A facilitating role for the primary motor cortex in action sentence processing.
Abstract The involvement of the motor system in action language comprehension is a hotly debated topic in cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Recent studies suggest that primary motor cortex (M1) response to action language is context-sensitive rather than automatic and necessary. Specifically, semantic polarity (i.e. affirmative/negative valence) appears to modulate the intensity of this response, which is stronger for affirmative action sentences. The aim of our study was to examine further the context sensitivity of M1 response. More specifically, we aimed to determine whether M1 response follows semantic po...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Courson M, Macoir J, Tremblay P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity.
Abstract Obesity is a major public health problem. Herein, we aim to identify the correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and analysis. Twenty obese patients (BMI=37.66±5.07) and 30 healthy controls (BMI=22.64±3.45) were compared using neuroimaging and assessed for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All participants underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and T1-weighted imaging using a 1.5T MRI. Multimodal MRI techniques and analyses were used to assess ob...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chao HH, Liao YT, Chen VC, Li CJ, McIntyre RS, Lee Y, Weng JC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Applicability of the grip strength and automated von Frey tactile sensitivity tests in the mouse photothrombotic model of stroke.
In this study, we evaluated the applicability of forepaw grip strength and automated von Frey tactile sensitivity tests to assess forelimb dysfunction in mice following photothrombosis in the sensorimotor cortex, and compared them with two well-established tests, grid-walking and cylinder, for up to 21days after stroke. Our results indicate that the length of time required to conduct the two new tests is comparable to that of the grid-walking and cylinder tests, however the data from the new tests is obtained and ready for analysis upon completion of the testing session. In addition, our observations indicate that the auto...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alamri FF, Shoyaib AA, Biggers A, Jayaraman S, Guindon J, Karamyan VT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Caffeine has no effect on eyeblink conditioning in mice.
Abstract Caffeine is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. In the brain, caffeine acts as an antagonist for the adenosine A1 and A2B receptors. Since A1 receptors are highly concentrated in the cortex of the cerebellum, we hypothesized that caffeine could potentially affect learning tasks that require the cerebellar cortex, such as eyeblink conditioning. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of low (5mg/kg) and high (50mg/kg) doses of caffeine, injected intraperitoneally before training, on eyeblink conditioning in mice. The results show that, at the dosages we used, caffeine affects neither th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rasmussen A, Ijpelaar ACHG, De Zeeuw CI, Boele HJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Motor function deficits in the 12 month-old female 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Motor problems occur early in some patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as the disease progresses many patients develop motor dysfunction. Motor dysfunction has been reported in some mouse models of AD, including the 5xFAD mouse, thus this model may be particularly useful for studying motor dysfunction in AD. In order to determine the extent of motor dysfunction in these mice, we tested 11-13 month old female 5xFAD and wildtype (WT) control mice in a battery of motor behaviour tasks. The 5xFAD mice showed hind limb clasping, weighed less and had slower righting reflexes than WT mice. In the open fie...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Leary TP, Robertson A, Chipman PH, Rafuse VF, Brown RE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Injection of oxytocin into paraventricular nucleus reverses depressive-like behaviors in the postpartum depression rat model.
Abstract Oxytocin (OXT) has been considered as a neuroregulator mediating social behaviors and stress-related disorders. Recent clinical studies suggest that OXT might also act as antidepressant in postpartum depression (PPD) patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we explored the effect of OXT in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and possible signaling pathway involved in a PPD rat model induced by gestation restraint stress (GRS). PPD rats exhibited depressive-like behaviors with significantly longer immobility time, shorter climbing time, and lower sucrose consumption compared to the con...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang T, Shi C, Li X, Zhang P, Liu B, Wang H, Wang Y, Yang Y, Wu Y, Li H, Xu ZD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Suppression of FoxO3a attenuates neurobehavioral deficits after traumatic brain injury through inhibiting neuronal autophagy.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious insult that frequently leads to neurological impairments. Forkhead box O (FoxO) 3a, as transcription factor, has been confirmed to modulate autophagic process. Moreover, FoxO3a is expressed throughout the brain including the hippocampus. However, the role of FoxO3a in the pathophysiology of TBI is unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether FoxO3a has the neuroprotective effects on rats subjected to TBI, and further to explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Thus, a rat model of TBI was created by using a modified weight-drop device to mimic ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun L, Zhao M, Liu M, Su P, Zhang J, Li Y, Yang X, Wu Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α is involved in isoflurane-induced blood-brain barrier disruption in aged rats model of POCD.
