian offspring, and therefore both parents and offspring cooperate to achieve the best performance. For example, when parents transport altricial offspring, the offspring immediately respond by reducing its cry and movement in both human infants and rodent pups. This coordinated set of central, motor and cardiac responses is designated as the Transport Response (TR) and is shown to facilitate maternal carrying in rodents. The present study aims to investigate the core behavioural characteristics of mother-infant interaction, and to investig...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Esposito G, Truzzi A, Yoshida S, Ohnishi R, Miyazawa E, Kuroda KO Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Fasudil or genetic depletion of ROCK1 or ROCK2 induces anxiety-like behaviors.
Abstract Twenty-nine protein kinase inhibitors have been used to treat human diseases. Out of these, two are Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) 1 and 2 inhibitors. The ROCKs heavily influence neuronal architecture and structural plasticity, and ROCKs are putative drug targets for various brain disorders. While the pan-ROCK inhibitor Fasudil has been clinically approved to treat hypertension, heart failure, glaucoma, spinal cord injury, and stroke, a barrier to progress on this therapeutic avenue is the lack of experimental comparisons between pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of ROCKs. Our study begins to a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Greathouse KM, Henderson BW, Gentry EG, Herskowitz JH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Put on your (fNIRS) thinking cap: Frontopolar activation during augmented state creativity.
In this study, we employed the verb generation task to examine augmented creative states and frontopolar cortex activation in a less-constrained setting using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Participants (n = 29) were presented with a noun and were required to think of an associated verb. In 50% of the trials, participants were instructed to 'think creatively' (cued condition) as opposed to stating the first or most prominent verb that came to mind (uncued condition). The task was administered in French to native speakers. Hemodynamic responses were recorded over the frontopolar cortex using fN...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tempest GD, Radel R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic social defeat stress induces sustained synaptic structural changes in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala.
ra RM Abstract Previous studies show that chronic stress induces synaptic structural alterations in brain regions involved in emotional processing such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Yet, these studies are based mainly in animal exposure to unpredictable stressors or to restraint stress. On the other hand, studies using the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a relevant model of depression based on social conflict, are lacking. Here we aim to study the acute (24 h after CSDS) and long-term (one month after CSDS) effects of CSDS on dendritic and synaptic structures in the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Colyn L, Venzala E, Marco S, Perez-Otaño I, Tordera RM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of vagus nerve stimulation are mediated in part by TrkB in a Parkinson's disease model.
In this study, we administered a noradrenergic neurotoxin, DSP-4, intraperitoneally and one week later administered a bilateral intrastriatal dopaminergic neurotoxin, 6-OHDA. At this time, the left vagus nerve was cuffed for stimulation. Eleven days later, rats received VNS twice per day for ten days, with daily locomotor assessment. Daily ANA-12 injections were given one hour prior to the afternoon stimulation and concurrent locomotor session. Following the final VNS session, rats were euthanized, and left striatum, bilateral substantia nigra and locus coeruleus were sectioned for immunohistochemical detection of neurons,...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Farrand AQ, Helke KL, Aponte-Cofresí L, Gooz MB, Gregory RA, Hinson VK, Boger HA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neurophysiological correlates of stereotypic behaviour in a model carnivore species.
M, Mason G Abstract Stereotypic behaviour (SB) is common in animals housed in farm, zoo or laboratory conditions, including captive Carnivora (e.g. wild ursids and felids). Neurobiological data on housing-induced SBs come from four species (macaques, two mouse species, and horses), and suggest basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction. We investigated whether similar patterns occur in Carnivora via a model, American mink, because their SB is distinctive in form and timing. We raised 32 males in non-enriched (NE) or enriched (E) cages for 2 years, and assessed two forms of SB : 1) Carnivora-typical locomotor-and-whole-body (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Díez-León M, Kitchenham L, Duprey R, Bailey CDC, Choleris E, Lewis M, Mason G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Behavioral Changes are Coupled with Dopaminergic Hyperfunction and Serotonergic Hypofunction in Mouse Models of Depression.
