Acute oral Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester reduces depression-like behavior in two genetic animal models of depression.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cannabidiolic acid methyl ester (HU-580) was recently shown to reduce stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to examine the antidepressant effect of HU-580 in two different rat models of depression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using the forced swim test (FST), we evaluated the effect of HU-580 in 43 Wistar - Kyoto (WKY) and 23 Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) adult male rats. KEY RESULTS: 1 mg/kg HU-580 reduced immobility and increased swimming in WKY rats, compared to vehicle-treated controls (p 
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hen-Shoval D, Amar S, Shbiro L, Smoum R, Haj CG, Mechoulam R, Zalsman G, Weller A, Shoval G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Inhibiting ER α expression in the medial amygdala increases prosocial behavior in male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).
This study tested the hypothesis that site-specific estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression is a critical factor in the expression of male prosocial behavior and aggression. Previous studies have shown that in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) low levels of ERα expression, in the medial amygdala (MeA), play an essential role in the expression of high levels of male prosocial behavior and that increasing ERα expression reduced male prosocial behavior. We used an shRNA adeno-associated viral vector to knock down/inhibit ERα in the MeA of the polygynous male meadow vole (M. p...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Stetzik L, Ganshevsky D, Lende MN, Roache LE, Musatov S, Cushing BS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex-dependent behavior, neuropeptide profile and antidepressant response in rat model of depression.
e; AA Abstract A plethora of animal models of depression is described in the literature, aiming at mimicking different aspects of depression. Understanding the link between depression and stress has been and remains a major focus area for development of animal models, but lines of research with a more mechanistic focus targeting deficiencies in neurotransmitter systems or dysfunctional neuronal circuitries and neuroinflammation are also pursued vigorously. The main objectives of the present study were systematically to evaluate strain and sex characteristics of a genetic animal model, the Flinders Sensitive Line (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanchez C, El Khoury A, Hassan M, Wegener G, Mathé AA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves language control during language switching.
Xie N Abstract Currently, there is increasing attention on how to best improve language control efficiency and minimize cross-language interference in bilinguals. Previous studies have demonstrated that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) plays an important role in inhibiting unrelated stimuli. The current study applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during language switching to determine whether modulation of rDLPFC would affect language control mechanisms. All the participants have undergone three types of stimulations: cathodal stimulation, anodal stimulation and sham stimulation. The ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li B, Liu H, Pérez A, Xie N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

High Fat Diet feeding induced insulin resistance exacerbates 6-OHDA mediated neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in rats.
Abstract Some of the clinical reports suggest that insulin resistance could be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) development, however experimental data is scarce. Our previous work has suggested that insulin resistance could be an important factor that leads to diabetes associated neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated whether insulin resistance is linked to PD pathology or not. For this purpose, we first standardized an animal model which could mimic the co-morbid insulin resistance and PD condition. For development of insulin resistance, we fed the male Wistar rats with high fat diet (HFD...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sharma S, Taliyan R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Fasudil hydrochloride ameliorates memory deficits in rat model of streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease: Involvement of PI3-kinase, eNOS and NF κB.
Fasudil hydrochloride ameliorates memory deficits in rat model of streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease: Involvement of PI3-kinase, eNOS and NFκB. Behav Brain Res. 2018 May 25;: Authors: Kumar M, Bansal N Abstract Restoration of PI3-kinase signaling portrays therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hyperactive Rho-kinase in AD negatively modulates PI3-kinase pathway, thereby cause cognitive decline. Fasudil is a Rho-kinase inhibitor that has shown therapeutic benefits in brain disorders. The present study is aimed to decipher the role of PI3-kinase pathway in neuroprotective activ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kumar M, Bansal N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Immediate and long-term antidepressive-like effects of pre-pubertal escitalopram and omega-3 supplementation combination in young adult stress-sensitive rats.
Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects a significant number of children and adolescents, yet treatment options for this population remain very limited. Escitalopram (ESC) is one of only two antidepressants approved as treatment for juvenile depression. Still, delayed onset of action, and immediate plus the risk of lasting side effects contribute to low patient adherence, and places the medical prescriber in a difficult situation weighing the potential long-term effects of juvenile treatment against the known consequences of untreated MDD. Research into alternative or augmentation strategies and their lon...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Steyn SF, Harvey BH, Brink CB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein E DNA Methylation and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder are Associated with Plasma ApoE Level: A Preliminary Study.
