Cross-reinstatement of mitragynine and morphine place preference in rats.
n N Abstract Kratom is a medicinal plant that exhibits promising results as an opiate substitute. However, there is little information regarding the abuse profile of its main psychoactive constituent, mitragynine (MG), particularly in relapse to drug abuse. Using the place conditioning procedure as a model of relapse, this study aims to evaluate the ability of MG to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) reinstatement in rats. To evaluate the cross-reinstatement effects, MG and morphine were injected to rats that previously extinguished a morphine- or MG-induced CPP. Following a CPP acquisition induced by eithe...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Japarin RA, Yusoff NH, Hassan Z, Müller CP, Harun N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Strain Differences in Behaviour and Immunity in Aged Mice: Relevance to Autism.
Abstract The BTBR mouse model has been shown to be associated with deficits social interaction and a pronounced engagement in repetitive behaviours. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental condition globally. Despite its ubiquity, most research into the disorder remains focused on childhood, with studies in adulthood and old age relatively rare. To this end, we explored the differences in behaviour and immune function in an aged BTBR T + Itpr3tf/J mouse model of the disease compared to a similarly aged C57bl/6 control. We show that while many of the alterations in beha...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Connor R, De Wouw MV, Moloney GM, Ventura-Silva AP, O'Riordan K, Golubeva A, Dinan TG, Schellekens H, Cryan JF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Non-selective orexin-receptor antagonist attenuates stress-re-stress-induced core PTSD-like symptoms in rats: behavioural and neurochemical analyses.
Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder affecting many around the world. Growing evidence suggests that orexin-A is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and panic anxiety disorder. However, the role of orexin-A in PTSD remains unclear. Therefore, pharmacological manipulation of orexin-A can be a potential approach for the treatment of PTSD. Male Wistar rats were subjected to stress re-stress (SRS) by restraining them for 2 h followed by foot shock (FS) and halothane exposure on day-2 (D-2). Then the rats were weekly exposed to FS as re-stress cue up to D-32. Suvor...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Prajapati SK, Krishnamurthy S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Warped rhythms: Epileptic activity during critical periods disrupts the development of neural networks for human communication.
Abstract It is well established that temporal lobe epilepsy-the most common and well-studied form of epilepsy-can impair communication by disrupting social-emotional and language functions. In pediatric epilepsy, where seizures co-occur with the development of critical brain networks, age of onset matters: The earlier in life seizures begin, the worse the disruption in network establishment, resulting in academic hardship and social isolation. Yet, little is known about the processes by which epileptic activity disrupts developing human brain networks. Here we take a synthetic perspective-reviewing a range of rese...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Reh R, Williams LJ, Todd RM, Ward LM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Spinal or Cortical direct current stimulation: Which is the best? Evidence from apraxia of speech in post-stroke aphasia.
Abstract To date, new advances in technology have already shown the effectiveness of non-invasive brain stimulation and, in particular, of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in enhancing language recovery in post-stroke aphasia. More recently, it has been suggested that the stimulation over the spinal cord improves the production of words associated to sensorimotor schemata, such as action verbs. Here, for the first time, we present evidence that transpinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) combined with a language training is efficacious for the recovery from speech apraxia, a motor speech disorder ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pisano F, Caltagirone C, Incoccia C, Marangolo P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic Sleep Disruption induces depression-like behavior in adolescent male and female mice and sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adolescent female mice.
C, Ismail N Abstract Depression is a prevalent mood disorder responsible for reduced quality of life for over 264 million people. Depression commonly develops during adolescence and becomes twice as prevalent in females than in males. However, the mechanisms underlying adolescent depression onset and sex differences in the prevalence rate remain unclear. Adolescent exposure to stress and subsequent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis contributes to mood disorder development, and females are particularly vulnerable to HPA sensitization. Repeated exposure to stressors common to adolescent ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Murack M, Chandrasegaram R, Smith KB, Ah-Yen EG, Rheaume É, Malette-Guyon É, Nanji Z, Semchishen SN, Latus O, Messier C, Ismail N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A legacy of fear: Physiological evidence for intergenerational effects of trauma exposure on fear and safety signal learning among African Americans.