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α is involved in isoflurane-induced blood-brain barrier disruption in aged rats model of POCD. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Sep 05;: Authors: Cao Y, Li Z, Li H, Ni C, Li L, Yang N, Shi C, Zhong Y, Cui D, Guo X Abstract Prolonged exposure to inhaled anesthetics may lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were shown to be activated by inhaled anesthetics. The aim of the present study was to determine the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cao Y, Li Z, Li H, Ni C, Li L, Yang N, Shi C, Zhong Y, Cui D, Guo X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pharmacological activation of the Nrf2 pathway by 3H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) is implicated in the pathlogical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), the simplest compound of the sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, has been proved to be a strongly active antioxidant factor by regulation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Previous study reported that D3T confers protection to AD cell model in vitro, however, the neuroprotective effect of D3T in the AD mammalian model is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cui Y, Ma S, Zhang C, Li D, Yang B, Lv P, Xing Q, Huang T, Yang GL, Cao W, Guan F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Enhanced expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the locus coeruleus can be associated with anxiolytic-like effects.
This study evaluates whether a systemic intraperitoneal treatment is able to alter behavioral responses (in the elevated plus-maze and the light-dark box test) and the expression of the HO-1 and HO-2 enzymes in the LC. The tested treatments are acute (3h before) or chronic (twice daily for 10 days) and with a carbon monoxide releaser (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium [II] dimer, or CORM-2) or with a HO-1 inducer compound (cobalt protoporphyrin IX, CoPP). The results for the elevated plus-maze show that CO-for both acute or chronic administration of either drug-increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percenta...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cazuza RA, Pol O, Leite-Panissi CRA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reduction in open field activity in the absence of memory deficits in the App(NL-G-F) knock-in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
This study aimed to further characterise the behavioural phenotype and amyloid plaque distribution of App(NL-G-F/NL-G-F) (C57BL/6J background) mice at six-months of age. An attempt to replicate a previous study that observed deficits in working memory in the Y-maze, showed no difference between App(NL-G-F/NL-G-F) and wild-type mice. Further assessment of these mice using the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze also revealed no differences between App(NL-G-F/NL-G-F) and wild-type mice. Despite a lack of demonstrated cognitive deficits, we report a reduction in locomotor/exploratory activity in an open field....
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Whyte LS, Hemsley KM, Lau AA, Hassiotis S, Saito T, Saido TC, Hopwood JJ, Sargeant TJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Mindfulness and dynamic functional neural connectivity in children and adolescents.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new evidence that mindfulness in youth relates to functional neural dynamics and interactions between neurocognitive networks, over time. PMID: 28887198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Marusak HA, Elrahal F, Peters CA, Kundu P, Lombardo MV, Calhoun VD, Goldberg EK, Cohen C, Taub JW, Rabinak CA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Is that disgust I see? Political ideology and biased visual attention.
Abstract Considerable evidence suggests that political liberals and conservatives vary in the way they process and respond to valenced (i.e., negative versus positive) information, with conservatives generally displaying greater negativity biases than liberals. Less is known about whether liberals and conservatives differentially prioritize certain forms of negative information over others. Across two studies using eye-tracking methodology, we examined differences in visual attention to negative scenes and facial expressions based on self-reported political ideology. In Study 1, scenes rated high in fear, disgust,...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Oosterhoff B, Shook NJ, Ford C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal theta phase-contingent memory retrieval in delay and trace eyeblink conditioning.
okia MS Abstract Hippocampal theta oscillations (3-12Hz) play a prominent role in learning. It has been suggested that encoding and retrieval of memories are supported by different phases of the theta cycle. Our previous study on trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbits suggests that the timing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in relation to theta phase affects encoding but not retrieval of the memory trace. Here, we directly tested the effects of hippocampal theta phase on memory retrieval in two experiments conducted on adult female New Zealand White rabbits. In Experiment 1, animals were trained in trace eyeblink...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Waselius T, Pöllänen E, Wikgren J, Penttonen M, Nokia MS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Different effects of running wheel exercise and skilled reaching training on corticofugal tract plasticity in hypertensive rats with cortical infarctions.
