Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, and cerebral oxygenation during a dual-task in healthy young males.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation and dual-task performance in healthy young males. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated (ΔHbO2) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) in the right and left PFC were examined during a cognitive auditory 2-back task. Cognitive performance (2-back task's accuracy) and walking motor performances were measured in single-tasks (single motor and single cognitive) and dual-task (2-back task + walking). Thirty-six young males were ranked according to thei...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Goenarjo R, Dupuy O, Fraser S, Perrochon A, Berryman N, Bosquet L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
µ-Opioid and Dopamine-D2 Receptor Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens of Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Whose Sucrose Consumption, but not Preference, Decreases after Nerve Injury.
This study investigated the effects of chronic constriction injury (CCI) on ad libitum sucrose consumption in male Sprague Dawley rats and the expression of accumbal dopamine D2 and µ-opioid receptors. Nerve injury reduced sucrose drinking predominantly in rats with the highest pre-injury consumption levels. Despite these reductions in consumption, sucrose preferences were stable. In the NAc of rats whose sucrose consumption was affected by CCI, immunohistochemical analyses revealed bilateral reductions of dopamine D2-receptor expression in the core and shell; and a lateralised reduction of µ-opioid receptor ex...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hakim JD, Chami J, Keay KA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Active inference, stressors, and psychological trauma: A neuroethological model of (mal)adaptive explore-exploit dynamics in ecological context.
Abstract This paper offers a formal account of emotional inference and stress-related behaviour, using the notion of active inference. We formulate responses to stressful scenarios in terms of Bayesian belief-updating and subsequent policy selection; namely, planning as (active) inference. Using a minimal model of how creatures or subjects account for their sensations (and subsequent action), we deconstruct the sequences of belief updating and behaviour that underwrite stress-related responses - and simulate the aberrant responses of the sort seen in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Crucially, the model used...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Linson A, Parr T, Friston KJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Mice lacking Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 show social and cognitive deficits.
Abstract Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 or Frequenin is a calcium sensor widely expressed in the nervous system, with roles in neurotransmission, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, learning, and motivated behaviours. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. However, the role of Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 in behavioural phenotypes and brain changes relevant to autism spectrum disorder have not been evaluated. We show that Neuronal calcium sensor-1 deletion in the mouse leads to a mild deficit in social approac...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ng E, Georgiou J, Avila A, Trought K, Mun HS, Hodgson M, Servinis P, Roder JC, Collingridge GL, Wong AH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Western diet-induced fear memory impairment is attenuated by 6-shogaol in C57BL/6N mice.
Abstract Dementia is a progressive cognitive diminution impeding with normal daily activities that is constantly on the increase. Currently, the estimated prevalence is 50 million affected people worldwide, a figure expected to triple within the next 30 years. While the pathophysiology of the different types of dementia is complex, likely involving the interplay between multiple genetic and environmental factors, strong evidence points towards an important link between diet and cognitive health. Here we examined the consequences of high-fat, high-sugar Western diet (HFSD)-induced obesity on cognitive performance i...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gabriel MO, Nikou M, Akinola OB, Pollak DD, Sideromenos S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Brain imaging of chill reaFctions to pleasant and unpleasant sounds.
e M Abstract The term 'chill' refers to a short-term bodily event of high arousal, which marks an emotional peak experience when occurring in response to music. Chill responses arise in a clearly circumscribed time frame and can also be reliably elicited by unpleasant sounds. Previous research, however, mostly focused on individually selected stimuli and positive contexts, thus, limiting the scope of interpretation. Hence, we developed a standardized chill paradigm and used fMRI to test neural responses of 16 healthy volunteers to pleasant and unpleasant emotional sound material while collecting subjective reports...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Klepzig K, Horn U, König J, Holtz K, Wendt J, Hamm AO, Lotze M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Motor deficit in the mouse ferric chloride-induced distal middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke.