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that maternal trauma impacts children's ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of a safety signal, independent of the children's own trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that children's fear inhibition is impacted by maternal trauma exposure. Prior studies have linked fear inhibition to mental health outcomes, highlighting the need to understand intergenerational modulation of fear learning and physiology. PMID: 33197457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Stenson AF, van Rooij SJH, Carter SE, Powers A, Jovanovic T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment alters neurobehavioral development following maternal immune activation in mice offspring with epilepsy.
This study suggests that environmental enrichment may be used as a potential treatment approach for behavioral abnormalities following maternal immune activation in PTZ-treated offspring. PMID: 33197458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeraati M, Najdi N, Mosaferi B, Salari AA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Molecular imaging of schizophrenia: neurochemical findings in a heterogeneous and evolving disorder.
r G Abstract The past four decades have seen enormous efforts placed on a search for molecular markers of schizophrenia using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this narrative review, we cast a broad net to define and summarize what we have learned about schizophrenia from molecular imaging studies. PET studies of brain energy metabolism with the glucose analogue FDG have generally failed to show a defect in patients with schizophrenia, but tend to indicate a loss of metabolic coherence between different brain regions. An early finding of significantly inc...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cumming P, Abi-Dargham A, Gründer G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Circulating levels of Irisin in obese individuals at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease: Correlations with amyloid- β, metabolic, and neurocognitive indices.
Circulating levels of Irisin in obese individuals at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease: Correlations with amyloid-β, metabolic, and neurocognitive indices. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Nov 10;:113013 Authors: Tsai CL, Pai MC Abstract Irisin is involved in various metabolic pathways and is suggested to be a potential agent capable of preventing onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ameliorating AD neuropathology and cognitive deficits. In the present study, the serum levels of Irisin and Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and the neurocognitive performance among obese individuals at genetic risk for AD...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tsai CL, Pai MC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Deficit in voluntary wheel running in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models in mice: Impact of sex and genotype.
Abstract Patients with chronic pain report decreased general activity and emotional distress. Therefore, the development of various animal models that encompass different aspects of pain are crucial for the discovery of genetic differences and the assessment of novel analgesics to improve quality of life. C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J mice received unilateral intraplantar injections of 100% CFA, Paclitaxel, or CCI surgery to compare their distance traveled in a voluntary wheel running assay, paw edema diameter, and mechanical sensitivity. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds were lower in both strains of mice th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Contreras KM, Caillaud M, Neddenriep B, Bagdas D, Roberts JL, Ulker E, White AB, Aboulhosn R, Toma W, Khalefa T, Adel A, Mann JA, Damaj MI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Concurrent LI-rTMS induces changes in c-Fos expression but not behavior during a progressive ratio task with adult ephrin-A2A5-/- mice.
Abstract Changes within the dopaminergic system induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may contribute to its therapeutic effects; however, dopamine-related behavioral effects of rTMS have not been widely investigated. We recently showed that ephrin-A2A5-/- mice completed significantly fewer trials in a visual task than wildtype mice, and that concurrent low-intensity (LI-) rTMS during the task could partially rescue the abnormal behavior [Poh et al. 2018, eNeuro, vol. 5]. Here, we investigated whether the behavioral differences in ephrin-A2A5-/- mice are due to abnormal motivation, primaril...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Moretti J, Poh EZ, Bolland SJ, Harvey AR, Albrecht MA, Rodger J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Skilled movement and posture deficits in rat string-pulling behavior following low dose space radiation (28Si) exposure.
Abstract Deep space flight missions beyond the Van Allen belt have the potential to expose astronauts to space radiation which may damage the central nervous system and impair function. The proposed mission to Mars will be the longest mission-to-date and identifying mission critical tasks that are sensitive to space radiation is important for developing and evaluating the efficacy of counter measures. Fine motor control has been assessed in humans, rats, and many other species using string-pulling behavior. For example, focal cortical damage has been previously shown to disrupt the topographic (i.e., path circuity...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Blackwell AA, Schell BD, Osterlund Oltmanns JR, Whishaw IQ, Ton ST, Adamczyk NS, Kartje GL, Britten RA, Wallace DG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Insula volumes are altered in patients with social anxiety disorder.
