Social Modeling of Eating Mediated by Mirror Neuron Activity: A Causal Model Moderated by Frontal Asymmetry and BMI.
Abstract The social modeling of eating effect refers to the consistently demonstrated phenomenon that individuals tend to match their quantity of food intake to their eating companion. The current study sought to explore whether activity within the mirror neuron system (MNS) mediates the social modeling of eating effect as a function of EEG frontal asymmetry and body mass index (BMI). Under the guise of rating empathy, 93 female undergraduates viewed a female video confederate "incidentally" consume either a low or high intake of chips while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded. Subsequent ad...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: McGeown L, Davis R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

ADX-47273, a mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulator, attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by withdrawal from 'binge-like' ethanol exposure in rats.
In conclusion, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptors recovered spatial reversal learning impairment induced by withdrawal from 'binge-like' ethanol exposure. Such effect seems to be correlated with the mGlu5 receptors mediated potentiation of GluN2B-NMDA receptor mediated responses in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Thus, our results emphasize the role of mGlu5 receptor PAM in the adaptive learning impaired by ethanol exposure. PMID: 29030082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Marszalek-Grabska M, Gibula-Bruzda E, Bodzon-Kulakowska A, Suder P, Gawel K, Talarek S, Listos J, Kedzierska E, Danysz W, Kotlinska JH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Involvement of posterior cingulate cortex in ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors in rats.
Abstract The involvement of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) on ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors was investigated in rats. Bilateral infusion of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, into the PCC significantly antagonized ketamine-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of a startle reflex (PPI), deficit in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials, and behavioral hyperlocomotion in a dose dependent manner. Local infusion of ketamine directly into the PCC also induced a PPI deficit. Systemic injection of ketamine (3mg/kg,s.c.) induced an increase in power of electrographic activity in the gamma ba...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma J, Leung LS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Zebrafish in the analysis of the milder and more prevalent form of the disease.
Abstract Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) represent a large unmet medical need. Exposure of the developing human embryo to alcohol can lead to life-long suffering. Despite the well documented deleterious effects of alcohol on the developing fetus, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, and FASD remains the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and other behavioral abnormalities. Particularly prevalent are the milder forms of the disease cluster, representing children who do not show obvious physical signs and who may be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. To develop treatment and diagnostic tools, res...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Seguin D, Gerlai R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Directional hippocampal-prefrontal interactions during working memory.
Abstract Working memory refers to a system that is essential for performing complex cognitive tasks such as reasoning, comprehension and learning. Evidence shows that hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) play important roles in working memory. The HPC-PFC interaction via theta-band oscillatory synchronization is critical for successful execution of working memory. However, whether one brain region is leading or lagging relative to another is still unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from rat ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and medial prefrontal cor...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu T, Bai W, Xia M, Tian X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Mitigation of postnatal ethanol-induced neuroinflammation ameliorates trace fear memory deficits in juvenile rats.
In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4 to 9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats. Phosphate buffered saline vehicle (VEH) or IBU was injected 2h following ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Goodfellow MJ, Shin YJ, Lindquist DH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Involvement of cannabinoid system in the nucleus accumbens on delay-based decision making in the rat.
Abstract The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a fundamental role in decision making and anticipation of reward. In addition, exogenous cannabinoids affect the behavior of humans and animals including disruption of short-term memory and cognitive impairments. Therefore, in this study, cannabinoid agonist and antagonist were administrated into the NAc to determine the effect of cannabinoid activation in the entire NAc on delay-based decision making. Rats were trained on a cost-benefit T-maze decision making task in which the animals were well-trained to choose between a small/immediate reward and a large/delay reward. ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fatahi Z, Sadeghi B, Haghparast A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Betulinic Acid on Neurobehavioral Activity, Electrophysiology and Histological Changes in an Animal Model of the Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common disorder characterized by aggregation and conversion of amyloid beta (Aβ) monomers to fibrils. Betulinic acid (BA) strongly accelerated this pathway through circumventing the oligomeric intermediate state. BA at doses of 0.2 and 0.4μM/10μl/rat (intra-hippocampal or i.h injection, vehicle: DMSO) was bilaterally administrated 180 and 10min before co-administration of Aβ (0.1μM/5μl/rat, i.h injection, vehicle: PBS) and Streptozotocin (STZ, 1.5mg/kg/10μl/rat, intracerebroventricular or i.c.v. injection, vehicle: aCSF). The behavioral assessments (s...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Navabi SP, Sarkaki A, Mansouri E, Badavi M, Ghadiri A, Farbood Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dynamic functional connectivity analysis reveals improved association between brain networks and eating behaviors compared to static analysis.
