Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of neurochemical changes in the atrophic hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuropathological changes and progressive cognitive decline, which is associated with the volume loss and neurochemical alterations. However, the specific neurochemical alterations in cerebral regions that contribute to cognitive decline still remain unknown. In the present study, we measured cerebral morphological and neurochemical alterations using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in an AD model of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis indicated atrophy of the hippocamp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liang S, Huang J, Liu W, Jin H, Li L, Zhang X, Nie B, Lin R, Tao J, Zhao S, Shan B, Chen L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The rat retrosplenial cortex as a link for frontal functions: A lesion analysis.
Abstract Cohorts of rats with excitotoxic retrosplenial cortex lesions were tested on four behavioural tasks sensitive to dysfunctions in prelimbic cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or both. In this way the study tested whether retrosplenial cortex has nonspatial functions that reflect its anatomical interactions with these frontal cortical areas. In Experiment 1, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on a set-shifting digging task that taxed intradimensional and extradimensional attention, as well as reversal learning. Likewise, retrosplenial cortex lesions did not impair a strategy shift task in a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Powell AL, Nelson A, Hindley E, Davies M, Aggleton JP, Vann SD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of acute and subchronic stress on electrical activity of basolateral amygdala neurons in conditioned place preference paradigm: An electrophysiological study.
Abstract The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in the neural circuitry of stress and mediates the effects of stress on memory related processes. Moreover, this area has an important role in drug-seeking and relapse of approach behavior to drug-associated cues. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of acute and subchronic stress in saline- and/or morphine-treated rats in conditioned place preference paradigm on the neural activity in the BLA. Male Wistar rats were divided into two saline- and morphine-treated supergroups. Each supergroup contained control, acute stress ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fatahi Z, Zibaii MI, Haghparast A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Venlafaxine exerts antidepressant effects possibly by activating MAPK-ERK1/2 and P13K-AKT pathways in the hippocampus.
This study sheds light on the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of venlafaxine. PMID: 28797602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen P, Hu Q, Dong M, Bai S, Liang Z, Chen Z, Li P, Hu Z, Zhong X, Zhu D, Wang H, Xie P Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic traumatic stress impairs memory in mice: potential roles of acetylcholine, neuroinflammation and corticotropin releasing factor expression in the hippocampus.
Abstract Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhakta A, Gavini K, Yang E, Lyman-Henley L, Parameshwaran K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reduced hippocampal IL-10 expression, altered monoaminergic activity and anxiety and depressive-like behavior in female mice subjected to chronic social instability stress.
This study analyzed the effects of CSI on female mouse behavior, hippocampal cytokine expression, tryptophan metabolism and monoaminergic activity. The activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes were also measured. Results showed a decrease in sucrose consumption in stressed subjects, indicative of anhedonic behavior and an increase in climbing activity in the forced swimming test (FST) and in whisking behavior, which have been associated with anxiety. Decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was found in the hippocampus of the stressed mice, while no differences in pr...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Labaka A, Gómez-Lázaro E, Vegas O, Pérez-Tejada J, Arregi A, Garmendia L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Lateral Masking Effects on Contrast Sensitivity in Rats.
Abstract Changes in target visibility may be produced by additional stimulus elements at adjacent locations. Such contextual effects may reflect lateral interactions of stimulus representations in early cortical areas. It has been reported that the organization of orientation preference found in primates and cats visual cortex differs from that found in rodents, suggesting functional distinctions across species. In order to examine effects of lateral interactions at a perceptual level, contrast sensitivity in rats was measured for Gabor patches masked by two additional patches. Rats responded to target onset, and ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kurylo DD, Yeturo S, Lanza J, Bukhari F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The role of thioredoxin-1 in resisting methamphetamine-induced rewarding effect.
In this study, we examined the rewarding effect after METH administration by conditioned place preference (CPP) of mice, and detected the levels of dopamine and the activity of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), the expressions of ΔFosB and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice. Our results showed that the expression of METH-CPP was occluded in Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (TG) mice. The increase of dopamine level induced by METH was not further higher in Trx-1 TG mice. METH decreased the expression of Trx-1 which was restored in TG mi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang M, Kong L, Yang L, Li X, Zhou X, Li Y, Bai J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

May the use of different background strains 'strain' the stress-related phenotype of GR(+/-) mice?