CONCLUSION: Consequently, in the present study, we found that patients with a social anxiety disorder had reduced insula volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects. However, to get strong this finding, novel studies with a larger sample size are required. PMID: 33181184 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Atmaca M, Koc M, Mermi O, Korkmaz S, Aslan S, Yildirim H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Emotional and cognitive impairments in the peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury model (CCI) of neuropathic pain: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the development of an anxiodepressive-like phenotype, associated with cognitive impairments, in CCI-induced animals. These results support the use of this animal model for the study of the mechanisms underlying these comorbidities, as well as a screening tool for the development/repurposing of drugs that tackle both the neuropathy-induced nociceptive and emotional impairments, such as tricyclic antidepressants. Importantly, our review also highlights the need for studies performed in female rodents as these are almost non-existent. PMID: 33171146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (S...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fonseca-Rodrigues D, Amorim D, Almeida A, Pinto-Ribeiro F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The modulation of striatonigral and nigrotectal pathways by CB1 signalling in the substantia nigra pars reticulata regulates panic elicited in mice by urutu-cruzeiro lancehead pit vipers.
Abstract Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) is widely distributed in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr). However, the role of CB1R at the SNpr level in threatening situations is poorly understood. We investigated the role of CB1R in the SNpr on the expression of fear responses in mice confronted with urutu-cruzeiro pit vipers. First, a bidirectional neurotracer was injected into the SNpr; then, immunostaining of the vesicular GABA transporter was conducted at the levels of the striatum (CPu) and deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC). In addition, CB1R immunostaining and GABA labelling were perform...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Almada RC, Anjos-Garcia TD, da Silva JA, Pigatto GR, Wotjak CT, Coimbra NC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Further evidence of anxiety- and depression-like behavior for total genetic ablation of cannabinoid receptor type 1.
FURTHER EVIDENCE OF ANXIETY- AND DEPRESSION-LIKE BEHAVIOR FOR TOTAL GENETIC ABLATION OF CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Nov 07;:113007 Authors: Soriano D, Brusco A, Caltana L Abstract Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) is the most abundant cannabinoid receptor in central nervous system. Clinical studies and animal models have shown that the attenuation of endocannabinoid system signaling correlates with the development of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. In the present work, multiple behavioral tests were performed to evaluate behaviors related to...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Soriano D, Brusco A, Caltana L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pre-adolescent stress disrupts adult, but not adolescent, safety learning.
In this study, mice were trained in a discriminative conditioning protocol to facilitate safety learning and were tested for fear inhibition using a conditioned safety signal. Next, independent groups of mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) conditions between postnatal day 22 and 28, followed by tests for anxiety-like phenotypes or fear inhibition using a safety signal, performed either 24 hours or five weeks following CUS. Pre-adolescent CUS reduced weight in adolescence and this effect endured into adulthood. CUS also increased specific anxiety-like behaviors in adolescence that were unique from...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Meyer HC, Gerhard DM, Amelio PA, Lee FS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Juvenile stress facilitates safety learning in male and female high alcohol preferring mice.