We examined whether DNA methylation of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene promoter region or plasma ApoE protein levels are altered in mTBI. APOE promoter region DNA methylation, APOE genotypes, and plasma ApoE concentration were determined in 87 Veterans with or without mTBI who were recruited from 2010-2014. Plasma ApoE concentration was found to be associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom severity ratings by hierarchical linear regression (p = .013) and ANCOVA (p = .007). Hierarchical linear regression revealed that plasma ApoE concentration was associated with APOE-ε4 genotype status (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nielsen DA, Spellicy CJ, Harding MJ, Graham DP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

No effect of sex and estrous cycle on the fear potentiated startle response in rats.
In conclusion, the current study shows that male and female rats do not differ in their conditioned fear response and the responsiveness to benzodiazepines. The results further indicate that conditioned fear-related processes are not affected by gonadal hormone fluctuations in this paradigm. These findings may suggest that the higher prevalence of anxiety disorders in women more likely results from differences in responding to previous experiences or differences in other predisposing factors, rather than differences in conditioned fear per se. PMID: 29803653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao Y, Bijlsma EY, Verdouw MP, Groenink L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior and dysregulation of brain levels of biogenic amines in Drosophila melanogaster.
In conclusion, male Drosophila melanogaster exposed to CUMS display a depressive-like phenotype, and, while this poses some limitations as an animal model for depression, it meets some of the criteria required to be a valid model, such as good face and construct validity. PMID: 29803654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Araujo SM, Poetini MR, Bortolotto VC, de Freitas Couto S, Pinheiro FC, Meichtry LB, de Almeida FP, Santos Musachio EA, de Paula MT, Prigol M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Insulin dependent and independent normalization of blood glucose levels reduces the enhanced rewarding effects of nicotine in a rodent model of diabetes.
This study examined whether the enhanced rewarding effects of nicotine observed in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats are insulin-mediated. Male and female rats were treated with STZ and the rewarding effects of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) were measured using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Some STZ-treated animals received insulin supplementation via subcutaneous immediately after STZ administration, while other rats received daily injections of dapagliflozin (10 mg/kg), a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor. Both male and female STZ-treated rats displayed hyperglycemia, and their blood glucose levels (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Íbias J, O'Dell LE, Nazarian A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The visual cortex and visual cognition in Huntington's disease: an overview of current literature.
Abstract The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature on clinical visual deficits, visual cognitive imp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Coppen EM, van der Grond J, Hart EP, Lakke EAJF, Roos RAC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 in the dopaminergic modulation of motor impulsivity.
Abstract The current study investigated the mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) regulated cAMP in the dopaminergic modulation of premature responding (action restraint) in rats. Response inhibition, which includes action restraint, finds its neurobiological origin in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry and can be modulated by dopamine. Intracellularly, the effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Areas in the prefrontal cortex are very sensitive to their neurochemical environment, including catecholamine levels. As a result, we investigated the effects of intrace...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Heckman PRA, Blokland A, Van Goethem NP, Van Hagen BTJ, Prickaerts J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Factors Underlying Risk Taking in Heroin-Dependent Individuals: Feedback Processing and Environmental Contingencies.
Abstract Evidence suggests that factors influencing risk-taking include whether decisions are made based on emotions (affective systems) or cognitions (deliberative systems), the processing of feedback (e.g., deciding to attend a rehabilitation facility for opioid addiction treatment after an intervention held by a family member), and attention to environmental contingencies (e.g., considering the probability of an outcome such as the likelihood of contracting tetanus from a shared needle; or the gains and losses associated with a decision, such as the benefits and costs of taking drugs). Although drug-dependent i...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Saleme DM, Kluwe-Schiavon B, Soliman A, Misiak B, Frydecka D, Moustafa AA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Impaired Spatial Processing in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.
Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual impairment. The Fmr1-/y mouse model has been previously shown to have deficits in context discrimination tasks but not in the elevated plus-maze. To further characterize this FXS mouse model and determine whether hippocampal-mediated behaviours are affected in these mice, dentate gyrus (DG)-dependent spatial processing and Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1)-dependent temporal order discrimination tasks were evaluated. In agreement with previous findings of long-term potentiation deficits in the DG of this transgenic model of FXS, the results re...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ghilan M, Bettio L, Noonan A, Brocardo PS, Gil-Mohapel J, Christie BR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Environmentally enriched pigs have transcriptional profiles consistent with neuroprotective effects and reduced microglial activity.