Abstract Genetically altered mice are available on different background strains. While respective backcrosses are often performed for pragmatic reasons, e.g. references, comparability, or existing protocols, the interaction between the mutations per se and the background strain often remains a neglected factor. The heterozygous mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) represents a well-examined model for depressive-like behavior in mice. To address the question in how far a robust depressive-like phenotype on a distinct background strain may allow a generalized conclusion, we analyzed respective phenotype...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vogt MA, Pfeiffer N, Guisquet AML, Brandwein C, Brizard B, Gass P, Belzung C, Chourbaji S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

SIRT2 inhibition reverses anhedonia in the VGLUT1+/- depression model.
rta E, Tordera RM Abstract Some histone deacetylase (HDACs) enzymes have been proposed as epigenetic targets involved in the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant-like action. Among them, we have recently identified SIRT2, a class III NAD(+)-dependent HDAC, as being oppositely regulated by stress and antidepressants. Moreover, SIRT2 inhibition has shown antianhedonic-like action in the chronic mild stress model of depression. Here we have extended the study using an alternative model of depression based in a genetic manipulation of glutamate function. Specifically, mice heterozygous for the vesicular gl...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Muñoz-Cobo I, Belloch FB, Díaz-Perdigón T, Puerta E, Tordera RM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prefrontal connections of the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices in the rat.
Abstract Knowing how prefrontal regions interact with medial temporal lobe structures is important for understanding memory and cognition. Using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods in the rat, we report a detailed study of the perirhinal (PER) and postrhinal (POR) connections with the lateral, ventrolateral, and medial orbitofrontal cortices (ORBl, ORBvl, ORBm), infralimbic and prelimbic cortices (IL, PL), ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACAv, ACAd), and secondary motor cortex (MOs). Our analyses included the topography and laminar patterns of these connections. The PER and POR showed ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hwang E, Willis BS, Burwell RD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Vision In Laboratory Rodents - Tools To Measure It And Implications For Behavioral Research.
Abstract Mice and rats are nocturnal mammals and their vision is specialized for detection of motion and contrast in dim light conditions. These species possess a large proportion of UV-sensitive cones in their retinas and the majority of their optic nerve axons target superior colliculus rather than visual cortex. Therefore, it was a widely held belief that laboratory rodents hardly utilize vision during day-time behavior. This dogma is being questioned as accumulating evidence suggests that laboratory rodents are able to perform complex visual functions, such as perceiving subjective contours, and that declined ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Leinonen H, Tanila H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Assessment of behavioural deficits following ischaemic stroke in the marmoset.
Abstract Stroke is a common and devastating disease worldwide. Over the last two decades, many therapeutic approaches to ameliorate ischaemic stroke have been promising in animal studies but failed when transferred to the clinical situation. One of the possible explanations for these failures is the widespread use of animal models of cerebral ischemia that do not mimic the pathology encountered in the clinic. Accordingly, many expert committees recommended the integration of higher order species such as non-human primates in pre-clinical stroke studies. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World m...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Le Gal R, Bernaudin M, Toutain J, Touzani O Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Modulation of the storage of social recognition memory by neurotransmitter systems in the insular cortex.
Abstract The insular cortex (IC) receives projections from prefrontal, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, olfactory bulb and basal nuclei and has reciprocal connections with the amygdala and entorhinal cortex. These connections suggest a possible involvement in memory processes; this has been borne out by data on several behaviors. Social recognition memory (SRM) is essential to form social groups and to establish hierarchies and social and affective ties. Despite its importance, knowledge about the brain structures and the neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in its processing is still scarce. Here we study the par...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cavalcante LES, Zinn CG, Schmidt SD, Saenger BF, Ferreira FF, Furini CRG, Myskiw JC, Izquierdo I Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioral outcome measures to improve experimental stroke research.