Abstract Accumulating evidence shows that stressful events evoke molecular alterations in the brain, considered a pathology in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the abnormalities of neurotransmissions as well as intracellular signaling pathways affected by chronic stress in brain have not been fully explored. We investigated the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on the emotional behaviors, dopaminergic and serotoninergic function, and intracellular signaling in the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Male C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to CUMS for 4 weeks. CUMS was sh...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu Q, Mouri A, Yang Y, Kunisawa K, Teshigawara T, Hirakawa M, Mori Y, Yamamoto Y, Libo Z, Nabeshima T, Saito K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Ultrasonic Vocalization Sex Differences in 5-HT1A-R Deficient Mouse Pups: Predictive Phenotypes Associated with Later-life Anxiety-like Behaviors.
Abstract Anxiety disorders affect nearly twice as many women as men. However, little is known regarding sex-dependent developmental behavioral differences and whether there is an association with later life anxiety disorders. The present study assessed the developmental-behavioral milestones (DBMs) and their relationship with later life anxiety-like behaviors by comparing postnatal ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) with open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and light/dark (LD) anxiety test outcomes using the serotonin 1A receptor knockout (KO) mouse model of anxiety. The USVs and DBMs (i.e., grasping, righting,...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Budylin T, Guariglia SR, Duran LI, Behring BM, Shaikh Z, Neuwirth LS, Banerjee P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The functional interaction of the brain default network with motor networks is modified by aging.
Abstract Motor disturbance is a major source of injury in older adults, a fact facilitated by the interfering action of cognitive activities on ongoing motor tasks. The present work studies the influence of aging on the functional interaction of the default mode network(DMN) and two key networks for motion, the somato-motor network(SMN) and the posterior motor circuit of basal ganglia(BGmC). The relationship between these networks was explored in young (31.3 ± 5.2;n = 12) and aged (58.7 ± 5.4;n = 15) groups by studying the co-activation (positiv...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodriguez-Sabate C, Morales I, Sanchez A, Rodriguez M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cardiovascular and hidroelectrolytic changes in rats fed with high-fat diet.
CARDIOVASCULAR AND HIDROELECTROLYTIC CHANGES IN RATS FED WITH HIGH-FAT DIET. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jul 05;:112075 Authors: Sá JM, Barbosa RM, Menani JV, De Luca LA, Colombari E, Almeida Colombari DS Abstract Obesity activates the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic systems facilitating hypertension and changes in the hydroelectrolytic balance. In the present study, in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD), we investigated daily water intake and urinary excretion, prandial consumption of water and the changes in blood pressure and water intake to intracerebroventricular (icv) angiotensin II (ANG II). ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sá JM, Barbosa RM, Menani JV, De Luca LA, Colombari E, Almeida Colombari DS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioural effects of high fat diet exposure starting in late adolescence in neuregulin 1 transmembrane domain mutant mice.
In conclusion, HFD exposure starting in late adolescence has sex-specific effects on exploration and fear-associated memory, which was less pronounced in females mutant for Nrg1. This suggests that research into the role of diets in schizophrenia-relevant domains should consider genetic risk factors for the disease as schizophrenia risk genes such as Nrg1 may modulate dietary effects. PMID: 31284014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zieba J, Morris MJ, Karl T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Anhedonic-like behavior correlates with IFN γ serum levels in a two-hit model of depression.
Anhedonic-like behavior correlates with IFNγ serum levels in a two-hit model of depression. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jul 05;:112076 Authors: Géa LP, Colombo R, da Rosa ED, Antqueviezc B, de Aguiar ÉZ, Hizo G, Schmidt G, de Oliveira LF, Stein D, Rosa AR Abstract Stress is implicated in the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and leads to the activation of proinflammatory pathways, which are recognized to induce depressive symptoms. For instance, depression is commonly observed in patients with hepatitis C and cancer under IFN therapy, and high levels of inflammatory cytokines a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Géa LP, Colombo R, da Rosa ED, Antqueviezc B, de Aguiar ÉZ, Hizo G, Schmidt G, de Oliveira LF, Stein D, Rosa AR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on White Matter Microstructure in the Aging Brain.