Abstract Environmental enrichment (EE) is widely used to study the effects of external factors on brain development, function and health in rodent models, but very little is known of the effects of EE on the brain in a large animal model such as the pig. Twenty-four young pigs (aged 5 weeks at start of study, 1:1 male: female ratio) were housed in environmentally enriched (EE) pens and provided with additional enrichment stimulation (a bag filled with straw) once daily. Litter, weight and sex matched controls n= (24) were housed in barren (B) conditions. Behaviour was recorded on alternate days from study day 10. ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Brown SM, Bush SJ, Summers KM, Hume DA, Lawrence AB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Predicted reach consequences drive time course of tactile suppression.
Abstract Sensitivity to touch is reduced during movement; this tactile suppression is likely the result of a mechanism that suppresses self-generated movement consequences. We sought to determine whether tactile suppression is modulated by naturally evoked changes in movement speed driven by task precision demands (Exp.1), and by changes in predicted movement consequences (Exp.2). We measured suppression by comparing detection thresholds for a vibration applied to the finger during reach and at rest. In Experiment 1 we varied reach target size to create a speed-accuracy tradeoff, where participants decelerated mor...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fraser LE, Fiehler K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Activation of Kappa Opioid Receptors in the Dorsal Raphe Have Sex Dependent Effects on Social Behavior in California Mice.
Abstract Kappa opioid receptor activation has been linked to stress and anxiety behavior, thus leading to kappa antagonists being popularized in research as potential anxiolytics. However, while these findings may hold true in standard models, the neuromodulatory effects of social defeat may change the behavioral outcome of kappa opioid receptor activation. Previous research has shown that social defeat can lead to hyperactivity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and that inhibition of this increase blocks the social deficits caused by defeat. Kappa opioid receptor activation in the dorsal raphe ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wright EC, Parks TV, Alexander JO, Supra R, Trainor BC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate, alone, and as augmentation of lurasidone or tandospirone, rescues phencyclidine-induced deficits in cognitive function and social interaction.
CONCLUSION: PregS was effective alone and as adjunctive treatment for treating two types of cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in this schizophrenia model. Further study of the mechanisms by which PregS alone and in combination with AAPDs and 5-HT1A R partial agonists, rescues the deficits in cognition and SI in this preclinical model is indicated. PMID: 29763637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rajagopal L, Soni D, Meltzer HY Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Individual behavioural predictors of amphetamine-induced emission of 50 kHz vocalization in rats.
This study used a powerful within-subjects design to investigate the relationships among individual differences in approach to a sweet-food reward, predisposition to emit 50 kHz USVs spontaneously, and 50 kHz USVs emission following acute systemic administration of amphetamine. Both approach motivation and predisposition to call were found to not correlate with each other but did predict 50 kHz USV response to acute amphetamine. These two behavioural phenotypes appear to represent dissociable predictors of acute amphetamine-induced emission of 50 kHz USVs in a non-sensitization paradigm. In contrast to that, a meas...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mulvihill KG, Brudzynski SM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Beneficial Effect of Etazolate on Depression-like Behavior and, Learning, and Memory Impairment in a Model of Parkinson's Disease.
In conclusion, motor dysfunction, depressive- like behavior, and learning and memory deficits in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD can be significantly prevented by etazolate. This prevention could be attributed to etazolate's ability to prevent reduction in antioxidative stress biomarkers and BDNF levels. PMID: 29758248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Alzoubi KH, Mokhemer E, Abuirmeileh AN Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the RELN gene and symptom-based and developmental deficits among children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders in the Tianjin, China.
This study aimed to provide additional evidence for the association between two SNPs of RELN (i.e., rs736707, rs2229864) and ASD risk, as well as the relationship between RELN gene and symptom-based and developmental deficits of ASD patients in Chinese Han children and adolescents. 157 ASD subjects and 256 typical development (TD) controls were genotyped by TaqMan® genotyping assay. ASD patients were assessed by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Early Childhood Development Questionnaire (ECDQ). We found that SNP rs2229864 was associated with the genetic predisposition of ASD, wh...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang GF, Ye S, Gao L, Han Y, Guo X, Dong XP, Su YY, Zhang X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Gender-dependent changes in physical development, BDNF content and GSH redox system in a model of acute neonatal hypoxia in rats.
