Hippocampal GABAA antagonism reverses the novel object recognition deficit in sub-chronic phencyclidine-treated rats.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the scPCP-induced NOR deficit can be rescued by reducing GABAA receptor stimulation in vHPC, indicating that increased vHPC GABAA inhibition may contribute to the scPCP-induced NOR deficit in rats. These results also indicate that excessive GABAA receptor signalling in the vHPC has a deleterious effect on NOR in normal rats. PMID: 29289597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Neugebauer NM, Miyauchi M, Sato T, Tadano J, Akal H, Ardehali H, Meltzer HY Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Why should neuroscientists worry about iron? The emerging role of ferroptosis in the pathophysiology of neuroprogressive diseases.
Abstract Ferroptosis is a unique form of programmed death, characterised by cytosolic accumulation of iron, lipid hydroperoxides and their metabolites, and effected by the fatal peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. It is a major driver of cell death in neurodegenerative neurological diseases. Moreover, cascades underpinning ferroptosis could be active drivers of neuropathology in major psychiatric disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress can adversely affect mechanisms and proteins governing cellular iron homeostasis, such as the iron regulatory protein/iron response element syste...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Morris G, Berk M, Carvalho AF, Maes M, Walker AJ, Puri BK Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A translational approach to the genetics of anxiety disorders.
This study provides insights into the utility of rat models for identifying molecular candidates for anxiety disorders in humans. PMID: 29288745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: McGregor NW, Dimatelis JJ, Van Zyl PJ, Hemmings SMJ, Kinnear C, Russell VA, Stein DJ, Lochner C Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

A new synthetic drug 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) induces rewarding effects and increases dopamine D1 receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA levels.
, Cheong JH Abstract In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10,...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Botanas CJ, Yoon SS, de la Peña JB, Dela Peña IJ, Kim M, Custodio RJ, Woo T, Seo JW, Jang CG, Yang JS, Yoon YM, Lee YS, Kim HJ, Cheong JH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Magnesium Sulfate attenuates brain edema by lowering AQP4 expression and inhibits glia-mediated neuroinflammation in a rodent model of eclampsia.
In this study, the eclampsia-like model was established by administering lipopolysaccharide plus pentylenetetrazol in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given MgSO4 from gestation day14-19. Then, Iba-1 ( a marker for microglia) and S100-B ( a marker for astrocytes) expression levels in the hippocampus CA3 region were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF ) levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex assays. Aquaporin-4 (a transmembrane water channel protein) expression levels in cortex were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Astrocyte and microglia expressions were de...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li X, Liu H, Yang Y Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Abandoned prairie vole mothers show normal maternal care but altered emotionality: potential influence of the brain corticotropin-releasing factor system.
In conclusion, maternal investment is robust enough to withstand loss of the partner, whereas the mother's emotionality is affected, which may be - at least partly - mediated by a CRF-dependent mechanism. This animal model has potential for mechanistic studies of behavioral and physiological consequences of partner loss in single mothers. PMID: 29288748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bosch OJ, Pohl TT, Neumann ID, Young LJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Enhanced wakefulness following lesions of a mesopontine locus essential for the induction of general anesthesia.
Abstract The induction of general anesthesia shares many features with the transition from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, suggesting that the two types of brain-state transition are orchestrated by a common neuronal mechanism. Previous studies revealed a brainstem locus, the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA), that is of singular importance for anesthetic induction. Microinjection there of GABAergic anesthetics induces rapid loss-of-consciousness and lesions render the animal relatively insensitive to anesthetics administered systemically. Here we show that MPTA lesions also alter th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lanir-Azaria S, Meiri G, Avigdor T, Minert A, Devor M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Generalization of effects of environmental enrichment on seeking for different classes of drugs of abuse.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the anti-craving effects of EE are general for a wide variety of drugs and support the hypothesis that environmental stimulation may be a general intervention for attenuating relapse in humans. PMID: 29288750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sikora M, Nicolas C, Istin M, Jaafari N, Thiriet N, Solinas M Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Ethological approach to social isolation effects in behavioral studies of laboratory rodents.