We reported previously that mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference (HAP) exposed to stress during adolescence (but not during adulthood) showed enhanced fear-conditioned responses in adulthood, as measured by fear-potentiated startle (FPS). However, HAP mice also showed enhanced responding to safety cues predicting the absence of foot shocks in adulthood. Here, we pursue these findings in HAP mice by investigating in further detail how juvenile stress impacts the acquisition of safety and fear learning. HAP mice were subjected to three days of juvenile stress (postnatal days 25, 27, 28) and discriminative safety...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Müller I, Adams DD, Sangha S, Chester JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activity of ayahuasca and its implications for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Abstract Ayahuasca is a decoction with psychoactive properties, used for millennia for therapeutic and religious purposes by indigenous groups and the population of amazonian countries. As described in this narrative review, it is essentially constituted by β-carbolines and tryptamines, and it has therapeutic effects on behavioral disorders due to the inhibition of the monoamine oxidase enzyme and the activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, demonstrated through preclinical and clinical studies. It was recently observed that the pharmacological response presented by ayahuasca is linked to its anti-inflamm...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: da Silva MG, Daros GC, de Bitencourt RM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Central histaminergic transmission modulates the expression of chronic nicotine withdrawal induced anxiety-like and somatic behavior in mice.
Abstract The present study investigated the plausible modulatory role of central histaminergic transmission on the expression of nicotine withdrawal induced anxiety and somatic behavior in mice. Abrupt cessation of chronic nicotine (2 mg/kg, i.p. × 3/day) treatment for 12 days to mice, expressed increased anxiety in light & dark test and total abstinence (somatic) score at 24 h post nicotine withdrawal time. The somatic signs includes a composite score of all behaviors such as grooming, rearing, jumping, body shakes, forelimb tremors, head shakes, abdominal constrictions, scra...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Patel D, Vishwakarma PK, Patel R, Jain NS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of repeated RU 24969 treatment on the locomotor activity, motoric capacity, and axillary temperatures of male and female preweanling rats.
Abstract Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 1B receptors have been implicated in behavioral sensitization, but adult rats appear to develop tolerance to RU 24969 (a 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonist) rather than a sensitized response. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a one- or four-day pretreatment regimen of RU 24969 would cause sensitization or tolerance in male and female preweanling rats. Depending on experiment, rats were pretreated with RU 24969 (0, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg) for 1 or 4 days (PD 17-20), while testing with lower or higher doses of RU 24969 occurred on PD 22. Locomotor activity, motoric ca...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: McDougall SA, Razo JL, Rios JW, Taylor JA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

CRTC1 Signaling Involvement in Depression-like Behavior of Prenatally Stressed Offspring Rat.
In conclusion, our research indicated that the aberration of CRTC1 expression and/or phosphorylation activity might play a vital role in PS-induced depression-like behavior of offspring rats. PMID: 33161032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Si Y, Xue X, Liu S, Feng C, Zhang H, Zhang S, Ren Y, Ma H, Dong Y, Li H, Xie L, Zhu Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Adaptogenic Effects of Curcumin on Depression Induced by Moderate and Unpredictable Chronic Stress in Mice.
za AH Abstract Curcumin has been investigated for the prevention and treatment of diseases due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective actions. This current study evaluated the adaptogenic effects of a subchronic oral administration of curcumin to Swiss mice that were submitted to a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. Four groups of mice (vehicle control, CO; curcumin control, COC; CUMS + vehicle, CUMS; CUMS + curcumin, CUMSC) were evaluated for the biochemical parameters. The CUMS model caused depressive-like and anxiety-l...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: da Silva Marques JG, Antunes FTT, da Silva Brum LF, Pedron C, de Oliveira IB, de Barros Falcão Ferraz A, Martins MIM, Dallegrave E, de Souza AH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Shifting motivational states: The effects of nucleus accumbens dopamine and opioid receptor activation on a modified effort-based choice task.
Abstract The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is critical for regulating the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behavior. These experiments examined the effects of dopamine and opioid receptor manipulations within the NAc during an effort-based choice task that allowed for simultaneous assessment of both phases of motivation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral guide cannulas targeting the NAc core and were tested in 1-hr sessions with free access to rat chow and the choice to work for sugar pellets on a progressive ratio 2 (PR2) reinforcement schedule. Individual groups of rats were tested following s...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Carlson HN, Murphy C, Pratt WE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Comparing neural correlates of conditioned inhibition between children with and without anxiety disorders - A preliminary study.