Abstract Perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia is one of the leading factors that negatively influence the development of the central nervous system. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sex on the outcomes of acute neonatal hypoxia (ANH) in rat pups. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to a hypoxic condition (8% oxygen for 120 min) at postnatal day 2 (P2). Immediately after ANH an increase in HIF1-α gene expression was observed in the rat brains, independently of sex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glutathione peroxidase-4 gene expression was increased in female animals only. Hypoxic pups of...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sukhanova IA, Sebentsova EA, Khukhareva DD, Manchenko DM, Glazova NY, Vishnyakova PA, Inozemtseva LS, Dolotov OV, Vysokikh MY, Levitskaya NG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Optical mapping of prefrontal brain connectivity and activation during emotion anticipation.
Abstract Accumulated neuroimaging evidence shows that the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is activated during emotion anticipation. The aim of this work is to examine the brain connectivity and activation differences in dlPFC between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses were first assessed for all subjects during the performance of various emotion anticipation tasks. And then small-world analysis was performed, in which the small-world network indicators including the clustering coefficient, average path l...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang MY, Lu FM, Hu Z, Zhang J, Yuan Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Repeated cycles of binge-like ethanol exposure induce immediate and delayed neurobehavioral changes and hippocampal dysfunction in adolescent female rats.
A, Maia CSF Abstract Binge-like ethanol intake (BEI) is a socioeconomical problem among adolescents and increasingly affects women. BEI can leave a long-term imprint in the brain, but it is unknown if its effect on cognition and anxiety is cumulative on repeated binge-ethanol episodes. We now submitted female Wistar rats to repeated cycles of binge-like ethanol treatment by intragastrically administering ethanol (3.0 g/kg/day, 20% w/v ethanol; 3 days on/4 days off) starting at postnatal day 35 (PND35). To investigate the short-term effects of BEI during adolescence, rats underwent 1 or 4 cycles of BEI, being eva...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fernandes LMP, Cartágenes SC, Barros MA, Carvalheiro TCVS, de Freitas Castro NC, Schamne MG, Lima RR, Prediger RD, Monteiro MC, Enéas AF, Cunha RA, Maia CSF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential contributions of cortical thickness and surface area to trait impulsivity in healthy young adults.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is an essential human personality trait and highly relevant for the development of several mental disorders. There is evidence that impulsivity is heritable, yet little is known about neural correlates reflecting early brain development. Here, we address the question whether motor, attentional and non-planning components, as reflected by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), are distinctly associated with cortical thickness and surface area variations in young healthy individuals. METHOD: We investigated cortical thickness and surface area in 54 healthy volunteers (m/f =...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kubera KM, Schmitgen MM, Maier-Hein KH, Thomann PA, Hirjak D, Wolf RC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential behavioral and glial responses induced by dopaminergic mechanisms in the iNOS knockout mice.
nza M Abstract The interaction between distinctive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the dopamine system provides new avenues to the development of pharmacological tools for the pathophysiological conditions of the dopaminergic system. Our aim was to investigate the influences of dopamine-induced effects in inducible NOS knockout (iNOS KO) mice. In order to characterize iNOS KO mice phenotype, the animals were submitted to the basal analyses of motor, sensorimotor and sensorial abilities. Pharmacological challenging of the dopaminergic system included the investigation of amphetamine-induced prepulse inhibi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Issy AC, Nascimento GC, de Abreu GHD, Tristão FS, Del-Bel E, Duarte T, Bortolanza M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Standard analgesics reverse burrowing deficits in a rat CCI model of neuropathic pain, but not in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes-induced neuropathic pain.
CONCLUSIONS: Burrowing performance cannot necessarily be used as pain-related readout across pain models and largely depends on the model used, at least in models of neuropathy. Specifically, analgesic drug effects might be masked by general diabetes-associated alteration of the animals' well-being, resulting in false negative outcomes. PMID: 29738803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rutten K, Gould SA, Bryden L, Doods H, Christoph T, Pekcec A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Alcohol aggravates ketamine-induced behavioral, morphological and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats: the involvement of CREB-related pathways.