Abstract The aim of the present review is to discuss how housing conditions affect behavioral performance in laboratory rodents from an ethological view. Commonly used laboratory rodents such as rats and mice, are originally captured animals that largely retain species-typical natural behaviors, while have fully adapted to a laboratory setting after long-term domestication. Laboratory settings including caging and artificial group housing are a considerable ethological factor influencing rodents' behaviors in commonly employed behavioral test paradigms, including emotional and defensive behaviors, learning and mem...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Arakawa H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Ventral tegmental area D2 receptor knockdown enhances choice impulsivity in a delay-discounting task in rats.
Abstract Impulsivity associated with abnormal dopamine (DA) function has been observed in several disorders, including addiction. Choice impulsivity is the preference for small, immediate rewards over larger rewards after a delay, caused by excessive discounting of future rewards. Addicts have abnormally high discount rates and prefer the smaller rewards sooner. While impulsivity has been inversely correlated with DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the midbrain and striatum, it is difficult to mechanistically link the two, due to the diverse neuroanatomical localization of D2Rs, which are found throughout the br...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bernosky-Smith KA, Qiu YY, Feja M, Lee YB, Loughlin B, Li JX, Bass CE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Understanding the Pathophysiology of Depression: From Monoamines to the Neurogenesis Hypothesis model - are we there yet?
Abstract A number of factors (biogenic amine deficiency, genetic, environmental, immunologic, endocrine factors and neurogenesis) have been identified as mechanisms which provide unitary explanations for the pathophysiology of depression. Rather than a unitary construct, the combination and linkage of these factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. That is, environmental stressors and heritable genetic factors acting through immunologic and endocrine responses initiate structural and functional changes in many brain regions, resulting in dysfunctional neurogenesis and neurotransmission which ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jesulola E, Micalos P, Baguley IJ Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Morin hydrate mitigates rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced neurobehavioural impairments and loss of viable neurons in the hippocampus of mice.
Abstract Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation distorts the body's homeostasis and results in oxidative breakdown which may be responsible for a variety of neurological disorders. Some naturally occurring compounds of plant origin with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties are known to attenuate the detrimental effects of REM sleep deprivation. Morin hydrate, a flavonoid from Mulberry has demonstrated antioxidant and neuroprotective activities but its effect in sleep disturbed mice is unknown. The study was designed to explore the neuroprotective effect of Morin hydrate on 48 hr. REM sleep deprivation-induced ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Olonode ET, Aderibigbe AO, Adeoluwa OA, Eduviere AT, Ben-Azu B Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Individual differences in incentive salience attribution are not related to suboptimal choice in rats.
ña V Abstract Previous research has shown great variation in the extent to which individual rats attribute incentive salience to stimuli that are predictors of reinforcement. When using the Pavlovian Conditioned Approach procedure, in which a discrete stimulus is presented contingently before the delivery of reinforcement, the attribution of incentive salience is demonstrated by sign-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the stimulus predictor of reinforcement), while an absence of this attribution is reflected by goal-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the source of reinforcement). It has ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: López P, Alba R, Orduña V Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Downregulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex ameliorates impulsive actions in animal models of schizophrenia.
Abstract 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (5-HT7) receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) play a critical role in complex cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. The mouse model of schizophrenia was established through the neonatal administration of phencyclidine (nPCP). Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene knockdown was used to investigate the role of mPFC 5-HT7 receptor in the schizophrenia-like symptoms in mice. Under baseline conditions in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), nPCP produced a significant attentional impairment that was exacerbated when mice were tested under LITI. Premature...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu J, Zhang W, Feng J, Jia M, Zhang G, Wen X Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Psychological Stress Level Detection Based on Electrodermal Activity.
Abstract This paper presents a method for detecting psychological stress levels. It aims to explore the feasibility of using a single physiological signal to create a more practical alternative for detecting stress in people than current multiple physiological signals approaches involve. In particular, the approach explored uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on the electrodermal activity (EDA) signal which aims at discriminating between three stress levels: low, medium and high. We used the MIT Media lab 'stress database' from which we selected eleven 'foot' based EDA data sets for our experiments. Usin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Y, Siqing D Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Longer Treatment with Alternative Non-Drug Reinforcement Fails to Reduce Resurgence of Cocaine or Alcohol Seeking in Rats.