Abstract Functional recovery after an experimental stroke can be assessed by multiple behavioral tests, however, there is no consensus about which test to use in long-term stroke recovery studies or whether the tests are affected by stroke surgery, post-operative care or behavioral compensation due to repeated testing. This review describes the tests most commonly used to assess motor and sensorimotor function, cognition and mood in stroke animals. Although it is difficult to predict the direction of future research, it may be possible to prevent false-positive results by selecting an appropriate task or a battery...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Balkaya MG, Trueman RC, Boltze J, Corbett D, Jolkkonen J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Repeated daily administration of increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide provides a model of sustained inflammation-induced depressive-like behaviour in mice that is independent of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Abstract Mounting preclinical evidence has implicated the NLRP3 inflammasome in depression-related behaviours elicited by chronic stress or acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. However, the relevance of acute LPS as a model of depression has been questioned and behavioural time-courses of its effects can be inconsistent. The aims of this study were (1) to develop a novel protocol for repeated daily LPS administration and (2) to use this model to assess the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome signalling in sustained inflammation-induced depressive-like behaviour in adult C57BL/6J mice deficient in NLRP3. Acute L...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wickens RA, Donck LV, MacKenzie AB, Bailey SJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of paternal deprivation on cocaine-induced behavioral response and hypothalamic oxytocin immunoreactivity and serum oxytocin level in female mandarin voles.
Abstract Early paternal behavior plays a critical role in behavioral development in monogamous species. The vast majority of laboratory studies investigating the effect of parental separation on cocaine vulnerability focus on the effects of early maternal separation. However, comparable studies on whether early paternal deprivation influences cocaine-induced behavioral response are substantially lacking. Mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus) is a monogamous rodent with high levels of paternal care. After mandarin vole pups were subjected to early paternal deprivation, acute cocaine- induced locomotion, anxiety- like...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Fang Q, Yang C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

An analysis of dentate gyrus function (an update).
Abstract In this review there will be a description of the dentate gyrus (DG) neural circuitry that mediates the operation of a variety of mnemonic processes associated with dorsal and ventral DG function in rats. Dysfunction of the dorsal DG can be shown to mediate mnemonic processing of spatially based information including a) the operation of conjunctive encoding of multiple sensory inputs to determine spatial representations, b) pattern separation based on reducing interference between similar spatial locations and spatial contexts for horizontal distance between objects, vertical distance for height of object...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kesner RP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Noradrenergic antagonists mitigate amphetamine-induced recovery.
Abstract Brain injury, including that due to stroke, leaves individuals with cognitive deficits that can disrupt daily aspect of living. As of now there are few treatments that shown limited amounts of success in improving functional outcome. The use of stimulants such as amphetamine have shown some success in improving outcome following brain injury. While the pharmacological mechanisms for amphetamine are known; the specific processes responsible for improving behavioral outcome following injury remain unknown. Understanding these mechanisms can help to refine the use of amphetamine as a potential treatment or l...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hylin MJ, Brenneman MM, Corwin JV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neonatal fluoxetine exposure modulates serotonergic neurotransmission and disturb inhibitory action of serotonin on food intake.
za SL Abstract The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) acts as an important regulator of the critical neurodevelopmental processes and thus alterations in 5-HT signaling early promotes permanent structural and functional changes in brain. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as fluoxetine and citalopram, blocking serotonin transporter (SERT) at the presynaptic neuron, which regulates extracellular 5-HT levels. Evidence suggests that the exposure to SSRIs in the neurodevelopmental period may alters 5-HT signaling sensitivity on food intake control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effe...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pinheiro IL, da Silva AI, Reginato A, da Silva Filho RC, Galindo LCM, Matos RJB, de Souza Ferraz Junior JC, Toscano Meneses da Silva AE, Milanski Ferreira M, Manhães de Castro R, de Souza SL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Treadmill running prevents age-related memory deficit and alters neurotrophic factors and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of Wistar rats.
to CA Abstract Clinical and pre-clinical studies indicate that exercise is beneficial to many aspects of brain function especially during aging. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 month-old) and aged (22 month-old) male Wistar rats, on: I) cognitive function, as assessed by spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) oxidative stress parameters and the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, NT-3, IGF-1 and VEGF in the hippocampus. Animals of both ages were assigned to sedentary (non-exercised) and exercised (20min of daily running sessions, 3 times p...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vanzella C, Neves JD, Vizuete A, Aristimunha D, Kolling J, Longoni A, Gonçalves CAS, de Souza Wyse AT, Netto CA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Potential role of tyrosine hydroxylase in the loss of psychostimulant effect of amphetamine under conditions of impaired dopamine transporter activity.