This study provided the first evidence that co-administration of alcohol (2 and 4 g/kg, i.g.) in adolescent rats significantly potentiated the neurotoxic properties of repeated ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) treatments over 14 days, manifesting as increased locomotor activity, stereotypic behaviour, ataxia and morphological changes. This potentiation was associated with the enhancement by alcohol of ketamine-induced glutamate (Glu) and dopamine (DA) release in the cortex and hippocampus. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that alcohol potentiated ketamine-induced neurotoxicity through down-regulation of Akt (a serine/th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zuo D, Liu Y, Liu Z, Cui J, Zhou X, Liu Y, Li Z, Wu Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and brain networks are modulated in a testosterone-dependent manner in Sprague Dawley rats.
Abstract Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC), which involves endogenous pain modulation, has been investigated as a potential mechanism for the differences in pain modulation observed between men and women, though the literature shows contradictory findings. We used a capsaicin-induced DNIC behavioral assay and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to assess the effect of testosterone on pain modulation and related brain circuitry in rats. We hypothesized that testosterone is required for DNIC that leads to efficient pain inhibition by increasing descending pain modulation. Male, femal...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Da Silva JT, Zhang Y, Asgar J, Ro JY, Seminowicz DA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neonatal immune activation by lipopolysaccharide causes inadequate emotional responses to novel situations but no changes in anxiety or cognitive behavior in Wistar rats.
Abstract Infection during the prenatal or neonatal stages of life is considered one of the major risk factors for the development of mental diseases such as schizophrenia or autism. However, the impacts of such an immune challenge on adult behavior are still not clear. In our study, we used a model of early postnatal immune activation by the application of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rat pups at a dose of 2 mg/kg from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 9. In adulthood, the rats were tested in a battery of tasks probing various aspects of behavior: spontaneous activity (open field test), social behavi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Vojtechova I, Petrasek T, Maleninska K, Brozka H, Tejkalova H, Horacek J, Stuchlik A, Vales K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bridges bilateral primary somatosensory cortices during cross-modal working memory.
Abstract Neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been suggested to integrate information from distinct sensory areas. However, how the DLPFC interacts with the bilateral primary somatosensory cortices (SIs) in tactile-visual cross-modal working memory has not yet been established. In the present study, we applied single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sp-TMS) over the contralateral DLPFC and bilateral SIs of human participants at various time points, while they performed a tactile-visual delayed matching-to-sample task with a 2-second delay. sp-TMS over the contralateral DLPFC or...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao D, Ku Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Evidence for a long-term protection of wheel-running exercise against cocaine psychomotor sensitization in adolescent but not in adult mice.
Abstract Rodents housed with a running wheel can exhibit attenuated cocaine seeking and cocaine-induced psychomotor activation. However, the longevity of such a protection and the influence of the developmental stage during which exercise is displayed received little attention. Here, females and males C57BL/6 J mice, aged 28 (adolescents) or 77 (adults) days were housed with (n = 56) or without (n = 28) a running wheel. After 3 weeks in these conditions, half of the exercised mice were deprived of their wheel (n = 28) whereas the other half and the sedentary mice were kept in their respective environ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - May 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lespine LF, Tirelli E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol prevents cognitive deficits induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress: Sirt1/miR-134 signalling pathway regulates CREB/BDNF expression in hippocampus in vivo and in vitro.
In conclusion, our study showed that the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on CUMS-induced cognitive impairment may rely on activating Sirt1/miR-134 pathway and then upregulating its downstream CREB/BDNF expression in hippocampus. PMID: 29715537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen J, Xu L, Qu C, Sun H, Zhang J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Age- and sex-dependent effects of methamphetamine on cognitive flexibility and 5-HT2C receptor localization in the orbitofrontal cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats.
Abstract Adolescents and females experience worse outcomes of drug use compared to adults and males. This could result from age- and sex-specific consequences of drug exposure on brain function and cognitive behavior. In the current study, we examined whether a history of intravenous methamphetamine (METH) self-administration impacted cognitive flexibility and 5-HT2CR localization in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in an age- and sex-dependent manner. Strategy shifting was assessed in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats that had self-administered METH (0.08 mg/kg/inf) or received non-contingent infusions of salin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hankosky ER, Westbrook SR, Haake RM, Willing J, Raetzman LT, Juraska JM, Gulley JM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD386088 impairs behavioral flexibility and working memory.