Abstract Aging is associated with decline in white matter (WM) microstructure, decreased cognitive functioning, and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Recent research has identified aerobic physical exercise as a promising intervention for increasing white matter microstructure in aging, with the aim of increasing cognitive abilities, and protecting against neurodegenerative processes. However, the degree to which white matter microstructure can be protected or improved with exercise remains incompletely understood. Here, a sub-group of 25 healthy, sedentary participants (aged 57 to 86 ye...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Clark CM, Guadagni V, Mazerolle EL, Hill M, Hogan DB, Pike GB, Poulin MJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity on spatial learning and spatial memory in healthy young adults.
CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young men, hydrocortisone and/or yohimbine did not alter spatial learning or spatial memory retrieval. Importantly, pharmacological stimulation took place prior to learning. Further studies should examine the effects of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic stimulation during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. PMID: 31279794 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ri Chae W, Metz S, Weise J, Nowacki J, Piber D, Mueller SC, Wingenfeld K, Otte C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reduced Avoidance Coping In Male, But Not In Female Rats, After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications For Depression.
Abstract Although there is evidence that traumatic brain injury (mTBI) induces emotional sequelae in rats, it is unclear whether the phenotype is reminiscent of major depressive disorder (MDD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three behavioral protocols with oppositional indicators for MDD or PTSD were assessed: acoustic startle responses (ASRs), eyeblink conditioning, and instrumental escape/avoidance (E/A) learning. Female and male rats were exposed to lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPi) consistent with mild TBI (mTBI) or sham (SHAM) surgery. Experiment 1 suggested that the acquisition of the classical...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Avcu P, Sinha S, Pang KCH, Servatius RJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cocaine treatment before pregnancy differentially affects the anxiety and brain glucose metabolism of lactating rats if performed during adulthood or adolescence.
Abstract Cocaine exposure disrupts the maternal behavior of lactating rats, yet it is less known whether it alters the affective changes that accompany motherhood. As the long-term action of cocaine on anxiety varies according to the developmental stage of the individuals, this study aimed to compare the effect of a chronic treatment with cocaine to adult and adolescent non-pregnant females on their anxiety-like behavior and basal brain metabolic activity during lactation. Thus, adult and adolescent virgin rats were exposed to cocaine (0.0 or 15.0 mg/kg ip) during 10 days and were mated four days later. Anx...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Delgado H, Agrati D, Machado L, Reyes L, Savio E, Engler H, Ferreira A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

How and Why the Brain Evolves Time.
Abstract The present work evaluates the proposition that the dimension of time is iatrogenically created. That is, time is a property that necessarily emerges alongside the genesis of living systems. Humans, as the most complex known expression of such living creatures, exhibit the most intricate and sophisticated incarnation of this fabricated temporality. Evidence is considered to support this contention; most pointedly, the problem concerning the vacuity of a temporal foundation in the brain. I argue that one can 'force' processes, that are intrinsic to brain operations, to demonstrate such a temporal base; and...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hancock PA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801, on spatial memory and influence of the route of administration.
Abstract The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801, is widely used to induce memory and learning impairments in preclinical studies. MK-801 is mainly injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses that result in cognitive impairment and induction of motor or sensory disturbances. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral outcomes when different administration routes (subcutaneous (s.c.) and i.p.) and MK-801 doses (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) are employed in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. We also assessed the pharmacokinetics of MK-801 in rat blood plasma and its bioavailability in brain t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Svalbe B, Stelfa G, Vavers E, Zvejniece B, Grinberga S, Sevostjanovs E, Pugovics O, Dambrova M, Zvejniece L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Affective biases and their interaction with other reward-related deficits in rodent models of psychiatric disorders.
Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the leading global causes of disability. Symptoms of MDD can vary person to person, and current treatments often fail to alleviate the poor quality of life that patients experience. One of the two, core diagnostic criteria for MDD is the loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities, which suggests a link between the disease aetiology and reward processing. Cognitive impairments are also common in patients with MDD, and more recently, emotional processing deficits known as affective biases have been recognised as a key feature of the disorder. Studies in a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lewis LR, Benn A, Dwyer DM, Robinson ESJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hearing loss as a risk factor for cognitive impairment and loss of synapses in the hippocampus.
This study included four experimental groups based on hearing level and Aβ administration. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate cognitive function, and synaptic protein levels were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The group with hearing loss and Aβ administration showed significantly greater deficits on cognitive tests associated with the hippocampus than the other three groups (only Aβ administration, only hearing loss, and without hearing loss or Aβ administration). The hearing loss and Aβ administration group also had significantly lower levels of synaptic proteins in th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chang M, Kim HJ, Mook-Jung I, Oh SH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reversal of ultrasonic vocalization deficits in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome with minocycline treatment or genetic reduction of MMP-9.
Abstract Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading genetic cause of autism and intellectual disabilities. The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse is a commonly studied pre-clinical model of FXS. Adult male Fmr1 KO mice produce fewer ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during mating, suggestive of abnormal social communication. Minocycline treatment for 2 months from birth alleviates a number of FXS phenotypes in mice, including USV call rate deficits. In the current study, we investigated if treatment initiated past the early developmental period would be effective, given that in many cases, individuals with FXS are treated during l...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Toledo MA, Wen TH, Binder DK, Ethell IM, Razak KA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Voluntary exercise reduces plasma cortisol levels and improves transitory memory impairment in young and aged Octodon degus.
In this study, animals had free individual access to wheels to practice voluntary exercise. The Barnes Maze (BM) task was conducted with young and aged O. degus animals after combining voluntary exercise and either normal sleep or SD. Plasma cortisol levels were measured after each condition. SD impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in both young and old animals, while cortisol levels did not significantly differ between non-SD and SD animals. However, voluntary exercise for 45 days improved the cognitive impairment caused by SD compared with the control condition. Moreover, voluntary exercise decreased plasma cortisol lev...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Estrada C, Cuenca L, Cano-Fernandez L, Gil-Martinez AL, Sanchez-Rodrigo C, Fernandez-Villalba E, Herrero MT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The lateral intercalated cell mass of the amygdala is activated during social buffering of conditioned fear responses in male rats.
Abstract The presence of an affiliative conspecific reduces stress responses to a wide variety of stimuli. This phenomenon is termed "social buffering". We previously found that the presence of another Wistar rat (associate) suppressed activation of the lateral amygdala (LA) and ameliorated stress responses to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) in a fear-conditioned Wistar subject rat. Subsequent analyses suggested that activation of the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AOP) is responsible for the suppression of the LA. However, it remains unclear how the AOP suppresses the LA. To ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Minami S, Kiyokawa Y, Takeuchi Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A systematic literature review of the effect of insulin sensitizers on the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease in transgenic mice.
Abstract CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) presents as a gradual decline in cognitive function, with its characteristic pathology consisting of Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau. Impaired insulin signalling was recently found in the brain in AD, and shown to increase AD pathology. Similar insulin resistance is found in type 2 diabetes and is currently treated with insulin sensitizers (IS). AIMS AND METHOD: The aim of this literature review was to evaluate whether IS could effectively reduce AD's characteristic pathology and symptoms in models of AD in transgenic mi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Craig A, Parvez F, Issberner J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Psychomotor Retardation in Depression: A Critical Measure of the Forced Swim Test.