Abstract Uncontrollable eating behavior is highly associated with dysfunction in neurocognitive systems. We aimed to quantitatively link brain networks and eating behaviors based on dynamic functional connectivity analysis, which reflects temporal dynamics of brain networks. We used 62 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets representing 31 healthy weight (HW) and 31 non-HW participants based on body mass index (BMI). Brain networks were defined using a data-driven group-independent component analysis and a dynamic connectivity analysis with a sliding window technique was applied. The network...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Park BY, Moon T, Park H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Understanding gene functions and disease mechanisms: Phenotyping pipelines in the German Mouse Clinic.
ger S, Maier H, Miller M, Scheideler A, Wu M, Beckers J, Bekeredjian R, Brielmeier M, Busch DH, Klingenspor M, Klopstock T, Ollert M, Schmidt-Weber C, Stoeger T, Wolf E, Wurst W, Yildirim AÖ, Zimmer A, Gailus-Durner V, Hrabě de Angelis M Abstract Since decades, model organisms have provided an important approach for understanding the mechanistic basis of human diseases. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) was the first phenotyping facility that established a collaboration-based platform for phenotype characterization of mouse lines. In order to address individual projects by a tailor-made phenotyping strategy, the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fuchs H, Aguilar-Pimentel JA, Amarie OV, Becker L, Calzada-Wack J, Cho YL, Garrett L, Hölter SM, Irmler M, Kistler M, Kraiger M, Mayer-Kuckuk P, Moreth K, Rathkolb B, Rozman J, da Silva Buttkus P, Treise I, Zimprich A, Gampe K, Hutterer C, Leuchtenberger Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Understanding psychiatric disease by capturing ecologically relevant features of learning and decision-making.
e M Abstract Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Scholl J, Klein-Flügge M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain-behavior Relationships in Externalizing: P3 Amplitude Reduction Reflects Deficient Inhibitory Control.
Abstract The use of endophenotypes to classify individuals at risk for or suffering from psychopathology has been criticized for lacking specificity and predictive utility. This issue is apparent in research on externalizing, a heritable predisposition to disinhibitory psychopathology and personality traits. Numerous studies have shown that P3 amplitude reduction (P3AR) reliably reflects externalizing, implicating P3AR as a candidate endophenotype for externalizing psychopathology. However, this endophenotype has not been connected directly to a key deficit in executive function (e.g., inhibitory control) commonly...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Brennan GM, Baskin-Sommers AR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Leptin in the nucleus accumbens core disrupts acute cocaine effects: implications for GSK3 β connections.
Leptin in the nucleus accumbens core disrupts acute cocaine effects: implications for GSK3β connections. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Sep 27;: Authors: Lee JW, Kim WY, Cho BR, Vezina P, Kim JH Abstract An adipose-derived peptide hormone, leptin, has a regulatory role in reward-related behaviors produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that leptin modulates mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, little is known about its direct role in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the present study, we measured acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity in the rat and the phosphorylation levels of GSK3β after b...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee JW, Kim WY, Cho BR, Vezina P, Kim JH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A Mouse's Spontaneous Eating Repertoire Aids Performance on Laboratory Skilled Reaching Tasks: A Motoric Example of Instinctual Drift With an Ethological Description of the Withdraw Movements in Freely-Moving and Head-Fixed Mice.