PMID: 29258811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nall RW, Craig AR, Browning KO, Shahan TA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Recombinant growth differentiation factor 11 influences short-term memory and enhances Sox2 expression in middle-aged mice.
Abstract Previous evidence suggests that a significant decline in cognitive ability begins during middle-age and continues to deteriorate with increase in age. Recent work has demonstrated the potential rejuvenation impact of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) in aged mice. We carried out experiments to evaluate the impact of a single dose of recombinant (rGDF-11) on short-term visual and spatial memory in middle-aged male mice. On the novel object recognition task, we observed middle-aged mice treated rGDF-11 showed improved performance on the novel object recognition task. However, middle-aged mice did no...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang M, Jadavji NM, Yoo HS, Smith PD Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The lateral habenula interacts with the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis response upon stressful cognitive demand in rats.
Abstract The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in emotional and cognitive behaviors. Recently, we have shown in rats that blockade of excitatory inputs to the LHb not only induced deficits of memory retrieval in the water maze, but also altered swim strategies (i.e., induced excessive thigmotaxis). The latter observation, although consistent with the occurrence of memory deficits, could also possibly be the consequence of an excessive level of stress, further suggesting a role for the LHb in the stress response in our behavioral paradigm. To test this hypothesis we performed in rats intra-LHb infusion of 6-cyano-...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Mathis V, Cosquer B, Barbelivien A, Herbeaux K, Bothorel B, Sage-Ciocca D, Poirel VJ, Mathis C, Lecourtier L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Action simulation and mirroring in children with autism spectrum disorders.
Abstract Mental imitation, perhaps a precursor to motor imitation, involves visual perspective-taking and motor imagery. Research on mental imitation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rather limited compared to that on motor imitation. The main objective of this fMRI study is to determine the differences in brain responses underlying mirroring and mentalizing networks during mental imitation in children and adolescents with ASD. Thirteen high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD and 15 age-and- IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants took part in this fMRI study. In the MRI sca...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wadsworth HM, Maximo JO, Donnelly RJ, Kana RK Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Regional and long-range neural synchronization abnormality during passive hyperthermia.
Abstract Passive hyperthermia would impair wide-domain cognitive performances (e.g. attention, working memory), which may involve abnormal regional and long-range neural activity. Combining the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based functional connectivity analysis, this study investigated the regional and long-range neural synchronization abnormality during passive hyperthermia. We acquired the resting-state blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data from twenty-three healthy male participants in two simulated thermal conditions: normothermic condition (NC) with temperature at 25°C for 1 h and hypert...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Han W, Qian S, Jiang Q, Liu K, Li B, Sun G Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Attentional responses to stimuli associated with a reward can occur in the absence of knowledge of their predictive values.
Abstract Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fonteneau ML, Scott R, Duka T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Performance of the odour span task is not impaired following inactivations of parietal cortex in rats.
Abstract Working memory (WM) is the ability to temporarily store information for use and manipulation. Working memory is thought to depend on a distributed set of higher cortical areas including the prefrontal and parietal cortex in primates while relatively little research has been conducted in rodents to elucidate the exact role of the parietal cortex (PC) in WM, particularly in relation to the construct of working memory capacity. Previous work in our lab demonstrates that performance of the odour span task (OST), an olfactory incremental delayed nonmatching-to-sample task, relies on the medial prefrontal corte...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Scott GA, Zabder NK, Greba Q, Howland JG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Antagonism of the D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens attenuates forced swim stress- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of extinguished rats.
Abstract Dopaminergic pathways from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) play a critical role in reward-related phenomena as well as in the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Stress is a major trigger for inducing reinstatement, however, the interaction between stress and the dopaminergic system is not well known. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors within the NAc in forced swim stress (FSS)- and priming-induced reinstatement of morphine-seeking behaviors. The conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced by injecting mor...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Farzinpour Z, Mousavi Z, Karimi-Haghighi S, Haghparast A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinaseis critical for the role of 5-HT1a receptor in modulating nNOS expression and anxiety-related behaviors.