Abstract The approaches that facilitate white matter plasticity may prompt functional recovery after a stroke. The effects of different exercise methods on motor recovery in stroke rats have been investigated. However, it is not clear whether their effects on axonal plasticity different. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the forced running wheel exercise (RWE) and skilled reaching training (SRT) on axonal plasticity and motor recovery. Cortical infarctions were generated in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. The rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: the control (Co...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang C, Zou Y, Li K, Li C, Jiang Y, Sun J, Sun R, Wen H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Embryonic Alcohol Exposure Leading to Social Avoidance and Altered Anxiety Responses in Adult Zebrafish.
Abstract Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a syndrome characterized by neurological and behavioral impairments. A recently discovered hallmark of FASD is impaired social behavior. Avoidance of social interaction typical of FASD may be the result of increased anxiety. Previously, the zebrafish was successfully used to model embryonic alcohol induced social abnormalities. Here, we analyzed both anxiety and social responses using a zebrafish FASD model, in adult fish. We exposed zebrafish embryos to low concentrations of ethanol (0.1%; 0.25%; 0.5% and 1% v/v) for 2h at, 24hours post-fertilization, to mimic t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Baggio S, Mussulini BH, de Oliveira DL, Gerlai R, Rico EP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of an acute therapeutic or rewarding dose of amphetamine on acquisition of Pavlovian autoshaping and ventral striatal dopamine signaling.
Abstract Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues. Therapeutic doses of amphetamine, suc...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schuweiler DR, Athens JM, Thompson JM, Vazhayil ST, Garris PA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by High-fat Diet: Role of Oxidative Stress.
In this study, we hypothesized that chronic administration of melatonin can prevent memory impairment induced by consumption of HFD. Melatonin was administered to rats via oral gavage (100mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. HFD was also instituted for the same duration. Behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial memory using the radial arm water maze. Additionally, oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed in the hippocampus. Results showed that HFD impaired both short- and long- term memory (P
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alzoubi KH, Mayyas FA, Mahafzah R, Khabour OF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of GABA A Receptor Improved Special Memory Impairment in the Local Model of Demyelination in Rat Hippocampus.
Abstract Cognitive impairment and memory deficit are common features in multiple Sclerosis patients. The mechanism of memory impairment in MS is unknown, but neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal demyelination is involved. Here, we investigate the role of GABA A receptor on spatial memory in the local model of hippocampal demyelination. Demyelination was induced in male Wistar rats by bilaterally injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 1% into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The treatment groups were received daily intraventricular injection of bicuculline (0.025, 0.05μg/2μl/animal) or muscimol...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Majd AM, Tabar FE, Afghani A, Ashrafpour S, Dehghan S, Gol M, Ashrafpour M, Pourabdolhossein F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential effects of Imipramine and CORT 118335 (Glucocorticoid receptor modulator/Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist) on brain-endocrine stress responses and depression-like behavior in female rats.
Abstract Depression is commonly associated with hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction that primarily manifests as aberrant glucocorticoid secretion. Glucocorticoids act on Type I mineralocorticoid (MR) and Type II glucocorticoid receptors (GR) to modulate mood and endocrine responses. Successful antidepressant treatment normalizes HPA axis function, in part due to modulatory effects on MR and GR in cortico-limbic structures. Although women are twice as likely to suffer from depression, little is known about how antidepressants modulate brain, endocrine, and behavioral stress responses in females. H...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nguyen ET, Caldwell JL, Streicher J, Ghisays V, Balmer NJ, Estrada CM, Solomon MB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Increased emotional reactivity to affective pictures in patients with skin-picking disorder: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.
e A Abstract The predominant symptom of skin-picking disorder (SPD) is the recurrent picking of one's own skin, leading to tissue damage and discomfort. Psychological disorder models suggest an enhanced emotional reactivity in patients with SPD, which contributes to the maintenance of symptoms. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment analyzed both subjective and neuronal responses to affective pictures (categories: fear, disgust, happiness, neutral) in 19 women with SPD and 16 healthy controls. Also, affective traits (disgust, anxiety, depression) were assessed. Those with SPD scored higher on...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wabnegger A, Übel S, Suchar G, Schienle A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The delta opioid receptor agonist KNT-127 in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex attenuates veratrine-induced anxiety-like behaviors in mice.