In this study, we reproduced the recently developed model and expanded its characterization by thorough evaluation of blood supply, cerebral infarction, and motor function in adult male and female mice up to 14 days after stroke. Our observations indicate near complete interruption of blood flow in the distal MCA shortly after application of 20% ferric chloride over the artery through a cranial window, which remained occluded for at least 4 hours. As expected, infarction of the brain tissue, documented by TTC and hematoxylin stains, was restricted to the cerebral cortex. We also systematically evaluated motor impair...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Syeara N, Alamri FF, Jayaraman S, Lee P, Karamyan ST, Arumugam TV, Karamyan VT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
The Acute Toxic and Neurotoxic Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine are More Pronounced in Adolescent than Adult Mice.
Abstract 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) recently achieved breakthrough status from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, evidence indicates that exposure to toxic doses of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can lead to long-lasting dysregulation of brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters, primarily from studies conducted in young adult rodents. To date, there is a paucity of data on whether toxic doses of MDMA can differentially affect neurotransmitter systems in adolescents and mature adults, which is an important question as adolescents and adult...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chitre NM, Bagwell MS, Murnane KS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Early life stress and the programming of eating behavior and anxiety: sex-specific relationships with serotonergic activity and hypothalamic neuropeptides.
t APS Abstract Early life experiences have strong influences on brain programming and can affect eating behavior control and body weight later in life. However, there is no consensus about the relationship between neonatal stress and feeding behavior. We evaluated whether maternal deprivation (MD) and maternal separation (MS) alter body weight and appetite using standard rat chow consumption and palatable food. Also, we evaluated anxiety and the expression of the leptin receptor, neuropeptides POMC, CART, NPY in the hypothalamus, as well as the serotoninergic system in the amygdala and hypothalamus as possible mod...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de Lima RMS, Dos Santos Bento LV, di Marcello Valladão Lugon M, Barauna VG, Bittencourt AS, Dalmaz C, de Vasconcellos Bittencourt APS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Post-trial low dose apomorphine prevents the development of morphine sensitization.
In this study, we administered morphine (10 mg/kg) (MOR) to induce sensitization. In that sensitization is considered to involve associative processes and that dopamine activity is an important contributor to learning and memory processes we administered a dopamine inhibitory treatment apomorphine (0.05 mg/kg) (APO) during memory consolidation following a morphine sensitization treatment protocol. Seemingly, a decrease in dopamine activity during consolidation would impair the salience of the association of the morphine response with the contextual cues during consolidation and interfere with the development ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de Mello Bastos JM, Leite JB, Samuels RI, Carey RJ, Carrera MP Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Beneficial effects of anti-RANKL antibody in depression-like phenotype, inflammatory bone markers, and bone mineral density in male susceptible mice after chronic social defeat stress.
In this study, we investigated whether anti-mouse RANKL antibody could attenuate depression-like phenotypes, inflammatory bone markers and bone mineral density (BMD) in male susceptible mice after chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). We measured plasma levels of inflammatory bone markers, including osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL, and osteopontin. A single intravenous injection of anti-RANKL (2 mg/kg) elicited rapid antidepressant effects in CSDS susceptible mice. Furthermore, anti-RANKL significantly improved the increased plasma levels of RANKL and decreased OPG/RANKL ratio in CSDS susceptible mice. Moreover, anti-RA...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Fujita Y, Chang L, Pu Y, Qu Y, Wang S, Hashimoto K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Prenatal maternal stress is associated with increased sensitivity to neuropathic pain and sex-specific changes in supraspinal mRNA expression of epigenetic- and stress-related genes in adulthood.
In this study, we analyzed the effect of a prenatal maternal stress on the development of neuropathic pain-related behaviours and gene expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in adult offspring following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in male and female CD1 mice. Nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity was amplified in both male and female prenatally-stressed offspring, suggesting that prenatal stress exacerbates pain after injury. Analysis of mRNA expression of genes related to epigenetic regulation and stress responses in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, brain structures implicated ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Grégoire S, Jang SH, Szyf M, Stone LS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Behavioral Characteristics of 5-HT2C Receptor Knockout Mice: Locomotor activity, Anxiety-, and Fear Memory-related Behaviors.