Abstract Amphetamine and methylphenidate are known to have stimulatory effect in healthy subjects but not in humans with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in rodents with impaired dopamine transporter (DAT) function. This phenomenon is called the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants. It has been previously demonstrated that psychostimulants may regulate the enzymatic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the lack of activity-stimulating effects of amphetamine in hyperactive rats is associated with changes in TH activity. To mo...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Janenaite E, Vengeliene V, Bespalov A, Behl B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Functional Brain Activation Associated with Working Memory Training and Transfer.
This study investigated neural correlates of WM training in healthy young adults randomized to six weeks of WM training, or an active control condition (processing speed training) with a pre- and post-training fMRI design. Results indicated significant reductions in activation for the WM trained group in key WM-task related areas for trained WM tasks after training compared to the processing speed active control group. The same pattern of training related decreases in activation for the WM trained group was not observed for the transfer task, which is consistent with null results for all cognitive outcomes of the present t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Clark CM, Lawlor-Savage L, Goghari VM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Putting attention in the spotlight: The influence of APOE genotype on visual search in mid adulthood.
Abstract The Apolipoprotein E e4 allele is associated with greater cognitive decline with age, yet effects of this gene are also observed earlier in the lifespan. This research explores genotype differences (e2, e3, e4) in the allocation of visuospatial attention in mid-adulthood. Sixty-six volunteers, aged 45-55 years, completed two paradigms probing the active selection of information at the focus of attention (a dynamic scaling task) and perceptual capacity differences. Two methods of statistical comparison (parametric statistics, Bayesian inference) found no significant difference between e4 carriers and the h...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lancaster C, Forster S, Tabet N, Rusted J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Atorvastatin on D-galactose-Induced Aging Model in Mice.
Abstract Atorvastatin (Ator), competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, is a cholesterol lowering drug. Ator has been shown to have neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties making that a potential candidate for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Here we assessed the effect of Ator on the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging in mice. For this purpose, Ator (0.1 and 1mg/kg/p.o.), was administrated daily in D-gal-received (500mg/kg/p.o.) mice model of aging for six weeks. Anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive functions were evaluated by the eleva...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaviani E, Rahmani M, Kaeidi A, Shamsizadeh A, Allahtavakoli M, Mozafari N, Fatemi I Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Decrease in endogenous brain allopregnanolone induces autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like behavior in mice: a novel animal model of ASD.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms of social impairments and restrictive repetitive behaviors. Recent evidence has implicated a dysfunction in the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of ASD. We investigated the role of endogenous allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroidal positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, in the regulation of ASD-like behavior in male mice using SKF105111 (SKF), an inhibitor of type I and type II 5α-reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme of ALLO biosynthesis. SKF impaired sociability-related performance, as analyzed by th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ebihara K, Fujiwara H, Awale S, Dibwe DF, Araki R, Yabe T, Matsumto K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for preventing Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract This review provides the rationale for implementing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are known risk factors associated with the development of AD, some of which may be ameliorated with CBT. We posit that treating the risk factors of inactivity, poor diet, hyposmia and anosmia, sleep disorders and lack of regularly engaged challenging cognitive activity will modify the physiology of the brain sufficiently to avoid the accumulation of excess proteins, including amyloid beta, causal events in the development of AD. Further, the successful treatment of t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Reid LD, Avens FE, Walf AA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex Determines Effect of Physical Activity on Diet Preference: Association of Striatal Opioids and Gut Microbiota Composition.
Abstract Previous studies suggest an interaction between the level of physical activity and diet preference. However, this relationship has not been well characterized for sex differences that may exist. The present study examined the influence of sex on diet preference in male and female Wistar rats that were housed under either sedentary (no wheel access) (SED) or voluntary wheel running access (RUN) conditions. Following a 1 week acclimation period to these conditions, standard chow was replaced with concurrent ad libitum access to a choice of 3 pelleted diets (high-fat, high-sucrose, and high-corn starch) in t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee JR, Muckerman JE, Wright AM, Davis DJ, Childs TE, Gillespie CE, Vieira-Potter VJ, Booth FW, Ericsson AC, Will MJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Reproductive factors and risk of Parkinson's Disease in women: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
In conclusion, our meta-analysis provided little epidemiological support for the role of reproductive factors in the incidence of PD. Whether surgical menopause is inversely associated with the risk of PD requires further explorations. PMID: 28743601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lv M, Zhang Y, Chen GC, Li G, Rui Y, Qin L, Wan Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Menthol disrupts nicotine's psychostimulant properties in an age and sex-dependent manner in C57BL/6J mice.