Abstract Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a first-line treatment for pediatric anxiety disorders, is based on principles of threat learning and extinction. However, CBT does not work sufficiently for up to 40% of clinically anxious youth. The neural and behavioral correlates of conditioned inhibition might provide promising targets for attempts to improve CBT response. During conditioned inhibition, threat and safety cues appear together, forming a safety compound. Here, we test whether this safety compound elicits a reduced fear response compared to pairing the threat cue with a novel cue (novel compound). The...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Harrewijn A, Kitt ER, Abend R, Matsumoto C, Odriozola P, Winkler AM, Leibenluft E, Pine DS, Gee DG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Alcohol-related context modulates neural correlates of inhibitory control in alcohol dependent patients: preliminary data from an fMRI study using an alcohol-related Go/NoGo-task.
Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by both impaired inhibitory control and heightened cue reactivity, including enhanced craving and drinking urges in response to alcohol-related stimuli. The interaction between these two mechanisms is thought to be crucial in the maintenance of addiction and relapse. The present study used a newly developed alcohol-related Go/NoGo-task to investigate how exposure to alcohol-related cues affects neural processing of inhibitory control in subjects with AUD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was recorded during performance of a Go/NoGo task, which incorp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Stein M, Steiner L, Fey W, Conring F, Rieger K, Andrea F, Moggi F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

High-Fat Diet and Acute Stress Have Different Effects on Object Preference Tests in Rats During Adolescence and Adulthood.
Abstract Meals of high-fat diet (HFD) during adolescence produce stronger impairments to memory during adolescence than adulthood, however recovery of memory from adolescent HFD is underexplored. In addition, many tests of rodent memory are confounded by aversive or food-based stimuli, making it difficult to determine baseline memory processing affected by HFD. Thus, we utilized three cohorts of rats (adolescent HFD, adult HFD, and adolescent HFD with recovery) to explore the effects of HFD at different ages on two traditional tests of memory based strictly on object exploration, novel object recognition and novel...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Glushchak K, Ficarro A, Schoenfeld TJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Age-related decline in visuo-spatial working memory is reflected by dorsolateral prefrontal activation and cognitive capabilities: Running title: Aging effects on visuo-spatial working memory performance and related cerebral oxygenation.
CONCLUSION: VSWM performance and cerebral oxygenation during encoding are impacted by aging. Space in which the task was performed was found to be associated with different cognitive functions and revealed differences in cerebral oxygenation. PMID: 33144176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kronovsek T, Hermand E, Berthoz A, Castilla A, Gallou-Guyot M, Daviet JC, Perrochon A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Xanthotoxin affects depression-related behavior and neurotransmitters content in a sex-dependent manner in mice.
Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate xanthotoxin's influence on male and female Swiss mice's depression-like behaviors and investigate the potential mechanism of this effect. Naturally derived furanocoumarin (the Apiaceae family), xanthotoxin, administered acutely (12.5 mg/kg), diminished the immobility level in the forced swim test only in males. The immobility level was lower in females than males, which may be associated with a higher serotonin level in the female prefrontal cortex. A dose-dependent increase of serotonin and noradrenaline was reported in the reverse-phase ion-pair liquid chromato...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kowalczyk J, Nakos-Bimpos M, Polissidis A, Dalla C, Kokras N, Skalicka-Wozniak K, Budzynska B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Foot shock facilitates reward seeking in an experience-dependent manner.
Abstract Animals organize reward seeking around aversive events. An abundance of research shows that foot shock, as well as a shock-associated cue, can elicit freezing and suppress reward seeking. Yet, there is evidence that experience can flip the effect of foot shock to facilitate reward seeking. Here we examined cue suppression, foot shock suppression and foot shock facilitation of reward seeking in a single behavioural setting. Male Long Evans rats received fear discrimination consisting of danger, uncertainty, and safety cues. Discrimination took place over a baseline of rewarded nose poking. With limited exp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Strickland JA, Dileo AD, Moaddab M, Ray MH, Walker RA, Wright KM, McDannald MA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Disruption of metabolic, sleep, and sensorimotor functional outcomes in a female transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
The objective of this study was to elucidate the extent to which metabolic activity, sleep-wake cycle, and sensorimotor function is impaired in APPSwDI/Nos2-/- (CVN-AD) transgenic mice. Female mice were used in this study because AD is more prevalent in women compared to men. We hypothesized that the presence of AD neuropathology in CVN-AD mice would accompany alterations in metabolic activity, sleep, and sensorimotor function. Our results showed that CVN-AD mice had significantly decreased energy expenditure compared to wild-type (WT) mice. An examination of associated functional outcome parameters showed that sleep activ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nwafor DC, Chakraborty S, Jun S, Brichacek AL, Dransfeld M, Gemoets DE, Dakhlallah D, Brown CM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic but not acute pharmacological activation of SERCA induces behavioral and neurochemical effects in male and female mice.