Abstract Our previous study found that serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1aR) is an endogenous suppressor of nNOS expression in the hippocampus, which accounts for anxiolytic effect of fluoxetine. However, the precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. By using 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1aR agonist, NAN-190, a selective 5-HT1aR antagonist, and U0126, an Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) phosphorylation inhibitor, we investigated the role of ERK in 5-HT1aR-nNOS pathway. Western blots analysis demonstrated that 5-HT1aR activation up-regulated the level of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) beginning at 5 minutes and...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cai CY, Wu HY, Luo CX, Zhu DY, Zhang Y, Zhou QG, Zhang J Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Modeling Parkinson's disease and treatment complications in rodents: potentials and pitfalls of the current options.
This article reviews the rodent models of Parkinson's disease currently available, with a particular focus on symptomatic models used to mimic parkinsonian motor deficits and treatment-related complications. Advantages and disadvantages of each model are presented and discussed to assist the decision of investigators who wonder which model may be the most suitable for their particular research project. PMID: 29237549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Francardo V Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Effects of DNA Methylation on Human Psychology.
Abstract DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification in the human genome; pivotal in development, genomic imprinting, X inactivation, chromosome stability, gene expression and methylation aberrations are involved in an array of human diseases. Methylation at promoters is associated with transcriptional repression, whereas gene body methylation is generally associated with gene expression. Extrinsic factors such as age, diets and lifestyle affect DNA methylation which consequently alters gene expression. Stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction, emotion among numerous other psychological factors ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kader F, Ghai M, Maharaj L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Dose-dependent and opposite effects of orexin A on prepulse inhibition response in sleep-deprived and non-sleep-deprived rats.
T, Uzbay T Abstract Orexin is a novel neurotransmitter released from lateral hypothalamus, that is a crucial modulator in sleep/wakefulness system. Recent studies also suggest its possible role in the neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Our study consists of two experiments, where we investigate the effect of orexin A (OXA), one of two isoforms of orexin that can pass blood brain barrier, on the prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex. The first experiment tested the effect of OXA on PPI response of non-sleep-deprived rats via intraperitoneal injection 30min before testing. Our results sho...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Öz P, Gökalp HK, Göver T, Uzbay T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Acute inescapable stress alleviates fear extinction recall deficits caused by serotonin transporter abolishment.
Abstract Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/-) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT-/- rats and wildtype controls. Surprisingly, IS experience improved fear extinc...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schipper P, Henckens MJAG, Lopresto D, Kozicz T, Homberg JR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Changes in cognition and dendritic complexity following intrathecal Methotrexate and Cytarabine treatment in a juvenile murine model.
Abstract Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent childhood cancer and accounts for 26.8% of cancer diagnoses among children, worldwide-approximately 3,000 children each year. While advancements in treating ALL have led to a remission rate of more than 90%, many survivors experience adverse neurocognitive and/or neurobehavioral effects as a result of intrathecal chemotherapy. Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly administered with cytosine arabinoside (AraC, cytarabine) during intrathecal chemotherapy for ALL. To date, few studies exist that test the cognitive effects of intrathecal injections of MTX/AraC...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alexander TC, Simecka CM, Kiffer F, Groves T, Anderson J, Carr H, Wang J, Carter G, Allen AR Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of angiotensin system modulation on progression of cognitive impairment and brain mri changes in aged hypertensive animals- A randomized double- blind pre-clinical study.
Abstract Growing evidence suggests that renin angiotensin system (RAS) modulators support cognitive function in various animal models. However, little is known about their long-term effects on the brain structure in aged hypertensive animals with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion as well as which specific domains of cognition are most affected. Therefore, in the current study we examined the effects of Candesartan and Compound 21 (C21) (RAS modulators) on aspects of cognition known to diminish with advanced age and accelerate with hypertension and vascular disease. Outcome measures for sensorimotor and cognitive func...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmed HA, Ishrat T, Pillai B, Bunting KM, Patel A, Vazdarjanova A, Waller JL, Arbab AS, Ergul A, Fagan SC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Tongue Protrusions Modify the Syntax of Skilled Reaching for Food by the Mouse: Evidence for Flexibility in Action Selection and Shared Hand/Mouth Central Modulation of Action.