Abstract Menthol is a commonly used flavorant in tobacco and e-cigarettes, and could contribute to nicotine sensitivity. To understand how menthol could contribute to nicotine intake and addiction, it is important to determine whether specific mechanisms related to sex and age could underlie behavioral changes induced by menthol-laced nicotinic products. Using a validated paradigm of nicotine-dependent locomotor stimulation, adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice of both sexes were exposed to nicotine, or nicotine laced with menthol, as their sole source of fluid, and psychostimulant effects were evaluated by recordin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fait BW, Thompson D, Mose T, Jatlow P, Jordt S, Picciotto MR, Mineur YS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pre- and post-natal melatonin administration partially regulates brain oxidative stress but does not improve cognitive or histological alterations in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.
z-Cué C, Rueda N Abstract Melatonin administered during adulthood induces beneficial effects on cognition and neuroprotection in the Ts65Dn (TS) mouse model of Down syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of pre- and post-natal melatonin treatment on behavioral and cognitive abnormalities and on several neuromorphological alterations (hypocellularity, neurogenesis impairment and increased oxidative stress) that appear during the early developmental stages in TS mice. Pregnant TS females were orally treated with melatonin or vehicle from the time of conception until the weaning of the offspring, and the ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Corrales A, Parisotto EB, Vidal V, García-Cerro S, Lantigua S, Diego M, Filho DW, Sanchez-Barceló EJ, Martínez-Cué C, Rueda N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Ibudilast reduces oxaliplatin-induced tactile allodynia and cognitive impairments in rats.
Abstract Chemotherapy can cause serious neurotoxic side effects, such as painful peripheral neuropathies and disabling cognitive impairments. Four experiments examined whether Ibudilast, a clinically approved neuroimmune therapy, would reduce tactile allodynia and memory impairments caused by oxaliplatin in laboratory rats. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin (6mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle and were assessed for tactile allodynia 3 or 5days after injection, memory impairments in the novel object and novel location recognition tests 10-12days after injection, and fear conditioning 14days after inject...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Johnston IN, Tan M, Cao J, Matsos A, Forrest DRL, Si E, Fardell JE, Hutchinson MR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Impaired microglia fractalkine signaling affects stress reaction and coping style in mice.
cute;, Kovács KJ Abstract Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS are sensitive to various perturbations of the environment, such as stress exposure, and may be involved in translating these changes to behavior. Among the pathways mediating stress-related neuronal cues to microglia, the fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) signaling plays a crucial role. Using mice, in which the CX3CR1 gene was deleted, we explored hormonal and behavioral responses to acute and chronic stress along with changes in hypothalamic microglia. CX3CR1(-/-) animals display active escape in forced swim- and tail suspension ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Winkler Z, Kuti D, Ferenczi S, Gulyás K, Polyák Á, Kovács KJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Microbial regulation of hippocampal miRNA expression: Implications for transcription of kynurenine pathway enzymes.
Abstract Increasing evidence points to a functional role of the enteric microbiota in brain development, function and behaviour including the regulation of transcriptional activity in the hippocampus. No changes in CNS miRNA expression have yet been linked to the colonisation status of the gut. Given the pivotal impact of miRNAs on gene expression, our study was based on the hypothesis that this would also be altered in the germ-free state in the hippocampus. We measured miRNAs in the hippocampus of Germ free (GF), conventional (C) and Germ free colonised (GFC) Swiss Webster mice. miRNAs were selected for follow u...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Moloney GM, O'Leary OF, Salvo-Romero E, Desbonnet L, Shanahan F, Dinan TG, Clarke G, Cryan JF Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors of the dorsal raphe nucleus mediate panic-like behaviours and fear-induced antinociception elicited by neuronal activation in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.