Abstract Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is a vital process to nerve cell survival and function with an intricate regulatory network. It is well established that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major intraneuronal Ca2+ storage and that the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump is a key regulator of cytosolic Ca2+ levels. SERCA pumps play a critical role in brain pathophysiology, thus SERCA comprises an emerging pharmacological target for the treatment of brain diseases. Interestingly, preclinical studies in rodents suggest that chronic pharmacological activation of SER...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Britzolaki A, Cronin CC, Flaherty PR, Rufo RL, Pitychoutis PM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Decreased dendritic spine density in posterodorsal medial amygdala neurons of proactive coping rats.
In this study, we explored if there are structural neuronal differences in spine density in brain regions important for the regulation of stress coping styles. For this, the individual coping styles of wild-type Groningen (WTG) rats were determined using their level of offensive aggressiveness assessed in the resident-intruder paradigm. Subsequently, brains from proactive (high-aggressive) and reactive (low-aggressive) rats were Golgi-cox stained for spine quantification. The results reveal that dendritic spine densities in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region and basolateral amygdala are similar in rats with proactive and re...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Anilkumar S, Patel D, de Boer SF, Chattarji S, Buwalda B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Familiarization effects on the behavioral disinhibition of the cerebellar Lurcher mutant mice: Use of the innovative Dual Maze.
Abstract Anxiety-related behaviors in mice are often assessed over short periods starting immediately after introducing the animals in a dedicated apparatus. In these usual conditions (5-10 min periods), the cerebellar Lurcher mutants showed disinhibited behaviors characterized by abnormally high exploration of the aversive areas in the elevated plus-maze test. We nevertheless observed that this disinhibition sharply weakened after 10 min. We therefore decided to further investigate the influence of the disinhibition on the intrinsic and anxiety-related exploratory behaviors in Lurcher mice, with a s...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lorivel T, Cendelin J, Hilber P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Switching from high-fat feeding (HFD) to regular diet improves metabolic and behavioral impairments in middle-aged female mice.
Abstract Obesity represents a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders. Excessive caloric intake, particularly in dietary fats, is an environmental factor that contributes to obesity development. Thus, the observation that switching from long-standing dietary obesity to standard diet (SD) can ameliorate the high-fat diet-induced metabolic, memory, and emotionality-related impairments are particularly important. Herein we investigated whether switching from the high-fat diet (HFD) to SD could improve the metabolic and behavioral impairments observed in middle-aged females C57B...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Braga SP, Delanogare E, Machado AE, Prediger RD, Moreira ELG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Naltrexone attenuates methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in mice.
Abstract Methamphetamine addiction causes serious public health problems worldwide. However, there is no effective medication licensed for methamphetamine addiction. The endogenous opioid system is considered to be a common substrate in drug addiction due to its regulation of dopamine release. In recent clinical trials, (-)-naltrexone, an opioid receptors and Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, has exhibited encouraging findings for treating methamphetamine addiction; however, the understanding of its pharmacological mechanisms remains insufficient. By using mice models of behavioral sensitization and conditioned pla...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang ZY, Guo LK, Han X, Song R, Dong GM, Ma CM, Wu N, Li J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

GABA in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates anxiety-like behavior during the postpartum period.