Abstract Skilled reaching for food by the laboratory mouse has the appearance of an action pattern with a distinctive syntax in which ten submovements occur in an orderly sequence. A mouse locates the food by Sniffing, Lifts, Aims, Advances, and Shapes the hand to Pronate it over a food target that it Grasps, Retracts, and Withdraws to Release to its mouth for eating. The structure of the individual actions in the chain are useful for the study of the mouse motor system and contribute to the use of the mouse as a model of human neurological conditions. The present study describes tongue protrusions that modify the...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Whishaw IQ, Agha BM, Kuntz JR, Qandeel, Faraji J, Mohajerani MH Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Uncertainty about intensity of impending pain increases ensuing pain responses in congenital blindness.
Abstract We have shown that congenitally blind individuals are more sensitive to painful heat compared to their sighted counterparts. This hypersensitivity might be at least partly mediated by psychological and cognitive factors, such as pain expectation and anxiety. Here we investigate whether uncertainty about the intensity of a pending painful stimulus affects pain differently in congenitally blind and sighted control subjects. We measured pain and anxiety in a group of 11 congenitally blind and 11 age- and sex-matched normal sighted control participants. Painful stimuli were delivered under two psychological c...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Holten-Rossing S, Slimani H, Ptito M, Danti S, Kupers R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The role of striatal G αq/11 protein in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice.
In this study, the role of Gαq/11 protein in methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization was investigated using neurochemical and behavioral approaches. Repeated treatment with METH (2mg/kg, intraperitoneally) significantly increased behavioral sensitization as well as Gαq/11 protein expression and Gα protein activity in the striata of mice, while a single treatment of METH at the same dose did not affect these parameters. Repeated intrastriatal injections of a Gαq/11 inhibitor, [D-Trp7,9,10]-substance P, significantly reduced behavioral sensitization and striatal dopamine (DA) level in ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee KW, Kim K, Kim HC, Lee SY, Jang CG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Neonatal programming with testosterone propionate reduces dopamine transporter expression in Nucleus Accumbens and methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity in adult female rats.
cute;rate R Abstract Research in programming is focused on the study of stimuli that alters sensitive periods in development, such as prenatal and neonatal stages, that can produce long-term deleterious effects. These effects can occur in various organs or tissues such as the brain, affecting brain circuits and related behaviors. Our laboratory has demonstrated that neonatal programming with sex hormones affects the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, increasing the synthesis and release of dopamine (DA) in striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the behavioral response to psychostimulant drugs such as methylphen...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dib T, Martínez-Pinto J, Reyes-Parada M, Torres GE, Sotomayor-Zárate R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Perinatal fluoxetine increases hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses the lasting effects of pre-gestational stress on serum corticosterone, but not on maternal behavior, in the rat dam.
JL Abstract There is increasing evidence that mental health concerns, stress-related mental illnesses, and parental stress prior to conception have long-term effects on offspring outcomes. However, more work is needed to understand how pre-gestational stress might affect neurobehavioral outcomes in the mother. We investigated how chronic stress prior to gestation affects the maternal behavior and related physiology, and aimed to determine the role that perinatal SSRIs may have in altering these stress effects. To do this, female Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) prior to breed...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gemmel M, Harmeyer D, Bögi E, Fillet M, Hill LA, Hammond GL, Charlier TD, Pawluski JL Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex differences in olfactory-induced neural activation of the amygdala.
Abstract Olfactory signals, including the scent of urine, are thought to be processed by specific brain regions, such as the medial amygdala (Me), and regulate sexual behavior in a sex-dependent manner. We aimed to reveal the sex-specific neural circuit from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) to Me by using a transgenic mouse. We quantified the long-lasting green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression profile, which was controlled by the c-fos promotor in a sex-dependent manner by the scent of urine. Female urine predominantly activated neurons of the MePD in male mice and the MePV in female mice. Male urine, in con...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kikusui T, Kajita M, Otsuka N, Hattori T, Kumazawa K, Watarai A, Nagasawa M, Inutsuka A, Yamanaka A, Matsuo N, Covington HE, Mogi K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Hex Maze: a new virtual maze able to track acquisition and usage of three navigation strategies.