Abstract Rodents display a spontaneous "order-common" pattern of food eating: they pick up food using the mouth, sit on their haunches, and transfer the food to the hands for handling/chewing. The present study examines how this pattern of behavior influences performance on "skilled-reaching" tasks, in which mice purchase food with a single hand. Here five types of withdraw movement, the retraction of the hand, in three reaching tasks: freely-moving single-pellet, head-fixed single-pellet, and head-fixed pasta-eating is described. The withdraw movement varied depending upon whether a reach was ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Whishaw IQ, Faraji J, Agha BM, Kuntz JR, Metz GAS, Mohajerani MH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Bilateral dorsal fronto-parietal areas are associated with integration of visual motion information and timed motor action.
or EA Abstract Interaction with the environment often involves situations requiring visuomotor integration. For instance, in fast interceptive actions, the brain must integrate visual information of motion with the appropriate motor action. In such dynamic situation, the brain may control movement based on predictions of where the object will be in the future and when it will arrive there. Although previous studies have analyzed brain regions associated with processing visual information of motion, motor control and visuomotor integration with static objects, less is known about visuomotor integration with moving ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: de Azevedo Neto RM, Júnior EA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Functional Coding Variation in the Presynaptic Dopamine Transporter Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders Drives Enhanced Motivation and Context-Dependent Impulsivity in Mice.
Abstract Recent genetic analyses have provided evidence that clinical commonalities associated with different psychiatric diagnoses often have shared mechanistic underpinnings. The development of animal models expressing functional genetic variation attributed to multiple disorders offers a salient opportunity to capture molecular, circuit and behavioral alterations underlying this hypothesis. In keeping with studies suggesting dopaminergic contributions to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subjects with these diagnoses have been found to ex...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Davis GL, Stewart A, Stanwood GD, Gowrishankar R, Hahn MK, Blakely RD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Beta-carotene as a Novel Therapy for the Treatment of "Autistic Like Behavior" in Animal Models of Autism.
Beta-carotene as a Novel Therapy for the Treatment of "Autistic Like Behavior" in Animal Models of Autism. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Sep 26;: Authors: Avraham Y, Berry EM, Donskoy M, Ahmad WA, Vorobiev L, Albeck A, Mankuta D Abstract Autism-affected individuals are characterized by lower plasma oxytocin and its ectoenzyme regulator CD38. Oxytocin, a hypothalamic hormone secreted upon the release of CD38, plays a role in social behavior and bonding. All-trans retinoic acid is a potent inducer of CD38 and can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy in autism. We investigated the role of beta-carot...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Avraham Y, Berry EM, Donskoy M, Ahmad WA, Vorobiev L, Albeck A, Mankuta D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Mild stress induces brain region-specific alterations of selective ER stress markers' mRNA expression in Wfs1-deficient mice.
r E Abstract In this work, the effect of mild stress (elevated plus maze test, EPM) on the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in different brain areas of wild type (WT) and Wfs1-deficient (Wfs1KO) mice was investigated. The following ER stress markers were studied: activating transcription factor 6α (Atf6α), protein kinase-like ER kinase (Perk), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) and its spliced form (Xbp1s), 78-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp78), 94-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp94), C/EBP homologous protein (Chop). Wfs1KO and WT mice, not exposed to EPM, had simi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Altperery A, Raud S, Sütt S, Reimets R, Visnapuu T, Toots M, Vasar E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioral Phenotypes and Neurobiological Mechanisms in the Shank1 Mouse Model for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Translational Perspective.
ml;hr M Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by early-onset deficits in social behavior and communication across multiple contexts, together with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. ASD is among the most heritable neuropsychiatric conditions with heritability estimates higher than 80%, and while available evidence points to a complex set of genetic factors, the SHANK (also known as ProSAP) gene family has emerged as one of the most promising candidates. Several genetic Shank mouse models for ASD were gener...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sungur AÖ, Schwarting RKW, Wöhr M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) Rats Choose More Impulsively Than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) Rats on a Delay Discounting Task.