Abstract We previously reported that systemic administration of the selective delta opioid receptor (DOP) agonist KNT-127 produces potent anxiolytic-like effects in rats. Although a higher distribution pattern of DOPs was reported in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of rodents, the role of DOPs in PL-PFC and in anxiolytic-like effects have not been well examined. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of PL-PFC with the sodium channel activator veratrine increases glutamatergic neurotransmission and produces anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Therefore, we investigated the effects of co-perfusion wi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Saitoh A, Suzuki S, Soda A, Ohashi M, Yamada M, Oka JI, Nagase H, Yamada M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Mice lacking hippocampal left-right asymmetry show non-spatial learning deficits.
Abstract Left-right asymmetry is known to exist at several anatomical levels in the brain and recent studies have provided further evidence to show that it also exists at a molecular level in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuit. The distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits in the apical and basal synapses of CA1 pyramidal neurons is asymmetrical if the input arrives from the left or right CA3 pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we examined the role of hippocampal asymmetry in cognitive function using β2-microglobulin knock-out (β2m KO) mice, which lack hippocampal asymmetry. We...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shimbo A, Kosaki Y, Ito I, Watanabe S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential effects of relaxin-3 and a selective relaxin-3 receptor agonist on food and water intake and hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats.
eva E Abstract The neuropeptide relaxin-3 (RLN3) binds with high affinity to its cognate receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), and with lower affinity to RXFP1, the cognate receptor for relaxin. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of RLN3 in rats strongly increases food and water intake and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) axes, but the relative involvement of RXFP3 and RXFP1 in these effects is not known. Therefore, the effects of icv administration of equimolar (1.1 nmol) amounts of RLN3 and the RXFP3-selective agonist RXFP3-A2 on food and...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: de Ávila C, Chometton S, Lenglos C, Calvez J, Gundlach AL, Timofeeva E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The effect of an acute systemic inflammatory insult on the chronic effects of a single mild traumatic brain injury.
This study sought to investigate the role of a peripheral inflammatory insult in the development of ongoing behavioral symptoms following a mTBI. To investigate, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single mTBI using the diffuse impact-acceleration model to generate ∼100G of force. Sham animals underwent surgery only. At 5days following surgery, rats were given either the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg), or saline via an intraperitoneal injection. mTBI animals showed an exaggerated response to LPS, with an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the hippocampus at 24h po...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Collins-Praino LE, Arulsamy A, Katharesan V, Corrigan F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Long-term behavioral sensitization to apomorphine is independent of conditioning and increases conditioned pecking, but not preference, in pigeons.
rkün O Abstract When rodents are given a free choice between a variable option and a constant option, they may prefer variability. This preference is even sometimes increased following repeated administration of a dopamine agonist. The present study was the first to examine preference for variability under the systemic administration of a dopamine agonist, apomorphine (Apo), in birds. Experiment 1 tested the drug-free preference and the propensity to choose of pigeons for a constant over a variable delay. It appeared that they preferred and decided more quickly to peck at the optimal delay option. Experiment ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Anselme P, Edeş N, Tabrik S, Güntürkün O Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Socially dominant mice in C57BL6 background show increased social motivation.
Abstract A series of behavioral tests measuring social dominance, social motivation, and non-social motivation are examined in adult male C57BL6 mice. By using the well-known tube dominance test to determine social dominance and rank, we find that, in the absence of competition for resource and mating, group-housed mouse cage-mates display stable and mostly linear and transitive social hierarchies. Mice with top and bottom social ranks are subjected to a three-chamber social interaction test to measure social motivation. The top ranked mice spend more time interacting with a stranger mouse than the bottom ranked m...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kunkel T, Wang H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prenatal Stress Induced Gender-specific Alterations of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit Expression and Response to A β in Offspring Hippocampal Cells.
Prenatal Stress Induced Gender-specific Alterations of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit Expression and Response to Aβ in Offspring Hippocampal Cells. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Aug 27;: Authors: Fang Y, Li H, Chang L, Song Y, Ma L, Lu L, Du Z, Li Y, Liu J, Wu Y Abstract Prenatal stress (PS) is one of adverse life events during pregnancy, which may increase vulnerability to cognitive impairment in adult offspring. Aβ synaptotoxicity is one important pathological factor for cognitive impairment, and PS-induced cognitive disorder is closely associated with N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR),...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fang Y, Li H, Chang L, Song Y, Ma L, Lu L, Du Z, Li Y, Liu J, Wu Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Spaced sessions of avoidance extinction reduce spontaneous recovery and promote infralimbic cortex activation.