Abstract Pharmacological studies have suggested that the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor is involved in locomotor activity, anxiety, and fear memory. However, the results of locomotor activity and anxiety in 5-HT2C receptor knockout mice have been mixed, and the effects of 5-HT2C receptor knockout on contextual fear memory have not yet been addressed. In the present study, we reconcile these inconsistent results by analyzing behavioral data in detail and by examining the effects of 5-HT2C receptor knockout on contextual fear memory. We demonstrated that the higher locomotor activity in 5-HT2C receptor knockout mice was ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nebuka M, Ohmura Y, Izawa S, Bouchekioua Y, Nishitani N, Yoshida T, Yoshioka M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
You do not have to act to be impulsive: Brain resting-state activity predicts performance and impulsivity on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity is a key, trait-like feature of the decision-making process. As personality traits are stable over time, we hypothesized that resting-state (RS) neural activity would predict individual impulsivity. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy individuals underwent fMRI scan during RS and subsequently performed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). In BART, impulsivity was inversely correlated to monetary earnings. A group-level whole-brain regression assessed the relationship between earnings at BART and RS evaluated by the Hurst Exponent, regional homogeneity; low frequency oscillation (LFO...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gentili C, Vanello N, Podina I, Popita R, Voinescu B, Pietrini P, David D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Dopaminergic and serotonergic modulation of social reward appraisal in zebrafish (Danio rerio) under circumstances of motivational conflict: towards a screening test for anti-compulsive drug action.
Abstract Cognitive flexibility, shown to be impaired in patients presenting with compulsions, is dependent on balanced dopaminergic and serotonergic interaction. Towards the development of a zebrafish (Danio rerio) screening test for anti-compulsive drug action, we manipulated social reward appraisal under different contexts by means of dopaminergic (apomorphine) and serotonergic (escitalopram) intervention. Seven groups of zebrafish (n = 6 per group) were exposed for 24 days (1 h per day) to either control (normal tank water), apomorphine (50 or 100 μ g/L), escitalopram (500 or 1000 μ g/L) or a combi...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: van Staden C, de Brouwer G, Botha TL, Finger-Baier K, Brand SJ, Wolmarans D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
A Mouse Model of Stress-Enhanced Fear Learning Demonstrates Extinction-Sensitive and Extinction-Resistant Effects of Footshock Stress.
Abstract Stressful experiences ca cause long-lasting sensitization of fear and anxiety that extends beyond the circumstances of the initial trauma. The neural mechanisms of these stress effects have been studied extensively in rats using the stress-enhanced fear learning (SEFL) paradigm, in which exposure to footshock stress potentiates subsequent fear conditioning. Here we establish a mouse version of the SEFL. Male and female 129s6 mice received four 1-mA foot shocks or equivalent context exposure without shock. Shock exposure induced Pavlovian fear conditioning to the shock context and produced three more gener...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hassien AM, Shue F, Bernier BE, Drew MR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Association of rs1059004 polymorphism in the OLIG2 locus with whole-brain functional connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia.
Abstract The rs1059004 in the oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) gene has been reported to be a candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for schizophrenia (SZ). A variety of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed disconnection in SZ. We aimed to investigate the association of rs1059004 polymorphism with whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) and to further explore the correlation between altered FC and cognitive behavioral scales. Fifty-five SZ patients and fifty-three matched healthy controls were included in this study. The general linear model was used to ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cai S, Lv Y, Huang K, Zhang W, Kang Y, Huang L, Wang J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Impaired memory and marble burying activity in deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1 (Deaf1) conditional knockout mice.