This study used a concurrent-chains procedure to examine possible differences in impulsive choice between SHRs and control-normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The aim was to extend the generality of findings showing regularities between the hyperbolic-decay model and the generalized matching law fitting delay discounting data from nonhuman animals. The objectives were to: (1) examine differences in impulsive choice between SHRs and WKYs; (2) add evidence suggesting that the SHR is a suitable model of ADHD; (3) demonstrate that concurrent-chains procedures requiring locomotion detect differences in impulsive choice betwee...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Aparicio CF, Hennigan PJ, Mulligan LJ, Alonso-Alvarez B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The different baseline characteristics of cognitive behavior test between Mongolian gerbils and rats.
Abstract The Mongolian gerbil is a popular laboratory animal useful across many research fields. In the area of cognitive behavioral research the gerbil have been shown exhibit an anxiety-like profile on the elevated plus-maze, and they could be useful as an animal model for testing anxiolytics and antidepressants. However, there are few reports that thoroughly describe the behavioral characteristics of the gerbils in common cognitive behavior tests. In the present study, we used 7 behavior tests to detect the baseline characteristics of the gerbils and compare them to the Sprague Dawley rats. Collectively, the ge...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang S, Feng D, Li Y, Wang Y, Sun X, Li X, Li C, Chen Z, Du X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Under the Influence: Effects of Adolescent Ethanol Exposure and Anxiety on Motivation for Uncertain Gambling-like Cues in Male and Female Rats.
Abstract Gambling disorder (GD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol use and anxiety disorders, suggesting possible shared mechanisms. Recent research suggests reward uncertainty may powerfully enhance attraction towards reward cues. Here, we examined the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure, anxiety, and reward uncertainty on cue-triggered motivation. Male and female adolescent rats were given free access to ethanol or control jello for 20 days. Following withdrawal, rats underwent autoshaping on a certain (100%-1) or uncertain (50%-1-2-3) reward contingency, followed by single-session conditioned reinforcement an...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hellberg SN, Levit JD, Robinson MJF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Exercise pattern and distance differentially affect hippocampal and cerebellar experssion of flk-1 and flt-1 receptors in astrocytes and blood vessels.
This study standardized some of these variations. Rats were assigned to a voluntary or a forced wheel running exercise condition. Within each condition, animals ran at either a long (1,000m) or short distance (500m) for up to 24hr. Additionally, one voluntary group had unrestricted access to the wheels for the full 24hr. Exercising animals were then compared to inactive controls, based on unbiased stereological quantification of Flk-1 and Flt-1 immunohistochemical labeling in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Findings indicated that voluntary exercise, but not forced exercise, could significantly increase Flk-1 and Flt-1 exp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Stevenson ME, Behnke VK, Swain RA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

KIAA0319 promoter DNA methylation predicts dichotic listening performance in forced-attention conditions.
cklenburg S Abstract Language lateralization is one of the most prominent examples of functional hemispheric asymmetries. Previous studies indicate a significant contribution of factors not related to DNA sequence variation on the development of language lateralization, but the molecular processes underlying this relation are unclear. The Brandler-Paracchini model of hemispheric asymmetries assumes that genes involved in the establishment of ciliogenesis and bodily asymmetries also affect functional hemispheric asymmetries. Thus, genes implicated in this model represent a key target for epigenetic modulation of la...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmitz J, Kumsta R, Moser D, Güntürkün O, Ocklenburg S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Impaired cognitive flexibility during sleep deprivation among carriers of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met allele.