Abstract DSM-5 lists 9 different symptoms for major depressive disorder and dictates that either "depressed mood" or "loss of interest or pleasure" should be present for diagnosis. Both are relatively high-level symptoms of the complex affecto-cognitive disease. However, the single most common behavioral paradigm and the gold standard animal (rodent) test for depression, the forced swim test (FST), measures a low-level mechanical feature that resembles "psychomotor retardation" observed in depression. This symptom refers to the slowing down of cognitive processes and an associated red...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Unal G, Canbeyli R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Distinct Neural Response to Visual Perspective and Body Size in the Extrastriate Body Area.
Abstract Neuroimaging research has independently implicated the extrastriate body area (EBA) in distinguishing between different visual perspectives and morphologies of bodies within visual processing. However, the combined processing of these physical attributes towards neural EBA response remains unclear, and may be crucial in influencing higher-order, aesthetic evaluation of bodies. Indeed, EBA alterations amongst eating disorder patients have been associated with disturbances in body image, and disruption to EBA activity amongst healthy individuals shown to influence aesthetic evaluations made towards bodies. ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Carey M, Knight R, Preston C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Comparison of Cigarette, Little Cigar, and Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke Condensate and E-Cigarette Aerosol Condensate in a Self-administration Model.
This study evaluated the reinforcing effects of aqueous solutions of smoke/aerosol condensate from cigarettes, little cigars, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and waterpipe tobacco in a self-administration procedure to determine if abuse liability of these tobacco products differed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64 total) were trained to self-administer intravenous nicotine (30 μg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Following nicotine dose-effect assessment (1, 7.5, 15, and 30 μg/kg/infusion), rats were given access to smoke/aerosol condensate derived from...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Marusich JA, Wiley JL, Silinski MAR, Thomas BF, Meredith SE, Gahl RF, Jackson KJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Early life stress induces submissive behavior in adult rats.
This study emphasizes the effect of maternal separation on social behavior in the context of a variety of factors that measure cognitive and emotional behavior which were subject to principle component analysis. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam for 6 h each day during the first 3-weeks of life and underwent a battery of behavioral tests at 3-months of age. We found that rodents exposed to postnatal maternal deprivation displayed submissive behavior in resident-intruder and dominant-submissive tests, as well as significantly more anxiety and anhedonia than control rats. The results of multivariate statistic...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Frank D, Zlotnik A, Kofman O, Grinshpun J, Severynovska O, Brotfain E, Kut R, Natanel D, Melamed I, Boyko M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Activating attachment memories affects Default Mode Network in a non-clinical sample with perceived dysfunctional parenting: an EEG functional connectivity study.
Abstract Dysfunctional parenting constitutes a factor of psychopathological vulnerability affecting development both at neurobiological and psychological level. The default mode network (DMN), a large scale network for brain functional integration, is supposed to play a crucial role in those psychological functions altered by dysfunctional parenting. Here we investigate electroencephalography DMN functional connectivity in relation to perceived dysfunctional parenting (PDP) in a non-clinical sample. We hypothesized that participants with high PDP would exhibit decreased DMN connectivity after the activation of att...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Adenzato M, Imperatori C, Ardito RB, Valenti EM, Marca GD, D'Ari S, Palmiero L, Penso JS, Farina B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

An enhanced role for right hV5/MT+ in the analysis of motion in the contra- and ipsi-lateral visual hemi-fields.
Abstract Previous experiments have demonstrated that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human V5/MT+, in either the left or right cerebral hemisphere, can induce deficits in visual motion perception in their respective contra- and ipsi-lateral visual hemi-fields. However, motion deficits in the ipsi-lateral hemi-field are greater when TMS is applied to V5/MT + in the right hemisphere relative to the left hemisphere. One possible explanation for this asymmetry might lie in differential stimulation of sub-divisions within V5/MT + across the two hemispheres. V5/MT + has two major sub-divisions; MT...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Strong SL, Silson EH, Gouws AD, Morland AB, McKeefry DJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Oral Ketamine Alleviates Behavioral Despair without Cognitive Impairment in Wistar Rats.