This study aimed to further characterize learning and memory alterations and assess changes in marble burying activity and hippocampal size in mice with conditional deletion of Deaf1. Mice lacking DEAF1 in the CNS (NKO) displayed reduced memory in both contextual fear conditioning and a 3-day massed trials Morris water maze paradigm. NKO mice had reduced marble burying activity in full cage marble burying tests. Using a half-cage marble test, NKO mice again buried fewer marbles and spent significantly more time on the side of the cage away from the marbles compared to control animals. The area of the dorsal hippocampus of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: McGee SR, Rose GM, Jensik PJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Attenuation of auditory mismatch negativity in serotonin transporter knockout mice with anxiety-related behaviors.
Abstract As the first-line antidepressant drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have efficacy in controlling the symptoms of depression. However, adverse events such as anxiety and hearing disorders were usually observed in patients and even healthy volunteers during the initial phase of SSRI administration. Hearing disorders, including auditory hallucination and tinnitus, are not only highly comorbid with mental disorders but also acknowledged factors that induce psychiatric disorders. The pharmacological and neural mechanisms underlying SSRI-induced anxiety and hearing disorders are not clear. I...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pan W, Lyu K, Zhang H, Li C, Chen P, Ying M, Chen F, Tang J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Quantifying how much attention rodents allocate to motivationally-salient objects with a novel object preference test.
Abstract The allocation of attention can be modulated by the emotional value of a stimulus. In order to understand the biasing influence of emotion on attention allocation further, we require an animal test of how motivational salience modulates attention. In mice, female odour triggers arousal and elicits emotional responses in males. Here, we determined the extent to which objects labelled with female odour modulated the attention of C57BL/6 J male mice. Seven experiments were conducted, using a modified version of the spontaneous Novel Object Recognition task. Attention was operationalised as differentia...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hornoiu I, Gigg J, Talmi D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Glutamate and dopamine in the VTA participate differently in the acute and chronic effect of methylphenidate.
Abstract Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPD) have long been the treatment of choice in behavioral disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy in both children and adults. However, its abuse by healthy children and adults for academic enhancement or recreation is on the rise. This raises concern for brain chemistry alteration leading to dependence during a period of neuroplasticity and brain development. Psychostimulants such as MPD are indirect dopamine antagonists and are known to act on the dopaminergic system of the brain to produce their effects. The ventral tegm...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Floren S, King N, Carrasco A, Dafny N Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
White matter integrity alternations associated with cocaine dependence and long-term abstinence: Preliminary findings.
Abstract Cocaine dependence has been associated with deficits in white matter (WM) integrity. Nevertheless, what happens to WM integrity after long-term abstinence is not fully understood. To bridge this gap, changes in WM integrity were examined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) applied to 39 participants: 12 participants who used cocaine in the last year (CURRENT USERS), 20 who were at different stages of cocaine abstinence (ABSTINENCE) [five with 1-5 years of abstinence (ABS1), five with 6-10 years of abstinence (ABS2), and 10 with over 10 years of abstinence (ABS3)], and 7 healthy controls (CONTROLS). The CO...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: He Q, Li D, Turel O, Bechara A, Hser YI Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Sensitivity to gains during risky decision-making differentiates chronic cocaine users from stimulant-na ïve controls.