We examined whether the temporal distribution of two extinction sessions separated by 24hours or 7days (contiguous versus spaced extinction paradigms, respectively), influences SR after 28days of a TWAA task. c-Fos expression, as a marker of neuronal activation, was also measured by immunohistochemistry 90min after the SR test in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. The temporal distribution of extinction sessions did not affect the degree of extinction learning. However, only the rats that underwent the 7-day spaced extinction paradigm maintained the level of extinction in the long term, showing no SR in TWAA. T...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tapias-Espinosa C, Kádár E, Segura-Torres P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Nrf2 Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Through Regulating Trx1/TXNIP Complex in Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract The Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has a critical role in inflammation damage in ischemic injury, and the activation of the inflammasome is closely related to the interaction with Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP), which dissociates from the Thioredoxin1(Trx1)/TXNIP complex under oxidative stress. However, the negative regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation has not been fully investigated. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) takes on a critical part in the antioxidant stress system, that controls the driven genes of antioxidant response element (ARE).Activate Nrf...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hou Y, Wang Y, He Q, Li L, Xie H, Zhao Y, Zhao J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex Effects on Spatial Learning but not on Spatial Memory Retrieval in Healthy Young Adults.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Sex differences have been found in spatial learning and spatial memory, with several studies indicating that males outperform females. We tested in the virtual Morris Water Maze (vMWM) task, whether sex differences in spatial cognitive processes are attributable to differences in spatial learning or spatial memory retrieval in a large student sample. METHODS: We tested 90 healthy students (45 women and 45 men) with a mean age of 23.5 years (SD=3.5). Spatial learning and spatial memory retrieval was measured by using the vMWM task, during which participants had to search a virtual pool for...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Piber D, Nowacki J, Mueller SC, Wingenfeld K, Otte C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet task in rats.
ch KK Abstract The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Torres-Espín A, Forero J, Schmidt E, Fouad K, Fenrich KK Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Tolerance to rewarding brain electrical stimulation: Differential effects of contingent and non-contingent activation of parabrachial complex and lateral hypothalamus.
This study examined the effects of contingent and non-contingent stimulation in a CPP task. In the former modality, the animals can voluntarily select areas of the maze and thereby determine whether or not they receive stimulation. In the non-contingent procedure, the animals passively receive the administration of the rewarding electrical current while confined in the preferred place. Tolerance to the rewarding stimulation was observed in the non-contingent procedure, in which the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (LPBe) was stimulated in a behaviorally passive task, but not in the contingent procedure. In contrast...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hurtado MM, Puerto A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered synaptic phospholipid signaling in PRG-1 deficient mice induces exploratory behavior and motor hyperactivity resembling psychiatric disorders.
Abstract Plasticity related gene 1 (PRG-1) is a neuron specific membrane protein located at the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. PRG-1 modulates signaling pathways of phosphorylated lipid substrates such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Deletion of PRG-1 increases presynaptic glutamate release probability leading to neuronal over-excitation. However, due to its cortical expression, PRG-1 deficiency leading to increased glutamatergic transmission is supposed to also affect motor pathways. We therefore analyzed the effects of PRG-1 function on exploratory and motor behavior using homozygous PRG-1 knock...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schneider P, Petzold S, Sommer A, Nitsch R, Schwegler H, Vogt J, Roskoden T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Administration of riluzole to the basolateral amygdala facilitates fear extinction in rats.
In this study, adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the BLA to examine the effects of intra-BLA administration of riluzole. We also compared the effects of riluzole with those of d-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the glycine-binding region of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In this study, intra-BLA administration of either riluzole or d-cycloserine facilitated extinction learning of contextual fear in conditioned rats. In addition, both riluzole and d-cycloserine enhanced the acquisition of recognition memory in the same model. However, intra-BLA injections of riluzole, but not d-cycloserine, h...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sugiyama A, Yamada M, Saitoh A, Oka JI, Yamada M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The trait 'pessimism' does not interact with cognitive flexibility but makes rats more vulnerable to stress-induced motivational deficits: results from the attentional set-shifting task.