Abstract It has been established that chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) of laboratory animals evokes fear-related defensive responses, which are considered panic attack-like behaviours. In addition, there is evidence that defensive reactions provoked by chemical stimulation of midbrain tectum neurons may induce an antinociceptive response. Morphologically, the IC receives projections from other mesencephalic structures, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region rich in serotonergic neurons that play a critical role in the control of defensive behaviours. Moreover, this monoaminergic brain...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: da Silva Soares R, Falconi-Sobrinho LL, Dos Anjos-Garcia T, Coimbra NC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

AMPAkines and morphine provide complementary analgesia.
Abstract Glutamate signaling in the central nervous system is known to play a key role in pain regulation. AMPAkines can enhance glutamate signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. previous studies have shown that AMPAkines are effective analgesic agents, and their site of action is likely in the brain. It is not known, however, if AMPAkines can provide complementary analgesia in combination with opioids, the most commonly used analgesics. Here, we show that the co-administration of an AMPAkine with morphine can provide additional analgesia, both in naïve r...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun Y, Liu K, Martinez E, Dale J, Huang D, Wang J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

TRPV1 modulates morphine-induced conditioned place preference via p38 MAPK in the nucleus accumbens.
Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) is a novel target for the treatment of drug addiction, such as cocaine and morphine. Previously we reported that TRPV1 inhibition reduced morphine reward in the dorsal striatum (DSt) of mice and morphine self-administration through a decrease in accumbal activity in rats. However, the role of TRPV1 on morphine-conditioned reward in addiction-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has not been previously established. Here, we investigated the effects of TRPV1 on morphine conditioned place ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hong SI, Nguyen TL, Ma SX, Kim HC, Lee SY, Jang CG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Arousal and drug abuse.
Abstract The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band freque...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Urbano FJ, Bisagno V, Garcia-Rill E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Convergence of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β and GR signaling in response to fluoxetine treatment in chronically stressed female and male rats.
Convergence of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and GR signaling in response to fluoxetine treatment in chronically stressed female and male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Jul 17;: Authors: Mitic M, Brkic Z, Lukic I, Adzic M Abstract Accumulating evidence strongly suggest that impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is involved in stress-related mood disorders, and nominate GR as a potential target for antidepressants (ADs). It is known that different classes of ADs affects the GR action via modifying its phosphorylation, while the mechanism through which ADs alter GR phosphorylation targeted by ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Mitic M, Brkic Z, Lukic I, Adzic M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pleasant and unpleasant odour-face combinations influence face and odour perception: An event-related potential study.
Abstract Odours alter evaluations of concurrent visual stimuli. However, neural mechanisms underlying the effects of congruent and incongruent odours on facial expression perception are not clear. Moreover, the influence of emotional faces on odour perception is not established. We investigated the effects of one pleasant and one unpleasant odour paired with happy and disgusted faces, on subjective ratings and ERP responses to faces. Participants rated the pleasantness of happy and disgusted faces that appeared during 3second pleasant or unpleasant odour pulses, or without odour. Odour pleasantness and intensity r...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cook S, Kokmotou K, Soto V, Fallon N, Tyson-Carr J, Thomas A, Giesbrecht T, Field M, Stancak A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

What we imagine is what we do? A critical overview about mental imagery as a strategy to study human defensive responses.
Abstract There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shuhama R, Blanchard DC, Graeff FG, Del-Ben CM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex differences in somatic and sensory motor development after neonatal anoxia in Wistar rats.
This study aimed to investigate some physical parameters of development, sensorimotor alterations, early neurological reflexes as well as the density of cells in motor and sensorimotor cerebral cortex of adolescent rats submitted to neonatal anoxia. The results presented significant differences in most of the evaluated parameters, such as body weight and lenght, medio-lateral head axis, eruption of superior incisor, palmar grasp, auditory startle, negative geotaxis, showing that neonatal anoxia affects physical parameters and neurological development, with sex differences. Cellular analysis revealed decreased amount of neu...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kumar AJ, Takada SH, Motta-Teixeira LC, Lee VY, Xavier GF, Nogueira MI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Risk Assessment and Serotonin: Animal Models and Human Psychopathologies.