Abstract Serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system and to even further extent brain regions responsible for learning and memory. Recent studies have demonstrated 5-HT6 receptor involvement in pathophysiological processes highlighting their therapeutic possibilities. Most research concerning the effects of 5-HT6 receptor modulation has focused on blockade despite paradoxical findings that 5-HT6 agonists and antagonists can both have pro-cognitive effects. The current experiments examine the effects of the 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD386088 on behavioral flexibility and workin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Amodeo DA, Peterson S, Pahua A, Posadas R, Hernandez A, Hefner E, Qi D, Vega J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Predictive coding of the statistical parameters of uncertain rewards by orbitofrontal neurons.
Abstract Uncertain reward outcomes are characterised by statistical parameters that capture the numerical values of the underlying probability distributions of reward values, including the expected value, risk (variance) and probability. Here we show coding of an integrated expected value signal by single orbitofrontal neurons in response to visual cues predicting uncertain rewards. Separate subpopulations of orbitofrontal neurons predominantly code the prediction of one statistical parameter with few neurons showing combined coding. These signals are likely combined with subjective value signals to inform learnin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Neill M, Schultz W Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Physiological identification of cortico-striatal projection neurons for song control in Bengalese finches.
Abstract The avian song system is a group of brain areas specialized for vocal learning and production of song. A major cortical control area, HVC, projects both to a motor output circuit and to a striatal area in the anterior forebrain pathway. These projections are made by two groups of neurons, with mainly distinct roles in either programming vocal production or regulating vocal plasticity. In order to distinguish these two types of projection neurons in singing birds, we recorded unit activity in HVC of anesthetized birds, while stimulating in the anterior forebrain nucleus Area X. HVC units identified in this...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hessler NA, Okanoya K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of HIV-1 TAT protein and methamphetamine exposure on visual discrimination and executive function in mice.
Abstract Mild neurocognitive impairments are common in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-encoded proteins, such as trans-activator of transcription (TAT), contribute to neuropathology and cognitive function in medicated subjects. The combination of TAT and comorbid methamphetamine use may further impair neurocognitive function in HIV-positive individuals by affecting dopaminergic systems in the brain. The current study examined the effects of TAT protein expression and methamphetamine exposure on cognitive function and dopamine systems in mice. Transgenic mice with inducible brain expre...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kesby JP, Fields JA, Chang A, Coban H, Achim CL, Semenova S, TMARC Group Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The effects of acute foot shock stress on empathy levels in rats.
Abstract Empathy defined as the ability to understand and the share the feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of another, is an important skill in survival and reproduction. Among many factors that affect empathy include psychological stress, anxiety states. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of acute psychological stress on empathic behavior and its association with oxytocin and vasopressin levels in amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Rats were subjected to 0.2 mA (low) and 1.6 mA (high) intensity of foot shock stress for duration of 20 minutes. Empathic behavior was found to be improved as a resp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Karakilic A, Kizildag S, Kandis S, Guvendi G, Koc B, Camsari GB, Camsari UM, Ates M, Arda SG, Uysal N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Addiction vulnerability trait impacts complex movement control: evidence from sign-trackers.
Abstract Cognitive-motivational vulnerability traits are associated with increased risk for substance addiction and relapse. Sign-tracking (ST) behavior in rats is associated with poor attentional control, mediated by an unresponsive basal forebrain cholinergic system, and an increased risk for substance addiction/relapse. A separate literature links poor attentional control and cholinergic losses to increased fall risk in Parkinson's disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that the relatively inferior attentional control of STs extends to complex movement control and a propensity for falls. STs were found to fall ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kucinski A, Lustig C, Sarter M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women" [Behav. Brain Res. 338 (2018) 166-172].
Corrigendum to "Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women" [Behav. Brain Res. 338 (2018) 166-172]. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Apr 25;: Authors: Solianik R, Sujeta A PMID: 29705356 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Solianik R, Sujeta A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent and adult female Wistar rats.
In this study, locomotor sensitization was assessed in adolescent and adult female Wistar rats following either chronic stress during adolescence (CAS) or no stress (NS). Adolescent, but not adult, female Wistar rats developed locomotor sensitization to 15 mg/kg cocaine over 5 days of treatment, regardless of stress history. CAS reduced the initial locomotor response to novelty in both adolescent and adult rats compared to NS controls but had no effect on locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescents or adult female rats. These studies expand our understanding of age and adolescent stress on cocaine-induced behaviora...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rowson SA, Foster SL, Weinshenker D, Neigh GN Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Modelling Fragile X syndrome in the laboratory setting: a behavioral perspective.