Abstract Accumulating evidence points to a genetic contribution to explain inter-individual vulnerability to sleep deprivation. A functional polymorphism in the BDNF gene, which causes a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) amino acid substitution at Codon 66, has been associated with cognitive impairment, particularly in populations with impaired frontal functioning. We hypothesised that sleep deprivation, which affects frontal function, may lead to cognitive dysfunction in Met allele carriers. To examine this, we investigated, in different BDNF genotypes, the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive flexibility, as...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Grant LK, Cain SW, Chang AM, Saxena R, Czeisler CA, Anderson C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Decreased Environmental Complexity during Development Impairs Habituation of Reinforcer Effectiveness of Sensory Stimuli.
In conclusion, rearing rats in simple/impoverished environments, and comparing them to rats reared in more complex/enriched environments, may constitute a useful approach for studying certain repetitive behaviors associated with developmental disorders. PMID: 28943426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang R, Hausknecht KA, Haj-Dahmane S, Shen RY, Richards JB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Alteration of adolescent aversive nicotine response and anxiety-like behavior in nicotine-exposed rats during late lactation period.
Abstract Early nicotine exposure is an important cause of further habitual tobacco smoking. Although nicotine has not only rewarding but also aversive properties, the effects of early nicotine exposure on the distinct properties of nicotine are not well known. To reveal the effects of early adolescent nicotine exposure on further persistent tobacco smoking, we demonstrated developmental changes in nicotine-related appetitive and aversive behaviors of rats exposed to nicotine during the late lactation period. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline or nicotine (2, 6 and 12mg/kg). We performed a two bottle fre...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee H, Jung T, Kim W, Noh J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Insulin modulates hippocampally-mediated spatial working memory via glucose transporter-4.
Abstract The insulin-regulated glucose transporter, GluT4, is a key molecule in peripheral insulin signaling. Although GluT4 is abundantly expressed in neurons of specific brain regions such as the hippocampus, the functional role of neuronal GluT4 is unclear. Here, we used pharmacological inhibition of GluT4-mediated glucose uptake to determine whether GluT4 mediates insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the hippocampus. Consistent with previous reports, we found that glucose utilization increased in the dorsal hippocampus of male rats during spontaneous alternation (SA), a hippocampally-mediated spatial working mem...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pearson-Leary J, Jahagirdar V, Sage J, McNay EC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Piperine restores streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairments: Insights into oxidative balance in cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampus.
Abstract Piperine has been shown to have antioxidant activity and a cognitive-enhancing effect following long-term oral administration. In a comparative study of memantine, the current investigation threw light on the cognitive benefits of piperine. Lipid peroxidation and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hippocampus in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of the Alzheimer's type was measured. After reaching a criterion in a memory test, STZ-induced rats received piperine [2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)], vehicle, and memantine (10mg/kg, i.p....
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Khalili-Fomeshi M, Azizi MG, Esmaeili MR, Gol M, Kazemi S, Ashrafpour M, Moghadamnia AA, Hosseinzadeh S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Comparison of cannabinoids with known analgesics using a novel high throughput zebrafish larval model of nociception.
Abstract It has been established that both adult and larval zebrafish are capable of showing nociceptive responses to noxious stimuli; however, the use of larvae to test novel analgesics has not been fully explored. Zebrafish larvae represent a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to traditional mammalian models for the assessment of product efficacy during the initial stages of drug development. In the current study, a novel model of nociception using zebrafish larvae is described. During the recovery from an acute exposure to low levels of acetic acid, larvae display innate changes in behaviour that may be indi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ellis LD, Berrue F, Morash M, Achenbach JC, Hill J, McDougall JJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of acute restraint and unpredictable chronic mild stress on brain corticotrophin releasing factor mRNA in the elevated T-maze.