Abstract Ketamine is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist used as a major anesthetic agent, especially in children. It has also been shown that at sub-anesthetic concentrations, ketamine has acute antidepressant properties. The rapid-onset nature of this effect makes it a promising alternative for classical antidepressants targeting the monoaminergic system. However, ketamine can lead to various cognitive side effects depending on the user/subject as well as its concentration and administration method, and it is still questionable whether this drug can be utilized as a reliable antidepressant. Here, we test ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ecevitoglu A, Canbeyli R, Unal G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Esculetin improves cognitive impairments induced by transient cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion in mice via regulation of mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy.
Abstract Mitochondrial dynamics regulate mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) and apoptosis, which are important events for the quality control of mitochondria and mitochondrial-associated diseases. Esculetin (ESC) is a natural coumarin that exhibits inspiring biological activities in a variety of animal models, but its neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischaemia have not been clearly elucidated. In this paper, we demonstrated the effects of ESC on transient cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury induced in a mouse model and examined the possible underlying mechanisms by investigating mitochondrial fragmentati...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu B, Zhu L, Chu J, Ma Z, Fu Q, Wei W, Deng X, Ma S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

First behavioural assessment of a novel Immp2l knockdown mouse model with relevance for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and Autism spectrum disorder.
Abstract Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which shares some clinical features with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The genetic factors relevant to the development of both disorders are yet to be fully understood, however, some genetic association studies have identified inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase subunit 2 (IMMP2L) as a potential risk gene for both GTS and ASD. The impact of Immp2l deficiency on behavioural domains is currently unknown. A new genetic mouse model for Immp2l was developed. Adult heterozygous (HET) and homozygous (HOMO) Immp2l knockdown (Immp2l KD) mi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kreilaus F, Chesworth R, Eapen V, Clarke R, Karl T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The blockade of the serotoninergic receptors 5-HT5A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 in the basolateral amygdala, but not in the hippocampus facilitate the extinction of fear memory.
Abstract Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval. It is the mainstay of exposure therapy, which is widely used to treat drug addiction, phobias and fear-related pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder. The serotonin (5-HT) system is positioned to modulate the extinction circuitry via ascending 5-HT projections that innervate certain brain structures including the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The most recently described serotoninergic receptors 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, 5-HT7 affect different memory processes and so are putative therapeutic targets for disorders related to cognition; ho...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de Assis Brasil ES, Guerino Furini CR, da Silva Rodrigues F, Nachtigall EG, Kielbovicz Behling JA, Saenger BF, Farias CP, de Carvalho Myskiw J, Izquierdo I Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Age-dependent differences on neurochemistry and behavior in rats raised with low and high levels of maternal care.
This study aimed to determine the role of maternal care on behavior and monoamine concentrations at the prepubertal and young adulthood ages. We observed the licking/grooming (LG) behavior of Sprague-Dawley (SD) dams and assigned the litter to either low (LLG) or high (HLG) LG groups. Behavioral testing in the male offspring consisted of the open-field test, the elevated plus-maze, and the forced swimming test. Afterward, neurotransmitters contents were measured in the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala, and the hippocampus. We found that at the prepubertal stage, the effects of maternal care were only ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rojas-Carvajal M, Brenes JC, Sequeira-Cordero A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Exercise attenuates maternal separation-induced mood disorder-like behaviors by enhancing mitochondrial functions and neuroplasticity in the dorsal raphe.
In this study, we investigated the effect of exercise on mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and serotonin levels in the dorsal raphe as well as behavioral changes in cases of maternal separation. Exposure to the stress of maternal separation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction in the dorsal raphe, including impaired Ca2+ homeostasis, an increase in reactive oxygen species such as H2O2, and a decrease in the O2 respiration rate. Exposure to maternal separation stress also decreased tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-hydroxytryptamine positive cells and increased apoptosis, anxiety, and depression. The impairments in mitochondri...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Park SS, Park HS, Kim CJ, Baek SS, Kim TW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The neuroanatomy of age perception.