Sensitivity to gains during risky decision-making differentiates chronic cocaine users from stimulant-naïve controls. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Nov 25;:112386 Authors: Bruno KS PMID: 31778734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bruno KS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 deficiency aggravates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system and the most common dementia type in elderly people. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a cell stress response gene, is primarily expressed in astrocytes in mammalian brains. The hippocampal protein levels of NDRG2 in AD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy peers. However, whether the increase in NDRG2 is involved in the development of AD or is an endogenous protective response initiated by stress remains unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of NDRG2 in the development of memory impairm...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tao L, Zhu Y, Wang R, Han J, Ma Y, Guo H, Tang W, Zhuo L, Fan Z, Yin A, Hou W, Li Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Protection of blood-brain barrier as a potential mechanism for enriched environments to improve cognitive impairment caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that protection of the BBB may be a novel mechanism by which EEs ameliorate CCH-induced cognitive impairment, and this effect may be related to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID: 31778736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Qu C, Xu L, Shen J, Li Y, Qu C, Song H, Zhang J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Connectivity patterns of cognitive control network in first episode medication-naive depression and remitted depression.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings are in agreement with the previous findings that the cognitive control network are impaired in MDD. Furthermore, our results suggest that the alteration of CCN might underpin the cognitive disturbance and the distinct patterns of the CCN between fMDD and rMDD patients may be an important target for effective cognitive remediation in MDD. PMID: 31770543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiao K, Xu H, Teng C, Song X, Xiao C, Fo PT, Zhang N, Wang C, Zhong Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Effects of chronic exposure to a mixed field of neutrons and photons on behavioral and cognitive performance in mice.
Abstract To simulate the space radiation environment astronauts are exposed to, most studies involve acute exposures but during a space mission there will be chronic (long-lasting) exposures. To address this knowledge gap, a neutron irradiator using a 252Cf (252Californium) source was used to generate a mixed field of neutrons and photons to simulate chronic, low dose rate exposures to high LET radiation. In the present study, we assessed the effects chronic neutron exposure starting at 60 days of age on behavioral and cognitive performance of BALB/c female and C3H male mice at 600 and 700 days of age as part of a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Perez R, Younger S, Bertheau E, Fallgren C, Weil M, Raber J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Strain specific stress-modulating effects of candidate probiotics: a systematic screening in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress.
CONCLUSION: This systematic screening indicates species- and strain-dependent effects on behavioural outcomes related to stress and further suggests that strains differ from each other in their effects on potential mechanistic outcomes. PMID: 31765723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stenman LK, Patterson E, Meunier J, Roman FJ, Lehtinen MJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Involvement of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 in Depression and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Chronic Unpredictable Stress and Relevant Underlying Mechanism.
Abstract Studies have suggested that heightened neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of depressive disorder. A major participant in neuroinflammation is microglia, and fractalkine signaling (which comprises the chemokine CX3CL1, mainly expressed by neurons, and its receptor CX3CR1, almost exclusively present on microglia in healthy brains) has been reported to critically regulate microglial activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CX3CR1 deficiency was associated with a different outcome following chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and the possible mechanism. Wild-type (WT) and CX3CR...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Y, Meng D, Sun L, Yang G, He Y, Zhang C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Age and Sex Regulate Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Anxiety-like Behavior in Rats.
Abstract Anxiety occurs across ontogeny, but there is evidence that its etiology may vary across the lifespan. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system mediates some of the anxiogenic effects of stress and drug exposure, and is involved in aversive responses to environmental stimuli. However, much of this work has been conducted in adult males. Work assessing the effects of KOR activation in younger males has demonstrated that this system produces an anxiolytic/no response, indicating that that this system may be developmentally regulated. Despite these discrepancies, a direct comparison of KOR-induced anxiety in st...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Przybysz KR, Varlinskaya EI, Diaz MR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Behavioral effects of buspirone in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Abstract Buspirone presents a unique profile of action, which involves activation of 5-HT1A receptors and complex effects on D2-like dopaminergic receptors. This medication is studied in terms of potential clinical repositioning to conditions that are associated with dopaminergic dysfunctions including schizophrenia and substance use disorder. Buspirone antagonizes D3 and D4 receptors, however, depending on the dose it differentially interacts with D2 receptors. Previously, we reported that some of D2/D3 dopaminergic agonists attenuate PTSD-like behavioral symptoms in mice. Here we investigated whether buspirone c...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Malikowska-Racia N, Popik P, Sałat K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Affective Pavlovian motivation is enhanced in obesity susceptible populations; implications for incentive motivation in obesity.