This study verified the role of CRF in the modulation of ETM avoidance and escape reactions, in unstressed rats and in animals exposed to acute restraint or to UCMS, by quantifying CRF mRNA concentrations in stress/anxiety-related brain regions, through semiquantitative in situ hybridization. Results showed that stress exposure altered CRF mRNA in regions related to the modulation of stress/anxiety: the cingulate cortex, the hippocampus, the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, the medial and central amygdalas, the dorsal region of the dorsal raphe (dDR) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. A regression anal...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: de Andrade JS, Céspedes IC, Abrão RO, da Silva JM, Ceneviva R, Ribeiro DA, Bittencourt JC, Viana MB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Automated dissection of permanent effects of hippocampal or prefrontal lesions on performance at spatial, working memory and circadian timing tasks of C57BL/6 mice in IntelliCage.
Abstract To evaluate permanent effects of hippocampal and prefrontal cortex lesion on spatial tasks, lesioned and sham-operated female C57BL mice were exposed to a series of conditioning schemes in IntelliCages housing 8-10 transponder-tagged mice from each treatment group. Sequential testing started at 51 to 172days after bilateral lesions and lasted for 154 and 218days in two batches of mice, respectively. Spontaneous undisturbed behavioral patterns clearly separated the three groups, hippocampals being characterized by more erratic hyperactivity, and strongly impaired circadian synchronization ability. Hippocam...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Voikar V, Krackow S, Lipp HP, Rau A, Colacicco G, Wolfer DP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Metabolic profiling of the effects of ginsenoside Re in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major neurological diseases among the elderly, and there are presently no approved treatments that can slow its progression. It has been reported that ginsenoside Re (G-Re), an active pharmacological component of ginseng, can ameliorate the symptoms of AD, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The current study was designed to test the effects of G-Re by investigating the metabolite profiles of AD mice. An AD animal model was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of β-amyloid in Kunming mice. Model mice were administered G-Re intragastrically (4mg/...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li J, Liu Y, Li W, Wang Z, Guo P, Li L, Li N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex-Dependent Behavioral Impairments in the HdhQ350/+ Mouse Line.
Abstract Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by gradual deterioration of motor and cognitive functions and development of psychiatric deficits. Animal models provide powerful means to study the pathological processes, molecular dysfunctions and symptoms associated with HD. We performed a longitudinal behavioral study of the newly developed HdhQ350/+ mouse line, a knock-in model that expresses a repeat of 350 glutamines. We found remarkable sex-dependent differences on symptom onset and severity. While both sexes lose weight and grip strength, only HdhQ350/+ ma...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cao JK, Detloff PJ, Gardner RG, Stella N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Ethyl-acetate fraction of Trichilia catigua restores long-term retrograde memory and reduces oxidative stress and inflammation after global cerebral ischemia in rats.
Abstract We originally reported that an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of Trichilia catigua prevented the impairment of water maze learning and hippocampal neurodegeneration after transient global cerebral (TGCI) in mice. We extended that previous study by evaluating whether T. catigua (i) prevents the loss of long-term retrograde memory assessed in the aversive radial maze (AvRM), (ii) confers hippocampal and cortical neuroprotection, and (iii) mitigates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rats that are subjected to the four vessel occlusion (4-VO) model of TGCI. In the first experiment, naive rats were train...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Godinho J, de Oliveira RMW, de Sa-Nakanishi AB, Bacarin CC, Huzita CH, Longhini R, Mello JCP, Nakamura CV, Previdelli IS, Dal Molin Ribeiro MH, Milani H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A role for nucleus accumbens glutamate in the expression but not the induction of behavioural sensitization to ethanol.
Abstract Mechanisms underlying differential sensitivity to behavioural sensitization to ethanol (EtOH) remain poorly understood, although accumulating evidence suggests a role for glutamatergic processes in the ventral striatum. Efforts to address this issue can benefit from the well-documented fact that in any given cohort, some of the mice (High sensitized; HS) show robust sensitization, while others (Low sensitized; LS) show little, if any, sensitization. Here, we examined whether this variability might be differentially associated with nucleus accumbens (NAc) glutamate processes. Male DBA mice received 5 EtOH ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nona CN, Nobrega JN Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The plasmalogen precursor analog PPI-1011 reduces the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in de novo MPTP monkeys.
olo T Abstract The gold standard therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), induces dyskinesias in the majority of patients after years of treatment. Ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtn) play critical roles in membrane structure mediated functions and as a storage depot of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid. We previously showed that a PlsEtn precursor PPI-1011 reduced already established L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesioned monkeys as a PD model. We hypothesize that development of LID can be prevented...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bourque M, Grégoire L, Di Paolo T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Early-Life Stress Modulates Neural Networks Associated with Habitual Use of Reappraisal.