Abstract The concept of age is a fundamental aspect of mental life. However, it is not clear whether age is more an autobiographical detail we remember, a number indicating the years we live, or an inherent part of our subjective self-perception. An insight may be inferred from the underlying neuroanatomy. To investigate the neuroanatomy of age perception, we used lesion analysis in 7 patients with age-disorientation due to acute stroke, as compared to a control group of 9 age-oriented patients. Age-disoriented patients underestimated their age by 17.8±5.0 years. Lesion analysis indicated main regions of ov...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Naveh T, Arzy S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Novel adenoviral IGF-I administration modulates the association between depressive symptoms and aging: Does gender matter?
In this study, we report the effects of gender on aged associated depressive signs as frailty, muscular strength and motor activity, as well as the role of intramuscular IGF-1 gene therapy in these processes. We found that male mice had higher general discomfort than females. Moreover, we observed that IGF-1 treatment did not modify this index in females. Regarding male mice, adenoviral IGF-1 injection reduced frailty scores compared to its adenoviral control. According to data, IGF-1 gene therapy had a positive effect on depressive associated hypo-locomotion activity as indicate by delta of total distance and the incremen...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Herrera ML, Basmadjian OM, Lockhart EF, Dolcetti FJ, Hereñú CB, Bellini MJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The influence of a new derivate of kisspeptin-10 - kissorphin (KSO) on the rewarding effects of morphine in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test in male rats.
Abstract Kissorphin (KSO) is a new peptide derived from kisspeptin-10. Previous study has indicated that this peptide displays neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-like anti-opioid activity. Herein, we examined the influence of KSO (1; 3, and 10 nmol, intravenously [i.v.]), on the rewarding action of morphine (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]), using the unbiased design of the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in rats. To test the effect of KSO on the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP, KSO and morphine were co-injected during conditioning with no drugs treatment on the test day. To investigate the eff...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gibula-Tarlowska E, Kedzierska E, Piechura K, Silberring J, Kotlinska JH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Anhedonia in depression symptomatology: appetite dysregulation and defective brain reward processing.
Abstract Anhedonia is an elusive symptom in depression symptomatology. The present review frames the notion of anhedonia as reduced ability to experience pleasure and diminished sensitivity to rewarding stimuli such as palatable food or social interaction within the context of variable appetite dysregulation in depression, addressing the main neural networks involved in the alteration of brain reward processing. This circuit-based framework focuses on selected brain regions such as lateral hypothalamus, ventral pallidum, lateral habenula and mesocorticolimbic target areas such as nucleus accumbens and ventral tegm...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Coccurello R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The critical role of vestibular graviception during cognitivo-motor development.
We report that mouse pups suffered from a delay in the acquisition of sensorimotor reflexes, spatial olfactory guidance, path integration, and ultrasonic communication, while maternal care remained normal. We demonstrate that development has a critical period dependent on the vestibular otolithic sensory perception of gravity, probably temporally between the somesthetic and visual critical periods. The symptoms expressed by the congenital otolithic-deficient mice are similar to validated mouse models of autism and highlight the significance of vestibular graviception in the pathophysiology of development. PMID: 312204...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Le Gall A, Hilber P, Chesneau C, Bulla J, Toulouse J, Machado ML, Philoxene B, Smith PF, Besnard S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like activity of hyperforin and changes in BDNF and zinc levels in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.