Abstract The postpartum period is commonly accompanied by emotional changes, which for many new mothers includes a reduction in anxiety. Previous research in rodents has shown that the postpartum attenuation in anxiety is dependent on offspring contact and has further implicated enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission as an underlying mechanism. However, the specific brain regions where GABA acts to regulate the offspring-induced reduction in postpartum anxiety requires further investigation. Here, we test the hypothesis that offspring interactions suppress anxiety-like behavior in postpartum females via GABA signali...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sabihi S, Goodpaster C, Maurer S, Leuner B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Alterations in Fear Extinction Neural Circuitry and Fear-Related Behavior Linked to Trauma Exposure in Children.
Abstract Exposure to childhood trauma is extremely common (>60%) and is a leading risk factor for fear-based disorders, including anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. These disorders are characterized by deficits in fear extinction and dysfunction in underlying neural circuitry. Given the strong and pervasive link between childhood trauma and the development of psychopathology, fear extinction may be a key mechanism. The present study tests the impact of childhood trauma exposure on fear extinction and underlying neural circuitry. Children (N = 44, 45% trauma-exposed; 6-11 yrs) completed a n...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Marusak HA, Hehr A, Bhogal A, Peters C, Iadipaolo A, Rabinak CA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Isoorientin, a GSK-3 β inhibitor, rescues synaptic dysfunction, spatial memory deficits and attenuates pathological progression in APP/PS1 model mice.
Isoorientin, a GSK-3β inhibitor, rescues synaptic dysfunction, spatial memory deficits and attenuates pathological progression in APP/PS1 model mice. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Oct 15;:112968 Authors: Tan X, Liang Z, Li Y, Zhi Y, Yi L, Bai S, Forest KH, Nichols RA, Dong Y, Li QX Abstract β-Amyloid (Aβ) elevation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and neuroinflammation are major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a key protein kinase implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. Blockade of GSK-3β is an attractive therapeutic strategy for AD. Isoorie...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tan X, Liang Z, Li Y, Zhi Y, Yi L, Bai S, Forest KH, Nichols RA, Dong Y, Li QX Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Out of our Heads: Addiction and Psychiatric Externalism.
Abstract In addiction, apparently causally significant phenomena occur at a huge number of levels; addiciton is affected by biomedical, neurological, pharmacological, clinical, social, and politico-legal factors, among many others. In such a complex, multifaceted field of inquiry, it seems very unlikely that all the many layers of explanation will prove amenable to any simple or straightforward, reductive analysis; if we are to unify the many different sciences of addiction while respecting their causal autonomy, then, what we are likely to need is an integrative framework. In this paper, we propose the theory of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Glackin SN, Roberts T, Krueger J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The motivational valence of methamphetamine relates inversely to subsequent methamphetamine self-administration in female C57BL/6  J mice.
The motivational valence of methamphetamine relates inversely to subsequent methamphetamine self-administration in female C57BL/6 J mice. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Oct 11;:112959 Authors: Shab G, Fultz EK, Page A, Coelho MA, Brewin LW, Stailey N, Brown CN, Bryant CD, Kippin TE, Szumlinski KK Abstract Understanding the mechanisms underpinning individual variance in addiction vulnerability requires the development of validated, high-throughput screens. In a prior study of a large sample of male isogenic C57BL/6 J mice, the direction and magnitude of methamphetamine (MA)-induced place-condition...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shab G, Fultz EK, Page A, Coelho MA, Brewin LW, Stailey N, Brown CN, Bryant CD, Kippin TE, Szumlinski KK Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Valproic acid treated female Long-Evans rats are impaired on attentional set-shifting.
This study examined social and anxiety behavior as well as cognitive flexibility in VPA and control offspring. Results for social behavior were consistent with prior studies showing reduced sociability in VPA rats and increased self-grooming, which may be viewed as a repetitive behavior. VPA rats also had deficits in performing the set-shifting task, with female VPA rats demonstrating greater impairment compared to female control rats and male VPA rats. These results support the hypothesis that females diagnosed with ASD may suffer from different symptoms and present a unique behavioral profile compared to males with ASD. ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: McKinnell ZE, Maze T, Ramos A, Challans B, Plakke B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Social Learning and Addiction.