We examined amygdala-centered RSFC using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 28 healthy adults with varied exposure to early-life emotional abuse. We found that in subjects with high early-life emotional abuse, reappraisal was predominantly associated with RSFC between left centromedial amygdala (CMA) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), whereas in subjects with low early-life EA reappraisal predominantly involved RSFC between right CMA, premotor and supplementary motor regions. For subjects with high EA, reappraisal use was associated with a decrease in negative mood whereas it was associated with ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Khawli EE, Fan Y, Aust S, Wirth K, Bönke L, Stevense A, Herrera A, Metz S, Loayza A, Bajbouj M, Grimm S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Awakenings in rats by ultrasounds: a new animal model for paradoxical kinesia.
s L Abstract Paradoxical kinesia refers to a sudden transient ability of akinetic patients to perform motor tasks they are otherwise unable to perform. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown due a paucity of valid animal models that faithfully reproduce paradoxical kinesia. Here, in a first experiment, we present a new method to study paradoxical kinesia by "awakening" cataleptic rats through presenting appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which are typical for social situations with positive valence, like juvenile play or sexual encounters ("rat laughter"). Rats rec...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tonelli LC, Wöhr M, Schwarting R, Melo-Thomas L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sociability trait and regional cerebral oxidative metabolism in rats: Predominantly nonlinear relations.
Abstract Deficits in social behaviour are common in psychopathological conditions e.g., depression, autism and schizophrenia. In rats, sociability, defined as the engagement of an animal in non-aggressive social contact with a conspecific in a neutral arena, is as a persistent trait. To elucidate the neuroanatomy of social behaviour in animal models, long term neuronal energy metabolism was studied in rats preselected for sociability levels. Rats were divided into groups with high, medium and low sociability levels (HS, MS and LS) according to the average score of three social interaction tests, and cerebral long-...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kanarik M, Harro J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in a mice model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Abstract There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice. The neurochemical investigation of several brain regions of the corticostriato...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Winter C, Greene DM, Mavrogiorgou P, Schaper H, Sohr R, Bult-Ito A, Juckel G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The effects of aerobic exercise on depression-like, anxiety-like, and cognition-like behaviours over the healthy adult lifespan of C57BL/6 mice.
This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy aging C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups. Exercise commenced at aged 3 months and behaviours were assessed in young adult (Y), early middle age (M), and old (O) mice (n=11-17/group). The open field and elevated zero maze examined anxiety-like behaviours, depression-like behaviours were quantified with the forced swim test, and the Y maze and Barnes maze investigated cognition-like behaviours. The effects of lifetime exercise wer...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Morgan JA, Singhal G, Corrigan F, Jaehne EJ, Jawahar MC, Baune BT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Acid-sensing ion channel 1 contributes to normal olfactory function.
Abstract Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are cation channels activated by protons. ASIC1a, a primary ASIC subunit in the brain, was recently characterized in the olfactory bulb. The present study tested the hypothesis that ASIC1a is essential for normal olfactory function. Olfactory behavior of wild-type (WT) and ASIC1-/- mice was evaluated by using three standard olfactory tests: (1) the buried food test, (2) the olfactory habituation test, and (3) the olfactory preference test. In buried food test, ASIC1-/- mice had significantly longer latency to uncover buried food than WT mice. In olfactory habituation test...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vann KT, Xiong ZG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Acute alerting effects of light: a systematic literature review.