Abstract Risk assessment (RA) is an evolved, generally adaptive, mechanism comprising focused attention and appraisal of potential threat stimuli and situations. Initially characterized in animal models, it provides a number of behavioral and functional parallels to patterns of rumination, gaze biases, and other forms of affective cognition that appear to be disregulated in depression and anxiety. Serotonergic mechanisms are involved in these mood disorders, and an emerging body of evidence suggests that they may modulate the affective cognitive changes common to such psychopathologies. Findings of parallel effect...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Blanchard DC, Meyza K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Adolescent social isolation affects schizophrenia-like behavior and astrocyte biomarkers in the PFC of adult rats.
Abstract Social isolation is regarded as a cause of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Animal models of schizophrenia are constructed by repeated early environment deprivation as an important paradigm to reveal its pathological mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to either social-rearing (SR) or isolated-rearing (IR) groups during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioral testing including locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviors in an open field and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Then, the rats were sacrificed and prefrontal cortex (PFC) tissues were separated for high-th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun L, Min L, Zhou H, Li M, Shao F, Wang W Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Implicit self-other discrimination affects the interplay between multisensory affordances of mental representations of faces.
Abstract Face recognition is an apparently straightforward but, in fact, complex ability, encompassing the activation of at least visual and somatosensory representations. Understanding how identity shapes the interplay between these face-related affordances could clarify the mechanisms of self-other discrimination. To this aim, we exploited the so-called "face inversion effect" (FIE), a specific bias in the mental rotation of face images (of other people): with respect to inanimate objects, face images require longer time to be mentally rotated from the upside-down. Via the FIE, which suggests the activ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeugin D, Arfa N, Notter M, Murray MM, Ionta S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The ADRA2B gene in the production of false memories for affective information in healthy female volunteers.
In this study, we collected genotype data from 212 healthy female volunteers; 91 ADRA2B carriers and 121 non-carriers. To assess gene effects on false memories for affective information, factorial mixed model analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were conducted with genotype as the between-subjects factor and type of memory error as the within-subjects factor. We found that although carriers and non-carriers made comparable numbers of false memory errors, they showed differences in the direction of valence biases, especially for inferential causal errors. Specifically, carriers produced fewer causal false memory errors for script...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fairfield B, Mammarella N, Di Domenico A, D'Aurora M, Stuppia L, Gatta V Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The α3β4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in a rat model of relapse and induces minimal withdrawal in dependent rats.
The α3β4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in a rat model of relapse and induces minimal withdrawal in dependent rats. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Jul 07;: Authors: Yuan M, Malagon AM, Yasuda D, Belluzzi JD, Leslie FM, Zaveri NT Abstract The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuan M, Malagon AM, Yasuda D, Belluzzi JD, Leslie FM, Zaveri NT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Implicit Predictions of Future Rewards and their Electrophysiological Correlates.
Abstract Information that is motivationally relevant to an organism's survival demands preferential attention. Affective mechanisms facilitate attentional shifts and potentiate action to allow organisms to respond appropriately to motivationally relevant information. Previous work has demonstrated that the late-positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential elicited by inherently emotional stimuli. For example, the LPP typically is evoked by images of weapons or erotica. The present study investigates stimuli that are not inherently emotional, but that implicitly (without participants' awareness) predict f...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Trimber EM, Luhmann CC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Supplementation with Zinc in Rats Enhances Memory and Reverses an Age-Dependent Increase in Plasma Copper.
Abstract Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sandusky-Beltran LA, Manchester BL, McNay EC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioural inflexibility in a comorbid rat model of striatal ischemic injury and mutant hAPP overexpression.
Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) and stroke coexist and interact; yet how they interact is not sufficiently understood. Both AD and basal ganglia stroke can impair behavioural flexibility, which can be reliably modeled in rats using an established operant based set-shifting test. Transgenic Fischer 344-APP21 rats (TgF344) overexpress pathogenic human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) but do not spontaneously develop overt pathology, hence TgF344 rats can be used to model the effect of vascular injury in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer disease. We demonstrate that the injection of endothelin-1 (ET1) into the dorsal...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Levit A, Regis AM, Garabon JR, Oh SH, Desai S, Rajakumar N, Hachinski V, Agca Y, Agca C, Whitehead SN, Allman BL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research