Abstract Spatial navigation is a complex and multi-faceted skill that, in humans, is understood to encompass two distinct navigational strategies, namely allocentric and egocentric navigation. These differ in the frame of reference used and the brain networks activated. However, egocentric navigation can be further divided into two, equally distinct strategies depending on whether the navigator is using subject-to-object relations (egocentric-cue) or direction of body turns (egocentric-response) to navigate. To date, there are no experimental paradigms able to distinguish between participants' employment of alloce...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Spriggs MJ, Kirk IJ, Skelton RW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Spontaneous recovery of traumatic brain injury-induced functional deficits is not hindered by daily administration of lorazepam.
Abstract Agitation and aggression are common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pose a challenge to physicians and other health providers during acute patient care and subsequent neurorehabilitation. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are routinely administered to manage TBI patients displaying such maladaptive behaviors despite several clinical and preclinical studies demonstrating that they hinder recovery. A potentially viable alternative to APDs may be the benzodiazepines, which have differing mechanisms of action. Hence, the aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that lorazepam (LOR) would not impede r...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheng JP, Leary JB, O'Neil DA, Meyer EA, Free KE, Bondi CO, Kline AE Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Shati/Nat8l knockout mice show behavioral deficits ameliorated by atomoxetine and methylphenidate.
In this study, we assessed validities of the Shati/Nat8l KO mice as a new animal model for AD/HD through a behavioral pharmacology approach. We conducted a locomotor activity test in a novel environment, a cliff avoidance test, and an object-based attention assay using Shati/Nat8l KO mice at the ages of 4 and 8 weeks. We found that at the ages of both 4 and 8 weeks, Shati/Nat8l KO mice showed hyperactivity in locomotor activity test, shortened jumping latency in cliff avoidance test, and lower recognition index in object-based recognition test. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) and methylphenidate (MP...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Toriumi K, Tanaka J, Mamiya T, Alkam T, Kim HC, Nitta A, Nabeshima T Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Automated Center-out Rodent Behavioral Trainer (ACRoBaT), an automated device for training rats to perform a modified center out task.
z CT PMID: 29196193 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bjånes DA, Moritz CT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Electrical stimulation of the insular cortex as a novel target for the relief of refractory pain: An experimental approach in rodents.
Abstract Cortical electrical stimulation (CES) has shown to be an effective therapeutic alternative for neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacological treatment. The primary motor cortex(M1) was the main cortical target used in the vast majority of both invasive and non-invasive studies. Despite positive results M1-based approaches still fail to relieve pain in a significant proportion of individuals. It has been advocated that the direct stimulation of cortical areas directly implicated in the central integration of pain could increase the efficacy of analgesic brain stimulation. Here, we evaluated the behavioral...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dimov LF, Toniolo EF, Alonso-Matielo H, de Andrade DC, Garcia-Larrea L, Ballester G, Teixeira MJ, Dale CS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Gastrin-Releasing Peptide attenuates fear memory reconsolidation.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) may play a role in fear learning. The GRP Receptor is expressed in the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus, and central administration of GRP mediates fear learning. The effects of GRP on reconsolidation, however, have been minimally explored. Reconsolidation, the process by which formed memories are rendered labile following recall, provides a window of opportunity for pharmacological intervention. Although evidence suggests the window of opportunity to alter reactivated consolidation memory can be as long as 6h, shorter intervals have not been extensively inv...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Murkar A, Kent P, Cayer C, James J, Merali Z Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Prenatal stress increases adult vulnerability to cocaine reward without affecting pubertal anxiety or novelty response.
This study underscores the importance of considering prenatal exposure to stress when analysing the relationship between anxiety and cocaine vulnerability. Moreover, the evaluation of behavioural traits at puberty opens the possibility of early intervention and will allow the development of specific prevention strategies to avoid the devastating consequences of drug addiction later in life. PMID: 29191579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pastor V, Pallarés ME, Antonelli MC Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Developmental expression of anxiety and depressive behaviours after prenatal predator exposure and early life homecage enhancement.
DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIOURS AFTER PRENATAL PREDATOR EXPOSURE AND EARLY LIFE HOMECAGE ENHANCEMENT. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Nov 25;: Authors: Green A, Esser MJ, Perrot TS Abstract Stressful events during gestation can have sex-specific effects on brain and behavior, and may contribute to some of the differences observed in adult stress responding and psychopathology. We investigated the impact of a novel repeated prenatal psychological stress (prenatal predator exposure - PPS) during the last week of gestation in rats on offspring behaviours related to social interaction ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Green A, Esser MJ, Perrot TS Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Intravitreal Cholinergic Drugs on Motor Control.
Abstract The retina bears embryological, neurochemical and functional similarities to the circadian and dopamine systems of the brain. Recent studies have shown that the intravitreal injection of minute quantities of L-dopa and of the melatonin receptor antagonist ML-23 have anti-Parkinsonian potential. Furthermore, it has been suggested that light therapy may be potentially useful in treating some aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is hypothesized that this treatment works via the circadian system. Given that little is known about the mechanism by which such treatments work the present study was designed ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Willis GL, Freelance CB Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Cognitive, neurohistological and mortality outcomes following the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion: the impact of diabetes and aging.
Abstract Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) may be involved in the etiology of aging-related dementias, and several risk factors contribute to their development and/or aggravation. We previously reported on the development of the 4-VO/ICA model of CCH, and the impact of hypertension on the cognitive and histological outcomes of CCH. Here, we advanced those studies by investigating how 4-VO/ICA alone or in combination with diabetes affects survival, body weight and cognitive performance in both young and middle-aged rats. Subsequently, middle-aged rats were examined for the impact of diabetes on CCH-induced neuro...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Santiago AN, Ferreira EDF, de Oliveira RMW, Milani H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Learning and memory are impaired in the object recognition task during metestrus/diestrus and after sleep deprivation.
Abstract Females are an under-represented research model and the mechanisms through which sleep loss impairs cognition are not clear. Since levels of reproductive hormones and the estrous cycle are sensitive to sleep loss and necessary for learning and memory, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation impacts learning and memory in female mice by interfering with the estrous cycle. We used the object recognition task to assess learning and memory in female mice during separate phases of the estrous cycle and after sleep loss. Mice in metestrus/diestrus attended to sample objects less than mice in proestrus/estrus dur...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cordeira J, Kolluru SS, Rosenblatt H, Kry J, Strecker RE, McCarley RW Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Alpha-Synuclein transgenic mice, h- α-SynL62, display α-Syn aggregation and a dopaminergic phenotype reminiscent of Parkinson's disease.
Alpha-Synuclein transgenic mice, h-α-SynL62, display α-Syn aggregation and a dopaminergic phenotype reminiscent of Parkinson's disease. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Nov 24;: Authors: Frahm S, Melis V, Horsley D, Rickard JE, Riedel G, Fadda P, Scherma M, Harrington CR, Wischik CM, Theuring F, Schwab K Abstract Alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation is considered a major risk factor for the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. We have generated mice overexpressing full-length human α-Syn fused to a membrane-targeting signal seque...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Frahm S, Melis V, Horsley D, Rickard JE, Riedel G, Fadda P, Scherma M, Harrington CR, Wischik CM, Theuring F, Schwab K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Obstacle circumvention and eye coordination during walking to least and most affected side in people with Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSIONS: The obstacle circumvention to the most affected side is risky for people with PD. PMID: 29180136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Brain Research)
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Barbieri FA, Polastri PF, Gobbi LTB, Simieli L, Pereira VIA, Baptista AM, Moretto GF, Fiorelli CM, Imaizumi LFI, Rodrigues ST Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Influence of Early Life Stress on the Integration of Emotion and Working Memory.
Grimm S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) impacts emotional and cognitive competences. We aimed to investigate whether the effects of ELS on working memory (WM) performance depend on the valence of the stimuli. METHODS: Between January and October 2015, we recruited (N=31) healthy subjects with (N=15) and without (N=16) ELS experiences. Participants performed a WM-task with emotional stimuli. RESULTS: Results show a trend towards decreased WM accuracy in subjects with ELS experiences (p=.06) with increased WM accuracy (p=.08) and an altered pattern of BOLD responses in the left posterior cin...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Metz S, Aust S, Fan Y, Bönke L, Harki Z, Gärtner M, Bajbouj M, Grimm S Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research