Abstract Continually rising global obesity rates present a major challenge to human health. The contribution of Pavlovian motivational processes to overeating and obesity has become increasingly apparent. In humans, brain and behavioral reactivity to food-related stimuli positively correlates with subsequent weight gain. In concordance with this, selectively bred obesity-prone show stronger single-outcome Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (SO PIT) than obesity-resistant rats, providing support for the hypothesis that enhanced Pavlovian motivation is a pre-existing phenotype of obesity-susceptibility. However, whe...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Derman RC, Ferrario CR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Increasing doses of ketamine curtail antidepressant responses and suppress associated synaptic signaling pathways.
Abstract Clinical findings show that a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine elicits rapid antidepressant effects. Accumulating data suggests that ketamine blocks the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and results in specific effects on intracellular signaling including increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression, which augments synaptic responses required for rapid antidepressant effects. To further investigate this potential mechanism for ketamine's antidepressant action, we examined the effect of increasing ketamine doses on intracellular signaling, synaptic plasticity, and rapid antidepres...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim JW, Monteggia LM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Analysis of Gut Mycobiota in First-episode, Drug-na ïve Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Both the bacterial gut microbiota as well as the gut mycobiota contributed to gut dysbiosis in patients with SC. However, our study was limited by sample size, and additional studies involving larger cohorts characterizing the gut mycobiome in SC patients are needed to form a foundation for research into the relationship between mycobiota, dysbiosis, and SC development. PMID: 31759045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Pan LY, Zhang Z, Zhou YY, Jiang HY, Ruan B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Akt Dependent Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Regulates the Behavioral Improvement of Treadmill Running to Mice Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
In conclusion, treadmill running could mediate behavioral functions and improve hippocampal neurogenesis in PTSD model by regulating Akt signaling. PMID: 31759046 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun L, Cui K, Xing F, Liu X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Morris Water Maze overtraining increases the density of thorny excrescences in the basal dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons.
ute; RA, Díaz-Cintra S Abstract The hippocampus plays a fundamental role in spatial learning and memory. Dentate gyrus (DG) granular neurons project mainly to proximal apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 stratum lucidum and also, to some extent, to the basal dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells in the stratum oriens. The terminal specializations of DG neurons are the mossy fibers (MF), and these huge axon terminals show expansion in the CA3 stratum oriens after the animals undergo overtraining in the Morris Water Maze task (MWM). However, to our knowledge there are no reports regarding the possible changes i...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gómez-Padilla E, Bello-Medina PC, León-Jacinto U, Orta-Salazar E, Quirarte GL, Ramírez-Amaya V, Prado-Alcalá RA, Díaz-Cintra S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Reinstatement of Methamphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.
CONCLUSION: These results show the important role of social interactions and positive environment conditions in preventing reinstatement to drug use. PMID: 31759048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Althobaiti YS, Almalki AH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
GAS5 knockdown ameliorates apoptosis and inflammatory response by modulating miR-26b-5p/Smad1 axis in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
This study established a CI / R injury model in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the expression of GAS5 was increased in CI / R rats, while miR-26b-5p expression was decreased. Besides, knockdown of GAS5 by siRNA (si-GAS5) reversed CI / R-induced apoptosis and inflammatory responses. Notably, bioinformatics analysis indicated that GAS5 competitively adsorbed miR-26b-5p, and the relationship was further confirmed by pull-down assay. In addition, miR-26b-5p overexpression reversed CI / R-induced apoptosis and inflammatory responses, whereas low expression of miR-26b-5p had the opposite effect. Moreover, TargetScan ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shangguan Y, Han J, Su H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Prolonged Isolation Stress Accelerates the Onset of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology in 5xFAD Mice Despite Running Wheels and Environmental Enrichment.