Abstract In the present study, we have investigated the effects of the traits 'optimism' and 'pessimism' on cognitive flexibility in an animal model of depression based on chronic restraint stress. For this, first, we trained and tested the rats in a series of ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) tests, which allowed us to classify them as 'optimistic' or 'pessimistic'. Subsequently, we re-trained and re-tested the animals in the Attentional Set Shifting Task (ASST), which allowed evaluation of the differences between 'optimists' and 'pessimists' in terms of cognitive flexibility. Finally, we subjected half of the '...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Drozd R, Rojek-Sito K, Rygula R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Evidence-based severity assessment: Impact of repeated versus single open-field testing on welfare in C57BL/6J mice.
Abstract According to current guidelines on animal experiments, a prospective assessment of the severity of each procedure is mandatory. However, so far, the classification of procedures into different severity categories mainly relies on theoretic considerations, since it is not entirely clear which of the various procedures compromise the welfare of animals, or, to what extent. Against this background, a systematic empirical investigation of the impact of each procedure, including behavioral testing seems essential. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated versus single test...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bodden C, Siestrup S, Palme R, Kaiser S, Sachser N, Richter SH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Games people play: How video games improve probabilistic learning.
Abstract Recent research suggests that video game playing is associated with many cognitive benefits. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating such effects, especially with regard to probabilistic categorization learning, which is a widely unexplored area in gaming research. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of probabilistic classification learning in video gamers in comparison to non-gamers. Subjects were scanned in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while performing a modified version of the weather prediction task. Behavioral data yielded ev...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schenk S, Lech RK, Suchan B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination in injured rats but does not accelerate the recovery of the motor coordination deficit.
In this study, we explored motor coordination and balance in order to investigate whether the activation of D1 receptors (D1Rs) modulates functional recovery after cortical injury. The results of the beam-walking test showed motor deficit in the injured group at 24, 48 and 96h post-injury, and the recovery time was observed at 192h after cortical injury. In the sham and injured rats, systemic administration of the D1R antagonist SCH-23390 (1mg/kg) alone at 24, 48, 96 and 192h significantly (P
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Avila-Luna A, Gálvez-Rosas A, Alfaro-Rodríguez A, Reyes-Legorreta C, Garza-Montaño P, González-Piña R, Bueno-Nava A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Structural hemispheric asymmetries underlie verbal Stroop performance.
Abstract Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired. Surface thickness and area estimations were calculated usin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vallesi A, Mazzonetto I, Ambrosini E, Babcock L, Capizzi M, Arbula S, Tarantino V, Semenza C, Bertoldo A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Operant Models of Relapse in Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Resurgence, Renewal, and Reinstatement.
ik CA Abstract Zebrafish are a widely used animal model in biomedical research, as an alternative to mammals, for having features such as a fully sequenced genome, high fecundity, and low-cost maintenance, but behavioral research with these fish remains scarce. The present study investigated whether zebrafish could be a new animal model for studies on the relapse of behavior (e.g., addiction and overeating) after the behavior has been extinguished. Specifically, we examined whether zebrafish would show three different types of relapse commonly studied with other species: resurgence, renewal, and reinstatement. For...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuroda T, Mizutani Y, Cançado CRX, Podlesnik CA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Ephrin-A5 regulates inter-male aggression in mice" [Behav. Brain Res. 286 (June) (2015) 300-307].
Corrigendum to "Ephrin-A5 regulates inter-male aggression in mice" [Behav. Brain Res. 286 (June) (2015) 300-307]. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Aug 18;: Authors: Sheleg M, Yochum CL, Richardson JR, Wagner GC, Zhou R PMID: 28827072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sheleg M, Yochum CL, Richardson JR, Wagner GC, Zhou R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task.
CONCLUSION: Corticospinal excitability during motor imagery in an isometric contraction task was modulated in relation to the phase of force control after image construction. PMID: 28827129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatemoto T, Tsuchiya J, Numata A, Osawa R, Yamaguchi T, Tanabe S, Kondo K, Otaka Y, Sugawara K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Activation of TLR4/STAT3 signaling in VTA contributes to the acquisition and maintenance of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.