Abstract Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and the most frequent monogenic cause of syndromic autism spectrum disorders. The syndrome is caused by the loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), a key RNA-binding protein involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal morphology. Patients show intellectual disability, social deficits, repetitive behaviors and impairments in social communication. The aim of this review is to outline the importance of behavioral phenotyping of animal models of FXS from a developmental perspective, by showing how the behavioral chara...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Melancia F, Trezza V Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Gene expression of Dio2 (thyroid hormone converting enzyme) in telencephalon is linked with predisposed biological motion preference in domestic chicks.
Abstract Filial imprinting leads to the formation of social attachment if training is performed during a brief sensitive period after hatching. We found that thyroid hormone (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3) acts as a critical determining factor of the sensitive period in domestic chicks. Imprinting upregulates gene expression of the converting enzyme (Dio2, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase) in the telencephalon, leading to increased brain T3 content. If systemically applied, T3 facilitates imprinting in aged chicks even after the sensitive period is over. Imprinting is also associated with the rapid development of vis...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Takemura Y, Yamaguchi S, Aoki N, Miura M, Homma KJ, Matsushima T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Erysodine, a competitive antagonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, decreases ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring UChB rats.
r-Zárate R Abstract Alcohol abuse is a worldwide health problem with high economic costs to health systems. Emerging evidence suggests that modulation of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may be a therapeutic target for alcohol dependence. In this work, we assess the effectiveness of four doses of erysodine (1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 8.0 mg/kg/day, i.p.), a competitive antagonist of nAChRs, on voluntary ethanol consumption behavior in alcohol-preferring UChB rats, administered during three consecutive days. Results show that erysodine administration produces a dose-dependent reduction in ethanol con...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Quiroz G, Guerra-Díaz N, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, Rivera-Meza M, Quintanilla ME, Sotomayor-Zárate R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of internal and external factors on the budgeting between defensive and non-defensive responses in Aplysia.
In this study, we attempted to uncouple the co-expression of sensitization and feeding suppression using: 1) manipulation of the animal's motivational state through prolonged food deprivation and 2) extended training with aversive stimuli that induces sensitization lasting for weeks. Both manipulations uncoupled the co-expression of the above behavioral changes. Prolonged food deprivation prevented the expression of sensitization, but not of feeding suppression. Following the extended training, sensitization and feeding suppression were co-expressed only for a limited time (i.e., 24 h), after which feeding returned to ba...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Leod KAM, Seas A, Wainwright ML, Mozzachiodi R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.
CONCLUSION: The integrated analysis of psychopathology, ELS and neuroendocrine function may provide useful indicators to differentiate BPD and BD diagnoses. These preliminary data need to be replicated in a more significant sample with a better assessment and multiple assessments of the HPA axis activity. PMID: 29702176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mazer AK, Cleare AJ, Young AH, Juruena MF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Whole-body pulsed EMF stimulation improves cognitive and psychomotor activity in senescent rats.
etz K, Nyakas C Abstract During advanced aging passive exercise (PE) is becoming a valuable therapeutic intervention to improve physical and mental performances. In the present study chronic low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure was presented to senescent rats in order to clarify the behavioural effects related to cognitive and motility functions. Male Wistar rats of 30-32 months old were treated with EMF for six weeks, 3 times per week, 24 min per sessions prior to the age of 32 months. Stimulation intensities varied from 45 to 1250 µT. Psychomotility was estimated in an open field (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Téglás T, Dörnyei G, Bretz K, Nyakas C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Female hatchling American kestrels have a larger hippocampus than males: A link with sexual size dimorphism?
Abstract The brain and underlying cognition may vary adaptively according to an organism's ecology. As with all raptor species, adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) are sexually dimorphic with females being larger than males. Related to this sexual dimorphism, kestrels display sex differences in hunting and migration, with females ranging more widely than males, suggesting possible sex differences in spatial cognition. However, hippocampus volume, the brain region responsible for spatial cognition, has not been investigated in raptors. Here, we measured hippocampus and telencephalon volumes in American kestr...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Guigueno MF, Karouna-Renier NK, Henry PFP, Head JA, Peters LE, Palace VP, Letcher RJ, Fernie KJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research