Abstract Social learning theory, as originally proposed by Albert Bandura, followed 2000 years of intellectual inquiry into the determinants of human behavior. Reciprocal determinism is a central component of this theory and proposes that human behavior is determined by functional relationships between (1) personal factors, (2) the external environment, and (3) the behavior itself. Using this model, drug addiction can be viewed as resulting from the functional relationships between an individual's personal characteristics, social environment, and drug-centric behaviors. In other words, addiction can be viewed as a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith MA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of Childhood Trauma Experience and BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Brain Plasticity Relate to Emotion Regulation.
Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may modulate the link between childhood trauma experience and psychopathology by altering trophic signaling on neuroplasticity. However, few multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) researches have investigated this gene-environment interaction on both structural and functional plasticity, thereby advancing knowledge about the etiology, prevention, and customized therapeutic directions of mental disease in individuals with childhood trauma experience. We recruited a large non-clinical sample of young adults that completed Childhood Trauma Q...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tian T, Li J, Zhang G, Wang J, Liu D, Wan C, Fang J, Wu D, Zhou Y, Zhu W Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Thought suppression inhibits the generalization of fear extinction.
Abstract A challenge for translating fear extinction research into clinical treatments for stress and anxiety disorders is that extinction learning tends not to generalize beyond the treatment context. This may be because the hippocampus limits the expression of extinction memories. Consequently, downregulating the hippocampus may help to promote the generalization of extinction learning. One nonpharmacological strategy to downregulate hippocampal activity in humans is motivated forgetting in which a participant deliberately attempts to suppress the encoding and/or retrieval of episodic memories. Here, we evaluate...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hennings AC, Bibb SA, Lewis-Peacock JA, Dunsmoor JE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Ultrasonic vocalizations and individual differences in rats performing a Pavlovian conditioned approach task.
RKW Abstract Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), including high-frequency 50-kHz USV, which occur in appetitive situations. Such 50-kHz USV are thought to reflect positive affective states, for example in case of reward anticipation, and are linked to dopamine signaling. The present study was conducted to investigate whether rats emit 50-kHz USV during a Pavlovian conditioned approach task and whether trait-like differences in 50-kHz USV emission are associated with sign- versus goal-tracking. We hypothesize that individuals engaging more with a cue predicting a food reward will also elicit...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sangarapillai N, Ellenberger M, Wöhr M, Schwarting RKW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prodromal local sleep disorders in a rat model of Parkinson's disease cholinopathy, hemiparkinsonism and hemiparkinsonism with cholinopathy.
Abstract We investigated the prodromal alterations of local sleep, particularly the motor cortical and hippocampal sleep, along with spontaneous locomotor activity in the rat models of Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed our experiments in adult, male Wistar rats, chronically implanted for sleep recording and divided into four experimental groups: the control (implanted controls), the bilateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) lesions (PD cholinopathy), the unilateral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) lesions (hemiparkinsonism) and the unilateral SNpc/bilateral PPT lesions (hemiparkinsonism with PD ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Petrovic J, Radovanovic L, Saponjic J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Functional and cognitive responses to caffeine intake in middle-aged women are dose depending.
PMID: 33035593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Waer FB, Laatar R, Jouira G, Srihi S, Rebai H, Sahli S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Social context-dependent singing alters molecular markers of synaptic plasticity signaling in finch basal ganglia Area X.
Abstract Vocal communication is a crucial skill required throughout life. However, there is a critical gap in our understanding of the underlying molecular brain mechanisms, thereby motivating our use of the zebra finch songbird model. Adult male zebra finches show differences in neural activity patterns in song-dedicated brain nuclei when they sing in two distinct social contexts: a male singing by himself (undirected, UD) and a male singing to a female (female-directed, FD). In our prior work, we showed that in song-dedicated basal ganglia Area X, protein levels of a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NMD...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: So LY, Miller JE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research