Abstract Morphine, commonly used to relieve the acute or chronic pain, has a high potential for addiction and exerts rewarding effects via a critical role for mesolimbic dopamine system. Studies suggest that addiction-related behavior is highly associated with inflammatory immune response, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study showed that intra-VTA microinjection of TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS prevented the acquisition and maintenance, but not the expression, of morphine-induced CPP in rats. In addition, chronic morphine treatment significantly activated STAT3 on day 6 and 11 in VTA, and bilateral...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen JX, Huang KM, Liu M, Jiang JX, Liu JP, Zhang YX, Chen-Yang, Xin WJ, Zhang XQ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dopaminergic responses in the core part of the nucleus accumbens to subcutaneous MK801 administration are increased following postnatal transient blockade of the prefrontal cortex.
Abstract Schizophrenia is a complex and devastating neuropsychiatric disease thought to result from impaired connectivity between several integrative regions, stemming from developmental failures. In particular, the left prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients seems to be targeted by such early developmental disturbances. Data obtained over the last three decades support the hypothesis of a dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. Striatal dopaminergic dysregulation in schizophrenia may result from a dysconnection between the prefrontal cortex and the striatum (dorsal and ventral) involving glutamatergic N-m...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tagliabue E, Pouvreau T, Eybrard S, Meyer F, Louilot A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Whisker dependent responsiveness of C57BL/6J to different behavioral test paradigms.
Abstract Whisker trimming is very common in C57BL/6J mice. Dewhiskering may lead to an alteration in the thalamocortical connectivity and relevant behavioral functions. Since C57BL/6J is a commonly used strain for neurobehavioral studies, it is important to examine how whisker dependent heterogeneity affects the internal validity of behavioral phenotypes. The present study aimed to investigate the responsiveness of mice to different behavioral test paradigms in the presence or absence of whiskers. We employed two models of whisker deprivation: Acute Whisker Desensitization (AWD) and Chronic Habitual Dewhiskering (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Haridas S, Ganapathi R, Kumar M, Manda K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex and the Housing: Effects on Behavior, Cortisol Levels and Weight in Zebrafish.
Abstract Studies with zebrafish use acclimatizing periods of at least one week immediately before the experiments. During this time, animals can be housed in sexually segregated conditions (only females or males in the tank) or in mixed-sex conditions (both sexes in the tank). The influence of sex and housing conditions regarding the presence of one or two sexes is largely unknown in zebrafish. Our aim was to evaluate the influence that sex and housing regarding the sex of animals had in the open tank task, in the inhibitory avoidance memory test, in cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish. Four groups of animals ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Reolon GK, de Melo GM, da Rosa JGDS, Barcellos LJG, Bonan CD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dynamic feet distance: a new functional assessment during treadmill locomotion in normal and thoracic spinal cord injured rats.
Varejão AS Abstract Of all the detrimental effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), one of the most devastating is the disruption of the ability to perform functional movement. Very little is known on the recovery of hindlimb joint kinematics after clinically-relevant contusive thoracic lesion in experimental animal models. A new functional assessment instrument, the dynamic feet distance (DFD) was used to describe the distance between the two feet throughout the gait cycle in normal and affected rodents. The purpose of this investigation was the evaluation and characterization of the DFD during treadmill locom...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Diogo CC, Costa LMD, Pereira JE, Filipe V, Couto PA, Magalhães LG, Geuna S, Armada-da-Silva PA, Maurício AC, Varejão AS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Developmental suppression of forebrain trkA receptors and attentional capacities in aging rats: A longitudinal study.
Abstract Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons innervating the cortex regulate cognitive, specifically attentional, processes. Cholinergic atrophy and cognitive decline occur at an accelerated pace in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease; however, the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that developmental suppression of nerve growth factor signaling, mediated via tropomyosin-related kinase A (trkA) receptors, would escalate age-related attentional vulnerability. An adeno-associated viral vector expressing trkA shRNA (AAV-trkA) was utiliz...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yegla B, Parikh V Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dissociation between the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity in the striatum and hippocampus: across-study convergence.
Abstract In tests of recognition memory, neural activity in the striatum has consistently been reported to differ according to the study status of the test item. A full understanding of the functional significance of striatal 'retrieval success' effects is impeded by a paucity of evidence concerning whether the effects differ according to the nature of the memory signal supporting the recognition judgment (recollection vs. familiarity). Here, we address this issue through an analysis of retrieval-related striatal activity in three independent fMRI studies (total N=88). Recollection and familiarity were operational...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: King DR, Chastelaine M, Elward RL, Wang TH, Rugg MD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research