Abstract Research has demonstrated that stress can exacerbate AD pathology in transgenic mouse models of AD. The purpose of the present studies was to extend this work by determining whether a social stressor, isolation stress, would increase the number of Aβ plaques in 5xFAD + transgenic mice in comparison to group-housed controls, and accelerate the onset of cognitive deficits in contextual fear-conditioning. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether the pathological impact of isolation stress could be prevented through exposure to exercise alone or to exercise and an enriched environment th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Peterman JL, White JD, Calcagno A, Hagen C, Quiring M, Paulhus K, Gurney T, Eimerbrink MJ, Curtis M, Boehm GW, Chumley MJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
The role of the nucleus accumbens OXR1 in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization.
Abstract Re-exposure to drug or drug-associated cues after withdrawal can induce behavioral sensitization expression in animals or increase in the expected effect to drug in humans, which mean an enhanced drug seeking/taking motivation to trigger relapse after abstinence. The Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to play a key role in mediating this motivation. Recently, it has been shown that systemic administration of orexin receptor 1 (OXR1) antagonist attenuates animals' motivation behavior to take drug by self-administration paradigm, which is more effectively than orexin receptor 2 (OXR2) antagonist. However, the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang M, Ma H, Jia M, Li Y, Miao D, Cui C, Wu L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Synthetic cathinones and their phenethylamine analogues produce distinct psychomotor and reward behavior in crayfish.
The objective of this study was to characterize the psychomotor and rewarding effects of methylated cathinones (methylone, mephedrone), and their non β-ketone substituted amphetamine analogs (4-methylmethamphetamine, 4-MMA and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) in crayfish. Our results suggest that these drugs produce psychostimulation, which sensitizes upon repeated drug administration. Furthermore, crayfish demonstrated a conditioned substrate preference for mephedrone and 4-MMA drug-pairings at a 10 μg/g dose, a preference which persisted even through a series of extinction trials. Our study indicate...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gore S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Effects of opioid receptor ligands in rats trained to discriminate 22 from 2 hours of food deprivation suggest a lack of opioid involvement in eating for hunger.
Abstract It is well accepted that opioids promote feeding for reward. Some studies suggest a potential involvement in hunger-driven intake, but they suffer from the scarcity of methodologies differentiating between factors that intersect eating for pleasure versus energy. Here, we used a unique food deprivation discrimination paradigm to test a hypothesis that, since opioids appear to control feeding reward, injection of opioid agonists would not produce effects akin to 22 h of food deprivation. We trained rats to discriminate between 22- and 2-h food deprivation in a two-lever, operant discrimination proce...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jewett DC, Klockars A, Smith TR, Brunton C, Head MA, Tham RL, Kwilasz AJ, Hahn TW, Wiebelhaus JM, Ewan EE, Carroll RM, Grace MK, Levine AS, Olszewski PK Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Hypoxic-Conditioned Medium from Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improved Neuroinflammation through Alternation of Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 Expression in Model of Alzheimer's Disease Rats.
Abstract Microglia have a pivotal role to initiate immune responses in AD brains through toll-like receptors and induce neuroinflammation. Adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells (ATSCs) secret many neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory factors called conditioned medium (CM). Many studies have demonstrated that CM of mesenchymal stem cells facilitate regeneration and attenuates inflammation in many disorders. To this purpose, the effect of ATSCs-conditioned medium (ATSC-CM) on brain inflammation and the role of toll-like receptors were investigated in this study. Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: co...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehrabadi S, Motevaseli E, Sadr SS, Moradbeygi K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Antidepressant effects of ketamine on depression-related phenotypes and dopamine dysfunction in rodent models of stress.
M, Grace AA Abstract Depression, the most prevalent psychiatric disorder, is characterized by increased negative affect (i.e. depressed mood) and reduced positive affect (i.e. anhedonia). Stress is a risk factor for depression in humans, and animal models of chronic stress are typically used to study neurobehavioral alterations relevant to depression. Common behavioral outcomes in rodent models of chronic stress include anhedonia, social dysfunction and behavioral despair. For example, chronically stressed rodents exhibit reduced reward preference, as measured by a loss of preference for sucrose solutions and time...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rincón-Cortés M, Grace AA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Toward an assessment of escape/avoidance coping in depression.