This study evaluated the antidepressant activity of hyperforin in the CUMS model using fluoxetine (FLX) as a reference drug. The antidepressant-like effects of hyperforin and FLX were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST), and splash test (SPT). CUMS induced an increase in immobility time in mice (pro-depressive effects) in the FST and TST. CUMS-induced changes were reversed by chronic treatment with hyperforin (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), as well as FLX (10 mg/kg). SPT results revealed a decrease in the frequency and duration of grooming in stressed mice. These effects were normalized by ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Szewczyk B, Pochwat B, Muszyńska B, Opoka W, Krakowska A, Rafało-Ulińska A, Friedland K, Nowak G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Impairments in cognitive functions and emotional and social behaviors in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate in detail behavioral patterns and comorbid disturbances in rats using the lithium-pilocarpine model. A comprehensive set of behavioral tests was used to investigate behavioral patterns, including the open field test, Morris water maze, Y-maze, fear conditioning, the elevated plus maze, the forced swimming test, and the resident-intruder paradigm. Motor and explorative activity, learning and memory, anxiety and depressive-like behavior, aggression, and communication were evaluated 8-15 d after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) (latent phase of the model) and ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Smolensky IV, Zubareva OE, Kalemenev SV, Lavrentyeva VV, Dyomina AV, Karepanov AA, Zaitsev AV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of human prefrontal cortex in the modulation of conditioned eyeblink responses.
a E Abstract Classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex (EBC) is a simple form of associative motor learning. EBC is heavily dependent on cerebellar function, but experimental studies also suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) orchestrates a neuronal network which interacts with the cerebellum to mediate the conditioned eyeblink responses (CR). To further investigate the role of PFC for EBC in humans, we aimed in this study at assessing whether acquisition of CR can be modulated by focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the dorsolateral PFC (DLPF...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nardone R, Langthaler PB, Höller Y, Golaszewski S, Versace V, Sebastianelli L, Brigo F, Saltuari L, Trinka E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differences in the expression of restricted repetitive behaviors in female BTBR T  + tf/J mice.
Differences in the expression of restricted repetitive behaviors in female BTBR T + tf/J mice. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 15;:112028 Authors: Amodeo DA, Pahua AE, Zarate M, Taylor JA, Peterson S, Posadas R, Oliver BL, Amodeo LR Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by the expression of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) and impairments in social recognition and communication. Epidemiological studies demonstrate males are three times more likely than females to be affected. Although this is the case, more recent studies suggest females may be underrepresented in thes...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Amodeo DA, Pahua AE, Zarate M, Taylor JA, Peterson S, Posadas R, Oliver BL, Amodeo LR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Guanosine prevents depressive-like behaviors in rats following bilateral dorsolateral striatum lesion induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.
Abstract The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) processes motor and non-motor functions and undergoes extensive dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Beyond the nigrostriatal pathway, dopaminergic degeneration also affects other brain areas including the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, which have been associated with the appearance of anhedonia and depression at pre-motor phases of PD. Herein, using behavioral and biochemical approaches, we investigated the protective effects of guanosine (GUO) (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) against emotional impairments and cellular events in cortical, striatal and ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Marques NF, Binder LB, Roversi K, Sampaio TB, Constantino LC, Prediger RD, Tasca CI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered Dietary Selenium Influences Brain Iron Content and Behavioural Outcomes.
Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that provides antioxidant defence through selenoproteins, but at high concentrations, deleterious effects have been reported. The present study examines the antioxidant response in brain regions and behavioural functions in mice under various dietary Se paradigms; Se-deficient, Se-adequate and Se-excess. Se levels were found to be reduced in the cortex and hippocampus of Se-deficient animals, whereas no change was observed in animals on Se-excess diet. In the hippocampus, iron (Fe) levels increased in both Se-deficient and Se-excess animals. Moreover, in Se-defi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sharma SK, Bansal MP, Sandhir R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Music exposure attenuates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and increases hippocampal spine density in male rats.
Abstract Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that early-life stress (ELS) may lead to the development of mental disorders in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS) is a valid animal model of ELS that produces detrimental effects on brain and behavior of experimental animals. Positive environmental stimuli have been shown to counteract the behavioral deficits of ELS and enhance neuroplasticity. Recent data indicate that music may serve as a form of environmental enrichment in experimental animals. However, the underlying mechanisms through which musical enrichment exerts its effects are poorly understood. Mal...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Papadakakis A, Sidiropoulou K, Panagis G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research