Abstract Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects and to assess to what extent they depend on other factors, such as time of day, exposure duration and sleep pressure. In total, we identified 74 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distributi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Souman JL, Tinga AM, Te Pas SF, van Ee R, Vlaskamp BNS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Information content of dendritic spines after motor learning.
In this study, using a behavioral paradigm of motor learning, we applied the non-linear analysis of dendritic spines to study spine complexity along dendrites of cortical and subcortical neural systems, such as the basal ganglia, that sustain important motor learning processes. We show that, after learning, the spine organization has greater complexity, as indexed by the maximum Lyapunov exponent (LyE). The positive value of the exponent demonstrates that the system is chaotic, while recurrence plots show that the system is not simply composed by random noise, but displays quasi-periodic behavior. The increase in the maxim...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Viggiano D, Speranza L, Crispino M, Bellenchi GC, di Porzio U, Iemolo A, De Leonibus E, Volpicelli F, Perrone-Capano C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A facilitating role for the primary motor cortex in action sentence processing.
Abstract The involvement of the motor system in action language comprehension is a hotly debated topic in cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Recent studies suggest that primary motor cortex (M1) response to action language is context-sensitive rather than automatic and necessary. Specifically, semantic polarity (i.e. affirmative/negative valence) appears to modulate the intensity of this response, which is stronger for affirmative action sentences. The aim of our study was to examine further the context sensitivity of M1 response. More specifically, we aimed to determine whether M1 response follows semantic po...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Courson M, Macoir J, Tremblay P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity.
Abstract Obesity is a major public health problem. Herein, we aim to identify the correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and analysis. Twenty obese patients (BMI=37.66±5.07) and 30 healthy controls (BMI=22.64±3.45) were compared using neuroimaging and assessed for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All participants underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and T1-weighted imaging using a 1.5T MRI. Multimodal MRI techniques and analyses were used to assess ob...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chao HH, Liao YT, Chen VC, Li CJ, McIntyre RS, Lee Y, Weng JC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Applicability of the grip strength and automated von Frey tactile sensitivity tests in the mouse photothrombotic model of stroke.
In this study, we evaluated the applicability of forepaw grip strength and automated von Frey tactile sensitivity tests to assess forelimb dysfunction in mice following photothrombosis in the sensorimotor cortex, and compared them with two well-established tests, grid-walking and cylinder, for up to 21days after stroke. Our results indicate that the length of time required to conduct the two new tests is comparable to that of the grid-walking and cylinder tests, however the data from the new tests is obtained and ready for analysis upon completion of the testing session. In addition, our observations indicate that the auto...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alamri FF, Shoyaib AA, Biggers A, Jayaraman S, Guindon J, Karamyan VT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Caffeine has no effect on eyeblink conditioning in mice.
Abstract Caffeine is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. In the brain, caffeine acts as an antagonist for the adenosine A1 and A2B receptors. Since A1 receptors are highly concentrated in the cortex of the cerebellum, we hypothesized that caffeine could potentially affect learning tasks that require the cerebellar cortex, such as eyeblink conditioning. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of low (5mg/kg) and high (50mg/kg) doses of caffeine, injected intraperitoneally before training, on eyeblink conditioning in mice. The results show that, at the dosages we used, caffeine affects neither th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rasmussen A, Ijpelaar ACHG, De Zeeuw CI, Boele HJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Motor function deficits in the 12 month-old female 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Motor problems occur early in some patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as the disease progresses many patients develop motor dysfunction. Motor dysfunction has been reported in some mouse models of AD, including the 5xFAD mouse, thus this model may be particularly useful for studying motor dysfunction in AD. In order to determine the extent of motor dysfunction in these mice, we tested 11-13 month old female 5xFAD and wildtype (WT) control mice in a battery of motor behaviour tasks. The 5xFAD mice showed hind limb clasping, weighed less and had slower righting reflexes than WT mice. In the open fie...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Leary TP, Robertson A, Chipman PH, Rafuse VF, Brown RE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research