Abstract Models of animal behavior suggest that anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD) may be characterized by different profiles of escape and avoidance behavior. However, the literature on coping strategies fails to distinguish between avoidance and escape coping patterns, instead grouping escape behaviors into the larger category of avoidant coping. We argue that investigating both escape and avoidance coping behavior in those with anxiety and depression may reveal distinct behavioral profiles, whereas the current conceptual framework has failed to find significant differences coping style. PMID: 3173...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Haskell AM, Britton PC, Servatius RJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Examination of the effects of SCH23390 and raclopride infused in the dorsal striatum on amphetamine-induced timing impulsivity measured on a differential reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL) task in rats.
We examined the receptor-specific dopaminergic modulation of d-amphetamine (AMP)-altered DRL 10 sec (DRL-10 s) performance by locally infusing SCH23390 (SCH) and raclopride (RAC), DA D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, respectively, into the rat's dSTR. Systemic injection of AMP significantly affected DRL-10 s behavior by increasing total, non-reinforced, and bust responses, as well as by decreasing reinforced responses, which correspondingly caused a leftward shift of the inter-response-time distribution curve as confirmed by a profound decrease in peak time (i.e.,
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheng RK, Liao RM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide leads to memory impairment and alterations in hippocampal leptin signaling.
In this study, we used the intracerebroventricular (ICV) route for LPS administration in an attempt to evaluate an acute and direct of this pathogen-associated molecular pattern on leptin-mediated signaling in the hippocampus, where ObR has been implicated in modulating cognitive response. We used bilateral ICV injection of LPS (25 μg/ventricle) in 60-day-old male Wistar rats and the analysis were performed 48 hours after surgery. Neuroinflammation was characterized in the LPS group by an increase in concentration of IL-1β, COX-2 and TLR4 in the hippocampus as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Da Ré C, Souza JM, Fróes F, Taday J, Dos Santos JP, Rodrigues L, Sesterheim P, Gonçalves CA, Concli Leite M, Sesterheim P, Gonçalves CA, Leite MC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Link between personality and response to THC exposure.
Abstract The effects of cannabis reported by users range from experiences of euphoria and anxiolytic effects to paranoia, anxiety, and increased risk of depression. Attempts to reconcile the apparent contradictions in user response have not been conclusive. Here, we utilized selectively-bred stress-resilient socially dominant (Dom) and stress-sensitive socially submissive (Sub) mice to elucidate this contradiction. Following short-term, repeated treatment with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at two different doses (1.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), Sub mice presented significant place-aversion in a Conditioned Place Pre...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kardash T, Rodin D, Kirby M, Davis N, Koman I, Gorelick J, Michaelevski I, Pinhasov A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Neonatal tactile stimulation reverses alterations in fine structure of small, but not large myelinated fibers, from the optic nerve of iron-deficient rats: a size-based selectivity.
Abstract Iron is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world and it is most prevalent in young children, exposing their developing brain to inadequate iron levels. The damage related to neuroanatomical parameters is not reversed after iron treatment. However, evidence suggest that tactile stimulation (TS) may offer great therapeutic efficacy in cases of nutritional disorders postnatally, since the brain is remarkably responsive to its interaction with the environment. Recently, we shown that neonatal iron deficient rats achieved some remedial effect by exposing them to TS treatment early in life, reinfor...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Horiquini-Barbosa E, Gibb R, Kolb B, Bray D, Lachat JJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Normobaric oxygen treatment improves neuronal survival functional recovery and axonal plasticity after newborn hypoxia-ischemia.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that NBO is a promising approach for the treatment of newborn HI, which encourage proof-of-concept studies in newborn. PMID: 31733311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kelestemur T, Beker MC, Caglayan AB, Caglayan B, Altunay S, Kutlu S, Kilic E Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research